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your Amigareviews by Ernest P. Viveiros 9 Dos2Dos reviewed by Richard Knepper Transfer files from PC/MS-DOS and AmigaBasic 13 Maxi Plan reviewed by Richard Knepper The Amiga version of Lotus 1-2-3 17 Gizmoz by reviewed by Peter Wayner 21 The Loan lnfonnation Program by Brian Gatley A basic program to "review" your options 25 Starting Your Own Amiga Related Business by William Simpson The possible ways to establish your business. 33 Keep Track of Your Business Usage for Taxes by James Kummer A program to justify your Amiga to the IRS 37 Instant Music reviewed by Steve Pietrowicz 45 Mindwalker reviewed by Richard Knepper 47 The Alegra Memory Board reviewed by Rick Wirth 49 TxEd reviewed by Jan and Cliff Kent Amazing Directory A guide to the sources and resources of the Amiga Amiga Developers A listing of Suppliers and Developers Public Domain Software Catalog The complete list of current AMICUS and Fred Fish PDS The Absoft Amiga Fortran Compiler reviewed by Richard A. Reale Using Fonts from AmigaBasic, Part Two by Tim Jones The Amiga Basic program AmigaNotes by Richard Rae ROOMERS by John Foust 51 53 66 69 77 81 Forth! 83 87 89 97 103 109 by Jon Bryan Jon completes the graphics portion of the 3D Bouncing Ball 68000 Macros on the Amiga by Gerald Hull AMICUS John returns from the WCCA with new tales TOI Modla-2 Amiga Compiler reviewed by Steve Faiwiszewski Amazing Computing

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Document sans nom Information a Volume 1 Number 9
U. S.A. $ 3.50 Canada $ 4.50 odore Business with your SUPERBASE IS
NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE The enormously popular and proven
database system. Superbase is now available for the Amiga
computer. We completely rewrote Superbase to take full
advantage of all the power available on the amazing Amiga.
This is not it conversion, but an entirely new Amiga program!
TOTAL SOLUTIONS Superbase provides the total information management solution. Itisa true productivity program for the Amiga computer. You can finally use a serious database with a serious machine. It’s easy to keep track of inventories for your business whether you’re working with parts inventory or real estate listings. Superbase is perfect for church membership rolls, patient files, personnel schedules or any place you need to manage and control large amounts of important information.
Access the power of the first true relational database management system with Superbase Personal Relational Database System. It will turn your Amiga into a truly productive tool, with virtually limitless capacities. Imagine being able to have an unlimited number of files open at any time. You can even have each file indexed with up to 999 key fields to search and sort.
EASY TO SET UP Superbase utilizes the latest ideas in easy-to-use mouse and windowing technology. There are pull-down help menus to ease you through problems that may occur during database creation. Superbase is completely menu driven and takes advantage of the poim-to-cliek features possible with the Amiga mouse.
Create a database in minutes using the easy to understand menu selections and control panels. Type in field names, add details like length or data style and yon are quickly ready to input your data. Unlike other databases, you can alter your formats at anytime, without disturbing the data already in existing files.
Using Superbase's Enhanced BASIC, your database can be totally customized to virtually any application.
IT’S EASY TO MANAGE YOUR DATA Display your data in the format you choose. Either page by page or just as it appears in the record format. You choose how to view the data you need. There is practically no limit to the number of fields in a record, you have complete control over what is displayed on screen or printed in custom reports.
Decide on the fields and on the sequence, then use the VCR style controls to viewyourdata -Get Lhe first record, then fast forward, pause, continue or stop — it's as easy as playing a video tape!
Mm u".t*,.. | 11 ||.; li. i! 11,1! -: j f„t, j!**«• j UcilESElO S!!
1_l_J i 1 wmm UJUi _1..-1: J. I,.J J -iU I -j WORKING POWER Superbase makes it easy to define reports or generate relational queries across multiple files, with muliiple sort levels if you need them. Import data from other databases or applications. Export data to your favorite word processor, or join several files to form a new database, The advanced B+ tree file structure and disk buffering means high performance — Superbase reads a typical name and address record in an incredible three hundredths of a second!
THE VIDEO DATABASE WHEN QUALITY COUN Superbase includes an amazing array of data types in your record format, including the names of pictures or digitized images stored on disk. Read the words, then lookat digitized pictures you have already stored on disk. Your data records can “point" to images to recall them for viewing!
You can even link multiple images to a single database record to run automatic slide shows. It’s all easily done using the VCR style commands that you control. Revise, update or review your illustrated database in any desired arrangement. You have total control! Superbase is the total software solution for people who must manage information.
Finally, a program that utilizes ALL the power and functions of the Amiga computer. Superbase brings to the Amiga the business solutions you have been waiting for.
The power of Superbase is also available for the Commodore 64 138 and the Apple Ile IIc.
Superbase Personal. I Amiga, Commodore 64 1281, Apple lie IIc. Are registered trademarks of Precision Software Ltd, Commodore Business Machines, Apple Computers, respectively. This ad and all of itB contents are copyrighted by Progressive Peripherals & Software, Inc and may not be reproduced, or duplicated in any manner without written permission.
Amazing Dealers The following are Amazing Dealers, dedicated to supporting the Commodore-Amiga™.
They carry Amazing Computing™, your resource for information on the Amiga™.
If you are not an Amazing Dealer, but would like to become one, contact: PiM Publications, Inc.
P. O.Box 869 Fall River, MA. 02722 1-617-678-4200 Abax Data
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Aigeninw Msboploiten Computer* Rchardsan Logie Computer Buenos Ares A a Computer Round Rock Byte by Byte Austin Amtoljg (LEM Corporation Brazoria High Technology Computer Suppfioa ColoniBl Video Houston Bighton, Mslborn Computer Ago Houston ComputerAge Dai as Japan Computer Concepts Waco Pineapple 6S02 Tokyo, 111 Computer Magic Austin Computer Revelations Houston Sautoa Arabia AbduftoFouad&Sons Daman MetaSccpe: The Debugger MetaScope gives you everything
• Powerful Expression Evaluation Use extended operator set
inducting relationals, all assembler number formats.
E Direct to Memory Assembler Enter instruction statements lor direct conversion to code in memory
• and Morel Mouse support for value selection and command menus,
log file for operations and displays, modify search fill
memory, etc. you've always wanted in an, application program
• Memory Windows. Move through memory. displaydata or
disassembledcode live, freeze to preserve displayand allow
• Other Windows Status windows show-raster, contents and program
state with freeze and restore; symbol, hunk.
And breakpoint windows list current definitions..
• Execution Control Breakpoints with repetition counts and
conditional expressions; trace for all instructions or
subroutine level, both single-step and.
Continuous execution.
DosDisl) A program that lets you access PC-DOS MS-DOS™ diskettes on your Amiga. Use it to list file information and copy files between the PC-DOS MS-DOS diskettes and Amiga diskettes or devices. Patterns can be used for file names, and you, can even operate on all files in a directory at one time. A copy option converts source file line-end sequences as the copy is performed.
MetaScope $ 95.00 MetaScribe $ 85.00 MetaTools $ 69.95 DosDisk $ 49.95 MS-DOS is a trademark of Miaro&oft, Incorporated Publisher: Joyce Hicks Circulation Manager: Doris Gamble Assistant to the Publisher: Robert James Hicks Corporate Advisor: Robert Gamble Managing Editor: Don Hicks Hardware Editor: Ernest P. Viveiros Amicus & Technical Editor: John Foust Music Editor: Richard Rae Art Director: Keith Conforti Assistant Editor: Ernest P. Viveiros Jr.
Assistant Advertising Manager: John David Fastino Production Manager: MarkThibault Amazing Authors Ervin Bobo Bryan Catley John Foust Don Hicks Kelly Kauffman Perry Kivolowitz George Musser Jr.
Steven Pietrowicz Rick Wirch & The AMIGA Special Thanks to: Robert H. Bergwall RESCO, Inc.
E. P.V. Consulting New England Technical Services Interactive
Tutorials Inc. Advertising Sales & Editorial 1-617-678-4200
Amazing Computing™ (ISSN 0886-9480) is published by PiM
Publications, Inc.
P. O. Box 869, Fall River, MA. 02722.
Subscriptions: in the U.S. 12 Issues for $ 24.00; Canada and Mexico, $ 30.00; Overseas, $ 35.00. Printed in the U.S.A. Copyright© 1986 by PiM Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.
First Class or Air Mail rates available upon request.
PiM Publications, Inc. maintains the right to refuse any advertising Amazing Computing™ Amazing Contents Volume 1 Number 9 Making Cents in Business with your Amiga™ reviews by Ernest P. Viveiros 9 Dos 2 Dos reviewed by Richard Knepper Transfer files from PC MS-DOS and AmigaBasic 13 MaxiPlan reviewed by Richard Knepper The Amiga version of Lotus 1 -2-3 17 Gizmoz by reviewed by Peter Wayner 21 The Loan Information Program by Brian Catley A basic program to "review" your options 25 Starting Your Own Amiga Related Business by William Simpson The possible ways to establish your business.
33 Keep Track of Your Business Usage for Taxes by James Kummer A program to justify your Amiga to the IRS 37 Instant Music reviewed by Steve Pietrowicz 45 Mindwalker reviewed by Richard Knepper 47 The Alegra Memory Board reviewed by Rick Wirth 49 TxEd reviewed by Jan and Cliff Kent 51 Amazing Directory A guide to the sources and resources of the Amiga 53 Amiga Developers A listing of Suppliers and Developers 66 Public Domain Software Catalog The complete list of current AMICUS and Fred Fish PDS 69 The Absoft Amiga Fortran Compiler reviewed by Richard A. Reale 77 Using Fonts from AmigaBasic,
Part Two by Tim Jones The Amiga Basic program 81 AmigaNotes by Richard Rae 83 ROOMERS by John Foust 87 Forth!
By Jon Bryan Jon completes the graphics portion of the 3D Bouncing Ball 89 68000 Macros on the Amiga by Gerald Hull 97 AMICUS John returns from the WCCA with new tales 103 TDI Modla-2 Amiga Compiler reviewed by Steve Faiwiszewski 109 From the editor: Of Late deliveries: I received a call the other day (actually I received several of these) and was asked if PiM Publications Inc. was out of business or had we stopped publishing Amazing Computing™. It seems that the last issue the reader had received was August.
This came as a surprise to us, we never published an "August" Amazing Computing. We had a "printed in July" issue that was received from our printer on August 8th, (in all fairness, the "June" issue was received July 3rd). Our Volume 1 Number 7 issue was shipped in mid September.
Number 7 must have been the "August" issue the reader had received.
To further confuse matters, the delivery from our printer of our Volume 1 number 8 was almost two weeks late and was received October 31.
Now, if you are completely confused, you will understand why we went from monthly and numbered designations to numbered issues entirely. I spent a great deal of editorial time (well, they tell me that is my job) explaining the change to worried readers.
If you have been a reader of Amazing Computing™ since our "early" days, you have witnessed the slow transformation of our magazine. We made a commitment in those days and we are intent on maintaining it. We will continue to improve the magazine and consistently offer good information. If it requires five weeks to deliver a great product, or four to produce a poor one, we will take the time and do our best.
The first question which is probably springing to mind is, "What about our year's subscription."
Well, PiM Publications has a great many subscribers for such a small start, however, none of these valuable readers has ever received a year's subscription. All subscriptions are sold on a twelve issue basis. If it takes longer than a year to produce 12 issues, they will still receive their issues.
As always, we are working quickly to attain a normal schedule, but it is a great deal of effort so please remain patient.
All of our readers, once told of our problems and solutions, have been extremely complimentary about the magazine.
Their answer has been that they were more afraid of our giving up the business, than in not producing on time.
They want quality and that is our aim.
Does this mean that there will be fewer typos and misspellings? Maybe.
We are using computerized spelling checkers and friends and associates as proof readers, but there are stm mistakes that pass us. Most of the errors are found by us the day we receive the magazines from the printer and not while we are going through the printer's proof.
Our quality is based on the hope that we can maintain a decent magazine with appropriate information and techniques to make the Amiga viable.
We have grown each issue with the abilities of Amiga user's who have written items for us. Each writer has discovered an aspect in the Amiga and a talent in himself, that has made the entire Amiga community a little better.
We have a standing plea, "If you have discovered an aspect of the Amiga that is important and worth knowing, write us. We need you." ¦ Our issue number 9 is jammed with as much information as we could muster. We have included the Amazing Directory for our regular readers. We hope the information is helpful.
The Amazing Directory is also being sent to dealers around the country in hopes that the extra information on Amiga products may swing a few people to our amazing computer, the Amiga.
At the time I am writing this, we have been promised that this edition will be ready for shipments to arrive at Thanksgiving. Please bear with us, we are trusting the date is true.
Lattice® C Compiler $ 225.00 Software designed for AMIGA.
New version 31 of the AMIGA DOS C Compiler replaces version
3. 03. Major enhancements include the addition of: TMU, an
assembler, a faster linker and version 3 MS-DOS.
With more than 30,000 users worldwide, Lattice C Compilers set the industry standard for MS-DOS software development.
Lattice C gives you all you need for development of programs on the AMIGA. Lattice C is a full implementation of Kernighan and Ritchie with the ANSI C extensions and many additional features.
Professional Lattice® C Compiler $ 375.00 A new product called the Professional Lattice C Compiler is now available. It includes the C Compiler package (complete with TMU), plus LMK, LSE and the Metascope Debugger.
AMIGA C Cross Compiler $ 500.00 Allows AMIGA development on your MS-DOS system. Price includes the Professional Lattice C Compiler described above.
Lattice Screen Editor (LSE™) $ 100.00 Designed as a programmer’s editor, Lattice Screen Editor (LSE) is fast, flexible and easy to learn. LSE's multi-window environment provides all the editor functions you need including block moves, pattern searches and “cut and paste.” In addition, LSE offers special features for programmers such as an error tracking mode and three Assembly Language input modes. You can also create macros or customize keystrokes, menus, and prompts to your style and preferences.
Lattice dBC III™ Library $ 150.00 The dBC III library lets you create, access and update files that are compatible with Ashton-Tate’s dbase system. DBC Ilfs C functions let you extend existing dbase applications or allow your users to process their data using dBC III or dbase III.
Lattice Text Utilities (TMU™) $ 75.00 Lattice Text Utilities consists of eight software tools to help you manage your text files. GREP searches files for the specified pattern. DIFF compares two files and lists their differences.
EXTRACT creates a list of file names to be extracted from the current directory. BUILD creates batch files from a previously generated file name list. WC displays the number of characters and optionally the checksum of a specified file. ED is a line editor which can utilize output from other TMU software in an automated batch mode. SPLAT searches files for a specified character string and replaces every occurrence with a specified string. And FILES lists, copies, erases or removes files or entire directory structures which meet the specified conditions.
Lattice Unicalc• Spreadsheet $ 79.95 Unicalc is a simple-to-operate program that turns your AMIGA computer into an electronic spreadsheet; Using Unicalc you can easily create sales reports, expense accounts, balance sheets, or any other reports you had to do manually.
Unicalc offers the versatility you’ve come to expect from business software, plus the speed and processing power of the AMIGA.
• 8192 row by 256 column processing area • Comprehensive context-
sensitive help screens • Cells can contain numeric, algebraic
formulas and titles • Foreign language customization for all
prompts and messages • Complete library of algebraic and
conditional functions
• Dual window capabilities • Floating point and scientific
notation available • Complete load, save and print capabilities
• Unique customization capability for your every application •
Full compatibility with other leading spreadsheets • Full menu
and mouse support.
Lattice MacLibrary ™ $ 100.00 The Lattice MacLibrary ™ is a collection of more than sixty C functions which allow you to quickly and efficiently take advantage of the powerful capabilities of the AMIGA.
Even if your knowledge of the AMIGA is limited, MacLibrary can ease your job of implementing screens, windows and gadgets by utilizing the functions, examples and sample programs included with the package.
Other MacLibrary routines are functionally compatible with the most widely used Apple® Macintosh™ Quickdraw Routines™, Standard File Package and Toolbox Utility Routines enabling you to rapidly convert your Macintosh programs to run on the AMIGA.
Panel™ $ 195.00 Panel will help you write your screen programs and layer your screen designs with up to ten overlapping images. Panel's screen layouts can be assigned to individual windows and may be dynamically loaded from files or compiled into a program. Panel will output C source for including in your applications. A monitor and keyboard utility is also included to allow you to customize your applications for other systems.
With Lattice products you get Lattice Service including telephone support, notice of new products and enhancements and a 30-day money- back guarantee. Corporate license agreements available.
5 Lattice, Incorporated Post Office Box 3072 Glen Ellyn, Illinois 60138
(312) 858-7950 TWX 910-291-2190 Lattice INTERNATIONAL SALES
OFFICES: Benelux: Ines Datacom (32) 2-720-51-61 Japan:
Lifeboat, Inc. (03)293-4711 England: Roundhill (0672)54675
France: SFL (1)46-66-11-55 Germany: Pfotenhaur
(49)7841 5058 A T Srtffc Kwri&a Amazing Mail: Dear AC:
Hint for Deluxe Paint Users- When having a problem loading
a file as a picture, try loading it as a brush. It works
for me.
Yours computing, J J Shields Milwaukee, Wl Dear AC: Our North Seattle Amiga Users' Group has received a letter from a school district asking for help in utilizing the Amiga and in acquiring public domain software for it. Part of our response to the letter is now to ask you if you will please consider inserting somewhere in Amazing Computing™ a blurb such as the following: The North Seattle Amiga Users' Group passes on an appeal for public domain software and other aid in developing an Amiga curriculum. Send materials to: Elwood Community School Corporation ATTN: Amiga Co-ordinator Rural Route
4, Box 105 Elwood, Indiana 46036 Phone: (317)552-9861 The above blurb is merely a suggestion, and I am sure that the school district would appreciate the help of Amazing Computing™ in whatever form you deem fit.
This occasion is a chance to make some inroads against the Apple monopoly in the schools. Here in Seattle we intend to mount a vigorous campaign to help this one little school district and then keep track of what develops, for distribution to any other school districts that inquire. Thank you in advance for the help of Amazing Computing™.
Sincerely, Arthur T. Murray North Seattle Amiga Users' Group 17050 Second Avenue N W Seattle, WA 98177 Our pleasure!
Dear Amazing Computing, I was recently reading the article 'Linking C with Assembly' from your magazine, and started banging my head against the wall around the bottom of page 85. (Volume 1 Number 7) The author mentioned in passing that he felt the AMIGA convention of having the user save registers DO, D1, A0 and A1 (if there values need to be preserved) before calling a library routine, was silly. This was the Zillionth anniversary of all times I've heard or read this complaint. If people just stop and think about it, the convention used by Amiga makes a lot of sense.
The author of the aforementioned article felt that if a called subroutine needs to use these registers, this subroutine should save these registers itself. In this way the push and pop operations would only take place for those registers which are actually modified by the called subroutine. In addition, since the push and pop statements would be encapulated in the subroutine, the calling program would not need to specify push and pop statements around every call to the subroutine. This leads to smaller and more readable code.
On the other hand I have also heard arguements that no routine should have to preserve registers. In this way the calling procedure would only have to save those registers whose contents had to remain intact. This has the additional advantage that if two or more routines were called one after the other, the important registers would only have to be pushed before the start of the first call, and restored after the last call. This can lead to fewer pushes and pops and therefore quicker code.
I personally feel that the method used by the Amiga software designers is a good compromise between the two extremes. Routines can be optimized so that data which is temporary in nature can be kept in A0, A1, DO, or D1. Of course the programmer must be on his toes and remember that once a subroutine call to the library is made, these registers can no longer be considered valid. If the user really needs to preserve the data in these registers he can always push their contents on to the stack, and pop them back off when done. But this is rarely necessary because data that is more permanant in
nature can be kept in the other registers and will be preserved across the calling action.
Sincerely, Robert Patterson Calgary, Alberta Canada Dear Amazing Computing™: A little of that input you covet:
1) If you're going to charge $ 4.00 for back issues, it would be
nice to know whats in them. People who know the contents
aren't going to buy the back issues because they've already
read them, and those who don't know what to expect aren't
going to part with their money for the mystery behind door
number three. Fortunately, this is a Catch-22 with an escape
clause. You've already shown the ability to list the contents
of disks.
Why not do the same for past articles? A simple one line summary of each column or article would help immensely. Later, when you have several volumes behind you, this won't be possible. But for now, give us a break, and give yourself additional sales.
2) As long as you've resorted to the lowly subscription form,
make room on it for ordering disks and back issues.
3) The Amiga is an amazing computer, for it can accomodate the
neophyte as well as the hacker. For the neophyte's sake, how
about a glossary of terms (just once or twice)? I must confess
an ignorance of some acronyms used in computerese, and I have
read a lot of computer magazines in the last couple of years.
Somehow they all take it for granted their readership consists
of MIT alumni. Not true. Still, we aren't stupid, just a
little ignorant. Some definitions and or documentation would
clear that up right away. (What you need is a professional
amateur to screen out jibberish, or at least to point out when
some explanation is necessary. I offer my services.)
4) Dont get me wrong. Yours is still the best computer
publication I've read, Amiga-specific or otherwise. Hype is
kept to a minimum and information seems to be your priority.
Kudos to your technical-types: They seem to be able to
communicate in proper English, a rarity of the first order.
The other possibility, of course, is that they are driving
the editors up a wall, in which case kudos go to them instead.
5) Please continue the articles on MIDI. It's still all a mystery
to me, and I more or less live in music stores. It would be
nice to see in print exactly which hardware configurations do
what, and which software is best for specific applications.
Thanks for a great magazine.
Sincerely, Kenneth E Mitchell Wahoo, NE OK, in order:
1) Check out the AC advertisement in the Amazing Directory.
2) Ok, you’re right We placed that in the same Ad.
3) We wili work out a system to accomadate the beginner, but we
ran Amiga terms in number one, the CLI commands, and we do not
want to follow other publications who seemed lost in an
endless loop of beginner articles.
4) Thanks for the compliment, but our strength is with the
expertise of our readers.
5) Richard Rae, our Music Editor, is a fanatic on MIDI (so is our
Hardware Editor, Ernest Vivelros), I am afraid you will not be
able to escape more MIDI coverage.
Thanks for your insights and input!
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Introducing Alegra: Laugh at the weather. Putt in the middle of the night.Tfell your secretary to hold all calls.
With Accolade’s MEAN 18, all the excitement and challenge of real golf is right on your computer.
MEAN 18 delivers I the kind of realism and playability you’ve come to expect from Accolade. This is golf the way it was meant to be enjoyed... without spending your day decoding the ’ instruction manual. You can hit a bucket of balls at the driving range, play from the pro or regulation tees, even ask your caddy to suggest your clubs.
Once you’ve mastered MEAN 18, there’s the challenge of playing on three of the world’s legendary golf courses, all capable of bringing any touring pro to his knees. With The Course Architect, you can even design your own grueling course complete with menacing bunkers and greens on the edge of an ocean.
Available for IBM, Atari ST and Amiga systems.
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Telephone 408-446-5757.
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Now, nothing can keep you from yourappointed rounds.
Amazing Previews... Making Cents in Business with your Amiga ™ A quick collection of some of the tools available to the small business and home Amiga user by Ernest P. Viveiros 2+2 Home Management System The 2+2™ Home Financial Management system (HFM) is a thorough, easy-to-use, integrated home financial package.
Using this system, one can track both income and expenses (up to 12 checking accounts) for one full year on one diskette.
The program also allows direct checkwriting (checkprinting).
Helping establish and maintain a budget, managing credit card purchases and check balancing are among the many uses of HFM. Keeping up to date with your records will allow you to easily retrieve all the necessary summaries for tax time. For piece of mind, included is password privacy protection of your financial data.
HFM is a user-friendly system designed for both first-time users and the semi-professional. Although the program makes no use of the Intuition interface, the program is "easy to swallow" due to the use of the many menus combined with the overall easy-to-follow screen formats. Data entry is easy, and also is correction of such. One of the handiest features of the whole HFM system is the on-line help. Any time help is needed, simply press a function key. This help includes a step- by-step tutorial and reference guide. This feature combined with the comprehensive non-technical documentation,
makes HFM a cinch to use.
Special Features HFM also includes Mailing List Processing, a Personal Calendar and a Telephone Directory.
The mailing list routines allow the maintainance of personal and business mailing lists. The database is pre-formatted to help store a myriad of information including special category coding. The search selection of records to meet certain criteria is no problem at all. As with any good database, the printing on envelopes or labels is fully supported.
The personal calendar helps to manage and keep track of your time. You may schedule one-time or repetitive appointments.
It also warns of potential schedule conflicts. The printing of a daily or monthly schedule is easily done. The calandar also keeps a running record of your activities and allows you to summarize previous and future activities (both total time or time spent with a specific project) The telephone directory allows the maintainance of all of your important telephone numbers. It is essentially a database in itself, allowing the search selection of specific numbers. And of course, the printing of any information needed is supported.
2+2 Home Management System Olamic Systems Corporation 141 West Jackson Blvd.
Chicago, IL 60604 Impact from Aegis Aegis has done it again with Aegis Impact, a graphical data management package. Impact is an easy-to-use (yes, even for beginners) package using easy to follow prompts, pulldown menus, and a FAST menu (Of course it makes full use of the intuition interface). Being flexible, Impact allows user input via keyboard, mouse, or a digitizer. This program also will take advantage of extra FAST memory, Genlock (whenever we see that...) and a hard disk drive.
Impact is described as a "graphical data management pakage”. That's a pretty big name. Well Impact does a pretty big job, and a good one at that. But what exactly is Impact and what does it do. Let's take a look.
Impact is basically made up of five parts: Graph Bulider Table Builder Icon Builder Slide Builder Slideshow The Graph Builder allows you to create a variety of charts (Bar, Line, Area, Scattergrams, and Pie Charts) These charts can be overlayed, stacked or even displayed in 3D. You can choose colors, patterns, and axis polarity, axis step rates, graph size and much more.
The Table Builder includes a text editor which allows you to make the labeling easy as pie. Options include multiple fonts, sizes, and styles. Also text formatting and editing is supported.
The Icon Builder allows you to create icons to use as s Brush or stamp in your works.
The Slide Builder and Slideshow are the "meat and potatoes" of this package. The slide builder allows you combine charts, tables, and icons with many drawing tools such as lines and circles. It's basically a fine tuning tool for the individual graphs.
Next and finally comes the sildeshow. This allows you to put all of your individual graphs into a "slideshow". Many types of effects are available for the slideshow including "wipes", "fades" and "spirals".
This will really give them a presentation that will knock their socks off. Remember a super graphics presentation is worth a thousand raises..... Aegis Impact $ 199.95 Aegis Development 221 Owilshire Blvd.
(213) 3060735 The Rags to Riches Accounting Series: Ledger Module
Payables Module Receivables Module For a "full fledged"
accounting system, the Rags to Riches Accounting Series
consists of three modules, each of which can be used
independently or may work with the others to become an
integrated accounting system. Chang labs also offers this
system in a Macintosh version.
The Ledger module helps to keep all of your transactions and balances in order. It is very easy to use. Each account entered is a key, not a number that you will have to remember.
And the system is so easy to use that if you need some information, just point to what you want (using the keyboard, not the mouse), and press another key. That's all there is to it.
The Payables module will allow you to keep each vendor up to date as you work. This way you can keep track of your cash flow, and also keep away those nasty phone calls and letters.
Once again, each vendor is identified with a key, and to see which bills are due paid, just point and press a key. Once you have paid the bills, merge the results into the ledger module.
The Receivables module gives you instant updates of your customer balances and it will also print reports of such. Again each is identified with a key and information is dug out with a point and press.
Rags to Riches is easy and comfortable to use. The best part is, it is expandable.
The Rags to Riches Accounting Series: Ledger Module Payables Module Receivables Module Chang Labs 5300 Stevens Creek Blvd San Jose, CA 95129
(408) 246-8020 Phasar (Programmed Home Accounting System and
Register) PHASER is another easy-to-use home finance
manager of your accounts. It can also determine a budget,
calculate and project your taxes, analyze finances and keep
your affairs organized.
Using PHASER is just like using a checkbook with the exeception of having the calculations to worry about. The transactions are enter into columns which is similar to a check register.
PHASER also has budgeting capabilities which are designed to help you achieve your financial goals. Income Expense Budgeting categories can be easily edited at any time. There is also a feature for analyzing cash transactions. PHASAR also has a full range of reports and graphs.
PHASAR can give you a list of all transactions for any combination of budget categories, accounts, payees or date range to help you with your taxes. It can also do a tax calculation based on the entered transactions (up to ten different tax calculations). PHASAR also allows you to estimate your year-end tax standing at any time during the year.
PHASAR also includes a couple of handy features: Loan and Savings Analysis Net Worth Presentation Calandar Phone Book PHASAR in summary is a complete personal finance manager which is fast, easy-to-use.
Phasar (Programmed Home Accounting System and Register) Financial Manager List $ 89.95 Requires 512k and one disk drive Marksman Technology, Inc. Route 5, Box 221S Santa Fe. NM 87501
(505) 455-2681 Money Mentor "Keep track of your pennies and your
dollars will take care of themselves!". This old (but good)
advise, is the premise upon which Money Mentor, a personal
finance manager, is based.
Using the full capabilities of the Amiga, Money Mentor will analyze and graph your financial situation.
If you are one of the many who shy away from personal finance packages because of the tedious data entry that is usually required, then this may be the package for you. Money Mentor has a unique system called "Smart Scrolls" which studies previous transactions and remembers details about them.
This can help save up to 70% of the typing typically required.
The heart of Money Mentor is in three main "systems": Budget, Transaction, and Reporting.
The Budget system allows the use of up to 200 budget categories (100 income 100 expense) for any fiscal year.
These can be created, edited or deleted at any time.
The Transaction system allows the management of up to 30 accounts (checking, cash, savings, credit cards, etc...). Transfers between accounts are supported. Also supported is a search routine which allows the editing or totaling of accounts to specific conditions. Another included feature is check printing. The system also features automatic Account Balancing.
The real beauty of Money Mentor is in the Reporting System.
This system let's you see your financial situation through many different colorful graphic reports. These can be used to understand and project your finances. Money Mentor also allows the printing of over 50 different reports, for those who are information hungry. Money Mentor really can "help you keep track of your pennies."
Money Mentor List $ 95.95 Sedona Software 11844 Rancho Bernardo Road 20 San Diego, CA 92128-9901 Database Deluge It seems that every software company has a database package. Why? Well because almost anyone could effectively use a database. Doesn't it make sense to have well orgainized files that can be seached and manipulated quickly and easily.
Of course it doest That's why many people use databases, but also many do not when they should. Why?
One reason might be that people do not know which database to buy. There are so many databases on the market, and so many new ones entering every day that it is mass confusion.
So you say to yourself, "If you've seen one database, then you've seen them all". Let's disspell a few misconceptions.
Most databases have the same basic features: editing of entries, search, print records, delete records, etc... Yet all databases are not the same. Different databases have different specializations (math functions graphics mail merge Etc...) It is these specializations along with the ease-of- use, that you should shop for in a database. There are many to choose from out there... think of what you need it for... then go searching... Here's a quick look at the special features of a few of the databases on the market today: Organize!
This database is an easy-to-use information manager* featuring powerful math functions. Organize! Uses the Intuition interface (pull-down menus) and is easy-to-follow.
Also supported are customized forms and reports. Organize!
Also includes password protection.
Organizel is based on the same premises as other Micro Systems Software’s other Amiga products. This makes it highly compatible with Analyze! (spreadsheet), Online!
(communications), and Scribble! (word processor).
Organize! List $ 99.95 Micro-Systems Software, Inc. 4301-18 Oak Circle Boca Raton, FL 33431
(800) 327-8724_ AMIGA LaserPrinting!
Do this! From your Amiga™ to an Apple LaserWriter™ or a LaserWriter Plus™. Plain or fancy, near-typeset quality printing can be done easily from your Amiga word processor or text editor with a few commands embedded in your text using LaserUtilities Vol. 1.
Some of the features of LaserUtilities Vol. 1 include:
• Full justified, centered, or ragged-right lines or paragraphs.
• Works with Ed, TxEd, EMACS, and most other editors.
• Within-line or within-paragraph font-changes.
• Automatic page break and numbering if desired.
• Filled or open boxes and bullets of any size.
• Lines and other PostScript™ graphics.
• Boxed-in lines or paragraphs.
• Easy font selection and unlimited font scaling procedures.
• All procedures extensible and editable.
• Bonus useful PostScript programs on each disk.
A xjliso available arc LaserFonts Vol. 1 ($ 39.95), a disk of three downloadable decorative LaserWriter fonts, and LaserUp! Grahpics ($ 79.95), a complete Amiga to LaserWriter graphics screen printing package.
For more information or to place an order please write or call:
S. Anthony Studios Scott Anthony 889 De Haro St, San Francisco,
CA 94107
(415) 826-6193 LaserUtilities Vol. 1 — $ 39.95 retail All orders,
please add sales tax where applicable and $ 2.50 shipping
per disk. Dealer prices on request LaserWriter and
PostScript software also available for Apple n™ and MS-DOS.
OmegaFile OmegaFile is a database with mail merge capabilities. This program does not use the Intuition interface, but is still user friendly. The power in this package is in the sorting and in the mail merge capabilities (they really are powerful). Also featured are powerful mathematical functions.
OmegaFile The Other Guy's
P. O. Box H Logan, UT 84321
(800) 942-9401 Info-t- This is your basic database, but a very
good one at that. It makes use of the intuition interface,
and is as user-friendly as can be. There is really nothing
special about this program except that it cuts through all
frills, and lets you maintain a database without all the
lights and hype. It's fast, quick (but, by no means is it
dirty), and accurate. It is definately a good buy. Check it
Info* $ 49.99 Eastern Telecom 9514 Brimton Drive Orlando, FL32817
(305) 657-4355.AC* On December 1st the most sophisticated
adventure game series evpr made will be unleashed for your
We invite you to experience the first in this series, the most captivating and realistic role-playing adventure ever dreamed of.
Alien Fires Part i, 2199 AD By JAGWARE Look for our full-feature ad in the December issue or, if you just can’t wait, write or call us for more information.
JAGWARE INC. 288-2 Montreal RjItn jjl Ik* fl Ottawa, Canada (K1L6B9 7 J)
(613) 744-7746 1 (0 Amazing Reviews... _ __ Dos 2 Dos Reads and
Writes IBM Disks "... does what you thought Transformer
would do... transfer files between PCIMS-DOS and AmigaDOS."
By Richard Knepper As a computer purist, I opted to purchase an Amazing Amiga rather than making the "rational" choice of an IBM compatable.
Unfortunately, much of my work requires IBM compatibility. The Amiga Transformer met those needs by giving me a limited amount of compatability, at the expense of speed and graphics.
But I soon found’that this was not enough. The programs written on the Amiga are superior to those on the IBM, and working on a slow version of a poor program was no fun at all. The Sidecar promises a return to normal IBM speeds, but there is still the problem of having to use those inferior IBM programs.
Coming to the rescue is a company called Central Coast Software, which produces a program which they promise "does what you thought Transformer would do... transfer files between PC MS- DOS and AmigaDOS." The program they have written is called Dos 2 Dos, and, with a some qualifications, meets their claims.
Dos 2 Dos is a utility program that allows the Amiga user to transfer files between MS-DOS and AmigaDOS disks. The program requires 256K memory and at least two diskdrives.
Dos 2 Dos is a CLI-only program, meaning that there is no Intuition interface, no pull-down windows, and the mouse isn't used. Dos 2 Dos doesn't translate the files, so only ASCII and binary files can be transferred. One cant transfer an IBM program to the Amiga, and then run it.
The program rewrites the disk drive controllers, so multitasking with Dos 2 Dos may well send you on a quick trip to the Guru.
Also, the drives aren't reprogrammed when the program is ended, so the computer has to be rebooted in order to use the drive you read from. Dos 2 Dos supports both 5 1 4 and 3 1 2 inch disk drives. The 3 1 2 format supports both the 720K and 360K formats. Both formats are available under the Amiga Transformer.
The manual suggests that Dos 2 Dos be copied to the Workbench disk. This is a very good idea, especially for users with only one disk drive. For those with one disk drive and no working knowledge of AmigaDOS, use the following procedure: Open CLI from the Workbench disk.
Type the following commands: Makedir ram: o, Copy c ram: c Path add ram: c WAMIGA..
v. » v* IBM Insert the Dos 2 Dos disk and type: Cd dfO: Copy
d£0: d2d ram: Put the Workbench disk back in and type: copy
ram: d2d dfO: Dos 2 Dos can then be loaded by opening CLI from
Workbench and entering 'd2d'. It can also be opened by
breaking out of the startup-sequence, by hitting CTRL-D and
then entering 1 d2d'.
Dos 2 Dos uses both AmigaDOS and MS-DOS command structures for copying files. For those unfamiliar with these commands, a short synopsis and critique of each will be given.
CD Changes the current directory of the Amiga and MS-DOS disks.
The path structure for each is akin to their native operating system. For example, to change the Amiga directory from dfO: to the subdirectory d£0: foo foo2, one would type: CD df0: foo foo2 SciCalc™ Scientific Calculator For The Amiga™ [-1.23456789 -1231 (cjr) (c|) djt) (Deg) rn CD CD CD © C3 CD SI GD CDQ3CDCSSI®®®© CDCDCI]E3IH)CZ](ZI(H)S) EICDIXICEISGEICZICZIdDe, $ 19.95 Don't let the price fool you I SciCalc has full algebraic hlerarcy and features an automatic constant that is a delight to use. Choose from 3 display modes: Floating Point, Scientific, or Fixed Point.. Press the Hyp (erbolic)
key twice and a whole new page of functions is at your fingertips. No long waits — SciCalc has been available since March. Your order with manual will be sent by First Gass mail.
• Large Equals Key (Display) • Color Highlighting
• Adjustible Size • Full Error Trapping
• 10 Memories * 2 Dimensional Statistics
• Powers • Linear Regression
• Logarithms • Linear Estimation
• Trigonometry (D R G) • Correlation Coefficient
• Hyperbolics • Factorials to 170
• Polar Rectangular Conversions, and more.
Dealers Inquires Welcome Send Checkfor$ 19.95to: DESKWARE
P. O. Box 47577 St. Petersburg, FL. 33743 The copy command
supports both MS-DOS and AmigaDOS wildcards. For MS-DOS they
are:? — any number of characters up to the limit of the f
ilename orthefiletype
* • specifies any file name or file type for AmigaDOS:? -any
single character? — any number of characters Unfortunately,
Dos 2 Dos does not copy MS-DOS subdirectories.
Using Copy dfl:*.* will copy only the files in the current directory. Therefore, it is necessary to 'CD' into each directory path of the disk to copy all of the files.
There are two subcommands which are especially useful. The first is the -A command which strips the control characters, excepting tabs and line feeds. This translation will also convert Wordstar files into a format readily usable by most Amiga word processors.
Secondly, -R will automatically replace files on the destination disk. This is especially useful when one just copied a bunch of Wordstar files and forgot to use the -A command.
DIR Displays the contents of the directory stated. It displays them in MS-DOS format, so dates and disk space free are also displayed.
The command supports paths in the same manner as the CD' command.
To change the MS-DOS directory from d£l: to the subdirectory dfl: foo £oo2, one has to type: CD dfl: foo foo2 This is standard MS-DOS command format for changing directories.
COPY Copies files from MS-DOS to AmigaDOS, and vice versa. The command structure is the same as for changing directories, and this can lead to quite a bit of confustion. For example, to copy the MS-DOS file £00. You to AmigaDOS, you might have to type: Copy dfl: foo foo2 foo.you df0: foo foo2 It is very easy to get the normal slash mixed up with the backslash and screw everything up. Fortunately, the program supports default directories. This means that the program will copy the file to the default directory if none is stated. This is especially good because the program sometimes does not
listen to commands and does not copy into sub-directories, but instead copies to the main directory.
DELETE This command deletes a file. Unfortunately, wildcards are not supported, so deleting files using this program can be an arduous task.
EXIT (or X) This exits Dos 2 Dos and returns you to the CLI. Since your disk drive will be all screwed up, you will have to reboot your computer to regain normal use of the drive that previously held the IBM format disk.
FORMAT This formats MS-DOS disks. There are two useful options. The first is l, which specifies that the disk is to be single sided. The second is 8, which specifies that the disk should have 8 sectors per track instead of nine. These options are standard MS-DOS FORMAT options.
HELP — List all Dos 2 Dos commands and their syntax.
TYPE — Displays the contents of a text file on the screen. It may be used to display either AmigaDOS or MS-DOS files. Paths can be specified, but wildcards aren't accepted. While other files can be displayed, only ASCII files will be legible, of course.
Dos 2 Dos has a number of limitations. The most important is that only one drive may be designated as the MS-DOS drive. This means that the program will not transfer MS-DOS to MS-DOS. It also defaults the AmigaDOS drive to d£0: No external drives may be used as the destination. Dos 2 Dos doesn't support quad- density disks, meaning IBM-AT files may not be transferred directly.
MS-DOS disks that use non-standard sector sizes or tracks beyond forty may not be used. Finally, files cannot be copied from or to the ram: disk. Although none of these limitations are of any great consequence, it would be nice if future revisions of the program would overcome these problems.
I have a some major complaints about Dos 2 Dos. The first and foremost is that it does not take advantage of the Intuition interface. It would have been easy to create an overlay program that would allow paths and program names to be specified with the mouse. We've all seen these directory utilities being used in other programs. There is simply no excuse for an Amiga program having such a poor user interface.
The lack of multitasking can be circumvented. It is possible to run other tasks concurrently, but the system may crash. Central Coast Software should take care of this problem, either making multitasking less bug-ridden, or else preventing it altogether.
Dos 2 Dos should have a partial Workbench. Since it doesn't multitask well, the program could be located in the C subdirectory and booted during the startup-sequence. This would work better since one needs to reboot Workbench after using the program.
All problems aside, Dos 2 Dos does the job it is intended to do. I have successfully transferred Lotus files to Maxiplan and Wordstar files to both MicroEmacs and Scribble). TeXtcraft is a problem because it has trouble reading ASCII files. The way around this is by loading Texteraft from the CLI and entering 1 texteraft filename filetype=ASCII Once in Texteraft, the program can be saved and used normally. It should be noted that this problem is not the fault of Dos 2 Dos, but rather a general one encountered whenever you port files around like this.
Dos 2 Dos does seem a bit quirky in that the destination AmigaDOS disk may acquire a read write error. This problem can be circumvented by recopying the files to a second disk using AmigaDOS. I have had no problems with the files once this is done. However, this read write error happened twice, on separate disks, while I was testing the program.
The success or failure of a utility program rests solely on whether or not it works. Since Dos 2 Dos does work, I would recommend it. Another reason to give it the thumbs up is that the product is currently available, not just a promise of things to come. People who use MS-DOS at work and an Amiga at home will find this program extremely useful.
New Amiga Books NOW AVAILABLE! If The Amiga System The Amiga System: An Introduction by Bill Donald is now available from Progressive Peripherals & Software, Inc.!
This book is a storehouse of technical information about the Amiga computer and its operating system. If you have been looking for in depth information on the newest t 32 bit computer available today, the Amiga System: An Introduction is the best source of information you could obtain.
Suggested Retail Price THE Amiga HANDBOOK!
I feel that this program circumvents my need to buy Sidecar or use Transformer. Based upon this, one could conclude that Dos 2 Dos is worth more than the $ 55.00 retail price. I do not. The program just doesn't have the feel of a professional program.
The thought of using MS-DOS data in Amiga programs is very appealing, especially to those who do not like the quality of MS- DOS programs. Hopefully Central Coast Software will dispel all my doubts about the product with future revisions.
They have the beginnings of a product worth more than the $ 55.00 asking price. If they take care of the bugs and develop a better interface, they could end up with a program that would provide a very viable alternative to the Amiga Transformer and Sidecar.
Dos 2 Dos $ 55.00 256K Amiga with 2 disk drives required Central Coast Software 268 Bowie Drive Los Osos, CA 93402
(805) 528-4906
• AC* The Amiga Handbook contains all the information you need to
get the most out of your Amiga. It is a well thought out and
clearly written book to give you the information they never
included in the Amiga documentation. This book provides a
complete, detailed reference source of the Amiga and its
operating system.
... editor's note If you own an Amiga, or are considering purchasing one, this book is a must!
Call Today
(303) 825-4144 By John Foust The Amiga Handbook Includes:
Description of the System Architecture-Amiga Workbench
Discussion Intuition: Basis of the Amiga The Graphics
Programs Graficraft and Deluxe Paint Amiga for the Advanced
User The Graphics User Interface Understanding the
CLI Automation of the Amiga (Command Sequences) The Special
Chips of Amiga: Denise, Paula and Agnes Basics of Sound and
Graphics Programming the Amiga (Amiga Basic from
Mirosoft, Lattice) As this review crossed my desk, so to
speak, I got word that the Workbench 1.2 upgrade will be
composed of three disks and some documentation. This
includes the new Kickstart and Workbench, along with a new
Extras disk. This upgrade is expected to sell for $ 15.00
The Extras disk is remored to include a program to read and
write IBM disks. At this time, and at last word, this
program does not read IBM formatted 3 1 2 disks. It will
only work with 5 1 4 disks.
Please note that Dos 2 Dos does read 31 2 IBM disks.
This Commodore utility will take over the drive much in the same way as the Dos 2 Dos utility. It is known to have less extensive wildcarding abilities than Dos 2 Dos, according to an internal Commodore source.
Please keep in mind that both these products do not perform Transformer-style emulation of programs. You are free to transfer both binary and text files between disks; Since program files are designed for different microprocessors and operating systems, they will not execute on the other system.
In many cases, with the text file translation abilities of both products, word processing files can be moved between disks of otherwise incompatible operating systems.
• AC* MaxiPlan.very similior to Lotus 1-2-3 in execution, but at
the same time takes full advantage of the power of the Amiga. "
Amazing Reviews... Reviewed by Richard Knepper MaxiPlan is a
combination worksheet, database, and graphics program, from
Maxisoft and distributed by Electronic Arts. It is very
similiar to Lotus 1 -2-3 in execution, but at the same time
takes full advantage of the power of the Amiga. It multitasks,
uses pulldown menus, and has color and sound. Multiple
spreadsheets can be used at once, and information can be cut,
copied, and pasted between them. A separate macro program can
also be used to customizethe worksheets for specialized uses.
MaxiPlan requires a 512K Amiga, and one disk drive. More memory and two disk drives are recommended to take advantage of MaxiPlan’s full potential. A color printer is also useful, but a black and white printer can be used. The program is not copy protected.
MaxiPlan is an enormous worksheet. Most spreadsheets have a million or so cells, which is more than you ever need to use.
Maxisoft was not content with a million cells, and created a worksheet that has over 8 million cells available. Fortunately, memory is only allocated to those cells that contain information, and a 512K Amiga will have about 170K free after loading an enhanced worksheet.
The program loads directly from Workbench. It can either be booted after Kickstarting the Amiga, or else loaded from your normal Workbench disk. When MaxiPlan loads it attampts to close Workbench to save on memory. It is generally a good idea to boot MaxiPlan from its own Workbench so that you will have the maximum amount of memory to work with. This is especially true if you plan on using more than one spreadsheet at once.
After MaxiPlan is loaded, you are presented with a control window. From this you can load an existing worksheet, or open a new one. You are also given a choice of using four or eight colors in your worksheet. MaxiPlan defaults to four colors in enhanced mode, but this requires more memory.
The Worksheet The MaxiPlan worksheet is very similiar to Lotus in appearance.
For those unfamiliar with spreadsheets, there are a number of columns accross the top and a number of rows along the side.
The column and row coordinates serve to delineate cells, into which data, formula, and labels may be entered.
The Maxiplan worksheet has a number of differences that serves to make it unique. It has both vertical and horizontal scroll bars.
There is a sizing gadget, which is very useful when more than one worksheet or graph is being displayed. Page forward, page back, and close window gadgets are also present.
Across the top is the familiar Amiga menu bar. Just below the menu bar is an area that displays the currently selected cell and it's contents. This area has a number of formula entry buttons which allow entry of formulas using the mouse alone. This is very handy.
The buttons alone allow you to access the built-in functions of the program.
The MaxiPlan worksheet is based on the concept of ranges. All commands will either affect a single cell or a range of cells. There are no global commands perse. To accomplish global formatting, all cells of the worksheet must be selected. Only then can an attribute be specified, such as width. Although this will at first be an annoyance to those use to standard spreadsheets, the idea of ranges becomes very appealing after a bit of practice.
The worksheet also has a very handy feature called zoom.
Pressing the zoom button will allow you to view a pictoral representation of the worksheet. Each cell becomes one character wide. Those cells that contain information are highlighted with different colors to show labels, formulas, and data. This feature is useful not only for formatting your spreadsheet, but also for moving about. Just click on any cell and then click the normal button, and the worksheet will put the selected cell in the upper left-hand corner.
There are a multitude of ways that you can move around the worksheet. The first and most obvious is by using the arrow keys.
The mouse may also be used to click on the desired cell.
Wordstar keys may be enabled to allow the use of Control-S, -X,
- D, and -E to move left, down, right, and up. Finally, there is
a "goto” command that allows the specification of a particular
The use of menus sets MaxiPlan apart from all other spreadsheets, even those whose revisions have included mouse support. MaxiPlan was obviously designed with the mouse in mind. The menus are laid out logically, allowing for easy access of the special features of the program.
The first menu, the Project Menu, allows you to load and save worksheets, it also permits additional worksheets to be opened.
Multiple sheets can be opened at one time, but a 512K Amiga is effectively limited to having two active at once. Printing options are also located in this menu. Special print features, such as titles and the printing of grid lines, can be used.
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Des Moines, IA 50311 SALES 1-800-223-8088 24 HR. SERVICE 1-515-223-8088 The Edit Menu is very similiar to the edit menus appearing in many other programs. It is good to see Maxiplan using the standardized Amiga menu style, and hopefully all Amiga programs will soon incorporate edit menus. Using this menu, you can cut, copy, and paste regions and cells. You can also define names for cells and ranges. These names may then be incorporated into formulas, and ranges may be moved without having to change references to them.
The Format menu controls the manner by which cell contents will be displayed. MaxiPlan has the normal formats, such as general, dollars, fixed, and time. It also allows widths to be designated.
Either single cells or ranges can be formatted using this menu.
This menu also contains two commands which set MaxiPlan apart from most other spreadsheets. First, a type style may be selected for all values, labels, and formulas in a particular range. Bold, underline, italics, or any combination of the three may be selected. A second command will allow you to select the color of a particular cell or range. This is especially useful for highlighting important spreadsheet data The Options Menu also has a few special commands that allow you to show off the power of Maxiplan and the Amiga. First, the talking command allows cell notes to be spoken, written, or
spoken and written — more on notes later. The keyboard echo command allows keyboard input to be echoed verbally. This is very useful when inputting large amounts of data, as it allows you to orally check your accuracy.
The Commands Menu contains most everything not covered in the first four menus. The first important feature is the note command. This allows the attachment of notes to specific cells.
When a note is selected and the help key is pressed, the note will appear in the form of a requester. The use of notes is invaluable when creating worksheets for others to use, and is perhaps one of the best attributes of the program. This menu will also allow the specification and drawing of charts.
The Data menu accesses the database suctions of Maxiplan. This menu also allows saving of data as text, which can then be incorporated into other programs.
The last menu, the Macros menu, is disabled. This is because macros have not been included in Version 1.0. They are available as a separate program. According to Mike Lehman, a principle designer of MaxiPlan, macros should be included in later revisions of the program.
Maxiplan Graphics MaxiPlan supports four different graph types. These are Bar, Line, Pie, and Area graphs. Each graph may have atitle, as well as a bottom and left label. Four rows of data may be plotted against as many as twenty columns. In version 1.0, no provision is made for X-Y plotting.
A nice feature is that more than one chart may be dynamically linked to a worksheet. Then, whenever worksheet information is changed, the graphs are automatically updated. The combination of multiple charts and dynamic linkage is a real boon for those of us who like to tell lies with statistics.
Charts may be printed to black and white or color printers. It seems a shame to have to use a single color to print such nice looking graphs. Most MaxiPlan power users are going to find that they wont be satisfied with black and white graphs, and will consider the purchase of a color printer.
Perhaps the best feature is the ability to capture any graph as an IFF interleaved bit map file. The file can be exported to paint programs such as Deluxe Paint or Aegis Images. By using Maxiplan to create graphs and then modifying them with a paint program, professional charts can be created.
Database Capabilities MaxiPlan has a number of built-in database capabilities. There are a number of functions and commands that will allow you to manipulate data. First you must specify a data range. Once this is done you may then input records. The database commands will then allow you to find, extract, delete, and sort the records.
A good application for the database is as a customer file.
Customer records could be extracted according to specific sort criteria, and these records could then be used for form letter generation. This is a very powerful feature, and Maxiplan's database provides all the power needed for many applications.
Maxiplan Extras The program includes two utility programs that are very useful.
The first one is called MaxiMerge. It is used to merge MaxiPlan database data with other text files. A form letter can be created using ED or Texteraft and merged with the customer information extracted from the database. The program will then print letters that incorporate the customer information.
The second utility is called "From 123" and, as you may have guessed, imports data created on Lotus spreadsheets. The program does not read MS-DOS formats, so the file must be transfered to AmigaDOS first. I've used DOS 2 DOS, a program reviewed elsewhere in this issue.
There are also rumors that the final Workbench 1.2 will have a file conversion utility. If all else fails, you can simply download the lotus file using a telecommunications program. The capability of importing data is very important for those of us who must use MS- DOS. Note that the utility imports data, and as of revision 1.1, cannot be used to export data.
Some Problems with MaxiPlan You may have noticed that until now I have not mentioned the program manual. This is intentional, because I consider the documentation inadequate. MaxiPlan is a very powerful program, and the manual doesn't explain the methods by which this power can be harnessed.
The first section provides a tutorial called "Introduction to MaxiPlan", but not enough examples are provided to allow you to become comfortable with the program. The second section of the manual is the "Maxiplan Reference Guide", and is a less cutsie description of the program. Again, not enough examples are provided. The authors seem to have forgotten that vicarious learning is the easiest way to master something new. If you are not familiar with the workings of spreadsheets, you can expect to spend quite a bit of time becoming used to the peculiarities of MaxiPlan.
My second problem is that the program may have a few bugs.
They existed in Version 1.0, but I think they have been removed from the revision. Some of the bugs are most likely due to the quirkiness of Workbench 1.1, so MaxiPlan cannot be blamed for them. In fact, they have gone far to avoid certain types of system crashes — out of memory errors, for example.
Although the graphs created by the program are very good, the means by which they are specified are too rigid. The data to form the graph must be ordered in rows, and they can only be plotted against twenty columns. Whereas Lotus allows data to be used for delineating the horizontal axis, MaxiPlan only allows labels to be used. This means that you will have to create labels for each graph you make. This takes quite a bit of time, and can be very annoying. There is also no provision for manual scaling, which is very useful for telling statistical lies. There is nothing as useful as expanding
the axis to make a crooked line look straight.
MaxiMerge doesn't seem to work correctly in 1.0. There seems to be a problem addressing the two files and the printer simultaneously. In any event, expect a trip to the guru everytime you try this utility. Those with the revision shouldn't have this problem, but users with the original wont be able to use MaxiMerge.
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upset to see that the MaxiPlan macros were not included.
As they are an invaluable tool, every owner will want it. I would rather pay for them up front than have to order them and wait.
MaxiPlan would still be a bargain even with the extra cost of the Macros, and they should be included. It is akin to buying a Porsche and finding out later that the engine wasn't included.
Hope Forthe Future MaxiPlan seems dedicated to user support. Most of the bugs have been eliminated, and they are currently working on a tow- cost upgrade. The upgrade will eliminate the remaining bugs (it will only work with Workbench 1.2, which is a big help in bug- killing.) and the product should eliminate most of the problems that I have with the program.
A note to current MaxiPlan owners. If you have sent in your owner card you should have recieved the revised MaxiPlan 1.1. If you have not, you should contact Maxisoft and they will make sure you receive it immediately. They have also shown that they have a strong commitment to user support. Should you have any specialized problems that you cannot seem to solve, give them a call and they will do their best to help you solve them.
Upcoming macro ability Maxisoft is also selling a macros program to be used in MaxiPlan. It is available for $ 25.00, and may be purchased directly from Maxisoft. This program adds considerably to the capabilities of the program. It is especially useful for the creation of custom worksheets.
Macros resides as a separate window and can operate upon multiple worksheets. Up to 32 macros may be specified, and a learn mode is provided. The learn mode allows Maxiplan to remember a number of keyboard and mouse commands, and execute them upon activation of the Macro.
The macros that can be created are extremely powerful. They can have subroutine calls, and allow for the creation of loops. Data can be entered and then updated in real-time using loops and formula step rates.
Another feature is that CLI commands can be executed from within the macros. This provides true multitasking capabilities to the user. IFF files may be viewed using the CLI, but they, by necessity, take up the entire screen and must be closed before the macro may proceed. Finally, by starting the macro in the upper left-hand corner, execution is automatic upon loading. This means that when you load a program, it could say "hello'' to you, show relevant graphs, and print information to the printer. It almost makes your Amiga sing and dance I Anyone familiar with Lotus macros will find the
purchase of this program a necessity. The power provided by this program is phenomenal. It should also be able to execute Lotus files when spreadsheets are imported (more on this later), although I have not personally tested this.
Conclusion MaxiPlan and MaxiPlan Macros together only cost $ 175.00, but there are two hidden costs involved when purchasing the program. You will probably want to buy a new color printer and expanded memory. You will need the memory to take full advantage of MaxiPlan's capabilities. MaxiPlan has been tested with the Alegra expansion board, and Maxisoft claims that it works with Tecmar and Comspec boards. Although these are by no means a necessity, MaxiPlan gives you a good excuse to go buy them.
Every Amiga user should own a spreadsheet, and MaxiPlan rates as a "best buy". The program has "Amiga" stamped all over it.
The new revision takes care of most of the problems, and the enhancement due around year-end should make this one of the best programs available for any computer. But don't wait for the enhancement — go buy MaxiPlan right now and take advantage of the power of this program, and your Amiga, today.
MaxiPlan $ 150,00+$ 25.00 for MaxiPlan Macros ($ 50,00 after introductory period) Maxisoft 2817 Sloat Road Pebble Beach, CA 93953 408-373*4018 800-942-6294
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industry standard, Sidekick the memory resident program that brought the illusion of multi-tasking to the IBM. In the years since it's introduction in 1984, Sidekick and it's imitations have filled the business world's computers with programs that wait in high memory for specific keystrokes to call forth appointment calendars, calculators, notepads and telephone directories. It is not surprising, then, that programs that do these very same things are appearing for the Amiga, a computer with real multi-tasking capability. Gizmoz will do much more than Sidekick and it's companion product
SuperKey combined and at a fraction of the price. It is also not copyprotected.
In a nutshell, Gizmoz will keep appointments, phone numbers and memos straight, as well as print them out for storage in the black binder that comes with the package. It will also serve as a calculator, encrypt files and set up keyboard macros. To do just this much, Borland International, the previous king of good, inexpensive products charges $ 175 for Sidekick and Superkey.
Not being one to stop a good thing, Digital Creations also included a terminal program, an animated cuckoo clock, an announcer, a graphing program and a Life game. And for the programmer, there are pop-up reference cards for AmigaDOS and Abasic, a file compression program, a graphic memory display and a tool for setting the priority of the various jobs.
These tools, productivity assistants and toys take up so much room on the disk there is no room for any of the workbench files.
Since I only have one drive, I copied several programs at a time onto a workbench disk to test them. This saves disk swapping whenever the programs want to access the device routines.
Ideally, I would want everything on a harddisk, but until one appears next to my Amiga, I put some programs on my writing disk, some on my programming disks and the rest on a games disk.
For writing and general notekeeping, I placed the calendar, rollodex and memopad on one disk. They are probably the most productive of the programs in the collection if you use your Amiga for office work.
The Memopad is an excellent, little editor that uses the mouse interface to handle any text file. Several of these Memopad windows can be opened at once, and anything cut or copied from one file can be pasted into another. It makes such a good, general- purpose editor that a friend of mine has renamed his ED and placed it in the C directory of all his Workbench disks. It's only problem is that it will scroll to handle lines up to 256 characters long. I know some would call this a feature, but the editor is so convenient, and small I would like to use it to write. (It scrolls smoothly and
quickly, unlike Texteraft.)
The Rollodex program is a digital imitation of a cardfile that will dial the phone numbers if a Hayes compatable modem is attached.
There are no specific name or address fields because each card is like a small Memopad with fixed boundaries. The editing commands are the same, but there is no scrolling in any direction.
This means that the cursor must be placed over the phone number before the dial routine is called, a pain that can be avoided by putting the phone number in the upper-left-hand corner of each card where the cursor appears initially. I would rather there was one specific field for phone numbers. It would make things a bit easier.
The Calendar is the last of the three main office assistants, and it is just as good. Every day from January 1, 1900 to December 31, 2099 has it's own 50 line, fixed boundary memopad. In addition, if a line describing an appointment begins with an asterix, the program will issue a beep or a flash at the appropriate time if the Calendar is open on the Workbench. Several different calendars can be stored separately on the disk if there is any reason to keep things separate. If you work enough on the Amiga, it would be worth the trouble of synchronizing the clock everyday to get these reminders.
All three of these office assistants are designed to produce files that can be read by the program named Blackbook. This program will format the files and print them out on 8 1 2 by 11 paper. These pieces must be folded in half and punched with holes before they are put in the black binder. This makes the binder smaller than a regular one, but I would rather use a normal binder and save the trouble of folding.
The package also comes with different calculators for scientists, programmers and financial analysts. I split them up onto different disks, but I will discuss them together since there are so many similarities. Each of them will handle the rudimentary four functions as well as display a tape history of the calculations along side the calculator face. This tape can also be saved to a file or printed out on the printer. This is a very handy feature. Either the mouse or the keypad can be used to operate the various keys.
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The scientific version will calculate the standard trigonometric functions, logarithms, exponentials in any number of decimal places. The calculator handles exponents up to 99 and carries 15 digits of accuracy through its internal calculations. It is equivalent to aTexas Instrument's TI-30.
I put the programmer's calculator on my programming disk, even though I don't know when I'll begin needing to compute arithmatic shift, logical shift, rotate, OR, AND, XOR and NOT in either binary, octal, decimal or hexidecimal. Each number entered into the machine can be considered to be 1, 2, 4, 8,16 or 32 bits long.
This makes a difference since negative numbers are presented as two's complements. Since 32 bits of a binary number don't fit on the calculator window, there is a provision to switch between blocks of digits. This is cumbersome, though, and it would have been better if the calculator window expanded.
The financial calculator has an equally large array of buttons that make any computations involving money, time and the compounding of interest very easy. It will do everything Electronic Art's Financial Cookbook will do, but with absolutely no handholding for the uninitiated. Unfortunately, the errors I found in the handbook were in this section. Two of the examples for testing the calculator were wrong. They were typographical errors that made me wonder if my calculator was screwed up. A phone call to Digital Creations assured me that since the calculator worked correctly, the manual must be
wrong. There is also one undocumented feature of of the calculators that allows you to change the constant. I had trouble getting this to work correctly, but I think it is because I use HP calculators. These are programmed to work like Texas Instrument's straight-forward system.
One of drawers is entitled Audio-Visual and I moved all of it's programs to the toy disks. One of these toys is an announcing program that will translate any English text into phonemes and speak them over the sound channels. Just as in BASIC, the cadence, pitch, inflection, sampling rate and sex of the voice can be adjusted. There is also a neat animated face that changes the size of it's rectangle mouth in time with the words. This little toy can be put to some practical use by programming batch files to use it to say, "The compiler is done."
The other pure toy in the drawer is a cuckoo clock that has a little animated bird call out the hour. It is a nice job of animation, but little more than a novelty. The ticking becomes so annoying I usually shut off the sound.
I suppose Life is considered a toy by most people, but Computer Scientists would think otherwise. A system of little cells can be built complex enough to do simple calculations. This implementation helps study the theoretical application by providing a library of the most important Life forms like the glider gun. This crazy little pattern will regularity spit out another pattern called the glider that scoots across the screen. It is used theoretically to simulate a computer's clock. There are many other interesting forms, and it makes this particular implementation much better than the usual
The last program I moved over is the graphing program. It will take up to twelve numbers and produce a pie or a bar graph in four different colors with three different shading options.
Unfortunately, it leaves the table of data on the side of the screen.
While this makes it easy to change things, it is impossible to take a photograph directly from the screen. Since I don't have a color printer, I think this ability is a necessity.
Everything so far, would have been more than enough for a regular software package, but there is still another drawer included entitled Accessories. In it, the programmers at Digital Creations placed all of the extra goodies they couldn't fit elsewhere. I'm still not sure where they will end up on my disks.
The first interesting little program is called POPUP. It creates a window that will slide up and down on top of the Workbench windows. Gizmoz contains two different files filled with reference data on AmigaDOS and AmigaBASIC to be loaded by POPUP.
The information provided is somewhat cursory, but this cuts down on the memory that is gobbled up. It is, though, a great deal more documentation on the DOS than Commodore provided. If anyone isn't satisfied, they can use POPUP with any text file and edit their own references.
Another interesting gadget, albeit without any obvious applications, is the graphic memory display program. This is another POPUP-like window that contains a box filled with patches of different colors. One color is allocated memory, the other is free memory. Each dot on the screen represents an eight byte block. It is really quite interesting to see how the Amiga will tend to leave tiny chunks free all over the place. I guess multitasking memory management is never perfect. The program will store a 'snapshot" of the memory allocation at a particular time and then XOR it with the current
picture on command. This makes it quite easy to see how a specific program fills up the memory.
Another of these interesting tools without an obvious application is the SetPriority program. This is the perfect gift for the child that can't keep his hands off things he is not supposed to touch. I have crashed the machine almost every time I tried resetting the priorities of the various tasks in the queue. It is quite easy to set a computation intensive program higher than the input console and prevent the computer from looking for mouse movement or break commands. The most success I had with it was setting the priority of the memory display program to the maximum to watch a very dynamic
view of the machine's memory allocation. Usually the graph of the memory is only updated when the machine gets around to it.
If anyone uses a modem, they will be happy to note that a simple terminal program is included. It will emulate the standard terminal protocols like the ADM-3 and the VT100 while providing the options of stripping line-feeds and saving the text to disk.
Unfortunately, there is no facility for uploading a file from the Amiga. This is probably because Digital Creations offers a separate communications package.
In this drawer, there are three handy programs for text processing.
One is called HotKey and it reprograms the keyboard to replace individual keys with long strings. With it in place, everytime control, alt and the key are pressed, HotKey will intervene and the computer will receive the long, pre-programmed string. It is quite useful whenever long names are used repeatedly. Dostoyevsky would have loved it.
Rounding out the collection are two programs that help with text files that lie around on disks. One compresses files using the standard Huffman coding approach and the other encrypts them with Digital Creation's own algorithm. People knowledgeable about cryptography would want to know that it is a version of a Vernam cipher that uses the key as a seed for a pseudo-random sequence. This means it is moderately secure for most applications. Anyone using the encryption algorithm would be well advised to use the file compression program before encrypting.
This makes it much more difficult to crack the cipher.
As a final note, the buyer should be warned that some of the programs can be garnered from the public domain. For instance, the first AMICUS disk contains a close copy of the announcing program complete with animated face. There is also a file compression program that yields almost exactly the same percentage of compression on the same disk. Simple terminal packages, Life programs, encryption schemes and graphic free memory displays are also available from AMICUS. This does not mean the collection is not a good value. Every one of the programs works and is well documented. Each program can be
accessed from both the CLI and the Workbench and the editing commands are the standard for every program that handles text.
These may be luxuries to some people who love the public domain, but I think Gizmoz is a good bargain for people who like to have a software with the finishing touches.
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Information Program_ "...all the necessary information about
that loan before you get serious with the sales person."
By Bryan Catley I don't know about you, but when I'm in a situation that could very well end with the need for a loan, (buying a car, a house, or refinancing a house, etc.), I want all the necessary information about that loan before I get serious with the sales person. The monthly payments are of vital interest, especially those surrounding the "most likely" rate because rates do tend to fluctuate. Also of importance is knowing how much of each payment will go towards paying off the interest, and how much will go towards the principal. "The Loan Information Program" will provide you with this
information, and show-off some of the Amiga's special features at the same time.
Carefully type in the accompanying program and remember to save a copy on disk before trying to execute it. In fact, it would be wise to save the program several times as you enter it.
Using the Program When you run "The Loan Information Program", you will be greeted orally, and presented with the Title Screen. There will be four boxes on the screen, labelled from left to right "Help", "Payments", "Interest", and "Quit". Select the desired function by "clicking" in the appropriate box.
Help The help option provides three successive windows of help information. The first describes the "Payments" option, the second the "Interest" option, while the third offers a few words about the printer routines. You have the option of terminating "Help” with each window.
Payments The payment option will allow you to determine the monthly payment for a specified loan. When selected, you will be presented with a "Requester" which will prompt you in sequence, for the amount of the loan, the interest rate, and the length of the loan in years. You must press RETURN after entering each item.
When they have all been entered, "OK" and "Cancel" boxes will appear in the Requester. If you select "Cancel", you will be returned to the Title Screen. If "OK" is selected, you will be presented with a table detailing the monthly payments for loans of amounts surrounding the specified amount, at various rates of interest surrounding the specified rate. The column and row representing the specified values will be highlighted. This table makes the comparison of various loan amounts, at varying rates of interest, very easy.
When ready, click the mouse in the desired box; "Interest" will take you directly to the Interest screen, "Print" will produce a hard copy version of the information on the screen, on a printer attached to the parallel port.
Interest The interest option will show you the amounts of interest and principal paid by month, (with totals) for any desired 12 month period during the life of the loan. When selected from the Title Screen, one of two things will happen. If you have previously used the "Payments" or "Interest" options, you will be asked if the same loan information is to be used. If you then select "No", or if you did not use these options previously, you will be requested to enter the same information as is required for the "Payments" option.
When the correct loan information has been determined, the program takes a couple of seconds and constructs an array of information regarding every payment for the life of the loan. It then presents you with a screen containing interest paid, principal paid, balance, and totals of interest and principal paid, for months one to 12 of the loan.
Across the top of the screen will be seven boxes (or gadgets) which you may select as desired, and as appropriate: First Year Provides information for the first year of the loan. The number of payments shown defaults to 12 when "Interest” is first selected, but you may change the number at will via the "Change" gadget.
This option is automatically selected when "Change” has been used.
Last Year Provides information for the payments remaining in the last year of the loan. The number of payments shown will be 12, or 12 less the number of payments in the first year of the loan.
Next 12 This will cause information for the next 12 months to be listed. If the highest current month plus 12 is beyond the life of the loan, "Last Year” will automatically be selected.
Prev12 This will cause information for the previous 12 months to be displayed. If the lowest current month less 12, is less than one, "First Year” will be automatically selected.
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However, this is usually not the case. By selecting this gadget you may set the number of payments for the first year to whatever is appropriate.
Print Produces a hard copy version of the information on the screen, on a printer attached to the parallel port.
OK Selecting this gadget will terminate the "Interest" option and return you to the Title Screen.
Quit This option will terminate the program and return you to the Amiga Basic Output Window.
Programming Notes It is hoped that the following notes will help you in obtaining a better understanding of "The Loan Information Program" and how it does what it does.
Information Producing Formulas The formulas used in this program should produce accurate results. None-the-less, it would probably be wise to double check results with other sources before basing any major financial decisions on them I Of Gadgets and Mice This program contains 21 different gadgets for the user to "click" in, with up to seven gadgets being used on one screen at the same time! To include the code to draw each individual gadget as required, and to include the mouse checking code for each individual gadget would really have lengthened the program and made it unwieldly. The
simplification process: decide on a common format for the gadgets, and place all information about them in two arrays. These arrays will, in turn, be used by one gadget drawing routine, and one mouse checking routine. The program thus becomes smaller, and changes or additions to the gadgets become much easier.
The common format decided on for this program was one line of text in a box surrounded by a second box which is two pixels larger in each direction. When the gadget is selected, the background color in the inner box, and the text color are reversed for as long as the user holds the left mouse button down. This provides a "flashing" effect. Additionally, each box has a "shadow" on the right and lower sides. The first of the two arrays contains, for each gadget:
- x coordinate of upper left hand corner
• y coordinate of upper left hand corner
- length in pixels
- height in pixels
- background palette color
- foreground palette color
- shadow palette color The second contains the text to be placed
in each gadget.
Gadgets are drawn via their relative locations within the array. For example, to draw the fifth and sixth gadgets in the Help window, the commands used are: boxx=4: boxy=5: GOSUB DrawGadgets (remember, the first entry in an array is entry zero).
The "GatGadget" subroutine is entered with the variables "boxx" and "boxy" set to the lower and upper box numbers to check. Upon exit, the variable "type" contains a value from one up to the number of boxes being checked. This allows it to become the object of an IF or ON statement to direct subsequent program flow. For example, after drawing boxes five and six as described above, the "GetGadget" subroutine might be used as follows: boxx=4: boxy=5: GOSUB GetGadget ONH Htype GOTO ---- When first entered, "GetGadget" waits for the left mouse button to be pressed. When it is, the "x" and "y"
coordinates are extracted and compared against the specified gadgets. If a match is found, foreground and background colors are reversed and the inner box of the gadget is re-drawn (causing it to "flash"), and the variable "type" is set as appropriate. The subroutine then waits for the user to release the button. It then either repeats the process (if no match was found) or returns to the user after redrawing the gadget in its normal colors.
Speech It must be admitted, in all honesty, that speech as used in this program, is mostly gimmickl But it is available, so why not use it?
Besides, it does provide oral instructions and comments as the program decides it appropriate. The one important thing to note is that if you are going to use speech in your programs, include a SAY statement at the very beginning of the program, even if nothing is said: SAY TRANSLATES (""). This is important because Basic does not keep the speech routines in memory, it loads them from the Workbench disk when they are first needed.
Now, if the Workbench disk is not in the internal drive, the system will display a Requester for it on the system screen, which means that if you've already created your own screens and or windows, it may be hidden from view, and the user may very well end up thinking the system has crashed. Including a SAY statement at the very beginning of your program avoids this problem.
Retrieving User Input When you run the program, you will undoubtedly notice that when entering information about the loan, the "OK Cancel" gadgets do not appear until all the required information has been entered. This is because "LINE INPUT" is used to retrieve the information, and once it receives control, it will not relinquish it until the user presses the RETURN key. This makes it impossible to check the condition of the mouse during this time; hence, the gadgets do not appear until all information has been entered.
Printer Routines To provide hard copy of the selected screen, the printer subroutine makes use of horizontal spacing, vertical spacing, form feeding, double width printing, and emphasized printing; all in (It’s & lot of fan, a brain teaser and a programming guide too!)
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6 & of games atm conversation written in Amiga Basic, and shipped with the source code provided. It is entertaining, amusing, thought provoking, andjust plain fun. If you have any interest in programming V iga, this is a must have for the examples MATTHEW LEEDS, Commodore Microcomputers addition to "normal" printing! To do this, extensive use is made of printer control codes and, unfortunately, these vary from printer to printer. As written, the program will print correctly on Epson, and Epson compatible dot-matrix printers. If you have any other kind of printer, you may receive some
strange results! Should this occur, you will need to change the control codes that have been used to ones which are acceptable to your printer. To do this, find the necessary codes in your printer instruction manual and substitute as necessary. Each printer function is only invoked from one place within the program, so it will not be necessary to search high and low!
Well, I'm sure this program will prove useful to you. Both from the point of view of being a useful program to have in your home program library, and also as an example of how to use some of the features available in Amiga Basic. Enjoy it!
Mainl: COLOR Mag, BlkLOGATE 13,39: PRINT"THE” LOCATE 15,37: PRINT"LOAN" LOCATE 17,30: PRINT "I NFORMATION" LOCATE 19,37: PRINT"PROGRAM" IF First-0 THEN First-1 SAY TRANSLATE$ ("Please click in the desired box to continue."), voice% END IF Main2: boxx-MTa: boxy-MTb: GOSUB GetGadget ON type GOTO HelpRoutine, Pay Routine, IntRoutine, QuitRoutine HelpRoutine: WINDOW 3, (40,16)-(280,152), 0,1 COLOR Blk, Yel: CLS: LOCATE 2,1 PRINT” Selecting Payments1 will" PRINT"allow you to examine a range" PRINT"of loan amounts, at various” PRINT"rates of interest, around the" PRINT"values you supply."
PRINT" " PRINT"Information specific to your" PRINT”request is high-lighted."
PRINT" " PRINT "Do not include commas when” PRINT"entering dollar amounts."
Boxx-Ha: boxy-Hb: GOSUB DrawGadget s boxx-Ha: boxy Hb: GOSUB GetGadget IF type-2 THEN EndHelp COLOR Blk, Yel: CLS: LOCATE 2,1 PRINT"Selecting 'Interest1 will" PRINT"provide you with the amounts" PRINT" of interest and principal" PRINT"paid, month by month, for any” PRINT"12 month period during the" PRINT"life of the specified loan."
PRINT" " PRINT "Short first and last years" PRINT"are handled, and you may page” PRINT”through the 12 month periods. " PRINT" " PRINT "Do not include commas when" PRINT"entering dollar amounts."
Boxx-Ha: boxy-Hb: GOSUB DrawGadgets boxx-Ha: boxy Hb: GOSUB GetGadget IF type-2 THEN EndHelp COLOR Blk, Yel: CLS: LOCATE 2,1 PRINT"The printer routine is set up "PRINT"for dot-matrix EPSON or EPSON" PRINT" compatible printers. All" PRINT"printing is done from one area" PRINT "of the program, allowing easy" PRINT"modifications if appropriate."
Boxx-Hc: boxy He: GOSUB DrawGadgets boxx-Hc: boxy-Hc: GOSUB GetGadget EndHelp: COLOR Blk, Cyn: WINDOW CLOSE 3: GOTO Mainl PayRoutine: req-1: GOSUB Requestorl: IF type-2 THEN Main2 amtinc 2000: IF amt ambinc*4 THEN amtinc-amt 4 amt-amt- (amtinc*3) itr-itr- (7*itrinc): rate-itr 1200 rateinc-(itrinc 100) 12 COLOR, Blk: CLS LINE(40,8)-(600,184), Cyn, bf col-0 FOR x-4 TO 188 STEP 8 col-col+l: IF col 7 THEN col-1 LINE (0, x)-(27, x), col LINE (608, x)-(631, x), col NEXT LOCATE 1,24: COLOR Mag: PRINT "LOAN REPAYMENT COMPARISONS, BY MONTH" boxx-Ya: boxy-Yb: GOSUB DrawGadgets COLOR Blu, Cyn: LOCATE 5,15 PRINT "
";yrs$; PRINT" Year Loan Amounts mwawaaa » LOCATE 7,7: PRINT"Rates":COLOR Wht AREA (48,112): AREA (320,112): AREA (320,40): AREA (376,40) AREA (376,112): AREA (592,112): AREA (592,119): AREA (376,119) AREA (376,176): AREA (320,176): AREA* (320,119): AREA (48,119) AREAFILL:COLOR Blk FOR n-0 TO 6 COLOR, Cyn IF n-3 THEN COLOR, Wht LOCATE 6,15+n*9: PRINT USING " ";amt+(n*amtinc) NEXT FOR n-0 TO 14 COLOR, Cyn IF n»7 THEN COLOR, Wht LOCATE 8+n, 7 PRINT USING M «. “; itr+ (n*itrinc) ratefact=rate+(n*rateinc) FOR xbpO TO 6 COLOR, Cyn IF n-7 OR bp3 THEN COLOR, Wht pay- (ratefact (1- (1
((1+ratafact) Ambha)))) * (amt+ (m*amtinc)) pay-INT(pay*100+.5) 100 IF pay 10000I THEN LOCATE 8+n,14+m*9: PRINT USING ". n;pay mthly (n, m) -pay ELSE SAY TRANSLATB$ (MThat1 a a big loan!"), voica% COLOR Rad: LOCATE 3,23 PRINT"Payments are too larga to display" COLOR Blk: m-6: n-14 END IF NEXT a NEXT n PayRtnWhat: boxx-Ya: boxy-Yb: GOSUB GatGadgat CPI typa GOTO DoIntO, PayPrint, Main PayPrint: GOSUB Popan: GOSUB NewPaga Pval-21: GOSUB PhorSpo: GOSUB PbldOn PRINT fPnua, "LOAN REPAYMENT COMPARISONS, BY MONTH": GOSUB PbldOff PRINT Pnun," " Pval«13: GOSUB PhorSpe PRINT Pnum, ";yra$; PRINT Pnua,"
Yaar Loan Aaounta Pval-10: GOSUB PhorSpe FOR n-0 TO 6 IF n-3 THEN GOSUB PbldOn IF n-4 THEN GOSUB PbldOff PRINT Pnua, USING" ";aab+ (n*amtinc); NEXT: PRINT Pnua," " Pval-5: GOSUB PhorSpe: PRINT Pnum,"Rataa" FOR n-0 TO 14 IF n-7 THEN GOSUB PbldOn IF n-8 THEN GOSUB PbldOff Pval»5: GOSUB PhorSpe: PRINT Pnua, USING". "; itr+ (n*itrinc); FOR meO TO 6 IF a-3 AND n07 THEN GOSUB PbldOn IF m«4 AND n07 THEN GOSUB PbldOff PRINT Pnua, USING". ";athly (n, a); NEXT: PRINT Pnum," " NEXT Pval-4: GOSUB PvrtSpc: GOSUB Pcloaa GOTO PayRtnWhat IntRoutina: IF mtha-0 THEN Dolntl WINDOW
5, (72,40)-(240,120),0,1 COLOR Blu, Yal: CLS: LOCATE 2,2 PRHVT"For tha aaas loan?"
Boxx-SLa: boxy-SLb: GOSUB DrawGadgata boxx-SLa: boxy-SLb: GOSUB GatGadgat WINDOW CLOSE 5:COLOR Blk, Cyn ON typa GOTO DoIntO, Dolntl DoIntO: IF req-1 THEN amt-amt+ (azutine*3): itr-itr+ (7*itrinc) GOTO DoInt2 Dolntl: req-2: GOSUB Raquaatorl: IF type-2 THEN Main2 DoInt2: aw-0: rate£act-itr 1200 COLOR, Blk: CLS LINE(80,8)-(560,184), Cyn, bf col-0 FOR x 4 TO.188 STEP 8 col-col+l: IF eol 7 THEN col-1 LINE(0, x)-(72, x), col LINE (568, x) — (631, x), col NEXT COLOR Mag, Blk: LOCATE 1,22 "C° (Programmers and (Developers 'IntuiSeeds' Intuition Application Library features:
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Software 'Seeds for tfk Creative' PRINT" INTEREST 4 PRINCIPAL
Standby" pay- (rataf act (1- (1 ((1+ratafact) nth a)))) *amt
pay-INT(pay*100+.5) 100 tabs (0,0) -amt: tabx (0,1) -0: tabx
(0,2) -0 FOR n-1 TO mtha tabx (n, 1) -INT ((tabx (n-1,0)
*rata£act) *100+. 5) 100 tabx (n, 0) -tabx (n-1,0) -pay+tabx
(n, 1) tabx (n,2) — pay-tabx (n,1) NEXT LOCATE 3,33: PRINT
SPACE$ (14) boxx-Ia: boxy-Ib: GOSUB DrawGadgata LOCATE 5,21:COLOR
Blu, Cyn PRINT "Month Intaraat Principal Balance" LOCATE
20,29: PRINT"Loan Amount:" LOCATE 21,27: PRINT"Intaraat Rata:"
LOCATE 22,25: PRINT"Number of Yaara:" LOCATE.23,25: PRINT
"Monthly payment:"; COLOR Blk LOCATE 20,42: PRINT USING
" ff ";amt LOCATE 21,42: PRINT USING ". ff ";itr;: PRINT"%
" ";mtha; PRINT" month*)" LOCATE 23,42: PRINT USING
". ";pay; mthalat-12: typa-l DoRaquaat: (81 typa GOTO
Yaarl, Laatyr, Plua12, Minu*12, DoChanga, IntPrint, IntEnd
Yaarl: rnthl-1 rmthend-mthalat: GOTO DoLiat Laatyr: IF
mthalat-12 THEN mthl-mtha-ll else mthl-aatha- (11-mthalat) END
IF mthend-mtha: GOTO DoLiat Plua12: IF mthand+12 mtha THEN
Laatyr mthl*«&thana+l: mthend»mthl+ll: GOTO DoLiat Use Your Own
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Minus12: IF mthl-12 l THEN Pearl mthl*=mthl-12: mthend-mthl+ll: GOTO DoLiat DoChange: req-3: GOSUB Requeatorl: WINDOW 2: GOTO Yaarl DoList: tofcint«0: totprin«0: LOCATE 6,22:COLOR Blk, Cyn FOR n*mthl TO mthend totint-totint+tabx (n,1): totprin-totprin+tabx (n, 2) LOCATE, 22: PRINT USING " ";n; PRINT USING 11 . ";tabs (n, l);tabx (n,2);tabx (n,0) NEXT IF mthend-mthl 11 THEN FOR n*mthend+l TO athl+11 LOCATE,22: PRINT SPACE$ (36) NEXT END IF LOCATE 18,25: PRINT USING “. ";totint;totprin COLOR Blu: LOCATE 18,21: PRINT"Total:" IF sw-0 THEN SW-1 SAY TRANSLATE$ ("Click in appropriate box to
continue"), voice% END IF IntRtnWhat: boxx-Ia: boxy-Ib: GOSUB GetGadget GOTO DoRequeat IntPrint: GOSUB Popen: GOSUB NewPage Pval-20: GOSUB PhorSpc: GOSUB PbldOn PRINT Pnua, "INTEREST £ PRINCIPAL PAYMENTS BY MONTH" GOSUB PbldOff: Pval«2: GOSUB PvrtSpc Pval«28: GOSUB PhorSpc: PRINT Pnum, "Loan Amount:"; PRINT Pnua, USING" "; amtPval-26: GOSUB PhorSpc: PRINT Pnum,"Intereat Rate:"; PRINT Pnum, USING". ";itr;: PRINT Pnum,"%" Pval»24: GOSUB PhorSpc: PRINT Pnum, "Number of Years:"; PRINT Pnum, USING" ";yra;: PRINT Pnua, " (»; PRINT Pnum, USING" ";mtha;: PRINT Pnum, " months)" Pval-24: GOSUB
PHorSpc: PRINT Pnum, "Monthly Payment:"; PRINT Pnua, USING". ";pay Pval«2: GOSUB PvrtSpc: Pval 19: GOSUB PhorSpc PRINT fPnua, "Month Intereat Principal Balance" totint«0: totprin«0 FOR n-rnthl TO mthend totint totint+tabx (n,1): totprin«totprin+tabs (n,2) Pval-20: GOSUB PhorSpc: PRINT Pnum, USING" ";n; PRINT Pnum, USING". ";tabx (n, 1);tabx (n,2);tabx (n,0) NEXT Pval-18: GOSUB PhorSpc: PRINT Pnua, "Total:"; PRINT Pnua, USING". ";totint; PRINT Pnua, USING". ";totprin Pval**4: GOSUB PvrtSpc: GOSUB Pcloae GOTO IntRtnWhat IntEnd: GOTO Main Requeatorl: WINDOW 4,
(40,16)-(280,152),0,1 COLOR Blk, CyurCLS PRINT"Pleaae enter requested values" PRINT"and presa RETURN after each."
IF req-3 THEN GetStrt LOCATE 6,3: PRINT"(100 to 900000)" GetAmt: LOCATE 5,7: PRINT"Loan Amount: " LINE (150,30) — STEP(50,10), b: PAINT (155,35), Blu, Blk LOCATE 5,20:COLOR Blk, Blu: LINE INPUT"", amt$: amt=VAL(amt$) COLOR Blk, Cyn: IF amt 100 OR amt 900000£ THEN GOSUB ReqErr: GOTO GetAmt LOCATE 6,3: PRINT SPACE$ (15) LOCATE 8,3: PRINT"(2.00 to 30.00)" Getlntereat: LOCATE 7,5: PRINT"Intereat Rate: " LINE (150,46) — STEP(42,10), b: PAINT (155,48), Blu, Blk LOCATE 7,20:COLOR Blk, Blu: LINE INPUT"", itr$: itr=VAL(itr$) COLOR Blk, Cyn: IF itr 2 OR itr 30 THEN GOSUB ReqErr: GOTO Getlntereat LOCATE 8,3'.PRINT SPACE$ (15) LOCATE
10,8: PRINT"(1 to";maxyrs;")" GetYeara: LOCATE 9,6: PRINT"Number Yeara: " LINE (150,62) — STEP(18,10), b: PAINT (155,64), Blu, Blk LOCATE 9,20:COLOR Blk, Blu: LINE INPUT"", yrs$: yrs=VAL(yrs$) COLOR Blk, Cyn: IF yra 0 OR yra maxyra THEN GOSUB RaqErr: GOTO GetYeara mths»yrs*12 LOCATE 10,8: PRINT SPACE$ (10) GOTO ReqExitGetStrt: LOCATE 6,10: PRINT" (1 to 12)" LOCATE 5,1: PRINT"Months in lat Year: " LINE (158,30) — STEP(18,10), b: PAINT (160,32), Blu, Blk LOCATE 5,21:COLOR Blk, Blu: LINE INPUT" ", mthalat$ : mthalat«VAL (mthalat$) COLOR Blk, Cyn: IF mthalat l OR mthalat 12 THEN GOSUB ReqErr: GOTO GetStrt LOCATE 6,10: PRINT
SPACE$ (9) GOTO ReqExit ReqErr: SAY TRANSLATE$ ("Pleaae stick to the indicated range."), voice% RETURN ReqExit: SAY TRANSLATE$ ("Thank you!"), voice% boxx Ra: boxyaRb: GOSUB DrawGadget a boxx»Ra: boxy*Rb: GOSUB GetGadget WINDOW CLOSE 4: RETURN NewPage: IF Pcount-0 THEN Pval- 3: GOSUB PvrtSpc Pval-11: GOSUB PhorSpc: GOSUB PdblOn PRINT Pnum, "The Loan Information Program": GOSUB PdblOff Pval»29: GOSUB PhorSpc: PRINT Pnum, "Bryan D. Catley" Pval«2: GOSUB PvrtSpc ELSE IF Pcount MOD 2-0 THEN GOSUB PFFeed: Pval»7: GOSUB PvrtSpc END IF END IF Pcount-PCount+1 RETURN QuitRoutine: IF PcountOO THEN GOSUB
Popen: GOSUB PFFeed: GOSUB Pcloae END IF voica%(7)«0 SAY TRANSLATE$ ("O K. Talk to you again soon!"), voice% CLS: WINDOW CLOSE 2: SCREEN CLOSE 1: END BldGadgets: FOR n*=0 TO numbx-1 FOR bf*0 TO 6 READ bx (n, m) NEXT m READ bxtxt$ (n) NEXT n.
RETURN " DrawGadgets: FOR n-boxx TO boxy xl-bx(n,0): yl-bx (n, l): x2*=xl+bx (n, 2): y2=yl+bx (n,3) bg-bx (n, 4):£g-bx (n, 5): bo-bx (n, 6) LINE (xl, yl) — (x2, y2), bg, bf: LINE (xl, yl) — (x2, y2), fg, b LINE (xl+2, yl+2) — (x2-2, y2-2), £g, b LINE (x2+l, yl+1) — (x2+l, y2+l), bo LINE (x2+l, y2+l) — (xl+1, y2+l), bo COLOR £g, bg: row%«INT(yl 8+2): clm%-INT(xl 8+2) LOCATE row%, da%: PRINT bxtxt$ (n) NEXT n RETURN GetGadget: type-0 WHILE type-0 WHILE MOUSE(0) — 0: WEND mx=MOUSE (1): my=MOUSE (2) FOR n-boxx TO boxy IF mx bx (n,0) AND nx bx (n,0)+bx(n,2) THEN IF my bx (n, l) AND ny bx (n, l)+bx(n,3) THEN xl bx (n,
0)+2: yl»bx (n,1)+2 x2=xl+bx(n,2) — 4: y2-yl+bx (n,3)-4 bg»bx (n, 4):£g»bx (n,5) LINE(xl, yl)- (x2, y2), £g, b£ COLOR bg,£g: row%«INT(yl 8+2): col%-INT(xl 8+2) LOCATE row%, col%: PRINT bxfext$ (n) type«n-boxx+l: n-boxy END IF.
END IF NEXT n WHILE MOUSE (0)00: WEND WEND boxxurtypa+boxx-1: boxy-boxx: GOSUB DrawGadgats RETURN Popen: 'Open Parallel Port IF Pnunp 0 THEN Pnumxal OPEN "PAR:" FOR OUTPUT AS Pnum: GOTO PCExit Pclose: 'Close Parallel Port CLOSE Pnum: GOTO PCExit PFFeed: 'Foxa Feed to Next Page PRINT Pnum, CHR$ (12);: GOTO PCExit PdblOn: 'Double Width On PRINT Pnum, CHR$ (27);"W";CHR$ (1);: GOTO PCExit PdblO££: 'Double Width 0££ PRINT Pnum, CHR$ (27)+"W"+CHR$ (0);: GOTO PCExit PbldOn: 'Bold On PRINT Pnum, CHR$ (27)+"E";: GOTO PCExit PbidO££: 'Bold 0££ PRINT Pnua, CHR$ (27)+"F";: GOTO PCExit PhorSpc: 'Horizontal Space PRINT
Pnum, CHR$ (27)+"£"+CHR$ (0)+CHR$ (Pval);: GOTO PCExit PvrtSpc: 'Vertical Space PRINT Pnum, CHR$ (27)+»f"+CHR$ (1)+CHR$ (Pval);: GOTO PCExit PCExit: RETURN SUB Logo80 (Depth%) STATIC SHARED Blk, Blu, Gm, Cyn, Red, Mag, Yel, Wht IF First»0 THEN First-1 SCREEN 1,640,200, Depth%,2 WINDOW 2.,16,1 PALETTE 0,0,0,0: Blk-0:•Black PALETTE 1,0,0,1: Blu-1:•Blue PALETTE 2,0,.5,0: Grn-2:'Green PALETTE 3,0,1,1: Cyn-3:'Cyan PALETTE 4,1,0,0: Red-4:'Red PALETTE 5,1,0,1: Mag-5:'Magenta PALETTE 6,1,.75,0: Yel-6:'Yellow PALETTE 7,1,1,1: Wht-7:'White END IF AMIGA HARD DISK BACKUP HARDHAT Full Incremental Directory Single
File backup to microdisks.
Option list allows skipping of files by name with wildcards.
Catalog file provides display of backed up files by name with size, location and datestamp. Double data compression reduced disk space. Printer interface. Uses CLI or Workbench.
Multitasking provides background operation. $ 69.95 AMIGA DISK FILE ORGANIZER ADFO Having trouble finding that file somewhere in your stack of floppys? Can’t find all the copies of a particular file? ADFO maintains a database of directories and filenames from your collection of disks. Fast response inquiries return location and last update information. Printer interface. Uses CLI or Workbench. 512K ram and 2 drives recommended $ 59.95. AMIGA SPELLING CHECKER SPEL-IT Uses 40,000 word primary dictionary and optional second dictionary. Add Delete words to both dictionaries. Includes
plurals. Text wordcount totals. Uses CLI or Workbench, Mouse or keyboard. $ 49.95 Include $ 3.50 S&H Mastercard Visa Accepted Calif. Residents Add 61 2° o Sales Tax 7He4tC(UK *)ttdu4&UeA’ 3386 Floyd — Los Angeles, CA 90068 (213) 851-4868 Order phone 1 800 621-0849 Ext. 494 COLOR, Blk: CLS AREA(376,8): AREA STEP (64,0): AREA STEP (~20,16) AREA STEP (0, 24): AREA STEP (-24, 0): AREA STEP(0, — 24) COLOR Blu: AREAFILL AREA(360,8): AREA STEP(32,0): AREA STEP(0,12) AREA STEP(-16,0): AREA STEP(0,4)AREA STEP (8,0): AREA STEP(0,8) AREA STEP (-8,0): AREA STEP (0,4): AREA STEP (24,0): AREA STEP(0,12) AREA
STEP(-40,0): COLOR Gm: AREAFILL AREA (328,8): AREA STEP (24,0): AREA STEP (0,28) AREA STEP(24,0): AREA STEP(0,12): AREA STEP(-48,0) COLOR Rad: AREAFILL AREA(272,8): AREA STEP (64,0): AREA STEP (0,12) AREASTEP(-20,0): AREA STEP(0,28) AREA STEP(-24,0): AREA STEP(0, — 28) AREA STEP (-20,0): COLOR Cyn: AREAFILL AREA(264,8): AREA STEP (16,0): AREA STEP (24,40) AREA STEP(-16,0): AREA STEP(-8, — 12) AREA STEP(-16,0): AREA STEP(-8,12) AREA STEP (-16, 0): COLOR Mag: AREAFILL AREA(200,8): AREA STEP (56,0): AREA STEP (0,16) AREA STEP(-24,0): AREA STEP(0, — 4) AREA STEP(-8,0): AREA STEP(0,16) AREA STEP(8,0): AREA STEP(0, — 4)
+AREA STEP(24,0): AREA STEP(0,16) AREA STEP (-56,0): COLOR Yal: AREAFILL COLOR Blu, Bik: LOCATE 24,9 PRINT "Bryan D. Catlap 1239 Portnar Road Alexandria Virginia 22314";.
- AC* We bring the AMIGA to life.., A STEREO sound digitizer that
every Amiga owner should have!
• Includes superb editing software
• IFF compatible
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• "C" source code
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• Typeset manual
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• Free technical support Micro Search 9896 Southwest Freeway
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(713) 988-2818 Dealer Inquires Invited STARTING YOUR OWN AMIGA
RELATED BUSINESS "All the unmet needs of the Amiga users of
the world are waiting for someone to provide that product
which is too good to pass up."
By William Simpson The Amiga is a new computer, and following it's introduction new hardware and software products are coming to the market place.
Right now, the demand for those new products is high, but the larger, entrenched companies are being conservative and cautious about introducing their products until they feel sure that the economic environment is appropriate. In other words, the larger firms with reputations and capital to lose are waiting until they determine that Commodore and Amiga will economically survive.
The larger manufacturers want to be sure that enough Amigas have been sold to insure that there are sufficient users to buy their products. This hesitancy has been consistently exhibited with the introduction of every new computer system.
However, with the introduction of new systems, and the predictable dearth of hardware and software to support the new system; new, smaller entrepreneurs have filled that void and attempted to market their product while the demand was high and the competition minimal.
It is to those of you who recognize such an environment surrounding the Amiga, and are considering doing something about it, that this article is addressed.
It must be understood that information concerning starting a small business must, due to the variety of different laws and regulations in each city, county and state; be of a general nature. If after reading this article your fervor to do business has increased, look for books published in your area concerning the specific laws that apply to your intended business. If, after further research you still intend to go ahead, contact an attorney for direct, specific advice relating to your enterprise.
CHOOSING YOUR ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE The first major step in starting your own business is a consideration of the form the business will take. Do you want your business to be a sole proprietorship, a partnership, a corporation, or some other type of entity? Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Sole Proprietor A sole proprietorship is the simplest form of business organization. You are the business and the business is you. The major advantage is that you can own your own business without the paperwork and expense of forming a corporation. In addition, you are able to maintain complete control; rather than sharing it in a partnership or corporate setting.
The major disadvantage of a sole proprietorship is the impossibility of separating your assets from those of the business.
The debts of the business are your personal debts. If your business becomes liable because of some event; an injury of a customer, etc.; you personally become liable as well.
The sole proprietorship also exhibits the least flexibility in raising capital. You cannot sell an ownership interest to someone else and your ability to borrow money depends on your personal financial condition.
Partnership Another available option is the partnership. There are two basic types of partners; general partners and limited partners. A partnership may be made up of any number of either type of partners, however, there must be at least one general partner and one other partner, limited or general.
In a limited partnership, the limited partners have liability only to the extent of their investment. However, a limited partner can lose his limited liability if he or she takes part in the control or decision making responsibilities of the business. Control is maintained by the one or more general partners. Changes in the number of limited partners is not as disruptive as the death or retirement of a general partner.
Whether in the form of a limited or regular partnership; the primary advantage of either type of partnership is its flexibility. Partners can make any type of arrangement they like as to the responsibilities and duties of each partner; so long as the arrangementis not illegal.
There is no requirement, as in a corporation, that ownership interests in capital and profits be equal to the investment made by each. Also, the ability to raise capital is greater than in a sole proprietorship; though not as great as in a corporation.
The primary disadvantage of a partnership is that it is not considered a separate legal entity. That is, the general partners are personally responsible for the debts and liabilities of the business, much as a sole proprietor.
Corporation The third primary form of business organization is the corporation.
A corporation, if formed and maintained correctly, is considered a separate legal entity from those who own or manage it. Most of the characteristics of a corporation stem from its status as a C“Great over-ups. M Protect your investment Jf Jk uuith opoque vinyl covers.
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Portland, OR 97219 separate entity. They include limited liability, perpetual existence, free transferability of ownership shares, and the corporation's ability to own property and bring and defend lawsuits in its own name.
The management of a corporation is divided into three parts; shareholders, directors, and officers. In similar corporations, it is possible for the same individuals to function in all three capacities.
However, in order to maintain the corporation's existence separate from those who earn it, it is impositive that the duties and responsibilities of each of the three capacities be performed strictly according to law. If the rules are not strictly followed, the separate existence of the corporation may be destroyed and the shareholders, directors or officers may be held personnally responsible for the debts or liabilities of the corporation.
Thus, the. Most obvious benefit of the corporation status can be lost through failure to run the corporation as a corporation.
Concerning the tax aspects of choosing a corporate form of business organization; it should be kept in mind that the tax laws are undergoing a major revision. Thus, it is essential that you obtain the advice of your tax lawyer or accountant to determine the effects of your prospective business decisions.
Generally, except for Subchapter S corporations, a corporation must pay tax on its net taxable income, and the shareholders must pay their tax on the corporation's net earnings that are distributed in the form of taxable dividends. In essence, double taxation.
The disadvantages of using the corporate structure include the inability to restrict the transfer of shares to outsiders. This is important if you do not want outsiders taking an ownership interest in your business.
Further, the tripartite management (shareholders, directors, and officers) required in order to maintain the corporate status may be too cumbersome for small businessmen.
The double taxation discussed above is obviously a disadvantage, however, when fringe benefits are considered, corporations enjoy distinct tax advantages over partnerships and sole proprietorships under the current tax laws.
Shareholders who are employed by the corporation can qualify as employees and are eligible for special insurance programs and other fringe benefits capable of creating advantageous tax results.
The specific form of corporation that is probably most advantageous to most of us is known as a subchapter S corporation.
The purpose of the S corporation is to maintain the limited liability of a corporation and the tax advantages of other forms of business; thus avoiding the double taxation usually found in a regular corporation.
The basic requirements are that the corporation have only one class of stock and a maximum of 35 shareholders; all of whom are individuals. Clearly, such requirements are typical of smaller, newly formed corporations.
’ The state governments create the rules concerning the
* requirements for formation of a corporation. Usually, the steps
required include the preparation of Articles of Incorporation,
which state the proposed name of the corporation along with a.
Statement of the purposes for which the corporation is formed.
’ Additionally, the Articles usually state the names and addresses ’ of the incorporators, the location of the principal office, the names j of the intended first shareholders, the type of capital stock issued j and maximum amount intended, and the capital required at the j time of incorporation.
J In addition to preparation of the Articles of Incorporation, it is necessary to reserve the corporation's name with the state so that no other business can take the name while your corporation is in the process of being formed. Lastly, the minutes of the first} meeting of the Board of Directors and the bylaws of the corporation must be created.
Depending on your city and state and the complexity of the documentation required, an attorney might charge from $ 500 to $ 1500 to create the required documentation arid take care of the necessary filings and fees.
There are several excellent books available on how to do your own incorporation. In the event you purchase one of those books, be sure it is an up to date edition; as the law tends to change on nearly a yearly basis.
There are other forms of business organizations available if neither the sole proprietorship, partnership, nor corporation meet your needs. They include limited partnership associations, joint ventures, business trusts, cooperatives and franchises. To obtain more information about these types of companies, consult an expert in your area.
OTHER NECESSARY STEPS Business Licenses After you decide on the appropriate form of business, there are several other steps you will want to consider.
First, business licenses and permits are required by most local governments; primarily the city and county although some businesses require state and even federal licenses.
Fictitious Business Name If you intend to name your business someting other than your real name, you will be required to file a Fictitious Name Statement with the county you intend to do business. Such a filing prevents any other businesses from using your business name.
In addition to the filing statement, you will also be required to publish the Fictitious Name Statement in a newspaper. Probably the county clerk in your area will be able to suggest newspapers that are permitted to publish your statement.
Also, it is necessary to renew your statement on a periodic basis, usually every five years.
Sales Tax If your state has a sales tax, you will be required to collect the tax from your customers and pay it to the state. Depending on the volume of business that you do, you will be required to prepare tax returns on a monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, or annual basis.
You will also be issued a resale permit giving you the right to purchase goods for resale without paying the sales tax to your supplier. Only if you intend to resell your items as part of your regular business, can they be purchased in this manner.
Therefore, it is illegal to purchase items for personal use by this method.
Federal Identification Number As you prepare your taxes and apply for licenses, you will identify yourself either by using you Social Security Number or by a Federal Employer Identification Number. If your business is a sole proprietorship, the Social Security Number will be sufficient until you start hiring employees.
When you hire your first employee, you will be required to apply for a Federal Employer Identification Number. This is done by handing in form SS-4 to the IRS. Once you have been issued a number you will be required by IRS to prepare payroll tax returns whether you have employees or not. Partnerships and corporations must have the ID number from either the state or the federal government whether they have employees or not.
Interstate Commerce Any business engaged in interstate commerce must obtain a federal license for that purpose. For more information contact the Federal Trade Commission, Washington, D.C. 20508.
Turbo Screendump fy) Htwt & JA«vi (jojtwfire THE Professional Full-Featured screen printer for the AMIGA that produces graphics printouts from lxl inches to 10 x 10 FEET with any standard Amiga compatible printer.
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many of you are probably considering forming a company to
market that new program you have created, a brief introduction
to the copyright protection of software is also in order.
The current federal statutes state that a copyright extends to works that have been fixed in any tangible means of expression from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.
A computer code, whether in the form of object code or source code is a "literary work" as that term is described in the Copyright Program. Therefore, it is protected from unauthorized copying of either its object or source code version. Also, a program that has been "fixed" in a ROM Chip may also be copyrighted.
Patents Patents, on the other hand, according to the federal statutes, are issued for a new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter. The courts have held that the instructions or formula contained in a computer program can be patented if the program is part of an otherwise patentable process, but only as part of that process.
Laws of nature, natural phenomena, and abstract ideas may not be patented. Therefore, an algorithm, which the courts have held as a law of nature, cannot be patented.
Do you know where your bugs are?
This C programmer is finding his bugs the hard way...one at a time.
That's why it's taking so long. But there's an easier way. Use Amiga-Lint 2.00 Amiga-Lint analyzes your C programs (one or many modules) and uncovers glitches, bugs, quirks, and inconsistencies. It will catch subtle errors before they catch you. By examining multiple modules, Amiga-Lint enjoys a perspective your compiler does not have.
— Indirect files automate testing.
— NEW: ANSI C extensions (enum, prototypes, void, defined,
pragma) and many additional checks.
— Full K&R C
- Use Amiga-Lint to find: inconsistent declarations
argument parameter mismatches uninitialized variables
unaccessed variables unreferenced variables suspicious macros
indentation irregularities function inconsistencies unusual
expressions... MUCH MUCH MORE
• User-modifiable libraiy-description files for the Aztec ana
Lattice C compilers.
— All warning and informational messages may be turned off
— Use it to check existing programs, novice programs, programs
about to be exported or imported, as a preliminary to
compilation, or prior to scaling up to a larger memory model.
— All one pass with an integrated pre-processor so it’s very fast
• Has numerous options and informational messages.
• It will use all the memory available.
— PRICE: $ 98.00 MC. VISA, COD (Includes shipping and handling
within US) PA residents add 6% sales tax. Outside USA add
$ 15.00. Educational and quantity discounts available.
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(215) 584-4261 STEPS TO COPYRIGHTING To obtain the forms
necessary to copyright your software, write to: Information
and Publication Section, Copyright Office, Library of
Congress, Washington, D.C., 20559. They will send the forms
and more detailed information free of charge.
In most instances, a lawsuit for copyright infringement cannot be started unless the copyright has been registered with the Copyright Office. Therefore, registration is the primary step that must be;taken in order to insure protection for your creation.
To register your copyright claim, you must submit an application along with the required registration fee and copies of your work to the Copyright Office. Your claim will then be registered and a certificate of registration will be issued if it is determined that the material you deposited is copyrightable. The current fee is $ 10.00, although you should request the current fee schedule when requesting the appropriate forms.
The effective date of copyright registration is the date on which the application, deposit and fee were received in the Copyright Office. After the registration process is complete, your copyright of the work continues for your life plus 50 years.
This applies whether your creation is published or not. However, a notice of copyright must be placed on all publicly distributed copies of your copyrighted software. The copyright notice consists of three separate parts:
1. The designation for "copyright" by either:
a. The letter "C” contained within a circle;
b. The full word "copyright";
c. Ortho abbreviation "copr.".
2. The year of the first publication of the software.
3. The identity of the copyright owner.
Hopefully, this brief survey of the considerations necessary to forming your new business has been helpful and useful in stimulating you to learn more about the complex but rewarding world of business.
All the unmet needs of the Amiga users of the world are waiting for someone to provide that product which is too good to pass up. Maybe that product is yours!
require you to defend your business usage of the computer."
By James W. Kummer The Amiga Computer can be a very powerful tool for your business. With the programs now and soon to become available, you can prepare presentations, lay-up advertising copy, track your inventory with a spread sheet, and so on. But what about those games? Even on the computer you use for your business, you amy be tempted to purchase a game or two, for the spectacular graphics and animation that the Amiga is capable of producing.
When you file your next income tax return, your Uncle Sam may require you to defend your business usage of the computer. The Internal Revenue Sen ice will expect to see a log of the use of your business computer. This should be a record of who used it, for what purpose, and for what period of time.
You say you have already started your log? You keep a notebook, or a calendar pad right beside the computer? Good, then, you are the conscientious computer user who will have no problems with the IRS. You also are probably aware of the pain in the neck that keeping such a written log can be.
Why not let your computer, that work-saving marvel, keep your log for you? Your Amiga automatically executes a startup-sequence (that's the name of the file, by the way) every time you turn it on or re-boot (by simultaneously depressing the 'CTRL' key and both 'Amiga' keys). We will show you how to make this startup- sequence procedure work for you, and to make the entries into a usage log.
Within the directory 's' of your 'workbench' disk, there is the file 'startup-sequence'. This file prompts the user to set the time with the 'preferences' feature. While you can set time with preferences, it is a little cumbersome — and until now, you may have seen no reason to even bother setting the time.
With a minor modification to the 'startup-sequence' file, you don't have to go to 'preferences' to set the time, and further the computer will allow you to enter the name of the user and the purpose of this session of computer usage.
The computer will build a record file for you, recording the name of the user and the business pleasure usage category of this session of operation. Forget your log sheets, the notebook sitting beside the computer. Just respond to a few simple prompts and procedures, and your purpose of employing the computer will be entered into a database forfuture reference.
Future reference? What good does the information do you if it sits in your computer, in memory or on disk? Very little, unless you can extract the data, and prepare a summary of the needed information. Fair enough! We'll give you a program that will prepare such a summary.
First for the file 'startup-sequence'. The file 's startup-sequence' on your workbench disk must be changed, so that it will better serve your needs to keep track of the computer usage statistics.
Use an editor, such as 'ED', to modify your 's startup-sequence' file to look like the following: DATE TO RftM: timal ECHO "Terminate next two entry-lines with CTRL- " ECHO " ” ECHO "Enter 'date1, (dd-mxum-yy) and time (hh: mm)n EXECUTE * DATE TO RAM: time2 ECHO "Enter name, 1 and usage category".
COPY * TO RAM: time3 COPY SYS: s usage to RAM: time4 JOIN RAM: time 4 RAM: timel RAM: time 3 RAM: time 2 AS SYS: s usage DELETE RAM: time? QUIET ECHO " " LoadWb; ENDCLI NIL: This is your 'startup-sequence' file. Under its control, your Amiga prompts you to enter 'date', including day, month, year, hour and minute. Note that you must enter the word 'date' before entering date and time, and terminate the entry with a 'CTRL-V. The month entry is the first three letters of the month. Day, month and year are separated dashes, and a colon separates hour (24-hour clock time) from minute.
Next you are asked to enter the user name (nickname, initials, or whatever you might choose to employ to identify your users) and a characterization of the purpose of this session of usage.
Terminate this entry line likewise with a 'CTRL-V. The name of the file that 'startup-sequence' stores this information in is (surprise!)
'usage' within the 's' directory. Note that, on the line containing name and purpose, a double dash must be supplied to separate these two fields.
Remember, when providing the 'CTRL-V sequence, you first depress the 'CTRL' key, hold it down, depress the V and release both of them immediately. Dont worry if you accidently hit the 'return' key instead of the 'CTRL-V. It is such a force of habit, to poke that 'return' key when you reach the end of a line or input sequence. If you do, you haven't hurt anything at all. Until you hit the 'CTRL-Y key sequence, your computer will just sit there and stare at you. The worst result of hitting the 'return' key is that you may get an unwanted blank line in your 'usage' file.
And speaking of the 'usage' file, the first time you employ the 'startup-sequence' above, you will get an error message, because the file 'usage' does not yet exist. But in the process, the file 'usage' does get created, as an empty file. When you get this error message, your CLI prompt appears, just reboot and repeat the sequence. Now your usage file will be present and updated properly.
Note that the last line of the listed 's startup-sequence' file has a in the first column. If you delete the semicolon, then, on completion of the startup-sequence, your CLI window will be terminated, and you will see nothing but the workbench options.
If you have no use for the CLI window, then you may wish to delete the semicolon to bring you straight to the workbench environment.
After completion of its logging operation, you are left in a CLI. If that's where you want to be, greatl Otherwise, there are at least two ways you can get to where you want to be. First, you could type 'ENDCLI'. This will kill your CLI window and take you to the workbench. Or, you could just grab the bottom of the CLI window, shrink it up toward the top of the screen, and then move the shrunken CLI window down to the bottom of the screen.
Now, you can select any of the workbench options, and later come back to the CLI window.
Why would you want to come back to the CLI window? Well, for one reason, to terminate this usage session. The system has to be told that this session is over, so that the end-time can be entered into the 's usage' file. To do this, employ the 'logout' command file. Using the 'ED' editor, enter text into the file named 'logout' on your dfO: workbench as follows: DATE TO RAM: timel COPY SYS: s usage to RAM: time4 JOIM. RAM: tlme4 RAM: timel AS SYS: s usage DELETE HAM: time? QUIET ENDCLI NIL: The manner in which you invoke this file is, in a CLI window, type 'execute logout'. What 'logout' does is to
enter another record of 'date time' into the 's usage' file. This tabulates the termination of this session of previously stated purpose. It allows you to turn off the computer, or to begin another session for a different user, for a different purpose.
The following is a sample listing of the file 's usage': Sunday 2-Feb-8617:56:20 jim prog-dev Sunday 2-Feb-8617:56:0 Sunday 2-Feb-8618:8:35 Sunday 2-Feb-8618:9:43 BILL prog-dev Sunday 2-Feb-8618:11:0 Sunday 2-Feb-8618:14:42 Sunday 2-Feb-8618:16:5 Sunday 2-Feb-8618:16:20 jim prog-dev Sunday 2-Feb-8618:16:34 Sunday 2-Feb-8618:18:22 Sunday 2-Feb-8618:19:42 Sunday 2-Feb-8618:21:53 jim games Sunday 2-Feb-8618:22: ll Sunday 2-Feb-8618:40:59 Sunday 2-Feb-8618:40:55 jim prog-dev Monday 3-Feb-8620:8:0 Monday 3-Feb-8620:51:43 jim prog-dev Tuesday 4-Feb-8620:8:0 Tuesday 4-Feb-8620:48:55
Tuesday 4-Feb-8620:49:15 jim prog-dev Sunday 2-Feb-8613:31:0 Sunday 2-Feb-8615:14:27 Sunday 2-Feb-8615:14:47 tom prog-dev Tuesday ll-Feb-8605:6:0 Tuesday ll-Feb-8605:16:6 Tuesday ll-Feb-8605:16:33 BILL games Tuesday ll-Feb-8606:10:0 Tuesday ll-Feb-8606:14:6 Tuesday ll-Feb-8606:14:27 jim prog-dev Friday 14-Feb-8608:32:0 Friday 14-Feb-8616:7:44 Friday 14-Feb-8616:8:4 jim prog-dev Friday 14-Feb-8619:19:0 Friday 14-Feb-8619:27:13 Friday 14-Feb-8619:27:34 tom games Saturday 15-Feb-8615:9:0 Saturday 15-Feb-8615:50:46 Saturday 15-Feb-8615:51:9 jim prog-dev Sunday 16-Feb-8616:6:0 Sunday
16-Feb-8616:57:34 jim prog-dev Wednesday 19-Feb-8620:4:0 Wednesday 19-Feb-8621:28:18 Wednesday 19-Feb-8621:28:40 jim prog-dev Friday 21-Feb-8617:31:0 Friday 21-Feb-8620:13:2 Friday 21-Feb-8620:13:24 jim prog-dev Saturday 22-Feb-8616:49:0 Saturday 22-Feb-8617:52:31 Saturday 22-Feb-8617:52:52 jim prog-dev Sunday 23-Feb-8609:33:0 Sunday 23-Feb-8611:23:26 Sunday 23-Feb-8611:23:47 jim prog-dev Sunday 23-Feb-8613:55:0 Note that the time appears several times between user purpose lines. This is intentional, to accommodate the eventuality that you or the other users of your Amiga may forget
to execute the 'logout' function at the end of their usage session. Even if they do, a time is- entered into the 'usage' file the next, time the computer is turned on, and that time is approximately the time that it was last turned off.
Why, then, should you use the 'logout' feature? First, to be sure that your time-of-completion is entered — you may finish your session, but not turn off the computer right away. Second, you may wish to immediately start another session, for a different usage purpose, or for a different user. To do this, you can either 're-boot' with the 'CTRL' and both Amiga keys, or you can simply type in from a CLI window the command 'execute s startup- sequence'. Either way, the new user purpose will be entered into your 's usage' file.
Now, when it comes time to produce a tabular log of usage for the IRS, you can use the following program, in AmigaBASIC, to produce a readable summary: USAGE TABULATION PROGRAM LISTING — I by James W. Rummer NUMU-20: NUMP«18 DIM USER (NUMU), PURPOSE (NUMP), STATS (NUMU, NUMP), SUMP (NUMP), SUMU (NU MU) DIM SHARED MO$ (12) GAP — "- OPEN "I", 1,"DFO: S USAGE" LPRINT "USAGE TABULATION AS OF ";DATB$ LPRINT FOR 1-1 TO NUMU: USER$ (I) «"» SUMU (I) -0: FOR J-l TO NUMP: STATS(I, J)-0: NEXT J: NEXT I FOR J-l TO NUMP: SUMP«0: PURPOSE — "": NEXT J DATA JAN, FEB, MAR, APR, MAY, JUN, JUL,
* Dazzling designs grow on your screen.
* Teaches math: Makes functions visual.
* Edit pictures with your paint program.
* Color Displays.* Wallpaper for the Mind.
* Simple function entry.* 3-D Displays.
* Color cycling for apparent motion.
* Fast expression compiler.
* 3-D rotations, reflections, translations, zooms, coordinate
changes.* Functions to calculate intersections, orthogonals,
lengths and angles.* Uses Fast Floating Point Library.
* Can be called from assembler or C or BASIC.
$ Call Distributed by Seven Seas Software
P. O.B. 411 Port Townsend WA.
98368 Call (206) 385-3771 IP}f Specializing in publishing, H ports, custom software.
B n on 0 t 1
RIGHT$ (B$,1)Om *' THEN UEND LB«®LB-1: B$ «LEFT$ (B$, LB): GOTO
JIM 18.97111 .9880214 BILL .0616684 3.21171E-03 TOM
.3133335 .2907215 BILL 6.833363B-02 6.340227E-02 TOM
.6961117 .6458762 SUB UNDATE (T$, DAY, HOUR, LT) STATIC
Il INSTR(T$, m ”): LT-LT-I1+1: T$ «RIGHT$ (T$, LT) 11-INSTR(T$,
DAY-VAL(MID$ (T$ r11-2,2)) MON$ aAdD$ (T$, 11+1,3) POR 1*1 TO 12
DAY-DAY+HONTH 11«INSTR(T$ M: M) HOUR VAL (MID$ (T$, 11-2,2))
12-INSTR(11+1, T$,":") I-I2-I1-1 HINaVAL(MED$ (T$,11+1,1))
.9837521 GAMES .3133335 .016248 PURPOSE SUMMARY FOR USER:
BILL PROG-DEV .0616684 .4743649 GAMES 6.833363E-02
.1947301 GAMES .6961117 .8052699 The above program, written
in AmigaBASIC, converts all input user names and purposes to
uppercase. Thus your computer users do not have to concern
themselves whether the information that they enter is upper or
lower case. All user names and purposes will be printed in all
upper case. The program assumes that each session will not last
longer than 24 hours — a reasonable assumption! After
correcting for crossing over month and year boundaries, if the
time-difference is still negative, or still exceeds 24 hours,
then the program assumes that some error has occurred, such as
a power failure wiping out your time in the middle of a
session. To handle that eventuality, the program assumes in
those cases a simple '1 -hour* of usage.
The output of the usage summary program begins with a restatement of the usage history — one line for each session.
Next, it presents a summary of usage by purpose, then by user.
Finally, the "grand tally" usage statistics are presented, for each user, and for each purpose.
In the three summary tabulations, the next-to-last number is the hours of use, and the last number is the fractional portion for this individual purpose. The following is a sample output of the program. It was produced from the sample 's usage' input file shown above. Note that, in the grand tally results, of all the users, JIM was the user 95.1% of the time. And, of all the purposes, PROG-DEV was the selected purpose 94.7% of the time.
USAGE TABULATION AS OF 02-24-1966 JIM PROG-DEV 2-F4D-8617:56:0 2-F«b-8618:8:35 .2097225 BILL PROG-DEV 2-F«b-8618: ll:0 2-F«b-8618:14:42 .0616684 JIM PROG-DEV 2-F«b-8618:16:34 2-F«b-8618:18:22 2.9998781-02 JIM GAMES 2-7«b-8618:22: ll 2-F«b-8618:40:59 .3133335 JIM PROG-DEV 3-Peb-8620:8:0 3-P«b-8620:51:43 .728611 JIM PROG-DEV 4-F«b-8620:8:0 4-F«b-8620:48:55 .6819439 JIM PROG-DEV 2-P«b-8613:31:0 2-P«b-8615:14:27 1.724167 TOM PROG-DEV ll-F«b-8605:6:0 U-F«b-8605:16:6 .1683335 BILL GAMES ll-F«b-8606:10:0 ll-F«b-8606:14:6 6.8333631-02 JIM
PROG-DEV 14-F«b-8608:32:0 14-F«b-8616:7:44 7.595555 JIM PROG-DEV 14-F4b-8619:19:0 14-F4b-8619:27:13 .1369438 TON GAMES 15-F4b-8615:9:0 15-F«b-8615:50:46 .6961117 JIM PROG-DEV 16-F«b-8616:6:0 16-F4b-8616:57:34 .8594437 JIM PROG-DEV 19-F«b-8620:4:0 19-F«b-8621:28:18 1.404999 JIM PROG-DEV 21-F«b-8617:31:0 21-F«b-8620:13:2 2.700556 JIM PROG-DEV 22-F«b-8616:49:0 22-F«b-8617:52:31 1.058611 JIM PROG-DEV 23-F«b-8609:33:0 23-F«b-8611:23:26 1.840555 GRAMA SALLY USAGE STATISTICS JIM 19.28444 .9509614 Bill .130002 6.410708E-03 TOM
.8644452 4.262784E-02 PROG-DEV 19.20111 .9468522 GAMES 1.077779 5.314783E-02 The program is sized for a limit of 20 users and 18 purposes. If you need more than that, you can change the NUMU and NUMP values in the program. Additionally, if you need to accommodate more than 20 users on your computer, you may need to consider a large mainframe!
In order to avoid a loss of your records in case a disk should fail, you need to periodically back-up your usage file. Copy it to another floppy. And, whether you collect your usage statistics annually or quarterly, you need to delete your usage file so that the usage statistics can begin to accumulate again. Keep a copy, just in case, so that you can regenerate the summary statistics.
If, in the unfortunate instance that you should lose your tabulation, or your usage file, then you may need to change the name of the file in the ’OPEN "I" 1..." statement to whatever name you have given to the copy of the usage log.
Bear in mind that using a computer to record your usage statistics is by no means a fool-proof way to collect these data. Anyone can cheat the system, and it doesn't matter if the computer or a 3-ring spiral notebook is the vehicle of the untruth. But the scheme presented in this article makes it harder to forget to log your usage, and it does discourage individuals who want to defeat or take advantage of the system.
• AC* Extra!
U. S.A. $ 2.00 Canada $ 2.95 Micro-Systems Software Bigger and
Better for the Amiga
memberships! Patient records! Client files! Video tape
libraries! Phone call logs! Nearly anything that needs to be
filed, sorted or calculated is a candidate for Organize!
In seconds, Organize! Can scan your files, locate information, and display or print in the format you want. Use it to print form letters with the Mailmerge function of Scribble!. Or calculate fields and do statistical analyses of your files with many of the same built-in math functions from Analyze!.
Easily design input forms and output reports with the mouse and pull-down menus..Just as simply — store, sort, review and print. The file size is limited only by disk space and the format is compatible with the industry standard dbase format.
End your paper shuffle! Get Organize! Today.
• Pulldown menu interface (mouse- driven).
• Large spreadsheets with efficient memory usage.
• Dedicated function keys for common commands.
• Business Graphics; print bar, stacked bar, pie graphs in 2 or
3-D; line, X-Y, area graphs; all in 4 or 8 colors; data from
spreadsheets; IFF format; view up to 4 graphs at same time;
instantly redraw graphs when data changes; ranges, labels,
titles, legends, rotation, scaling; fast and effective!
• Command Macros; save keystrokes; create templates.
• Sorting; rearrange row or column data quickly.
• File Icons; access spreadsheets via icons or names.
NEW PRICE Only $ 149.”
• Pulldown menu interface (mouse-driven)
• Multiple windows; edit cut & paste 4 documents on screen.
• Preview; see final form on screen before printing.
• Spellcheck; expandable 40,000 word • Expanded Memory Support;
for larger dictionary; check word, all words on documents.
Screen, or entire document; alternative • More Amiga Keys; menu commands spellings shown. From keyboard or mouse.
• Mailmerge; print form letters, mailing • More Flexibility;
Wordstar™ commands; labels; create data file with Scribble! Or
scrolling while cut paste; improved file Organize! Operations.
• File Icons; access documents via icons or Still Ofllv $ 99.95
names; copy documents by pulling * icons across workbench.
See your local dealer or call: Brown-Wash Publishing 1-800-451-0900 1-408-395-3838 (in California) 16795 Lark Ave., Suite 210, Los Gatos, CA 95030 Wordstar is a trademark of Micropro International. Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Amazing Computing's Amazing Directory of Amiga Sources and Resources Instant Music Reviewed by Steve Pietrowicz 45 MindWalker Reviewed by Richard Knepper 47 The Alegra Memory Board Reviewed by Rick Wirth 49 TxEd Reviewed by Jan and Cliff Kent 51 Amazing Directory A guide to the sources and resources 53 Amiga Developers A listing of Suppliers
and Developers 66 Public Domain A condensed listing of Amicus and Fred Fish PDS Disks 69 Read Write MS-DOS Disks on your Amiga SCI® O o D0S-2-D0S Transfers MS-DOS Files To and From AmigaDOS!
• Supports single and double sided 5.25" as well as 3.5" 720KB
• Converts ASCII file line-ending characters and provides
Wordstar compatability.
• Supports full directory path names, with wild cards in file
• Allows selection of MS-DOS and AmigaDOS subdirectory and
displays sorted directory listing.
• Formats 3.5" and 5.25" MS-DOS diskettes.
• Provides duplicate file name detection with query replace
• Provides TYPE and DELETE commands.
• Permits renaming of files where file name restrictions occur.
• Remains resident to permit AmigaDOS disk swapping.
Requires standard Amiga with either an external 5.25" or 3.5" disk drive.
This product Is available for immediate shipment. Only $ 55.00 plus $ 3.00 shipping and handling. CA residents add sales tax. Telephone orders welcome. Dealer inquiries invited.
Central Coast Software™ 268 Bowie Drive, Los Osos, CA 93402 • 805 528-4906 Trademarks: Amiga. AmigaDOS. Transformer. Commodore-Amiga, Inc.: PC-D0S. IBM: MS-DOS.
Microsoft: 00S-2-00S. Central Coast Software.
Mouse Driven Classic games software you can drive with your mouse! But, you don't need a license
- just an AMIGA and: TM.
"Games Gallery I, II, and III.
Each of these packages contain exciting: Space, Gambling, Sports Games, and Mind Teasers.
Each provides a standard series of features and options for
• Speech Graphics • Menus
• Color *Help ‘Voice and *Mouse Control!
Kickstart 1.1 & 512K memory required. $ 29.95 + $ 3.00 shipping & handling.
(713) 488-2144 I MERIDIAN I SOFTWARE Usi!
T elephone orders ¦ wc- welcome P.O. Box 890408 Visa Mastercard Amex Houston, TX. 77289-0408 AMIGA is a trademark of Commodore-Amlga, Inc. ¦¦ ¦ Power t Play for "the AMIGA.
Save and load IFF note and sample files
• Quantize to any multiple of MIDI clock beats!
• “Match” mode eases learning of a song
• Complete MIDI sequence and song Sound Digitizer Pro 'MIDI
Studio editing
• Route, merge, split, or bounce any track to any other.
With the SoundScape Sound Digitizer, any sound may be sampled and modified by the Amiga, including voice. IFF File compatibility enables these samples to be used as musical instruments, sound effects, or speech with any IFF compatible music The most powerful performance and recording software on any computer. The recording studio-like environment provides complete facilities for routing, recording, editing, transposition and playback of any musical performance. As new modules are introduced, you can “install" them at any time. Music can be performed by the internal sampled sound
synthesizer, or with any external MIDI equipment. Record from the QWERTY keyboard or any external MIDI source, including keyboards, guitar and pitch followers. Synchronize with, or provide MIDI clock information, including MIDI Song Pointers. The complete flexibility of the system makes your imagination the only limit to its power.
Or animation system.
• High quality
• Highest possible fidelity from the MIDI Interface Amiga
• Stereo or mono
• Variable sample rates
• Mike and line inputs
• Digitally controlled volume on each channel
• IFF Sample File compatible
• Software included for sampling, editing, and MIDI performance
• Completely compatible with the standard Amiga MIDI interface
• MIDI In, Out, and Thru connectors
• Plugs into the serial port Number of notes and tracks deter
mined by available memory MIDI patch panel links program
modules Install new modules at any time functions Available
From Your AMIGA Dealer.
Up to 16 internal instruments at one time $ 149.00 SoundScape Pro MIDI Studio Complete sample system with editing, looping, ADSR envelopes, velocity sensitivity, and pitchbend.
$ 49.00 AMIGA MIDI Interface SoundScape Audio Digitizer $ 99.00 Amiga is a trade mark of Commodore Business Machine imiciicf Prices and availability subject to change without notio @®i?1P®[?©$ S®oo...the professional software source!!
P. O. Box 60238 Sta. A, Palo Alto, CA 94306 (408) 741-0117
Amazing Reviews... Instant Music..JFrom a Non-Musician's
Point of View "Can this program really let me play music that
sounds as if I know what Ym doing?"
Reviwed by Stephen Pietrowicz I'm the first person to admit that my musical ability is about zero. I played a couple of different instruments when I was younger, and have forgotten how to play any kind of music at all. When I was considering getting an Amiga, I knew that it would help me regain some kind of musical ability, even if it was just showing off stereo music programs. I was a little more than interested when I saw Instant Music by Electronic Arts. Can this program really let me play music that sounds as if I know what I'm doing?
Instant Music allows for four different instruments to play at a time.
When the program starts, it is in "mouse jam" mode. "Mouse Jamming" lets you control one of the instruments that is playing by moving the mouse. The instrument that you control follows the original path that the instrument was intended to, but lets you change the tone of the instrument. By pressing the left mouse button and moving the mouse up and down, you can really make it sound like you know what you're doing.
There are a large variety of songs that are included in the package. Categories include Jazz Blues, Folk, Classical, and Rock. There are so many songs that you can mouse jam the day away, but what about creating yourown songs?
To assist you in creating your own music are three libraries of instruments that are included on the disk. Instruments include drums, piano, harmonica, guitar, and electric bass. You can also use instruments that are not included on the Instant Music disk.
(Deluxe Video has instruments on it that aren't found in Instant Music).
Harv Laser (CBM'HARV, the chairman of People Link's Commodore Club) has created a library of new instruments for Instant Music. Dan James, a.k.a DJJAMES, a very active member of PeopleLink, wrote a conversion program that takes the sounds on the disk that many dealers had in the early days of the Amiga and converts them to Instant Music format.
Laser converted all of the sounds, and put them into two large archives. Alarms, pigs oinking, horse whinnies, and a variety of strange noises can now be included into your music. I'm not too sure how I can incorporate sounds like that into a song, but it is a very interesting effect. The archives containing these sounds can be found on People Link in section 13 of Commodore Club.
The manual included with the software was a bit confusing. It started off easily enough, with examples of how to load and save songs, and quickly progressed to techniques used in creating your own songs. Copying, erasing, and pasting notes is very straight forward. The rhythm guides, bass line, chords, and melody sections left me a bit confused. Not having an extensive background in music, how am I supposed to know how to make the song sound the way I want it to sound?
As I said, the editing features of the program are quite good. That will make it much easier for me to try to program my own music.
The "QuickDraw" mode of the program makes it easy to enter large amounts of notes, and by using the "Scale Ruler", you can even transcribe music. Transcribing music is more difficult in Instant Music than in other music programs since a musical staff is not displayed to help you place notes.
As I experiment more and more with the program, laying down bass lines, changing the songs supplied with it, and trying to transcribe music, I'm getting more used to it. Instant Music does require that you spend a lot of time with it if you're a beginner trying to create new songs, but at the same time lets you have a lot of fun trying.
• AC* ZING! Is a utility software package that gives YOU the
power to access your AMIGA! You no longer have to resort to
typing cryptic commands through CLI ZING! Uses Intuition which
provides you with easy window, icon, menu, and mouse controlled
Start flying through your system while copying, editing, deleting, renaming, sorting, searching and organizing files and programs. You can save screens to standard IFF files or the printer, monitor and control running tasks, and interface with other software applications.
ZING! Offers these and hundreds of other capabilities without preventing you from running other applications simultaneously. ZING! Uses Intuition the way it should be used!
Order ZING! And transform your mild mannered CLI into the fastest and most powerful computer interface ever conceived! It’s available now for the special introductory price of $ 79.95 plus $ 3.00 for shipping and handling.
MERIDIAN™ SOFTWARE, v INC. (713) 488-2144
P. O. Box 890408 Credit cards and Houston, TX 77289-0408 dealer
inquiries welcome.
AMIGA is a registered trademark of Commodore-AMIGA, Inc. Workbench and Intuition are trademarks of Commodore-AMIGA. Inc. ZING! Is a trademark of Meridian Software. Inc. Amazing Reviews... MIND WALKER "Your objective is to take an introspective journey and piece together the fragments of your personality, thus regaining your sanity. " Reviewed by Richard Knepper Mind Walker, a game from Commodore-Amiga and Synapse Software, represents the best of the second generation software now becoming available for the Amiga. Mind Walker is not just a port of a program written for another computer, but
rather one that was written to take advantage of the power of the Amiga. The result is a program that has an "Amiga feel" to it.
Mind Walker is an arcade and strategy game. Mastering it requires not only quick reflexes, but also good planning. This combination insures that MindWalker will provide entertainment long after the arcade portion of the game has been mastered.
The Game Play The premise of Mind Walker is nearly as complex as the game itself. You are a physics professor, and after years of study of minute particles and obscure formulae you seem to have gone insane. Your ego has split into four personalities; a human, a wizard, a sprigger (a spider-like humanoid), and a nymph. Your objective is to take an introspective journey and piece together the fragments of your personality, thus regaining your sanity.
Sounds easy enough — doesn't it?
The method by which you will accomplish this madness yields the actual game implementation. First, you must unlock a pathway to your brain by tracing a path of coherent thought through your mind. Once in the brain, you must collect the shards of your sanity. Finally, you must piece together these shards in your subconscious and regain your sanity.
Unlocking a passage to your brain is accomplished by tracing a path of coherent thought between a square of crystallized thought and the destination square. In order to keep things interesting there are a number of obstacles that must be overcome.
First, the terrain is jumbled, and the different terrain types require different personalities in order to be able to trace the path. Also, bad thoughts wander about your mind and try to zap you. But never fear, you are armed with your trusty fractal ray. Zap them before they zap you and you won't die.
Once you have successfully traced a path of coherent thought you must then travel to the brain to regain the shards of your sanity. You enter a tube and go through one of the green doors floating by. Inside the brain you find yourself in a maze of neurons. You must travel through this maze, being careful not to bump into the neurons, collect the shards, and make it back to the door. The problem is that there are nasty viruses floating about that are bent on your destruction. Your defense against them is the thought that you created in your mind. You can use your handy thought reflector to
deflect the thought into the viruses, zapping them.
After you have collected the shards of your sanity and returned from behind the green door (don't blame me, I just report this), you find yourself in the subconscious. Here you must piece together the shards of your sanity to form an inkblot. It is here that you find out how cruel the game designers were. You only have seven pieces, and fourty-two are needed to complete the puzzle — you must repeat the cycle five more times!
Additionally, the shards are all shaped the same, so there is no easy way to determine how they should fit into the puzzle. The inkblot keeps changing and it is possible to determine where the pieces should go by watching how the colors of your pieces change. This isn't easy when you only have a few pieces, so there is some help available. By performing a simple task and giving up some of your development bonus, Dr. Sigmund will place the piece for you. After all seven are placed you are transported back to the mind to repeat the entire process.
Although this explanation of the game-play may seem confusing, it is actually over-simplified. The game must be played to be understood and believed!
Product Specifics Mind Walker has just about everything one would want in an Amiga game. The graphics are some of the best yet on the Amiga, and have not been done at the expense of action. Movement of all pieces is smooth, and shadowing is used effectively to produce a stunning three dimensional effect. The music is the best and most appropriate yet produced for a computer or video game. It is an eerie soundtrack which takes full advantage of Amiga sound through the use of panning stereo.
Commodore-Amiga and Synapse Software apparently weren't satisfied with just producing a quality piece of software. They decided to create a quality product, with a good manual and professional package design. The manual is clear and concise, with lots of colorful graphics. It walks you through the basics of the game and also hints at some of the deadly things in store for you that haven't been mentioned in this article.
And put Microsmiths’ TxEd to use for you.
? FAST display updates — more than TWENTY TIMES as fast as “Ed”.
? Designed from the ground up to take advantage of the Amiga user interface.
? Multiple windows.
? Very easy to learn, use menus for online help.
? Simple, elegant set of commands.
? Alternate command keys shown in menus allow fast command entry for experienced users.
? Compact code works well with Amiga’s multi-tasking.
? The first Amiga directory requester that doesn’t make you wait.
? Allaround utility editorisgoodforprogrammers, andalso useful as a simple word processor. Great for use with terminal programs.
? Pronounced “Tex Ed” as in “Tex Ed, the Faster Editor in Silicon Gulch.” To order, send $ 39.95 in check or money order plus $ 2.50 postage and handling to: Microsmiths’ TxEd, P.O. Box 561, Cambridge, MA 02140. Tel.: (617) 354-1224 Mass. Residents add 5% sales tax. Amiga is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Designed by C. Heath.
Dealer inquiries invited.
Lest you think that Mind Walker is the best thing since sliced bread, I do think that the program has a few shortcomings. First and foremost, the game is multitasking, but it takes most of the memory. It does operate from Workbench, so it is possible that limited multitasking may be accomplished with a bit of ingenuity, but only expansion memory makes this option realistic.
The second problem that the program has is that it is too easy to quit the game. All one has to do is hit the close window box and it's ail over. It is easy to do this unintentionally because the box is located right next to the pause button.
The final problem that i have with the game is the intermission screens. They are poorly done, looking like something generated on an IBM. This lack of quality in an otherwise superior product cannot be excused.
Summary Gaming enthusiasts should consider Mind Walker a must buy. Its combination of sound and graphics should set the standard by which other games are judged.
Mind Walker requires a single disk drive and 256 K of memory. It is not copy protected. Hopefully Commodore-Amiga is setting a good trend here by not copy- protecting a game. It has been my experience that most software pirates are willing to purchase the really good products. Mind Walker is such a product and should be purchased by everyone. It is especially important that Amiga owners strongly support the creation of quality products through their purchases. This will not only insure the production of other such works, but also help solidify the future of the Amiga itself.
P. O. Box 561, Cambridge, MA 02140 Amazing Reviews... The Alegra
Memory Board "...the easiest, least obtrusive, and
lowest-priced memory expansion available for the Amiga today."
Reviewed by Rick Wirch The Alegra memory expansion board by Access Associates provides the easiest, least obtrusive, and lowest-priced memory expansion available for the Amiga today.
Although the Alegra board has a very low retail price among its competition, do not think that it is a cheap or badly-designed board. Access Associates has provided a well-designed memory expansion board for the Amiga that has quality equal to that of major manufacturers of expansion boards for the IBM PC.
The board has four layers, a clean design, and bypass capacitors for noise reduction. Finally, no wires or jumpers are present, so no mistakes or last minute changes were made in the board layout. It is a board that is as fast as is possible, another sign of good design.
Wait states Not all memory boards for the Amiga are of the "no wait state" design like this, some cause the processor to "wait" because the memory was not designed to be accessed at the maximum speed of the CPU.
To verify that the Alegra board is of a zero wait state design, I ran a public domain memory speed test. This program was far from perfect, and provided numbers with little intrinsic value. The results can be used in a relative manner, as a ratio, not as an absolute benchmark between boards.: The internal, normal Amiga memory performed in 29,400,330 microseconds, while the Alegra memory took 29,116,968 microseconds, for an increase of 283,362 microseconds, in favor of the Alegra board.
Thus, the Alegra memory was faster than the memory in the Amiga. This can be expected because sometimes the processor in the Amiga must wait for the custom chips when it uses the memory built into the Amiga. However, the custom chips cannot use the external memory so the processor should never have to wait to use it.
This same program was also used to test the speed of another memory expansion board, which I will leave unnamed. This memory board took 30,650,306 microseconds, so the difference between them was 1,533,338 microseconds, in favor of the Alegra board.
The results show, in a relative sense, that this expansion board is slower than the Amiga, so one would assume this board has wait states.
Once again, these figures are relative, and cannot be used to compare speed. The Alegra is faster than both the normal Amiga memory and the other board, while the other board is slower than the memory already in the Amiga. That is all that can be extrapolated from these figures — nothing more.
The Alegra board can be purchased in two forms, the Alegra and the Alegra E. The standard Alegra board can only carry 512K bytes of memory, using 256K bit chips. The Alegra E comes with 512K byte of RAM, with additional sockets for the new one megabit memory chips. When these new chips are installed, the Alegra E becomes a two megabyte memory expansion board.
Unfortunately, one megabit memory chips are still far from cost effective, when compared to current 256K chip prices. Chances are, it will be at least a year before they are equivalent in price to the same amount of memory in 256K bit memories. Of course, when the price comes down, it will cost at least $ 200 to upgrade to more memory.
Auto-configure Another important design feature of the Alegra board is its automatic configuration ability. With the pre-release version of AmigaDOS 1.2, the memory in the Alegra board is added to the system memory without human intervention.
Why is this important? Non-auto-configuring boards require a modification of the startup-sequence on each and every Workbench disk you own. This modification invokes a special program to add the expansion memory to the system memory.
Auto-config is important because you do not have to install commands in the startup-sequence on every bootable disk you possess. Another reason is compatibility. If a board for the Amiga autoconfigures, then the Amiga can position it in the system memory map so that it does not conflict with other expansion boards. Without auto-configuration, you cannot be certain that any two devices will work together, even if they work independantly.
With AmigaDOS 1.2, installation is a breeze, simply remove the expansion cover, insert the Alegra board on the side, and turn on your Amiga. Since AmigaDOS 1.2 allows you to use the RAM: disk from the WorkBench as an icon, and also allows you to add the RAM: disk to the command path for the CLI, the Alegra board works especially well with AmigaDOS 1.2. If you are still using AmigaDOS 1.1, you must add two commands to the startup-sequence on your WorkBench disk.
With a memory board, you can copy everything that AmigaDos needs from the Workbench disk into the RAM: disk, so you never have to see the "Please insert Workbench in any drive" requester again. Most of the programs you would use from your Workbench disk would only occupy about 40K of RAM disk memory.
Unfortunately, many programs that run in a 512K machine need that 40K and I cannot recommend doing this without a memory expansion.
Small size Externally, the Alegra board is very inconspicuous. It is only three fourths of an inch wide, the height of the Amiga, and roughly the same length as the external 3.5 inch disk drive. When attached, most people would even realize it is there. The case is a neutral beige that complements but does not perfectly match the Amiga's color, the external surface is a pebbled, flat finish that hides fingerprints.
My only objection with the Alegra board is its inability to pass the Amiga expansion port. If you buy the Alegra board, and plan to buy another expansion port device, that add-on must be a expansion bus pass-through, so that the Alegra board can remain the outermost add-on.
Obviously, if every manufacturer believes that someone else will be a bus pass-through, we will not be able to connect everything in the future.
Another objection is the lack of a battery backed clock, in either standard or optional form. It would have been a minimal increase in cost, but a greater feature, and it could have been done without increasing the size of the current board.
Therefore, if you are in the market for a low-cost, easy-to-install, and quality memory expansion to expand your Amiga, the Alegra board is for you. On the other hand, if you are looking for a memory expansion board with other capabilities, extensibility, and cost is no object, the Alegra board is probably not for you.
• AO i ¦i Financial Manager Easy, powerful and fast single-entry
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Marksman Technology Inc. Route 5, Box 221S Santa Fe, NM 87501 505-455-2681 (Inquiries) VISA wmBHS&b ¦1111 800-334-7792 (Orders) Bill ing Reviews... TxEd Version 1.3 "...a very good editor and an excellent value."
Reviewed by Jan and Cliff Kent TxEd is a programmer's text editor, intended primarily for the preparation of the ASCII text files used as input for a language compiler or an assembler. It is a very good editor and an excellent value. Although it is not sold as a word processor, TxEd can also serve well in that capacity for many users. This review describes version 1.3 of TxEd which includes several significant improvements over earlier versions.
We received our copy of TxEd by mail 5 business days after mailing the order. The $ 59.95 package includes a disk which is not copy-protected, and a 19 page manual that measures 51 2 by 71 2 inches. It is readable, complete, and clear but the small type is distracting when trying to find a specific reference to a command. However, since the pull-down menus are well- designed, we did not find ourselves referring to the manual very often. For a good laugh, be sure to read the Copyright Notice on paget.
You can start TxEd from the Workbench with a double click of its icon, or from the CLI using a conventional command line with options.
If you start the program from the CLI, two command line options are available. The -f option opens a borderless window that displays 23 lines of 80 characters per line, useful when editing program source from other environments. And you may add a file name to the command line to automatically load a file for editing.
Two of the functions on the RANDOM menu are available only if TxEd is started from the CLI. NEW CLI starts up afresh AmigaDOS CLI window allowing access to any AmigaDOS command without exiting TxEd. This is normally the fastest way to run a compiler or assembler during program development. MORE TxED starts up a new copy of TxEd. You can use the new copy to edit include files or to find an old piece of code that you need in a new program.
The text file to be edited is loaded into RAM for editing. Many editing functions are unusually fast as a result. The minimum text buffer size is 35k, but is increased automatically when loading larger files from disk.
All of TxEd's commands are available from the 5 pull down menus.
Most commands are duplicated on the keyboard by a combination of the right Amiga key and a printable character key. The keyboard commands are generally well-chosen and, with the menus available as HELP, we were both able to learn TxEd in a very short time.
The PROJECT menu contains commands that will clear the text buffer, open create text files, save the text buffer contents to disk files, and exit TxEd. No surprises here. The prompts are clear and disk accesses fast. If you try to exit TxEd without saving the edited version, a requester will question your intent. A welcome change from other Amiga programs is that you don't have to wait until the disk directory search has completed before entering a drawer or file name. If you know what you want, just click the DRAWER or FILE string gadget and start typing. TxEd will accept keyboard input
during the directory search. As a drawer fills with files this can become a big timesaver.
The EDIT menu commands allow you to mark a block, then either copy or cut to the Amiga clipboard device. Text from the clipboard device may also be inserted into the text buffer. Since the clipboard device is a system resource it is possible to import export text from to other programs running as independent tasks, including other copies of TxEd. Many complex editing functions that are possible, but potentially confusing, in earlier multi-window editors can be accomplished almost by instinct by starting several copies of TxEd, loading the needed files, and moving blocks between them via the
Amiga Clipboard. New in version 1.3 is the ability to print the contents of the clipboard in the background while you continue to edit in the TxEd window. As with most AmigaDOS functions the clipboard contents can also be "printed” to a disk file.
The EDIT menu also has commands to delete a line, delete from the cursor to the end of the line, and recall a deleted line. Some days this last function is very nice. The BACK SPACE key deletes as it moves the cursor left. The DEL key deletes the character under the cursor.
The edit cursor can be moved with the keyboard arrow keys, or by pointing with the mouse and clicking, or by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the cursor. If you drag the cursor to the top or bottom of the screen, the entire display will scroll. In addition, there are commands for moving forward and backward a word at a time, moving to the left or right end of the current line, moving to the top or bottom of the document, scrolling the display by half pages (14 lines), and jumping directly to any line by number.
As expected, the RETURN moves the cursor to the left margin and starts a new line. The ENTER key (on the numeric keypad) is slightly different. In addition to starting a new line, it auto-indents the cursor for structured code entry, or if the line above was a legal comment for C or the Amiga Assembler, it copies the appropriate comment introduction characters to the new line.
The most striking thing about the cursor movement commands is the display speed. This is the class of performance that we were looking for from the Amiga. Using half page scrolling you must be careful not to scroll right past the spot you were looking for.
The SEARCH menu has SEARCH, REPLACE, and REPEAT last search or replace. Switch gadgets allow you to search forward or backward, recognize or ignore case, and do global replace with or without individual prompts. Like TxEd's display functions, these are very fast. (SEARCH and REPLACE locate the designated string quickly enough to be disconcerting to an Amiga novice accustomed to Word Star. BEGINNING END of File seems to take about as long as BEGINNING END of Line, even when dealing with a 135k file.-Jan) The RANDOM menu has some nice extras, including control of display colors, numeric entry of
non-keyboard characters, a strip command (that removes carriage returns from non-Amiga text files), word wrap on off, paragraph reformat, the insert overstrike toggle, as well as the new CLI and more TxEd functions mentioned earlier.
Word wrap and paragraph reformat brings up the subject of using TxEd as an editor for word processing. When word wrap is on, TxED will move the correct characters down to the next line as expected. The line width used is the physical width of the window as set with the window sizing gadget. Paragraph reformat is equally simple. Text is reformatted as part of the same paragraph until a blank line or a line with leading blanks or tabs is found.
Again, the current window width determines the line length. Not fancy, but very fast.
Although TxEd has no sophisticated print formatting commands, the distribution disk includes the public domain program PROFF, a text formatter by Ozan Yetti of York University. PROFF is similar to FORMAT, ROSS, and SCRIPT. It reads a text file with format commands embedded in it and writes the formatted text to video, the printer, or to a second disk file. This combination of programs is not a simple, instinctive, what you see is what you get, word processor. But PROFF does have a very wide range of formatting commands, including page headers and footers, semi-automatic table of contents, and
a macro language that can be used to handle special cases. Also, having separate editor and print formatting programs running as separate tasks gives the very best kind of print spooling.
TxEd alone works well for simple letter writing. With TxEd and PROFF we would not hesitate to prepare a program’s manual, or a software review. This review was written and edited with TxEd, then formatted and printed with PROFF. It worked very well.
We do have some small complaints. The commands that move the cursor a word at a time place the cursor on the space between words rather than on the first letter of each word. This is seldom the right place, so another keystroke is required. Also, punctuation is ignored in the move by word. As a result, move by word can't be used to move to the beginning or end of a C language comment or to the start of the first word on the line.
TxEd makes good use of the Amiga system environment to be an effective text editor without requiring a large, hard-to-master command set. But two commands are missing. TxEd has no delete word command. (I have never been without this command before and I miss it. — Cliff) Also, there is no way to scroll the display a few lines without moving the cursor. The ability to move the cursor and scroll the screen easily with the mouse nearly replaces a simple screen scroll, but it's usually faster to keep your hands on the keyboard.
TxEd is a fairly simple editor that is so fast that it seldom leaves you waiting for something to finish. (I'm convinced that all clever, complicated new editing commands are devised by programmers while waiting for their old editor to finish doing something or another. • Cliff) TxEd is being actively improved and upgraded by Microsmiths, so there should be no fear of being stuck with an early version. Stop wasting time trying to learn Ed's dozens of commands. If you program in C, Pascal, or Assembler (or just want to edit your Startup-Sequence file or write some letters), get TxEd.
About The Authors Jan and Cliff Kent run Kent Engineering & Design, providing custom digital hardware and software design. Cliff has written an 83 Standard Forth compiler for the Amiga for in-house use to facilitate software development on the Amiga. The first, a telecommunications package called MacroModem, is available now. His article on F83 Forth String Functions appeared in the March April 1986 issue of Forth Dimensions.
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Adventure Analogies I Analogies II Antonyms College Apptitude Reading Comprehension Comprehensive Grammar Review I Comprehensive Grammar Review II How a Bill Becomes A Law Lessons in Reading & Reasoning I Lessons in Reading & Reasoning II Lessons in Reading & Reasoning III Lessons in Reading & Reasoning IV Lessons in Reading & Reasoning Package Practide Composition I Practicle Composition II Practicle Composition III Practide Composition IV Practide Composition Pkg I (inc. I, II, & III) Practide Composition Pkg I (inc. IV & V) Practicle Composition V Reading & Thinking I -Grades 2-3 Reading &
Thinking II -Grades 4-5 Reading & Thinking III -Grades 6-8 Reading Adventure I -Grades 2-3 Reading Adventure III -Grades 6-8 Sentence Completion Spanish Grammar I Spanish Grammar II Spanish Grammar III Starting A New Business
U. S. Geography Adventure Vocabulary Adventure I -Grades 6-8
Vocabulary Adventure II -Grades 8-10 Vocabulary Adventure III
-Grades 10-12 $ 59.95 World Geography Adventure I — The
Americas World Geography Adventure II — Europe World Geography
Adventure III — Africa World Geography Adventure IV — Asia
World History Adventure Analogies Antonyms Clear Sentences
Comprehensive Grammer French Grammer Scarborough Systems Inc.
MasterType The Dragon Group Amiga Coloring Books The Other
Guys Great States U. S A Unicom Software Co.
Decimal Dungeon Fraction Action Math Wizard Graphics Aegis Development Aegis Animator Aegis ArtPak 1 Aegis ArtPak 2 Aegis Draw $ 139.95 $ 34.95 $ 34.95 $ 199.95 $ 79.95 $ 199.95 $ 79.95 $ 995.00 Aegis Impact Degas Elite Diga!
Associated Computer Services Weather Graphics $ 49.95 $ 100.00 $ 19.95 $ 29.95 $ 59.95 $ 29.95 $ 29.95 $ 99.95 $ 29.95 $ 19.95 $ 1,500.00 $ 197.00 $ 1,500.00 $ 499.95 $ 79.95 $ 39.95 $ 39.95 $ 50.00 $ 1,024.00 $ 1,000.00 $ 1,000.00 $ 29.95 $ 24.95 SCIENTIFIC PLOTTING FOR THE AMIGA $ 295.00 $ 295.00 $ 199.95 $ 49.95 $ 129.95 $ 55.00 $ 29.95 $ 49.95 $ 179.00 $ 149.95 $ 199.95 $ 99.95 $ 99.95 $ 99.95 $ 99.95 $ 99.95 $ 49.95 $ 49.95 Plot of Sine[SORT(X**2 + Y
1. 0
0. 0
(612) 888-5358 $ 34.95 Commodore Business Machines Graphicraft
Computer Food Inc. 3-D Graphics Library DeluxeHelp Inc.
DeluxeHelp for Deluxe Paint Digitek Software Development
Deluxe Clip Art 1 Crystal Rose Software Analytic Art
Discovery Software Grabbit Electronic Arts DprintArt
(Volume 2) Deluxe Video Dpaint Art Utility Disk New Tech.
Coloring Book Film Production Toolkit Film Production
Toolkit Grey Associates Art Director Interactive
Microsystems MediaPhile JDK Images PRO VIDEO CGI
Microillusions Dynamic-CAD
S. Anthony Studios Laser Upl Graphics Laser Utilities Vol. 1
LaserFonts 1 Scott Lamb Sprite Graphics Editor Soft Circuits
Languages and Utilities Absoft AC Fortran AC Basic Fortran 77
Capilano Computer Systems LogicWorks Hex Utilities Logic
Compiler Central Coast Software DOS-2-DOS Classic Image Diablo
Classic Image Software Disk Library Creative Solutions
Multi-Forth Commodore Business Machines Amiga C Amiga LISP
Amiga Macro Assembler Amiga Pascal Amiga TLC Logo WACK
Software Toolkit Amiga Transformer The Mirror ""Hacker""
Package The Mirror Disk Copier Data Dynamics, Inc. Genie Data
Research Processing Inc. The Key to MCM_
• Silver-Reed EB 50 Printer Plotter $ 299.95 Parallel l F for the
Amiga 4 Color Pen Plotter and Printer Built-in Business
Graphics Limited Supply Available
• SCIPLOT Software for the Amiga $ 89.95 2D and 3D Scientific
Plotting Other Device Interfaces Available
• Package Deal both for $ 359.95 For order information, contact
(602) 375-1206
P. O. Box 61834 Phoenix, AZ 85082-1834 You can develop more
sophisticated programs, — build larger files, and run all
Amiga software quicker.
And it's amazingly affordable.-
- you can do with your Amiga is your mind not your Amiga's
memory. — Make check or money order to: A| I P.O. Box41122 LI
Plymouth, MN 55447 Add $ 4 for shipping and handling.
Prices subject to change without notice.
Now the only limitation to what' megabytes of RAM to your Amiga.
— Suggested retail price: $ 695.-
10. 0
10. 0 ¦Promiga's powerful and compact MegaBoard 2 adds 2 full-
GSA's AWARD WINNING AMIGA 32 BIT Acclaimed to be the most
powerful, innovative expansion system for the AMIGA Personal
Computer. 10 times Faster than a standard AMIGA.
We are the only ones to offer mainframe speed and... power that will sit right on your desk and run all AMIGA software including FORTRAN 77, C-Compilers and Assemblers. Now, that's amazing computing power.
5-slot Expansion Cabinet * SCSI Host Adapter
• 69020 68881 14 Mhz CPU • 20MB Winchester Hard Disk 512K Static
7564 Trade Street San Diego, CA 92121 619-566-3911 1 d Amiga
-1 Home Inventory 4 Manager =F $ 34.95 The Road to "Friendly"
Software Did you ever wonder how much money is tied up in
inventory in your home?
Did you ever search through insurance policies looking for that Renters Homeowners policy inventory sheet?
If so then this software is for you!
© sort or search any of the pre-defined fields.
© soon to be released: antique cataloger, audio cataloger. Video cataloger, stamp cataloger, coin cataloger.
© covers insurance informal ion.
© plus many more features.
© multiple report f orms.
© 100% use of Amiga interface.
© covers serial ’s, purchase date and place.
100% purchase price refund if not COMPLETELY satisfied!
Add $ 3.50 for shipping & handling SUNSMILE SOFTWARE 533 FARGO AVE.
BUFFALO. NY 14213 716-885-5670 J Delta Research J-Forth Desktop A.I. dBx Translator Digital Creations Digital Link Image Writer II Driver Discovery Software Marauder Eclipse Data Management KWIK-SPEAKI Electronic Arts Amiga Programmer's Library Gimpel Software Amiga-Lint Interactive Analytic Node Expert System Kit The Explorer Jenday Software Conversation with a Computer KNOW Technologies (Software) Inc. $ 200.00 $ 1,000.00 $ 69.95 $ 49.95 $ 39.95 $ 50.00 $ 200.00 $ 98.00 $ 69.95 $ 49.95 $ 29.50 $ 39.95 $ 150.00 $ 100.00 $ 100.00 $ 75.00 $ 79.95 $ 149.95 $ 250.00 $ 200.00 $ 98.00 $ 150.00 $ 100.00 $ 125.00 $ 195.00
$ 100.00 $ 75.00 $ 499.00 $ 249.00 $ 69.95 $ 39.95 $ 39.95 $ 29.95 $ 49.95 $ 59.95 $ 79.95 $ 199.95 $ 99.95 $ 49.95 $ 95.00 $ 95.00 $ 85.00 $ 69.95 $ 29.95 $ 124.95 $ 299.00 $ 29.95 $ 39.95 $ 59.95 SMART DISK Lattice dbe III Lattice MacLibrary Lattice Screen Editor Lattice Text Utilities Unicalc Amiga Lattice C Compiler Amiga MS-DOS C Cross Compiler Amiga Programmer's Library Amiga-Lint dBC III Library MacLibrary Make Utility Panel Screen Editor Text Utilities Manx Software Systems Aztec C68k Am-c Aztec C68k Am-d MacroWare Kent Engineering & Design MacroModem Mark of the Unicorn Hex Megasoft Limited A Copier A Disk
Meta-Soft Inc. C Cross-Reference Utility LTR Micro-shell Metacomco Tenchstar Inc. Cambridge LISP ISO Pascal MCC Utilities Metadigm Inc. MetaScope Metascope: The Debugger Metascribe: The Editor Metatools I MicroDimensions Inc. PED Programmers Toolkit MicroMaster Software Digital Building System Pick Your Preferences Microsmith’s Inc. TxED TD Northwest Machine Specialties HexDump $ 19.95 Screen Mapper $ 89.95 Omega Star Software Online Amiga Basic Manual $ 29.95 Organic Productions Amiga Training Tapes $ 29.95 Pecan Software Systems Power Systems $ 99.95 USED Pascal $ 79.95 QueloInc.
Cross-Assembler to Amiga External Port (68000) $ 595.00 Cross-Assembler to Amiga External Port (68020) $ 750.00 Cross-Assembler to IBM (68000) $ 199.00 Cross-Assembler to IBM (68020) $ 249.00 Native (68020) $ 149.00 Native (68000) $ 99.00 Source Code (68020) $ 3,500.00 Source Code (68000) $ 3,500.00 Rick Stiles Uedit $ 69.95 Softeam Inc. PC ET Emulator $ 69.95 Software Supermarket Printer Driver Maker Spencer Organization inc. APL68000 Syquest Quick Test 1000 TDI Software Inc. $ 800.00 $ 89.95 $ 59.95 $ 49.95 $ 49.95 $ 49.95 $ 89.00 $ 69.95 Modula-2 Tecni Soft T-Unk T-Move T-Packs T-UTIL The Great American
Softworks IdeaCraft The Micro Forge Programmer’s Editor Prolog Level 1 Ram Disk $ 24.95 Tigress DISKWIK $ 49.95 Transtlme Technology DatamatA-100 $ 125.00 DatamatA-200 $ 249.95 DatamatA-300 $ 349.95 DatamatEBU $ 40.00 RTD $ 95.00 True BASIC Inc. 3-D Graphics Library $ 49.95 Advanced String Library $ 49.95 Algebra $ 49.95 Calculus $ 49.95 Chance $ 49.95 Chipendale $ 49.95 Developer's Tool Kit $ 49.95 Discrete Math $ 49.95 Pre-Calculus $ 49.95 Probability $ 49.95 Sorting & Searching $ 49.95 Trigonometry $ 49.95 True Basic Language System $ 149.95 TrueStat $ 79.95 Tychon Technologies Inc. Tychon Utilities $ 49.95
Canon Printer Driver $ 100.00 UBZ Software UBZ Forth $ 85.00 VeraSoft dBMAn_$ 149.95 the new chart program for the Amiga that allows you to create charts and graphs which use the full power of the Amiga.
• Bar charts, 3D bar charts, line charts, area charts, pie
charts, 3D pie charts, and more.
• Options include 3D, patterns, outline, drop shadow, lines,
ticks, legends, and more.
• Completely IFF compatible; save your chart, then load it under
your favorite paint program and add finishing artistic touches.
Use many chart images in a "slide show."
• Spreadsheet style data editor for easy data input.
• Easy to use mouse menu interface, plus 4096 user selected
Dealer inquiries encouraged.
DISKETTE AND MANUAL $ 59.00 send check or money order to: South Park Software 115 South Park San Francisco, CA 94107 415 *957 *1963 We accept VISA & Made Charge Chartmaker is a registered trademark of South Park Software.
Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. THE MEMORY LOCATION CortPUTEjljj FQR Thf 396 Washington Street Wellesley, MA 02181
(617) 237-6*46
ONLY WHAT WORKS, SATISFACTION GUARANTEED Westcomp Amiga Intelligence CHEM101 Co-Pilot Pilot interpreter The Vise Zoxso Imagine This ZU Miscellaneous Software $ 149.95 $ 39.95 $ 49.95 $ 30.00 $ 150.00 $ 49.95 $ 89.95 $ 89.95 $ 79.95 $ 1,995.00 $ 99.95 $ 49.95 $ 350.00 $ 19.95 $ 149.00 $ 149.00 $ 149.00 $ 149.00 $ 149.00 $ 49.95 $ 39.95 $ 99.95 $ 19.95 $ 59.95 $ 30.00 $ 99.95 $ 49.95 $ 49.95 $ 99.95 $ 69.95 $ 49.95 Associated Computer Services Grade Manager Paraclete Quiz Master Station Manager Emusoft Corp ES5C Calculate Music Commodore Musicraft Electronic Arts Instant Music Instant Music Data Disk Magnetic Music Texture
Micro W QRS Music Rolls Mimetics DX Connect RX Connect SMPTE Time Code SoundScape Soundscape PRO MIDI Studio SX Connect Revolution Software BobShop Soundshop Speech System Casio Connection Symphony Music Libraries Symphony Writer The MIDI Symphony Sterling Software DNA Music Telecommunications Benaiah Computer Products, Inc. Middleman Commodore Business Machines Amiga Term Developers of Advanced Software
D. A.S. Communications Eight Stars Software Starnel Felsina
Software A-Talk Megasoft Limited A Term Micro-Systems Software
BBS-PC On-Line SKE Software Co.
SKEterm Books Addison-Wesley Publishing Amiga Hardware Reference Manual $ 24.95 Amiga Intuition Kernal Reference Manual $ 24.95 Amiga ROM Kernal Reference Manual $ 24.95 Bantam Electronic Publishing The Amiga DOS Manual $ 24.95 Compute Books Advanced Amiga BASIC $ 16.95 COMPUTE's Amiga Applications $ 16.95 COMPUTE'S Amiga Programmer's Guide $ 16.95 COMPUTE's AmigaDOS Reference Guide $ 14.95 COMPUTE's Beginner's Guide to the Amiga $ 16.95 COMPUTE's Kids and the Amiga $ 14.95 Elementary Amiga Basic $ 14.95 Inside Amiga Graphics $ 16.95 Hardware Akron Systems Development A-Time Real Clock Calender Anakin
Reasearch, Inc. $ 59.95 $ 499.00 $ 199.00 $ 175.00 $ 21.95 $ 650.00 $ 900.00 $ 450.00 $ 195.00 $ 325.00 $ 18.00 $ 129.00 $ 99.00 $ 850.00 Easyl Anchor Automation Yolks Omega 80 Applied Visions FutureSound Aprotek Amiga Parallel Printer Cables ASDG Incorporated 1Mb FAST Ram Board 2Mb FAST Ram Board 512k FAST Ram Board Mini-Rack-C Mini-Rack-D Belkin Components Amiga Parallel Printer Cables Four-Way Data Transfer Switch Two-Way Parallel Data Switch Burklund & Associates GenLock Subsystem, Model RM2 Byte by Byte The Pal Commdore-Amiga Genlock 1300 LIVE I Component Systems, Inc. Multiport Controller Comspec
Communications Amiga 2 meg RAM Board Cypress Technologies, Inc. $ 877.00 $ 1,079.00 2MB Ram Expansion Digital Systems Engineering Desktop_Amp Disk_Mate Dsi Buss Station Duryea Associates, Inc. $ 44.95 $ 89.95 MIDAS Golden Hawk Technology MIDI GOLD Hippopotamus Software, Inc. $ 15,000.00 $ 79.00 $ 29.95 $ 139.95 $ 199.95 $ 299.95 $ 99.95 $ 199.95 Hippo Clean Home Controller Sound Digitizer Interactive Video Systems IVS Busbox IVS Magnus IVS Ramex-1 M JprtoBiriwte!?
Color JjP Color.
$ 44.95* $ 64.95* Supports Printers:
- S510 A, AF+, B, S, S+, SC (color) & SC+ (color) Works with: ~
Texteraft1, Serfhblelf Deluxe Paint3& others
MicroCyberneticsCorporation Dealer
P. O. Box 3126 inquiries I Laurel, Maryland 20708 accepted
(301) 498-5704
* MaryIatid residents enclose 5% $ ales tax.
Trademarks of; Commodore Amiga1, Micro System Software & Electronic Arts STATIC TRAPPING MOUSE PAD What do you get when you combine the optimum surface for mouse to run on, and static protection for your entire computer system?
MOUSE TRAP, the static trapping mouse pad!
Crystal Computer has produced the complete answer for the computer mouse user. Keep your mouse clean and protect your system from the devastating effects of static discharge. MOUSE TRAP is designed to give your mouse a smooth surface to run on, while maintaining the traction needed for the mouse ball. The surface is cleanable, even with industrial solvents and is five times harder than convention desk tops.
It's 8 1 2X11 inch size fits your work station, and because it's made of foam you can write over it when your mouse is not in use.
MOUSE TRAP is only $ 49.95 including shipping.
Call or write, Crystal Computer Inc. 2286 E. Steel Road St. Johns, Ml 48879 Ph. 1-800-245-7316 24 hrs. 7 days Ph. 1-517-224-7667 in Michigan m FULL interface to ROM Kernel, Intuition, Workbench and AmigaDos ¦ Smart linker for greatly reduced code size i Supports real numbers and transcendental functions ie. Sin, cos, tan, arctan, exp, In, log, power, sqrt i 3d graphics and multi-tasking demos i CODE statement for assembly code i Error lister will locate and identify all errors in source code i Single character I O supported i No royalties or copy protection i Phone and network customer support
provided i 350-page manual ¦ True native code implementation (Not UCSD p-Code or M-code) ¦ Sophisticated multi-pass compiler allows forward references and code optimization ¦ ReallnOut, LonglnOut. InOut, Strings, Storage, Terminal ¦ Streams, MathLibO and all standard modules ¦ Works with single floppy 512K RAM Pascal and Modula-2 source code are nearly identical. Modula-2 should be thought of as an enhanced superset of Pascal. Professor Niklaus Wirth (the creator of Pascal) designed Modula-2 to replace Pascal.
2 not found in Pascal Dynamic strings that may be any size Multi-tasking is supported Procedure variables Module version control Programmer definable scope of objects Open array parameters (VAR r: ARRAY OF REALS;) Elegant type transfer functions Added features of Modula i CASE has an ELSE and may contain ¦ subranges i Programs may be broken up into 1 Modules for separate compilation J i Machine level interface a Bit-wise operators Direct port and Memory access ¦ Absolute addressing Interrupt structure ¦ Optomized Ramdisk Benchmarks (sees) Link Execute Sieve of Eratosthenes: Float Calc Null
program Compile 1257 bytes 3944 bytes 1736 bytes 1100 bytes MODULE Sieve; MODULE Float; FROM MathLibO IMPORT sin. In, exp, sqrt. Arctan; VAR x. y: REAL; i; CARDINAL; BEGIN CST-. SA-SS-’) x:= 1.0; FOR i:= 1 TO 1000 DO y:= sin (x); y:= In (x); y:= exp (x); y:= sqrt (x); y:= arctan (x); x:= x + 0.01; END; END float.
CONST Size = 8190; TYPE FlagRange = [O.. Sizej; FlagSet = SET OF FlagRange; VAR Flags: FlagSet; i: FlagRange; Prime, k, Count, Iter: CARDINAL; BEGIN CSS-.SR-.SA* ’) FOR iter:= 1 TO 10 DO Count:= 0; Flags: = FlagSet (); C empty set') FOR i:= 0 TO Size DO IF (i IN Flags) THEN Prime:= (i 2) + 3; k:= i + Prime: WHILE k = Size DO INCL (Flags, k); k:= k? Prime; MODULE calc; VAR a, b, c; REAL; n, i: CARDINAL; BEGIN CST-. SA-SS-') n:= 5000; a:= 2.71828; b:= 3.14159; c:= 1.0; FOR i:= I TO n DO c:= c'a; c:= c*b; c:= c a; c:= c b; END; END calc.
END; Count:= Count * 1: END; END; END; END Sieve.
Product History The TDI Modula-2 compiler has been running on the Pinnacle supermicro (Aug.
’84), Atari ST (Aug. ’85) and will soon appear on the Macintosh and UNIX in the 4th Qtr. ’86.
Regular Version $ 89.95 Developer’s Version $ 149.95 Commercial Version $ 299.95 The regular version contains all the features listed above. The developer’s version contains additional Amiga modules, macros and demonstration programs — a symbol file decoder — link and load file disassemblers — a source file cross referencer
- the hermit file transfer utility — a Modula-2 CLI — modules for
IFF and ILBM. The commercial version contains all of the Amiga
module source files.
Other Modula-2 Products Kermit — Contains full source plus $ 15 connect time to CompuServe. $ 29.95 Examples — Many of the C programs from ROM Kernel and Intuition translated into Modula-2. $ 24. ti GRID — Sophisticated multi-key file access method with over 30 procedures to access variable length records. $ 49.95 Johnathon Freeman Designs Converter + $ 279.95 Universal Interface Converter $ 99.00 Universal Printer Plotter Buffer $ 329.00 Kurta Corp. Penmouse+ $ 295.00 Series One $ 695.00 Media Technology Associates MTA200 $ 79.95 MTA Series 1000 MEGAmiga 1Mb RAM Board $ 512.00 2Mb RAM Board $ 768.00
MicroBotics, Inc. Scuzzy' 20MB Hard Disk $ 1,495.00 256K Memory Expansion $ 149.95 2MB Memory Expansion $ 495.00 Newtek Digi-View $ 199.00 Okidata Okimate 20 $ 268.00 Remote Measurement Systems, Inc. ADC-1 DataAcquistion And Control System $ 449.00 RS Data Systems Pow-R-Card Skyles Electric Works 256K Memory Expansion $ 149.95 Megabytes MIDI For Amiga $ 79.95 Clock For Amiga $ 59.95 STACAR International Disk Drive Expansion Box $ 225.00 Starpoint Software 256K Memory Expansion $ 120.00 Tecmar T-Disk The Gemstone Group Amiga Expansion Box $ 995.00 The Micro Forge 7 Slot Expansion Box $ 84.95 Memory Hard
Disk Expansion $ 656.95 Stereo Sound Digitizer $ 344.95 Expansion Box $ 656.95 Hard Drive 10 meg $ 1,415.95 Hard Drive 20 meg $ 1,494.95 Hard Drive 30 meg $ 1,762.95 Miscellaneous T's Mee Amiga Sweatshirts $ 15.00 Amiga Tee-Shirts $ 9.50 Crystal Computer, Inc. Mouse Trap (anti-static) $ 49.95 Important Note: This list was composed over time and may be missing items from new suppliers. If you are such a supplier and you are not represented or the entry is incorrect, please let us know.
Send all Press releases to: Amazing Directory Amazing Computing PiM Publications, Inc,
P. O. Box 869 Fall River, MA. 02722 Amiga Developers Absoft Corp.
4268 N. Woodward Royal Oak Ml 48072
(313) 549 7111 Academy Software, Inc. PO Box 6277 San Rafael CA
(415) 4990850 Access Software 2561 S. 1560 W. Woods Cross UT
(801) 298 9077 Accolade 20823 StevensCreek Blvd. CI A Cupertino CA
(408) 446 5757 Acth islon 2350 Bayshore Mountain View CA 94043
(415) 960 0410 Addlson-Wesley Publishing Jacob Way Reading MA
(617) 944 3700 Aegis Development 2210 Wilshire Blvd.
Santa Monica CA 94043
(213) 306 0735 Akron Systems Development PO Box 6408 Beaumont TX
(409) 833-2686 Alive Systems PO Box 50 Big Sur CA 93920
(415) 332 8018 Amiga Man PO Box 58768 Houston TX 77258
(713) 4801735 Anakin Reasearch, Inc. 100 Westmore Dr., Unit 11C
Rexdale, Ontario Canada M9V 5C3
(416) 744 4246 Anchor Automation 6913 Valjean Ave.
Van Nuys CA 91406
(818) 997 6493 Applied Visions 15 Oak Ridge Rd. Medford MA 02155
(617) 4883602 Aprotek 1071-AAvenidaAcaso Camarillo CA 93010
(805) 987 2454 ASDG Incorporated 260 River Road Suite 54A
Piscataway NJ 08854
(201) 540-9670 Associated Computer Services 839 S. Glenstone
Springfield MO 65802
(417) 865 6555
B. E.S.T. Inc.
P. O. Box 852 McMinuville OR 97128
(503) 4729512 Bantam Electronic Publishing 666 5th Ave.
New York NY 10103
(212) 7656500 Batteries Included 30 Mural St. Richmond Hill
Ontario Canada L4B1B5
(416) 881 9941 Baudville 1001 Medical Park Dr. SE Grand Rapids Ml
(616) 9573036 Belkin Components 4718 W. Rosecranss Ave.
Hawthorne CA 90250
(600) 223 5546 Benaiah Computer Products, PO Box 11165 Huntsville
AL 35814
(205) 8599487 Bethesda Softworks 9208 Burning Tree Rd. Bethesda
MD 20817
(301) 4697061 Burklund & Associates 3903 Carolyn Ave.
Fairfax VA 22031
(703) 2735663 Byte by Byte 3736 Bee Cave Rd., Suite 3 Austin TX
(512) 3282983 Capiiano Computer Systems POBox 86971
N. Vancouver, BC, Canada V7L4P6
(604) 6696343 CBS Interactive Learning 1 Faucett Place Greenwich
CT 06836
(203) 622 2500 Central Coast Software 268 Bowie Drive LosOsos CA
(805) 528-4906 Chang Labs 5300 Stevens Creek Blvd.
San Jose CA 95129
(408) 2468020 Classic Image 510 Rhode Island Ave.
Cherry Hill NJ 08002
(609) 6672526 Classic Image Software 510 Rhode Island Ave.
Cherry Hill NJ 08002
(609) 6672526 Clockwork Computers 2215 Sarah Court, Suite 80
Norcross GA 30093
(404) 851 9103 Colony Software 931 W 21st Street Norfolk VA 23517
(804) 625-1945 Commdore Business Machines 1200 Wilson Dr.
Westchester PA 19380
(215) 431-9100 Component Systems, Inc. 778-A Bran nan St. San
Francisco CA 94103
(415) 861 1345 Compumed PO Box 6939 Salinas CA 93912
(408) 7582436 Compute Books Box 5038, FDR Sation New York NY
(800) 346-6767 Computer Food Inc. 2215 Sarah Court Suite 80H
Norcross GA 30093
(404) 851 9103 Computer Solutions POBox 354,888 S. Eifert Mason
Ml 48854
(800) 874 9375 Comspec Communications 153 Brldgeland Ave.
Toronto, Ontario Canada M6A2Y6
(416) 787-0617 Creative Solutions 4701 Randolph Rd. Suite 12
Rockville MD 20852
(301) 9840262 Crystal Computer, Inc. 2286 E. Steel Road St. Johns
Ml 48879
(800) 245-7316 Crystal Rose Software 109 S. Loe Nobles Pasadena
CA 91101
(818) 795 6664 Cypress Technologies, Inc. POBox 3346 Fremont CA
(415) 656 1974 Dark Horse Dept A9, Box 36162 Greensboro NC 27416
(919) 852 3698 Data Dynamics, Inc. POBox 2728 Portland OR 97208
(503) 6264635 Data Research Processing 5121 Audrey Dr. Huntington
Beach CA 92649
(714) 8407186 Delta Research 9054 Wilkie Way Pak) Alto CA 94306
(415) 856 3669 DeluxeHelp Inc. Box 249, 4356 Okeechobee Blvd.
W. Palm Beach FL 33409
(305) 6220138 Desktop A. I. 1720 Post Road E. Westport CT 06880
(203) 255 3400 Deskware POBox 47577 St. Petersburg FL 33743
Developers of Advanced Software 12455 Veterans Memorial
Dr., Ste. 204 Houston TX 77014 Digital Creations 530 Bergut
Drive Suite F Sacramento CA 95814
(916) 4464825 Digital Solutions 30WertheimCourt, 2 Richmand Hill,
Ontario Canada L4B1B9
(416) 731 8775 Digital Systems Engineering6854 Blowing Wind Way
Chris Heights CA 95621
(916) 725 3025 Digitek Software Development 2519 Bonita Dr.
Highland CA 92346
(714) 864-2846 Discovery Software 262 S. 15 St.. Suite 300
Philedeiphla PA 19102
(215) 5461533 DSI 717 South Emporia Wichita KS 67211
(316) 2646118 Duryea Associates, Inc. 701 Alpha Rd. Pittsburg PA
(412) 9637262 Eastern Telecom, Inc. 9514 Brimton Drive Orlando FL
(305) 657-4355 Eclipse Data Management •
312. 5 Lafayette St. Glendale CA 91205
(818) 956 5517 Eight Stars Software 2900 Boniface Pkwy.
Anchorage AK 99504
(907) 3381246 Electronic Arts 1820 Gateway Dr. San Mateo CA 94404
(415) 571 7171 Emusoft Corp. 1400 Chicago Ave., Ste. 303 Evanston
IL 60201
(312) 8696676 Ensign Software 7337 Northview Boise ID 83704
(208) 3788066 Epyx Inc. 1043 Kiel Court Sunnyvale CA 94089
(408) 7450700 Felsina Software 3175 S. Hoover St, Suite 275 Los
Angeles CA 90007
(213) 7478498 Film Production Toolkit 446 Sherman Canal Ct.
Venice CA 90291
(213) 3062146 Finally Software 4000 MacArtur Blvd.
Newport Beach CA 92663
(714) 8544434 Firebird Software POBox 49 Ramsey NJ 07446
(201) 934 7373 First Byte 2845 Temple Ave.
Long Beach CA 90808
(213) 595 7006 Foxware 1554 Park Creek Ln. Atlanta GA 30319
Gander Software 3223 Bross Rd., The Ponds Hastings Ml 49058
(616) 9452821 Geodesic Publications PO Box 7 Willow Creek CA
(916) 6293514 Getting Enterprises Inc. 204 Hamilton Rd. Bossier
City LA 71112
(318) 7474829 Gimpel Software 3207 Hogarth Lane Collegeville PA
(215) 5844261 Golden Hawk Technology 427-3 Amherst Street Nashua
NH 03063
(603) 882-7198 Grey Associates 250 Bruton Way Atlanta GA 30342
(404) 851 9103 Harvsoft Box 725 Kennmore NY 14217
(716) 8773510 HC Software Australia GPO Box 2204 Adelaide South
Australia 5001; 08-428377 Infooom 125 Cambridge Park Drive
Cambridge MA 02140
(617) 492 1031 Insight Lehner Communications 2708 Arlington
Highland Park IL 60035
(312) 4325458 Interactive Analytic Node 2345 West Medicine Lake
Dr. Minneapolis MN 55441
(612) 871 6283 Interactive Microsystems Box 272 Boxford MA 01921
(617) 8879607 Interactive Video Systems 15201 Santa Gertrudes
Ave., Y-102 La Mirada CA 90638
(714) 7395020 JDK Images 2224 E. 86th St.. Suite 14 Bloomington
MN 55420
(612) 8547793 Jenday Software
P. O. Box 4313 Garden Grove CA 92642
(714) 6363378 JMH Software of Minnesota 7200 Hemlock Lane Maple
Grove MN 55369
(612) 4245464 Johnathon Freeman Designs 1067 Dolores St. San
Francisco CA 94110
(415) 8228451 KNOW Technologies (Software)lnc.
9651 Alexandria Road Richmond, BC Canada V6X1C6
(604) 270-0064 KurtaCorp.
4610 S. 35th St. Pheonix AZ 85040
(602) 276 5533 Lattice 22 W. 600 Butterfield Rd. Glen Ellyn IL
(312) 858 7950 Lionheart Business Software
P. O. Box 329 Aiburg VT 05440
(514) 9334918 MacroWare Kent Engineering & Design 3208 Bettline
Rd., Suite 210 Mottvllle NY 75234
(315) 685-8237 Magnetic Music PO Box 328 Rhlnebeck NY 12572
(914) 8764845 Manx Software Systems One Industrial Way Eatontown
NJ 07724
(800) 2210440 Manx Software Systems Inc. 208 Maple Avenue Red
Bank NJ 07701
(201) 5307997 Mark of the Unicorn 222 Third St. Cambridge MA
(617) 5762760 Marksman Tech Inc. Route 5, Box 221S Santa Fe NM
(505) 4552681 Maxisoft 2812 Sloat Rd. Pebble Beach CA 93953
(408) 8254104 Media Technology Associates 9208 Burning Tree Rd.
Bethesda MD 20817
(301) 469 7060 MEGAmiga 1620 N. Park Ave.
Tucson AZ 85719
(602) -622-1344 MegaSoft Limited PO Box 1080 Battle Ground WA
(206) 687 5205 Megatronics 55 N. Main St. Logan UT 84321
(801) 7522642 Meridian Software PO Box 890408 Houston TX
(713) 488 2144 Meta-Soft Inc. PO Box 7293 Las Cruces NM 88006
(505) 523 0371 Metacomco Tenchstar Inc. 201 Hoffman Ave.
Monterey CA 93940
(408) 3755012 Metadigm Inc. 19762 MacArthur Blvd.
Suite 300 Irvine CA 92715
(714) 9552555 Micro Prose 120LakefrontDr.
Hunt Valley MD 21030
(301) 6671151 Micro W PO Box 198 Butler NJ 07405
(201) 838 5606 Micro-Systems Software Inc. 4031 Oak Circle Boca
Raton FL 33431
(800) 3278724 MicroBotics, Inc. PO Box 855115 Richardson TX 75085
(214) 4375330 MicroDlmensions Inc. 455 N. University Ave.
Provo UT 84601
(801) 3770933 MicroEd Inc. PO Box 444005 Eden Prairie MN 55344
(612) 9448740 Microlllusions PO Box 3475 Granada Hills CA 91344
(818) 3603715 MicroMaster Software 1289 Broadhead Rd. Monaca PA
(412) 7753000 Microsmith's Inc.
P. O. Box 561 Cambridge MA 02140 6175762878 Mimetic8 PO Box 60238
Sta. A Palo Alto CA 94306
(408) 7410117 Mindscape 3444 Dundee Road Northbrook IL 60062
(312) 4807667 New Horizons Software PO Box 180253 Austin TX 78718
(512) 2800319 Newtek 701 Jackson Suite B3 Topeka KS 66603
(913) 354-9332 Nirhbus
P. O. Box 1433 Ranch Santa Fe CA 92067
(619) 944-3453 Northeast Software Group 165DyervilleAve.
Johnston Rl 02919
(401) 2731001 Northwest Machine Specialties 3611 Joshua NE Salem
OR 97305
(503) 5880008 Okidata 532 Fellowship Rd. Mount Laurel NJ 08054
(800) 6543282 Olamic Systems Corporation 141 West Jackson Blvd.
Chicago IL 60604
(312) 7861410 Omega Star Software PO Box 1831 Clemson SC 29633
(803) 8823608 Organic Productions 71 Gold St. East Hartford CT
(203) 5693855 PAR Software PO Box 1089 Vancouver WA 98666
(206) 6951368 Pecan Software Systems 1410 39th Street Brooklyn NY
(718) 851 3100 Polarware PO Box 311 2600 Keslinger Rd. Geneva IL
(312) 2321984 Progressive Peripherals and Software 464CalamathSl
Denver CO 80204
(303) 8254144 Quelo Inc. 2464 33rd AvaW, Suite 173 Seattle WA
(206) 2852528 Queue Inc. 798 North Avenue Bridgeport CT 06606
(203) 3337268 Queue Intellectual Software 5 Chapel Hill Drive
Fairfield CT 06432
(203) 335 0908 Quicksilver Software 418 W. 7th St Sioux City IA
(712) 2582018 Ramella 1493 Mountain View Ave.
Chico CA 95926 Remote Measurement Systems, Inc. 2633 Eastlake Ave. E, Ste.206 Seattle WA 98102
(206) 328 2255 Revolution Software POBox38 Westchester PA 19381
(215) 4300412 Rick Stiles 2420 Summit Springs Dr. Dunwoody GA
(404) 587 5396 Rosetta-Stone Software 4000 MacArthur Blvd.,
Ste.3000 Newport Beach CA 92663
(714) 8544434 RS Data Systems 7322 Southwest Freeway, Ste.660
Houston TX 77074
(713) 9885441 RTL Programming Aids 10844 Deerwood SE Lowell Ml
(616) 897 5672
S. Anthony Studios 889 De Haro St. San Francisco CA 94107
(415) 8266193 Scarborough Systems Inc. 55 S. Broadway Tarrytown
NY 10591
(914) 3324545 Scott Lamb 205C Heights Ln. Ft. Worth TX 76112
(817) 4969220 Sedonna Software 11844 Rancho Bernardo Rd. San
Diego CA 92128
(619) 451 0151 Sierra On-Line Inc. Box 485 Coarsegold CA 93614
(209) 6836858 SKE Software Co.
2780 Cottonwood Court Clearwater FL 33519
(813) 7863247 Skytes Electric Works 231-E South Whlsman Rd.
Mountain View CA 94041
(800) 2279998 Soft Circuits Inc. 401 S.W. 75th Terrace
N. Lauderdale FL 33068
(305) 7212707 Softeam Inc. 14420 Harris Place Miami Lakes FL
(305) 8254820 Software Group Amiga SubLOGIC The Micro Forge UBZ
Software Northway Ten Executive Park 713EdgebrookDr.
398 Grant St. SE 395 St. Albans Court Ballston Lake NY 12019 Champiagn IL 61820 Atlanta GA 30312 Mabelton GA 30059
(518) 877-8600
(217) 3598482
(404) 6889464 Unicom Software Co.
Softwood Co.
Syquest The Other Guys 2950 E. Flamingo Rd. PO Box 2280 PO Box 758 55 N. Main St., Suite 301D, Las Vegas NV 89121 Santa Barbara CA 93120 Snowdon Station, Montreal, Quebec POBoxH
(702) 732 8862 VeraSoft
(805) 966 3252 Canada H3X3X9
(514) 9355881 Logan UT
(800) 9429402 84321 Softworks 723 Seawood Way 2944 N. Broadway
T. R. Software The Other Valley Software San Jose CA 95120
Chicago IL 60657 4346 W. Maypole 8540 Archibald Suite A
(408) 2686033
(312) 9754030 Chicago IL 60624 RanchoCucamongo CA 91730 Speech
(312) 8759760
(714) 9800440 VIP Technologies 132 Aero Camino 38W255 Deerpath
Road TDI Software Inc. The Quality Cottage Santa Barbara CA
93117 Batavia IL 60510 10410 Markison Rd. 6301 F University
(805) 968 9567 Westcomp
(312) 879-6680 Dallas TX
(214) 3404942 75238 South Bend IN
(219) 2344401 46635 Spencer Organization Inc. 517 N. Mountain
Ave.Ste. 229 366 Kinderkamak Rd. TecniSoft Tigress Upland
CA 91786 Westwood NJ 07675 PO Box 7175,5505 Walden Maedows
Rd. PO Box 665
(714) 982 1738 WordPerfect Corp.
(201) 666 6011 Murray UT
(801) 2684961 84123 Glendora CA
(818) 3340709 91740 STACAR International 288 W. Center St 14755
Ventura Blvd., The Computer Club Transtime Technology Orem
UT 84057 Suite 1-812 4843AS. 28th St. 797 Sheridan Dr.
(801) 2274000 Sherman Oaks CA 91403 Arlington VA 22206 Tonawanda
NY 14150
(818) 904-1262
(703) 9987588
(716) 8742010 X-Scope Enterprises POBox 210063 Starpoint Software
The Dragon Group True BASIC Inc. Columbia SC 29221 122 S.
Broadway 148 Poca Fork Rd. 39 S. Main St
(803) 7790619 Yreka CA 96097 Elkview WV 25071 Hanover NH 03755
(916) 842 6183
(304) 965 5517
(603) 6433882 Zoxso POBox 283 Sterling Software The Gemstone
Group Tychon Technologies Inc. Lowell MA 01853 77 Mead St.
620 Indian Spring Ln. 25000 Euclid Ave.
(617) 655 9548 Bridgeport CT 06610 Buffalo Grove IL 60089
Cleveland OH 44117
(203) 366 7775
(312) 5370544
(216) 261 7086 Zuma Group, Inc. 6733 N. Black Canyon Strategic
Simulations The Great American Softworks UBZ Software
Phoenix AZ 85015 1046 N. Rendstorff Ave.
PO Box 819 395 St Albans Court
(602) 2464238 Mountain View CA 94043 Larkspur CA 94939 Mableton
GA 30059
• AC*
(415) 9641353
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A member of the TM PoweriOOLS The first interactive Amiga program design tool, lets you design fantastic looking windows, menus and gadgets in minutes instead of hours or days!
You show this incredible program what you want and it does the rest, generating C or 68000 assembler source code for you to include in your own programs.
Is a structure generator for a machine that thrives on structures.
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Create your own string, integer and boolean gadgets and position them anywhere in your window.
Keeps them from colliding and remembers the type, location and text contents of each one for writing those complex gadget structures.
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Order Form Price for IP©W®l}WDimO®®?© is $ 89.95, plus $ 3.50 for shipping and handling. Texas residents please add 6.125% sales tax to total price.
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INOVATRONICS, INC. 11311 Stemmons Frwy., Suite 7 Dallas, TX 75229 214 241-9515 The AMICUS & Fred Fish Public Domain Software Library This software is collected from user groups and electronic bulletin boards around the nation. Each Amicus disk is nearly full, and is fully accessible from the Workbench. If source code is provided for any program, then the executable version is also present. This means that you don't need the C compiler to run these programs. An exception is granted for those programs only of use to people who own a C compiler.
The Fred Fish disk are collected by Mr. Fred Fish, a good and active friend of the Amiga.
Note: Each description line below may include something like 'S-O-E-D', which stands for 'source, object file, executable and documentation'. Any combination of these letters indicates what forms of the program are present Basic programs are presented entirely in source code format 3d solids modeling program w sample data files draws blocks draws cubes AMICUS Disk 1 Abasic programs: Graphics 3DSolids Blocks Cubes Durer Fscape Hidden Jpad Optical Paintbox Shuttle SpaceArt Speaker Sphere Spiral ThreeDee Topography Wheels Xenos draws pictures in the style of Durer draws fractal landscapes 3D
drawing program, w hidden line removal simple paint program draw several optical illusions simple paint program draws the Shuttle in 3d wireframe graphics demo speech utility draws spheres draws color spirals 3d function plots artificial topography draws circle graphics draws fractal planet landscapes Abasic programs: Tools AddressBook simple database program for addresses simple card file database program multiwindow demo shows keycodes for a key you press run many Abasic programs from a menu CardFile Demo KeyCodes Menu MoreColors shapes way to get more colors on the screen at once using
aliasing simple color shape designer Speakit speech and narrator demo Abasic programs: Games BrickOut classic computer brick wall game Othello also known as 'go1 Saucer simple shoot-em-up game Spelling simple talking spelling game ToyBox selectable graphics demo Abasic programs: Sounds plays that tune Entertainer HAL9000 Police Sugarplum C programs: Aterm cc decynt Dotty echox fasterfp FixDate freedraw GfxMem pretends its a real computer simple police siren sound plays "The Dance of the Sugarplum Fairies" simple terminal program, S-E aid to compiling with Lattice C opposite of CONVERT for
cross developers source code to the 'dotty window demo unix-style filename expansion, partial
S. O-D explains use of fast-floating point math fixes future
dates on all files on a disk, S-E simple Workbench drawing
program, S-E graphic memory usage indicator, S-E searches for a
given string In a file, with documentation shows off the
hold-and-modify method of color generation ham fast parallel
cable transfers between an IBM and an Amiga Mandelbrot set
program, S-E patterned graphic demo, S-E makes Lattice C
object file symbols vistoleto Wack, S-E quicksort strings
routine example sample window I O turns on interlace mode, S-E
IBM2Amiga Mandel moire obifix quick raw sparks qix-type
graphic demo, S-E Other executable programs: SpeechToy speech
demonstration WhichFont displays all available fonts Texts:
68020 describes 68020 speedup board from CSA Aliases explains
uses of the ASSIGN command Bugs known bug list in Lattice C
3.02 CLICard reference card for AmigaDOS CLI CLICommands guide
to using the CLI Commands shorter guide to AmigaDOS CLI
commands EdCommands guide to the ED editor Filenames AmigaDOS
filename wildcard conventions HalfBright explains rare
graphics chips that can do more colors ModemPins description
of the serial port pinout RAMdisks tips on setting up your
RAM: disk ROMWack tips on using ROMWack Sounds explanation of
the Instrument demo sound file format Speed refutation of the
Amiga's CPU and custom chip speed WackCmds tips on using Wack
AMICUS Disk 2 C programs: alib AmigaDOS object library manager
.S-E as text file archive program, S-E fixobj autochops
executable files shell simple CLI shell, S-E sq, usq file
compression programs, S-E YachtC a familiar game, S-E Make a
simple 'make1 programming utility, S-E Emacs an early version
of the Amiga text editor, S-E-D Assembler programs:
bsearch.asm binary search code q sort.asm Unix compatfole
qsortO function, source and C test program setjmp.asm setjmp ()
code for Lattice 3.02 Svprintf Unix system V compatible
printfO treos. o Unix compatible tree () function, O-D (This
disk formerly had IFF specification files and examples. Since
this spec is constantly updated, the IFF spec files have been
moved to their own disk in the AMICUS collection. They are not
John Draper Amiga Tutorials: Animate describes animation algorithms Gadgets tutorial on gadgets Menus learn about Intuition menus AMICUS Disk 3 C programs: Xref a C cross-reference gen., S-E 6bitoolor extra-half-bright chip gfx demo, S-E Chop truncate (chop) files down to size, S-E Cleanup removes strange characters from text files C R2LF converts carriage returns to line feeds in Amiga files, S-E Error adds compile errors to a C file, S Hello window ex. From the RKM, S Kermit generic Kermit implementation, flakey, no terminal mode, S-E Scales sound demo plays scales, S-E SkewB Rubik cube demo
in likes colors, S-E AmigaBasicProgsfdir) Automata cellular automata simulation CrazyEights card game _ Graph function graphing programs WitchingHour a game AbasiC programs: Casino games of poker, blackjack, dice, and craps Gomoku also known as 'otheilo' Sabotage sort of an adventure game Executable programs: Disassem a 68000 disassembler, E-D DpSlide shows a given set of IFF pictures, E-D Arrange a text formatting program, E-D Assembler programs: Argoterm a terminal program with speech and Xmodem, S-E AMICUS Disk 4 Files from the original Amiga Technical BBS Note that some of these files are
old, and refer to older versions of the operating system. These files came from the Sun system that served as Amiga technical support HQ for most of 1985. These files do not carry a warranty, and are for educational purposes only. Of course, that's not to say they don't work.
Complete and nearly up-to-date C source to 'image. ed an early version of the Icon Editor. This is a little flaky, but compiles and runs.
An Intuition demo, in full C source, including files: demomenu. c, demomenu2. c, demoreq. c, getascii. c, idemo. c, idemo.guide, ktemo.make, idemoall. h, nodos. c, and txwrite. c addmem. c add externa) memory to the system bobtest. c example of BOB use consolel0. c console IO example creaport. c create and delete ports creastdhe create standard I O requests creataskc creating task examples diskio. c example of track read and write dotty. c source to the 'dotty window* demo dualplay. c dual playfield example flood. c flood fill example freemap. c old version of Ireemap’ geltools. c tools for Vsprites and BOBs
gfxmem. c graphic memory usage indicator hello. c window example from RKM inputdev. c adding an Input handler to the input stream joystike reading the joystick keybd. c direct keyboard reading layertes. c layers examples mousportc test mouse port ownlfo. c, ownlib.asm example of making your own library with Lattice paratest. c tests parallel port commands seritest. c tests serial port commands serisamp. c example of serial port use prinintr. c sample printer interface code prtbase. h printer device definitions regintes. c region test program setlace. c source to interlace on off program setparallel. c set
the attributes of the parallel port SetSerial. c set the attributes (parity, data bits) of the serial port singplay. c single playfield example speechtoy. c source tp narrator and phonetics demo timedely. c simple timer demo timer. c exec support timer functions timrstuf. c more exec support timer functions WhichFontc loads and displays all available system fonts process, i and prtbase. i assmebler indude files: Amiga Basic Programs: Printer Drivers: autorqstr.txt warnings of deadlocks with (Note: Many of these programs are present on AM ICUS Printer drivers for the Canon PJ-1080A, the C Itoh
autorequesters Disk 1. Several of these were converted to Amiga Basic, Prowriter, an improved Epson driver that eliminates con80lel0.txt copy of the RKM console I O chapter and are Included here.)
Streaking, the Epson LQ-600, the Gemini Star-10, the diskfonttxt warning of disk font loading bug Address Book a simple address book database NEC 8025S, the Okidata ML-92, the Panasonic KX-P10xx fullfunc.txt list of defines, macros, functions Ball draws a ball family, and the Smith-Corona D300, with a document inputdev.txt preliminary copy of the input device Cload program to convert CompuServe hex files describing the installation process.
Chapter to binary, S-D AMICUS Disk 10 Instrument sound demos License Information on Workbench distribution license Clue the game, Intuition driven This is an icon-driven demo, circulated to many dealers.
Printer pre-release copy of the chapter on printer drivers, Colorant art drawing program It indudes the sounds of an acoustic guitar, an alarm, a from RKM 1.1 v11fd.txt ’diff* of. fd file changes from DeluxeDraw the drawing program In the 3rd Issue of banjo, a bass guitar, a boink, a calliope, a car horn, version 1.0 to 1.1 v28v1.diff 'diff of include file changes Amazing Computing, S-D claves, water drip, electric guitar, a flute, a harp arpegio, a from version 28 to 1.0 Eliza conversational computer psychologist kickdrum, a marimba, a organ minor chord, people AMICUS Disk_S_ Fifes from the
Amiga Link Othello the game, as known as 'go' talking, pigs, a pipe organ, a Rhodes piano, a saxophone, Amiga Information Network RatMaze 3Dratmazegame a sitar, a snare drum, a steel drum, bells, a vibrophone, a Note that some of these files are old, and refer to older ROR boggling graphics demo violin, a wailing guitar, a horse whinny, and a whistle.
Versions of the operating system, these files are from Shuttle draws 3D pictures of the space shuttle
mm. mn Amiga Link. For a time, Commodore supported Amiga Spelling
simple spelling program C programs Link, aka AIN, for online
developer technical support. It YoYo wierd zero-gravity yo-yo
demo, tracks yo- dirutil Intuition-based, CLI replacement
file was only up and running for several weeks. These files
yo to the mouse manager, S-E do not carry a warranty, and are
for educational purposes Executable programs: epri shows and
adjusts priority of CLI only. Of course, that's not to say
they don't work.
A demo of Intuition menus called 'menudemo', in C 3Dcube Modula-2 demo of a rotating cube processes, S-E Altlcon sets a second icon image, displayed ps shows info about CLI processes, S-E source when the icon is dicked vidtex displays CompuServe RLE pictures, S-E whereis. c find a file searching all subdirectories AmigaSpell a slow but simple spelling checker. E-D AmlgaBasic programs bobteslc BOB programming example arc the ARC file compression program, pointered pointer and sprite editor program swsep. c sound synthesis example must-have for telecom, E-D optimize optimization ex ample from AC
article Assembler files: Bertrand graphics demo calendar large, animated calendar, diary and date mydev.asm sample device driver disksalvage a program to rescue trashed disks, E-D book program mylttxasm sample library example KwikCopy a quick but nasty disk copy program: amortize loan amortizations myllb. i ignores errors, E-D brushtoBOB converts small IFF brushes to mydev. i LbDir lists hunks in an object file E-D AmlgaBasic BOB OBJECTS asmsupp.1 SavelLBM saves any screen as an IFF picture grids draw and play waveforms macros.! Assembler include files: E-D??
Hifbert draws Hilbert curves Texts: ScreenDump shareware screen dump program, E only madlib mad lib story generator amigatricks tips on CLI commands StarTerm version 2.0, term program, Xmodem malltalk talking mailing list program extdisk external disk specification E-D meadows 3D 3D graphics program, from gameport game port spec Texts: Amazing Computing article parallel parallel port spec LatticeMain tips on fixing _main. c in Lattice mousetrack mouse tracking example in hires mode serial serial port spec GdiskDrive make your own 51 4 drive slot sld machine game v1.1update list of newfeatures
inversion 1.1 GuruMed explains the Guru numbers tldadoe the game v1.1h.txt 'diff' of include file changes from version Lat3.03bugs bug list of Lattice C version 3.03 switch pachinko-likegame
1. 0 to 1.1 MforgeRev user's view of the MicroForge hard drive
weird makes strange sounds Files for building your own printer
drivers, including PrirrtSpooler EXECUTE-based print spooling
program Executable programs dospeciaLc, epsondatax, Init.asm,
prlnter. c, printer.link,.BMAP files: cp unix-like copy
command, E printertag.asm, render. c, and waiLasm. This disk
does These are the necessary links between Amiga Basic and ds
screen dear, S-E contain a number of files describing the IFF
The system libraries. To take advantage of the Amiga's diff unix-like stream editor uses 'diff' output These are not the latest and greatest files, but remain capabilities in Basic, you need these files. BMAPs are to fix files here for historical purposes. They include text files and C inducted for dist, 'console', 'diskfonf, 'exec', 'icon'.
Pm chart recorder performances indicator source examples. The latest IFF spec is elsewhere in this
• intuition', layers’, 'mathffp', mathieeedoubas', Assembler
programs library.
'mathleeesingbas', 'mathtrans', *potgo timer* and ds screen dear and CLI arguments AMICUS Disk 6 IFF Pictures 'translator1.
Example This disk includes the DPSIide program, which can view AMICUS Disk 8 Modula-2 a given series of IFF pictures, and the 'shewpid program, Amiga Basic Programs: trails moving-worm graphics demo which can view each file at the dick of an icon, and the FlightSim simple flight simulator program caseconvert converts Modula-2 keywords to 'saveiibm1 program, to turn any screen into an IFF picture.
HuePatette explains Hue, Saturation, and Intensity uppercase The pictures indude a screen from ArticFox, a Degas Requester ex. Of doing requesters from Amiga Forth Breshehan drde algorithm example dancer, the guys at Electronic Arts, a gorilla, horses, King Basic Analyze 12 templates for the spreadsheet Tut, a lighthouse, a screen from Marble Madness, the ScrollDemo demonstrates scrolling capabilities Analyzel Bugs Bunny Martian, a still from an old movie, the Dire Synthesizer sound program There are four programs here that read Commodore 64 Straits moving company, a screen from Pinball
WorkJMap draws a map of the world picture files. They can translate Koala Pad, Doodle, Print Contrudlon Set, a TV newcaster, the PaintCan, a world Executable programs: Shop and News Room graphics to IFF format Of course, map, a Porsche, a shuttle mission patch, a tyrannosaurus Boingl latest Boingl demo, with selectable getting the files from your C-64 to your Amiga is the hard rex, a planet view, a VISA card, and a ten-speed.
Speed. E part.
AMICUS Disk 7 Dig! View HAM demo picture disk Brush2C converts an IFF brush to C data AMICUS Disk 12 This disk has pictures from the DlgiView hokf-and-modtfy Instrudlons, initialization code, E Executable programs video digitizer. It includes the ladies with pencils and Brush21con converts IFF brush to an icon, E blink 'alink' compatible linker, but faster, E-D lollypops, the young girl, the bulldozer, the horse and Dazzle graphics demo, tracks to mouse, E dean spins the disk for use with disk cleaners, buggy, the Byte cover, the dictionary page, the robot and DeciGEL assembler program for
stopping 68010 E-D Robert. This includes a program to view each picture errors, S-E-D epsonset sends Epson settings to PAR: from menu, separately, and all together as separate, slidable screens.
Klock menu-bar dock and date display, E E-D AMICUS Disk 8 life the game of life, E showbig view hi-res pictures in low-res C programs: Times et Intuition-based way to set the time and superbttmap, E-D Browse view text files on a disk, using menus date, speaktime tell the time, E-D S-E-D EMEmacs andher Emacs, more oriented to word undelete undeletes a file, E-D Crunch removes comments and white space MyCLI processing, S-E-D envapkJhm converts Apple][low, medium and high from C files, S-E a CLI shell, works without the res pictures to IFF, E-D IconExec EXECUTE a series of commands from Workbench
S-E Texts: Workbench, S-E-D menued menu editor produces C code for menus, E-D PDScreen FndnKeys explains howto read function keys from quick quick disk-to-disk nibble copier, E-D Dump dumps Rastport of highest screen to HackerSIn Amiga Basic quicken copies Electronic Arts disks, removes printer explains how to win the game 'hacker* protection, E-D SetAlternate sets a second image for an Icon, when Ist68010 guide to installing a 68010 in your Amiga txed 1.3 demo of text editor from Microsmiths, E-D dicked once S-E PrinterTjp tfps on sending escape sequences to C programs SetWindow makes windows
for a CLI program to run StartupTip your printer spine rotating blocks graphics demo, S-E-D under Workbench S-E SmallClock a small digital dock that sits in a window tips on setting up your startup- sequence file popdi like start a new CLI at the press of a button, Sidekick, S-E-D menubar Scrlmper the screen printer in the fourth Amazing XfrmrReview list of programs that work with the Transformer vsprite V E-D 'Sprite example code from Commodore, S- Computing, S-E Assembler programs start 0 makes star fields like Star Trek intro, S-E-D Pictures Mount Mandelbrot 3D view of Mandelbrot set Star
Destroyer hi-res Star Wars starship Robot robot arm grabbing a cylinder Texts vendors list of Amiga vendors, names, addresses cardco fixes to early Cardco memory boards cinclude cross-reference to C include files, who includes what mindwalker clues to playing the game well slideshow make your own slideshows from the Kaleidoscope disk Aml£US. j?isR.13. Amiga Basic programs Routines from Carolyn Scheppner of CBM Tech Support, to read and display IFF pictures from Amiga Basic. With documentation. Also included is a program to do screen prints in Amiga Basic, and the newest BMAP files, with a
corrected ConvertFD program. With example pictures, and the SavelLBM screen capture program.
Routines to load and play FutureSound and IFF sound files from Amiga Basic, by John Foust for Applied Visions. With documentation and C and assembler source for writing your own libraries, and interfacing C to assembler in libraries. With example sound.
Executable programs gravity Sci Amer Jan 86 gravitation graphic simulation, S-E-D Texts MIDI make your own MIDI instrument interface, with documentation and a hi-res schematic picture.
MyCLI Fred Fish Disk 13: A Bundle of Basic programs, including: mandel A Mandelbrot set program, by Robert French Jpad toybox ezspeak mandlebrot and RJ Mical xmodem 3dsolids addbook algebra Fred Fish Disk 5: ror amgseqi amiga-copy band cons Console device demo program with bounce box brickout canvas supporting macro routines.
Cardfi circle colorcirdes Copy freemap Creates a visual diagram of free memory cubesl cutpaste date dogstar input.dev sample input handler, traps key or mouse dragon draw dynamictriangle events Eliza ezterm filibuster fractal joystick Shows how to set up the gameport device fscape gomoku dart haiku as a joystick.
Ha19000 halley hauntedM hidden keyboard demonstrates direct communications with join loz mandel menu the keyboard.
Minlpaint mouse Orthello patch layers Shows use of the layers library pens pinwheel gbox random-cirdes mandelbrot IFF Mandelbrot program Readme rgb rgbtest Rord mouse hooks up mouse to right joystick port sabotage salestalk shades shapes one. window console window demo shuttle sketchpad spaceart parallel Demonstrates access to the parallel port speakspeach speecheasy spell printer opening and using the printer, does a sphere spiral striper superpad screen dump, not working suprshr talk terminal termtest prinLsupport Printer support routines, not working.
Tom topography triangle proctest sample process creation code, not working wheels xenos xmostriper region demos split drawing regions (note: some programs are Abasic, most are Amigabasic, a samplefont sample font with info on creating your own some programs are presented In both languages) serial Demos the serial port Fred Fish Disk 14; AMICUS Disk 14 Several programs from Amazing Computing issues: Tools Dan Kar s C structure Index program, S-E-D Amiga Basic programs BMAP Reader by Tim Jones IFFBrush2BOB by Mike Swinger AutoRequester example DOSHelper Windowed help system for CLI commands,
S-E-D PETrans translates PET ASCII files to ASCII files, S-E-D C Squared Graphics program from Scientific American, Sept 86, S-E-D cdf adds or removes carriage returns from files, S-E-D dpdecode decrypts Deluxe Paint, removes copy protection, E-D queryWB asks Yes or No from the user, returns exit code, S-E vc VisiCaic type spreadsheet, no mouse control, E-D view views text files with window and slider gadget, E-D Oing, Sproing, yaBoing, Zoing are sprite-based Boingl style demos, S-E-D CLICIock, sClock, wClock are window border clocks, S-E-D Texts An article on long-perslstance phospor
monitors, tips on making brushes of odd shapes in Deluxe Paint, and recommendations on icon interfaces from Commodore-Amiga.
Fred Fish Public Domain Software Fred Fish Disk 1; amigademo Graphical benchmark for comparing amigas.
Amigaterm simple communications program with Xmodem balls simulation of the "kinetic thingy" with balls on strings colorful Shows off use of hold-and-modify mode.
Dhrystone Dhrystone benchmark program.
Dotty Source to the "dotty window demo on the Workbench disk.
Freedraw A small "paint" type program with lines, boxes, etc. gad John Draper's Gadget tutorial program gfxmem Graphical memory usage display program halfbrite demonstrates "Extra-Half-Brite" mode, if you have it hello simple window demo accessing the Motorola Fast Floating Point I ibraryfromC Sample program for designing color latffp palette trackdisk requesters Demonstrates use of the trackdisk driver.
John Draper's requester tutorial and example program.
Sample speech demo program. Stripped down "speechtoy".
Another speech demo program.
Speechtoy Fred Fish Disk 2: alib cc dbug make make2 microemacs portar xrf Fred Fish Disk 3 gothic roff ff eforth Object module librarian.
Unix-like frontend for Lattice C compiler.
Macro based C debugging package.
Machine independent.
Subset of Unix make command.
Another make subset command.
Small version of emacs editor, with macros, no extensions Portable file archiver.
DECUS C cross reference utility.
Gothic font banner printer.
A "roff" type text formatter.
A very fast text formatter A highly portable forth implementation. Lots of goodies.
Xlisp 1.4, not working correctly.
Xlisp Fred Fish Disk 4: banner bgrep bison bm grep hermit Prints horizontal banner A Boyer-Moore grep-like utility CNU Unix replacement'yactf, networking.
Another Boyer-Moore grep-like utility DECUS grep simple portable Kermit with no connect mode.
Replacement CLI for the Amiga Version 1.0 singlePlayfield Creates 320 x 200 playfield speechtoy latest version of cute speech demo speech.demo simplified version of speechtoy, with IO requests text.demo displays available fonts timer demos timer.device use trackdisk demos trakedisk driver Fred Fish Disk 6: compress like Unix compress, a file squeezer dado analog dock impersonator microemacs upgraded version of microemacs from disk 2 mull removes multiple occuring lines in files scales demos using sound and audio functions setparallel Allows changing parallel port parameters setserial Allows
changing serial port parameters, sortc quicksort based sort program, in C stripe Strips comments and extra whitespace from C source Fred Fish Disk 7: This disk contains the executables of the game Hack, version 1.0.1. Fred Fish Disk 8: This disk contains the C source to Hack on disk 7.
Fred Fish Disk 9: moire Draws moire patterns in black and white MVP-FORTH Mountain View Press Forth, version
1. 00.03A. A shareware version of FORTH from Fantasia Systems.
Proff a more powerful text formatting program setlace Program to toggle interlace mode on and off.
Skewb a ruble's cube type demo sparks moving snake Graphics demo Fred. FishPteKIQ; conquest An interstellar adventure simulation game dehex convert a hex file to binary f ilezap Patch program for any type of file, fixobj Strip garbage off Xmodem transferred files, iff Routines to read and write iff format files.
Id simple directory program Is Minimal UNIX Is, with Unix-style wildcarding, inC sq.usq file squeeze and unsqueeze trek73 Star Trek game yachtc Dice game.
Fred Fish Pfek 11; dpslide slide show program for displaying IFF images with miscellaneous pictures Fred Fish PteK 12; amiga3d Shows a rotating 3 dimensional solid "Amiga sign".
ArgoTerm a terminal emulator program, written in assembler arrowed Shows a rotating 3 dimensional wire frame arrow.
Id4 directory listing program IconExec SetWindow two programs for launching programs from Workbench that presently only work under
SetAlternate Makes an icon show a second image when clicked once StarTerm terminal emulator, with ASCII Xmodem, dialer, more.
Amiga3d update of 12, includes C source to a full hidden surface removal and 3D graphics beep Source for a f unction that generates a beep sound dex extracts text from within C source files dimensions demonstrates N dimensional graphics filezap update of disk 10, a file patch utility gfxmem update of disk 1, graphic memory usage indicator gi converts IFF brush files to Image strud, in C text.
Pdterm simple ANSI VT100 terminal emulator, in 80 x 25 screen shell simple Unix 'csh1 style shell termcap mostly Unix compatible 'termcap’ implementation.
Fred Fish Dirt 15; Blobs graphics demo, like Unix ‘worms1 Clock simple digital clock program for the title bar Dazzle An eight-fold symmetry dazzler program.
Really prettyl Fish double buffered sequence cyde animation of a fish Monopoly A really nice monopoly game written in AbasiC.
OkidataDump Okidaia ML92 driver and WorkBench screen dump program.
Polydraw A drawing program written In AbasiC.
Polyfractals A fractal program written in AbasiC.
PROM programmer. By Eric Black.
Fred Fifth DtaL32 Fred FifibJMJfi; C-kermit Port of the Kermit file transfer program and Address Extended address book written in Complete copy of the latest developer IFF disk server.
Fred Fish Disk 17: Ps Display and set process priorities Calendar Calendar diary program written in The NewTek Digl-Vlew video digitizer HAM demo disk Archs Yet another program for bundling up text files AmigaBaslc.
Fred Fish Disk 18: and mailing or posting them as a single file DosPlusI First volume of CLI oriented tools for AmigaDisplay dumb terminal program with bell, unit.
Selectable fonts Fred Fish Dish 27 DosPlus2 Second volume of CLI oriented tools for Ash Prerelease C Shell-like shell program, Abdemos Amiga Basic demos from Carolyn developers.
History, loops, etc. Scheppner.
Executables only.
Browser wanders a file tree, displays files, all with the NewConvertFD creates.bmaps from fd flies.
MacView Views MacPaint pictures In Amiga low or high mouse BitPlanes finds addresses of and writes to res, no sample pictures, by Scott Evernden.
MC68010 docs on upgrading your Amiga to use a bitplanes of the screen's bitmap.
Puzzle Simulation of puzzle with moving square 68010 AbouIBMaps A tutorial on creation and use of bmaps.
Multkfim rotate an N dimensional cube with a joystick LoadlLBM loads and displays IFF ILBM pics.
ShowHAM View HAM pictures from CLI.
PigLatin SAY command that talks in Pig Latin LoadACBM loads and displays ACBM pics.
Solitaire AbasiC games of Canfield and Klondike, Scrimpsr Screen image printer ScreenPrint creates a demo screen and dumps it to a from David Addison.
Xlispl.6 source, docs, and executable for a Usp graphic printer.
Spine Graphics demo of spinning cubes, double- interpreter.
Disassem Simple 68000 disassembler. Reads buffered example.
Fred Fish Disk 19: standard Amiga object files and Sword Sword of Fallen Angel text adventure game Blackjack text-oriented blackjack game disassembles the code sections. Data written in Amiga Basic.
JayMinerSlldes sections are dumped in hex. The actual Trails Leaves a trail behind mouse, in Modula-2 Slides by Jay Miner, Amiga graphics chip disassember routines are set up to be Fred Fish Dtek.33 designer, showing flowchart of the Amiga callable from a user program so instructions 3dstars 3d version of the "stars" program below.
Internals, in 640 x 400.
In memory can be disassembled dynamically.
Bigmap Low-level graphics example scrolls bitmap Keymap_Test By Bill Rogers.
With ScrollVPort.
Test program to test the keymapping routines DvorakKeymap Example of a key map structure for the Dvorak Dbuf.geis Double-buffered animation example for LockMon Find unclosed file locks, for programs that keyboard layout Untested but included BOBs and Vsprites.
Don't dean up.
Because assembly examples are few and far DiskMapper Displays sector allocation of floppy disks.
Fied Fish Disk 20: between. By Robert Bums of C-A.
MemView View memory In real time, move with joystick.
AmlgaToAtari converts Amiga object code to Atari format Hypocycloids Spirograph, from Feb. 84 Byte.
Oing Bouncing balls demo DiskSaiv program to recover files from a trashed Lines Demo Example of proportional gadgets to scroll a Sproing Oing, with sound effects.
AmigaDOS disk.
ScreenDump Dumps highest screen or window to the Hash example of the AmigaDOS disk hashing MemExpansion Schematics and directions for building your printer.
Function own homebrew 1 Mb memory expansion, by Sdb Simple database program from a DECUS Hd Hex dump utility ala Computer Language Michael Fellinger.
Magazine, April 86 SafeMalloc Program to debug 'mallocQ' calls Stars Star field demo, like Star Trek.
MandelBrots Mandelbrot contest winners ScienceDemos Convert Julian to solar and sidereal time, TermPlus Terminal program with capture, library, Multitasking Tutorial and examples for Exec level stellar positions and radial velocity epoch function keys, Xmodem, CIS-B protocols.
Multitasking calculations and Galilean satellite plotter.
Vt100 Version 2.0 of Dave Wecker*s VT-100 Pack strips whitespace from C source By David Eagle.
Emulator, with scripts and function keys.
PortHandler sample Port-Handier program that performs.
Fred Fifth Disk 28 Fred Fish Disk 34 Shows BCPL environment dues.
Abasic games by David Addison: Backgammon. Cribbage, Alint Support files for Gimpers 'lint* syntax checker Random Random number generator in assembly, for Milestone, and Othello Blink PD 'alink' compatible linker, faster, better.
Cor assembler.
Cpp DECUS 'cpp' C preprocessor, and a modified Browser Updated to FF18 'browser*. In Manx, with SstMouse2 sets mouse port to right or left port 'cc' that knows about the 'cpp', for Manx C. scroll bars, bug fixes.
SpeechTerm terminal emulator with speech capabilities, Shar Unix-compatible shell archiver, for packing Btree b-tree data structure examples Xmodem files for travel Btree2 Another version of 'btree' TxEd Demo editor from Microsmiths Charlie Heath SuperBitMap Example of using a ScrollLayer, syncing Calendar Appointment calendar with alarm.
Fred Fish Disk 21 SuperBitMaps for printing, and creating Less File viewer, searching, position by percent, This is a copy of Thomas Wilcox's Mandelbrot Set Explorer dummy RastPorts.
Line number.
Disk. Very goodl Fred Rah DisK2St NewFonts Set of 28 new Amiga fonts from Bill Fischer Fred Fifth_Difi! L22 AegisDraw DemoDemo program without save and Pr Background print utility, style options, This disk contains two new "strains" of rrtcroemacs.
No docs.
Lemacs version 3.6 by Daniel Lawrence. For Unix Animator Demo Player for Aegis Animator files Requester Deluxe Paint-type file requester, with sample.
V7. BSD 42, Amiga, MS-DOS. VMS. Uses Cc Unix-like front-end for Manx C. Fred Fish Fred Fish Disk 35 Amiga function keys, status line, execute, Enough Tests for existance of system resources, files, AsendPacket C example of making asynchronous I O calls startup files, more.
To a DOS handler, written by C-A Pemacs ByAndyPoggio. New features indude Rubik Animated Rubik's cube program ConsoleWindow C example of getting the Intuition pointer a ALT keys as Meta keys, mouse support, StringLIb Public domain Unix string library functions.
CON: or RAW: window, for 12, by C-A.
Higher priority, backup files, word wrap, Vt100 VT-100 terminal emulator with Kermit and DirUtil Walk the directory tree, do CLI operations function keys.
Xmodem protocols from menus Fred Fish Jm122 Fred Fish Disk 30 DirUti12 Another variant of Dirutil.
Disk of source for MicroEmacs, several versions for most Several shareware programs. The authors request a FileRequester Lattice C file requester module, with demo popular operating systems on micros and mainframes. For donation if you find their program useful, so they can write driver, from Charlie Heath.
People who want to port MicroEmacs to their favorite machine.
More software.
MacView VlewB MacPaint pictures in Amiga low or high Fred Fish Disk 24: BBS an Amiga Basic BBS by Ewan Grantham res, with sample pictures, by Scott Evernden.
Conques Interstaller adventure simulation game FlneArt Amiga art Plop Simple IFF reader program Csh update to shell on Disk 14, with built in FontEditor edit fonts, by Tim Robinson PopCLI Skfekick-style program invokes a new CLI, cofnmands.named variables, substitution.
MenuEditor Create menus, save them as C source, by with automatic screen blanking.
Modula-2 A pre-release version of the single pass David Pehrson QuickCopy Devenport disk copiers duplicate copyModula-2 compiler originally developed for StarTerm3.0 Very nice telecommunications by Jim protected disks.
Macintosh at ETHZ. This code was Nangano ScrollPf Dual playflekf example, from C-A, shows 400 transmitted to the AMIGA and Is executed on Fied Fish Disk 31 x 300 x 2 bit plane playfiekf on a 320 x 200 x the AMIGA using a special loader. Binary Life Life game, uses blitter to do 19.8 generations 2 plane deep playfiekf.
A second.
SendPacket General purpose subroutine to send FretiEL?h PiftlLlS Mandelbrot Version 3.0 of Robert French's program.
AmigaDos packets.
Graphic Hack A graphic version of the game on disks 7 MxExample Mutual exclusion gadget example.
SpriteMaker Sprite editor, can save work as C data and 8 RamSpeed Measure relative RAM speed, chip and fast.
Structure. Shareware by Ray Larson.
EredF18h..D18h2§ Set Replacement for the Manx "set" command for Tracker Converts any disk into files, for electronic This is the graphics-oriented Hack game by John Toebes.
Environment variables, with improvements.
Transmission. Preserves entire file structure.
Only the executable is present.
Tree Draws a recursive tree, green leafy type, not Shareware by Brad Wilson.
EadfiriilM26 UnHunk Processes the Amiga "hunk1 loadfiles.
TxEd files.
Crippled demo version of Mlcro6mith's text TriClops 3-D space invasion game, formerly commercial, now public domain. From Geodesic Collect code, data, and b6s hunks together, allows Individual editor, TxEd.
Specificatto of code, data, and bss origins, and generates Vdraw Full-featured drawing program by Stephen Tsize Print total size of all files in subdirectories.
Binary file with format reminiscent of Unix "a.out" format. The Vermeulen.
Unlfdef C preprocessor to remove given ifdefd output file can be easily processed by a separate program to Xloon Invokes CLI scripts from loon sections of a file, leaving the rest alone. By produce Motorola "S-records" suitable for downloading to Tigon Displays text files from an icon.
Dave Yost.
Vttest VT-100 emulation test program. Requires a Unix system.
Fred Fish PM 36 Unix-like 'cp' copy program Updated version of clock on disk 15.
Acp Clock Csh DietAid Echo FixHunk Fm KickBench Lex TunnelVision Vc Vt100 Manx 'csh'-like CLI, history, variables, etc. Diet planning aid organizes recipes, calories Improved 'echo' command with color, cursor addressing Flxs programs to let them run in external memory.
Maps the sectors a file uses on the disk.
Docs, program to make a single disk that works like a Kickstart and Workbench.
Computes Fog, Flesch, and Kincaid readability of text files.
David Addison Abasic 3D maze perspective game.
VI81calc-like spreadsheet calculator program.
Version 2.2 of Dave Wecker's telecom program YaBoing Oing I style game program shows sprite collision detects Erertfigh PtoK 37 This disk is a port of Timothy Budd’s Little Smalltalk system, done by Bill Kinnersley at Washington State University.
EredFish Disk 35 Sep 86 Sci American, Circle Squared algorithm Csquared FixObj Strips garbage off Xmodem transfered object AmigaDOS handier (device) example from C-A Hp-10c Mimics a HP-10C calculator, written in Modula-2 IFFEncode Saves the screen as an IFF file IffDump Dumps info about an IFF file Jsh BDSC-like CLI shell NewStat STATUS-like program, shows priority, processes Reversi Game of Reversi, version 6.1 Uudecode Translate binary files to text, Unix-like programs Vdraw Drawing program, version 1.14 VoiceFiler DX MIDI synthesizer voice filer program Window Example of creating a DOS
window on a custom screen * Fred Fish Disk 39 Handler 'echo', touch', 'list, 'els' written in assembler.
Displays HAM images from a ray-tracing program, with example pictures.
AnsiEcho Display Driver Xlisp Example device driver source, acts like RAM: disk Xlisp 1.7, executable only Amazing Computing™ has vowed, from our begining, to amass the largest selection of Public domain software in the Amiga Community, and with the help of John Foust and Fred Fish, we see a great selection of software for both beginners and advanced users.
These Public Domain software pieces are presented by a world of authors who discovered something fun or interesting on the Amiga and then placed their discoveries in the Public Domain for all to enjoy. You are encouraged to copy and share these disks and programs with your friends, customers and fellow user group members!
Fred Fish DiriHfl Terminal emulator with Xmodem, Kermit and CIS B protocols, function keys, scripts, RLE graphics and conference mode.
Dynamically displays the machine state, such as open files, active tasks, resources, device states, interrupts, libraries, ports, etc. Popular file compression system, the standard for transiting files Program that decodes area codes into state and locality.
'allnk' replacement linker, version 6.5 An 'asteriods' done.
Data General D-210 Terminal emulator Windowed DOS interface program, version
1. 4 Windowed AmigaDOS CLI help program Prints text files with
headers, page breaks, line numbers Starts a new CLI with a
single keystroke, from any program, With a screen-saver
Version 2, with source.
Sprite Editor edits two sprites at a time Spelling checker allows edits to files Ahost AmigaMonitor Arc AreaCode Blink Cosmo Dg210 DirUtil DOSHelper PagePrint PopCLI SpriteEd X-Spell (Fred Fish Disk 30 is free when ordered with at least three other disks from the collodion.)
In Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the materials in this library are freely distributable. This means they were either publicly posted and placed In the Public Domain by their Author, or they have restrictions published In their files to which we have adhered. If you become aware of any violation of the author's wishes, please contact us by mall. "AC* The disk are very affordable!
Amazing Computing™ subscribers $ 6.00 per disk.
Non subscribers..$ 7.00 per disk This is extremely reasonable for disks with almost 800K of information and programs. If you agree, please send check or money order to: PiM Publications Inc.
P. O. Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 All Checks must be in US funds
drawn on a US Bank Please allow 4 to 6 weeks for delivery
Amazing Computing™: Your resource to the Commodore Amiga
Amazing Computing™ If you are reading our Amazing Directory
without seeing Amazing Computing™, look what you are missing
in the rest of Volume 1 Number 9: Dos 2 Dos reviewed by
Richard Knepper Transfer files from PC MS-DOS and AmigaBasic
MaxiPlan reviewed by Richard Knepper The Amiga version of
Lotus 1-2-3 Gizmoz by reviewed by Peter Wayner A collection of
Amiga extras!
The Loan Information Program by Brian Catley A basic program to "review" your financial options. Starting Your Own Amiga Related Business by William Simpson The possible ways to establish your business.
Keep Track of Your Business Usage for Taxes byJamesKummer A program to justify your Amiga to the IRS The Absoft Amiga Fortran Compiler reviewed by Richard A. Reale Use your valuable Fortran programs.
Using Fonts from AmigaBasic, Part Two by Tim Jones The Amiga Basic program outlined last issue 68000 Macros on the Amiga by Gerald Hull Advance your program's ability.
TDI Modla-2 Amiga Compiler by Steve Faiwiszewski Looking at an alternative to C and Forth.
Or, what you have missed in our previous issues!
Volume 1 Number 61986 Temple of Apshai Triology reviewd by Stephen Pietrowicz The Hailey Project: A Mission in our Solar System reviewed by Stephen Pietrowicz Flow: reviewed by Erv Bobo Texteraft Plus a First Look by Joe Lowery How to start your own Amiga User Group by William Simpson Amiga User Groups Mailing List by Kelly Kauffman a basic mail list program Pointer Image Editor by Stephen Pietrowicz Scrimper: part three by Perry Kivolowitz Fun With the Amiga Disk Controller by Thom Sterling Optimize Your AmigaBasic Programs for Speed by Stephen Pietrowicz Volume 1 Number 1 Premiere February
1986 Super Spheres By Kelly Kauffman An AbasIc Graphics program Date Virus By John Foust There Is a disease that may attack your Amiga EZ-Term by Kelly Kauffman An Abasic Terminal program Miga Mania by Perry Klvolowitz Programming fixes and mouse care Inside CU by George Musser a guided insight into the AmigaDos™ CU Summary by George Musser Jr. A removable list of CU commands AmigaForum byBelaLubkin A quick trip through CompuServe's Amiga SIG Commodore Amiga Development Program by Don Hicks What to ask and where to go to be a developer Amiga Products A listing of present and expected products.
Volume 1 Number 2 March 1986 Electronic Arts Comes Through A look at the new software from EA Inside CU: part two by George Musser George continues his investigation of CLI and ED A Summary of ED Commands Volume 1 Number 71986 Aegis Draw: CAD comes to the Amiga by Kelly Adams Try 3D by Jim Meadows an introduction to 3D graphics Aegis Images Animator: a review by Erv Bobo Deluxe Video Construction Set reviewed by Joe Lowery Window requesters in Amiga Basic by Steve M ichel ROT by Colin French a 3D graphics editor
* 1C What I Think" Ron Peterson with a few C graphic programs
Your Menu Sir! By Bryan D. Catley programming menues in Amiga
Basic IFF Brush to AmigaBasic 'BOB’ editor by Michael Swinger
Convert IFF Brush Files for use with Amiga Baste Linking C
Programs with Assembler Routines on the Amiga by Gerald Hull
Uvel by Rich Miner A review of the Beta version of the Uvel
frame grabber Online and the CTS Fabite 2424 ADH Modem by John
Foust Amiga Products Superterm V 1.0 By Kelly Kauffman A
terminal program written in Amiga Basic A Workbench "More"
Program by RickWirch Amiga BBS numbers Volume 1 Number 3 April
1986 Analyze! A review by Ernest Viverios Reviews of Racter,
Barataccas and Mindshadow Forth I The first of our on going
tutorial Deluxe Drawl! By Rich Wirch An Amiga Basic program for
the artist in us all.
Amiga Basic, A beginners tutorial The start of our tutorial of the most active Amiga language.
Volume 1 Number 81986 The University Amiga By Geoff Gamble Amiga's inroads at Washington State University Micro Ed a look at a one man army for the Amiga MicroEd, The Lewis and Clark Expedition reviewed by Robert Frizelle Scribble Version 2.0 a review Computers in the Classroom by Robert Frizelle Two for Study by Robert Frizelle a review of Discovery and The Talking Coloring Book True Basic reviewed by Brad Grief Using your printer with the Amiga Marble Madness reviewed by Stephen Pietrowicz Using Fonts from AmigaBasic by Tim Jones Screen Saver by Perry Kivolowitz A monitor protection program
in C Lattice MAKE Utility reviewed by Scott P. Evernden A Tale of Three EMACS by Steve Poling.bmap File Reader in Amiga Basic by Tim Jones A look into the.bmap files Inside CU: part 3 by George Musser George gives us PIPE Volume 1 Number 4 May 1986 SkyFox and Articfox Reviewed Build your own 51 4 Drive Connector By Ernest Viveiros Amiga Basic Tips by Rich Wirch Scrimper Part One by Perry Kivolowitz A C program to print your Amiga screen Microsoft CD ROM Conference by Jim O'Keane Amiga BBS Numbers Volume 1 Number 5 1986 The HSI to RGB Conversion Tool by Steve Pistrowicz a basic program for
color manipulation AmigaNotes by Rick Rae The first of the Amiga music columns Sidecar A First Look by John Foust A first “under the hood" look at the IBM compatible hardware John Foust Talks with R. J. Mical at COMDEX™ How does Sidecar affect the Transformer an interview with Douglas Wyman of Simile The Commodore Layoffs by John Foust John looks at the "cuts" at Commodore Scrimper Part Two by Perry Klvolowitz Marauder reviewed by Rick Wirch Building Tools by Daniel Kary Your Resource to the Commodore Amiga™ Plus, don't forget our regular columns: The Amicus Network (a "Newsletter" of the
Amiga Computer Users) AmigaNotes (a music column) ROOMERS (an insider's look at the Amiga Development Community) Forth!
The Amazing C Tutorial Amazing Computing has been offering the Amiga community the best in technical knowledge and reviews for the Commodore-Amiga™ since our first issue in Febuary 1986.
We were the first magazine to document CLI We were the first to show Sidecar™ from COMDEX™ in full detail.
We were the first to document a 51 4 drive connector We were the first magazine to offer serious programming examples and help.
We were the first magazine to offer Public Domain Software at reasonable prices.
We were the first magazine with the user in mind!
However, Amazing Computing™ will not rest on past achievements. The Commodore- Amiga™ has more surprises for you and we are ready to cover them. We even have a few tricks that will "Amaze" you.
To subscribe to Amazing Computing™, please fill out the form below and send to: PiM Publications Inc., P.O.Box 869, Fall River, MA 02722. Back issues are still available at $ 4.00 each Yes! Amaze Me!
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AMICUS: A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 All A12 A13 Fred Fish: FF1 FF2 FF3 FF4 FF5 FF6 FF7 FF8 FF9 FF10 FF11 FF12 FF13 FF14 FF15 FF16 FF17 FF18 FF19 FF20 FF21 FF22 FF23 FF24 FF25 FF26 FF27 FF28 FF29 FF30 FF31 FF32 FF33 FF34 FF35 FF36 FF37 FF38 FF39 FF40 BACK ISSUES: $ 4.00 each VOL.1 1 VOL. l 2 VOL.1 3 VOL. l 4 VOL. l 5 VOL. l 6 VOL. l 7 engineers, architects and designers are deserting their drafting tables for the precision and ease of THE PROVEN CAD SYSTEM FOR THE AMIGA The highly advanced and powerful DynamicCad Drafting System by Microillusions has recently emerged from years of successful
applications as a professional CAD system in the aerospace and piping industries. Combined with the Commodore Amiga, the most dynamic and versatile microcomputer on the market today, DynamicCad is revolutionizing the work methods of countless engineers and architects.
DynamicCad’s time and money-saving applications for these highpowered professionals is truly astounding. Here is an advanced, 2-D drafting system with isometric capabilities that can be combined with many models of plotters, printers, and digitizers.
The DynamicCad software was developed with three overridding principals in mind. First, it had to be 'easy to learn,’ which resulted in DynamicCad’s simple commands and abundant help tools.
Next, it had to be ’easy to use,' which was assured by DynamicCad’s powerful tools, simple commands, and mouse menu functions, which combine to make the revising and capturing of drawings quick and efficient. Finally, DynamicCad had to provide great flexibility. This has been achieved by its efficiency in producing every type of mechanical and architectural drawing, including printed circuit boards, integrated circuit designs, pert charts, piping diagrams, and electrical diagrams with their associated net lists.
With the addition of extra memory DynamicCad will provide you with what may be the fastest PC type CAD system available.
Microillusions has an excellent upgrade policy and any changes to the system software will also be made available to existing DynamicCad users. Upcoming features for DynamicCad include a hierarchical data base which will allow for increased flexibility for underlying relevant information on library parts.
New libraries will be added, and additional plotter and printer drivers. Currently Microulusions is writing a template for use on most digitizers. As the capabilities of DynamicCad expand our newsletter will help you keep pace with the technology and grow along with it.
FEATURES: DC Automatically configures itself to support
additional memory Supports most printers and plotters Supports
hard disk systems DC is not copy protected DC supplies online
help Screen resolutions of 640 x 400 and 640 x 200 modes Both
keyboard and mouse functions
• Extensive symbol library
• Alphanumerics: left, right, center, horizontal, vertical,
varied angle
• Multiple line possibilities with varied arcs and degrees
• Horizontal & vehicle doglegs
• Automatic line dimensioning in U.S. standard, metric or neither
Gives X V coordinates
• Create own pseudo symbols
• Arcs and circles
• Editing commands to move, delete and search Enter, rotate,
change size or delete pseudos
• Gn Sroup functions to manipulate, delete, step and repeat,
move, etc.
• Fill and cross hatch capabilities
• Zoom and move elements around, resizing and repositioning
• Creates automatic schematics
• Creates net lists from electronic drawing or schematic
• Parameter settings include window size, percent of viewing
area, alphanumeric ratios, 8,192 level selections, adjustable
grid sizes, third line showing, grid set and overlay, line
snap, alpha size, oft screen display
• Can capture pictures in IFF lormat AMIGA IS A TRADEMARK OF
Compiler "Don't throw away those old punched cards with your
classic FORTRAN programs."
Reviewed by Richard A. Reale The Absoft Corporation has ported their complete implementation of the 1977 ANSI version of the FORTRAN language to the Amiga. Termed AC FORTRAN, the compiler is a direct descendent of Absoft's other microcomputer implementations, such as the Macintosh, Atari ST, Hewlett Packard. It is completely source compatible with their mainframe FORTRAN compilers.
The compiler supports a number of language extensions which will probably be standard in the next revision of FORTRAN, as well as productivity tools including a full-screen interactive debugger, a linker, a library manager and a C interface. There is also a version of the AC FORTRAN environment which supports the Motorola 68881 floating point chip in the Turbo Amiga.
In keeping with tradition, the Absoft compiler has pre-connected FORTRAN logical unit number (LUN) 5 for program data to the simulated card reader, which is simply a filename supplied on the command line at run time.
In the same manner, LUN 6 is pre-connected to the simulated line printer which is a dynamically generated output file and is automatically spooled to your printer. So, for many scientists and engineers, the transition from mainframe to microcomputer FORTRAN may be no more complex than transferring their source code and input data to text files on the Amiga.
This review of AC FORTRAN was done on an Amiga 1000 running under Workbench 1.1. This Amiga has a retro-fit 68010 CPU instead of the standard 68000, 512K of RAM and a single internal 3 1 2 inch disk drive. Occasionally, some test programs were run on a standard Amiga with the 68000 CPU, but running under a beta version of the soon to be released Workbench 1.2. The test results showed only minor differences between these two environments.
In this report, I concentrated on an evaluation of the compilers adherence to the ANSI 77 standards for FORTRAN and on the veracity of the instructions for the compiler's use.
A future article might more fully analyze the performance of specific programs with regard to the operation of the run-time environment, the library manager and the FORTRAN interface with C, assembly language and Amiga ROM routines.
Absoft Reference Manual The AC FORTRAN reference manual has no doubt benefitted from its previous personal computer incarnations. It is professionally printed, sub-divided and reads quite easily. The manual is composed of three main sections occupying about 300 pages. A seemingly generic section describes the mechanics of the compiler's invocation and the actions produced by an array of compile-time options.
Some of the most useful options permit the source code to be compiled under FORTRAN 66 standards, or to set variable size defaults to INTEGER*2 and LOGICAL*2, or to adjust the working heap size in multiples of 1024 bytes. Another chapter describes the operation of their symbolic debugger.
Six additional chapters, which complete this generic section, form the body of a typical FORTRAN 77 reference volume. Absoft is quick to point out that this material is for reference only. It is not meant to be a FORTRAN tutorial for the novice programmer.
A second section deals with the specific implementation on the Amiga. This material is also praiseworthy both for its clarity and content. It includes advice on the setup of a development Workbench disk suggesting the location, content and names of working directories which the compiler expects to access.
Additionally, there is a chapter devoted to the FORTRAN 77 interface to the Amiga ROM kernel routines.
For those of us who lacked the ambition or patience to buy the ROM kernel manuals, this chapter is a real bonus. It summarizes, one by one, almost all the ROM routines, including those in the DOS, Exec, graphics and Intuition libraries.
The final section describes the operation of Absoft's FORTRAN linker which performs a permanent linking of incomplete object modules into an executable program, and the use of Absoft's FORTRAN library manager, which assimilates collections of FORTRAN modules underthe user's direction.
Compiling FORTRAN programs At first, the operation of the compiler may be a little confusing to a mainframe programmer. The compiler can generate an executable task without the subsequent use of a linker. This will automatically occur when all references and procedures named in the main program module are located by the compiler in its routine search path. Any additional system information normally provided by the linker on a mainframe is communicated dynamically by the Absoft run-time environment on the Amiga.
The compiler is said to be 'disk-based,' meaning that even large program compilation can be virtually free of excessive memory consumption. Even on a single disk system, it is not overly inconvenient to keep all the source code oh one disk and the compiler and its associated files on another Workbench disk. In this configuration, several disk switches are necessary for successful compilation. Generally, the "not enough memory" Guru message will be avoided.
On the other hand, I like to live dangerously and copy the source code to RAM: where the compilation proceeds 4-5 times faster and with no disk swaps. The compiler's output is position- independent and reentrant. Thus, a FORTRAN compiled module may be loaded anywhere in the Amiga's memory and may be shared by several programs simultaneously.
The actual invocation of the compiler, which is called 'F77' on the Absoftdistribution disk, is made on a command line in any current CLI window. Compile time options are expressed with Unix-style command lines, and precede the source file name. To compile the file TEST.FOR for example, the following could be entered: 1 P77 -L -S -O -Z30 TEST.FOR The L option produces a standard listing file with error diagnostics to be used during program development. The S option produces a symbol table file which is required for the operation of the debugger tool to be discussed below. The U option
redirects input and output to the terminal if an asterisk (*) was used to specify these Tuns in the source code.
Finally, the Z option specifies the number of kilobytes of heap space allocated for this compilation. If the Z option is omitted, the default is 20 K. This may be insufficient for the compilation of large programs.
The compiler will produce a display on the terminal which reports on the status of the compilation and which is partially dictated by the options selected on the command line. The display shown below was produced by the example command line above. The example source code TEST.FOR had an intentional syntax error to demonstrate the effect on this display.
Absoft FORTRAN 77 Compiler Version 2.2 1: Symbol table complete — 1 error detected Memory usage: Labels 600 bytes Symbols 3480 bytes Total 51454 bytes Excess 102374 bytes Source 1117 lines 2: Bypassing 3: List file complete 4: Bypassing When the error in the source file was corrected and the file was compiled, the following display was produced: Absoft FORTRAN 77 Compiler Version 2.2 1: Symbol table complete Memory usage: Labels 600 bytes Symbols 3480 bytes Total 51454 bytes Excess 63390 bytes Source 1117 lines 2: Object file complete 3: List file complete 4: DEBUG symbol file complete 5:
Program file complete: 23616 bytes Elapsed time: 0:52 = 1288 lines minute Testing the compiler In all, I selected and compiled over 50 individual FORTRAN programs. About three-quarters of these were specifically written to test whether particular features of the ANSI specification for FORTRAN 77 were supported in Absoft’s product. Nearly 2000 individual features were tested and all were found to be supported.
I heard a rumor that suggested the compiler was having problems with VIRTUAL ARRAYS or with normal ARRAYS in deeply nested DO loops. Virtual arrays are another way to save on program memory usage since these arrays are stored on disk rather than in memory. I specifically tested for problems associated with manipulations of FORTRAN arrays, but could find none.
I do know of a situation in which even a properly compiled program will fail. The Absoft reference manual warns "If the stack is not large enough, the program may execute erratically, possibly causing a system failure (a crash)".
By "erratically," they mean that sometimes an executable program will run and sometimes it will not run, even if all other things appear equal. If the stack is too small, it is also possible for different Guru meditation numbers to be produced by different invocations of the same program!
Absoft suggests that the initial STACK size of 4 Kbytes allocated by default for a particular CLI session should be increased to the sum of the storage requirements for each program unit shown in the listing file. While this may seem quite straightforward, in practice I often had to set the stack STACK to be twice larger than this estimate, for consistent success.
It is apparent that the current Absoft product is aimed at the scientific and engineering workplace. An increasing number of scientists, engineers and other FORTRAN programmers are utilizing personal computers in place of minicomputers for their daily programming environments.
With this in mind, I compared the efficiency of the Amiga as a personal FORTRAN workstation with that of a typical multiuser- multitasking minicomputer. To do this all of the test programs were compiled on both an Amiga and on a DEC PDP-11 23 machine. Every effort was made to minimize the total time to produce an executable image.
Thus, on the Amiga all of the FORTRAN source code was placed into RAM: and no other tasks or processes were running during the compilation. Likewise, on the PDP-11 23, all of the executable files were built while only one user was on the system, a rather unnatural state for atypical minicomputer installation.
Nevertheless, the Absoft FORTRAN environment on the Amiga was a clear winner with an average waiting time of only 15 seconds compared to 95 seconds on the minicomputer. The somewhat small average size (8.5K) of the resulting executable test files on the Amiga (range from 3K to 25K) did tend to emphasis the overhead of the minicomputer. On the other hand, the differential would clearly have been even larger if the usual number of people (2 to 5) were all working on the minicomputer.
I was also interested in comparing the speed and accuracy of a mathematically intensive FORTRAN program on the Amiga with its homolog on another computer.
However, it did not seem justified to restrict this comparison to the minicomputer since most have dedicated floating point processors and their speed advantage is assured.
For the present I choose to use two benchmarks which were recently tested on a Macintosh (see "Fortran's New Life on the Mac", E. Floack and M. Flock, MacWorld, June 1986) after being compiled with Microsoft's FORTRAN version 2.1 developed by Absoft. All calculations were done using double-precision floating point variables which on the Amiga assures that values are treated as 64 bit entities and follow the IEEE proposed standard (taskP745).
The first benchmark calculated the product of B*B, where: B=tan (arctan (exp (log (sqrt (A*A))))) A-1 and A is incremented from 1 to 2500. The total execution time on the Amiga (103.8 sec) was almost two times that on the minicomputer (50.4 sec) and fully 23 percent greater than the reported value for the Macintosh (84.3 sec).
In comparison, the root mean square error of the calculation on the Amiga (2.3E-15) was almost twice as great as that on the minicomputer (1.2E-15), but only about one-thousandth of the value reported for the Macintosh (1.1 E-10).
The second benchmark calculated the sin, cos, tan, arctan, and log of the numbers from 1 to 10,000.
Again, the Amiga's 308 seconds appeared significantly slower than both the minicomputer (231 sec) and the published time of
108. 6 sec for the Macintosh.
However, I have verify the times for the Macintosh were based on single-precision arthmetic. If single-precision arithmetic is used on the Amiga, the elapsed times for each benchmark would be
23. 1 sec and 94.1 sec, respectively.
Linking of compiled object modules Absoft has provided two mechanisms for linking a number of of compiled program modules into a single executable image file.
The traditional approach uses their linker. It resolves all references between the main program module and the list of additional modules to produce a static and permanently linked executable image.
The second approach is a powerful overlay procedure. The main program unit and all additional modules are compiled individually, but are not statically linked into a single permanent image.
Rather, the Absoft FORTRAN run-time system performs a dynamic linking ofprogram modules as each is needed. This latter approach is particularly attractive for large programs where memory usage of a single task may beprohibitive and is actually less complicated than static linking to achieve.
This simplification occurs because the Absoft run-time environment can provide for the default automatic searching and loading of unlinked program units. To do this, Absoft has defined a default search path for the dynamic linking. It looks first in the current directory, then to the library directory of the current disk, and finally to the library directory of the currently assigned system disk.
The memory space allocated for a given program module's execution and data storage is recovered when the RETURN statement of that module is executed.
Thus, by careful program design, it always should be possible to minimize actual memory consumption, by having the run-time system automatically load small modules of the executable program from their disk storage.
I ported a FORTRAN version of the popular game GOMOKU to the Amiga. It consists of a dozen subroutines, statically linked into a single 30 Kexecutable image.
Simply by skipping the static linking step and letting the Absoft run-time system perform a dynamic linking I was able to reduce the permanent memory allocation for the main program unit to 7 K, without any further modifications. When run, the other program units were swapped in and outof memory as needed. They varied in size from about one to six K. Naturally, there are some warnings when using the dynamic linking. The chief one is that unresolved references at compile time will not be discovered until run-time, since the compiler had been explicitly informed (via a compile time option) that
the current module is known to be incomplete and will eventually be linked either statically or dynamically to complete the references.
A second price to pay is the extra time which is required to constantly load program code from a floppy disk. I do not consider either of these warnings particularly troublesome, since the former is easily handled by the debugging tool, while the latter may eventually by alleviated with by a hard disk.
Screen-oriented debugging tool The debugger is an interactive, screen oriented tool for developing FORTRAN programs. With it, the values of program variables may be examined or changed, memory usage and logical unit connections displayed, and program execution controlled on an individual instruction basis with the aid of breakpoints.
Anyone who has ever toggled in a program by hand on one of those historic room-size personal computers allowing instruction- by-instruction progression will view the debugger as another great idea come home.
The debugger uses two overlapping windows; one to enter a battery of debugging commands and view their consequences, and one to accept another set of commands. Meanwhile, the FORTRAN source listing is displayed, with the current line of execution marked. The latter is much like the LIST window in Microscoft's Amiga Basic.
Both debugging windows have front-back and resizing gadgets, although movement between the windows is more efficiently done through the keyboard. Absoft claims that if you understand the use of the debugger, you should never have to imbed purely diagnostic PRINT or WRITE statements in your source code again. I agree completely.
There are, however, "bugs" in the debugger. One is the lack of cursor positioning information to keep pace with a resized window. Another problem, is the manual states that program input or output occurs at the bottom of the debugger window when in fact the actual I O occurs in the CLI window from which the debugger was invoked.
These two problems can be overcome by keeping the debugging windows at their full extents, and using the front-back gadget to reach the CLI window where input output is to be reported. In spite of these shortcomings, this tool is simply an indispensable part of the FORTRAN programming environment.
Distribution disk layout The compiler, linker, library manager, and debugger are delivered on one disk, together with the executable version of the Absoft run-time library, and a small number of additional files necessary for the FORTRAN interface to C routines and to Amiga ROM kernel routines.
The disk is not copy-protected. These tools may be moved to other disks or directories. One restriction is that the run-time library must always be accessible to a compiled program, a feature which will surely limit theportability of some code.
There are four example programs, including a FORTRAN version of the "Hello World" program from the Intuition reference manual.
These programs are specifically included because they demonstrate the use of include files, and the single FORTRAN subroutine call necessary to access ROM routines.
They also illustrate the use and acceptance (by the compiler) of structured programming features, an indication that these sample programs were actually coded by a diehard C programmer. Any old FORTRAN programer who scrolls one of these listings by will surely get sea sick from the waxing and waning of all those tabbed- out statements!
There are no help files nor instruction files on the distribution disk.
There is no on-line help in the form of pull-down menus in any of the above tools.
On the first day after I got the compiler, I did not actually try the supplied test programs nor read the reference manual with great detail. Instead, I wrote my own programs and plunged right in. I was delighted to find that my simple experiments were just as simple to compile with only the rudimentary knowledge gained from about an hour's worth of reading through the manual.
Nothing is perfect In spite of my overall exuberance for Absoft's product, there were still some obvious flaws and certainly room for improvement. Most noteworthy was one piece of misinformation • an error message which said "out of memory" instead of "heap overflow". This prevented the compilation of the test programs provided on the supplied disk for almost a full day.
Perhaps nothing is so aggravating as being unable to execute a sample program specifically supplied for that purpose. By default, the compiler allocates a heap size of 20K, which is insufficient to compile these sample programs. The initial heap size is easily changed. A simple README.FIRST file could point that out the minimal heap for each sample program. Absoft has been apprised of this deficiency and will no doubt rectify the manual.
I also suggest that a Programmers Reference Card (about the size of a shirt pocket will do it) should be produced and included with the other documentation.
Even though the debugger has its own on-line help file, and the compiler and linker will prompt for their appropriate arguments in cases of user forgetfulness, this compendium of mnemonics is a familiar aid to most programmers, regardless of language.
Finally, the list price for this product ($ 295.00) will probably be prohibitive for the occasional user of FORTRAN or for those users who would like to experiment with the Amiga as a workstation but are unsure as to its acceptability.
One suggestion would be to make available both professional and personal versions of the Absoft FORTRAN compiler at appropriate prices in a manner similar to marketing strategies adopted by other companies in this field.
AC FORTRAN 77 Compiler and Debugger List price $ 250 Absoft Corporation 4268 N. Woodward Royal Oak, Michigan 48072
• AC* Using Fonts from AmigaBASIC, Part Two... fonts & libraries
and how to use them fromAmigaBASIC By Tim Jones People Link
SYSOP The Window BBS, (617)-868-1430 Libfunctions: GetFontNameAddresses: DECLARE FUNCTION AllocMemfi LIBRARY DIM StzAddfi (NumFonts%) DECLARE FUNCTION OpenFontfi LIBRARY FOR Num% b 1 TO NumFonts% DECLARE FUNCTION OpenDiskFontfi LIBRARY StrAddfi (Num%) — PEEKL(NewPtrfi) DECLARE FUNCTION AvailFontsfi LIBRARY NewPtrfi b NewPtrfi + 10 DECLARE FUNCTION AskSoftStylefi LIBRARY DECLARE FUNCTION SetSoftStylefi LIBRARY NEXT Num% LIBRARY "diskfont. library" LIBRARY "exec. library" GetFontType: LIBRARY 11 graphics. Library11 afPtrfi b BufPtrfi + 2 DIM afType%(NumFonts%) ScreenWindow: FOR Num% b 1 TO
NumFonts% afType%(Num%) » PEEKW(afPtrfi) WIDTH 78 SysVariables: afPtrfi b afPtrfi + 10 NEXT Num% 1 All variables must be LONG if passee GetThePointSizes: 1 to functions DIM PointSize%(NumFonts%) AFFMEMORY& « 1 1 find fonts in memory PointPtrfi b BufPtrfi + 8 AFFDISKfi » 2 1 find fonts on disk FOR Num% b 1 TO NumFonts% MEMFPUBLIC& « 0 1 memory must be fully public and PointSize%(Num%) “ PEEKW(PointPtrfi) 1 relocatable PointPtrfi b PointPtrfi + 10 MEMFCLEAR& » 655376 1 presets memory alocated to zeros BufSizefi » 512 1 I want 1 2K for my buffer NEXT Num% (10 bytes * fonts + 2) BufPtrfi b 0 1
this is the pointer to the memory BuildNames: 1 that was DIM AvailName$ (NumFonts%) allocated by the AllocMemfi () call FOR Num% b 1 TO NumFonts% Char$ b » '• AllocatOMem: WHILE Char$ O CHR$ (0) Char$ b CHR$ (PEEK (StrAddfi (Num%))) BufPtrfi a AllocMemfi (BufSizefi, (MEMFPUBLICfi OR MEMFCLEAR&)) IF Char$ CHR$ (0) THEN IF BufPtrfi b 0 THEN AvailName$ (Num%) ¦ AvailName$ (Num%) + Char$ PRINT "Couldn't find";BufSizefi; StrAddfi (Num%) “ StrAddfi (Num%) +1 Print "Bytes of contiguous free RAM."
END IF FreeMemExit WEND END IF PRINT "Memory Allocation GOOD. ";BufSizefi; NEXT Num% Print "bytes allocated. Searching for fonts..." DisplayNames: GetAvailFonts: CLS: COLOR 3,0 PRINT "Font Name";SPACE$ (7); "Pt Tp Font Name"; FontListfi b AvailFontsfi (BufPtrfi, BufSizefi, AFFDISKfi OR Print SPACE$ (7);"Pt Tp Font Name";SPACE$ (7); "Pt Tp" AFFMEMORYfi) PRINT “-------- — "; SPACE$ (7); "---- -------- — "; IF FontListfi O 0 THEN Print SPACE$ (7);"---- -------- — ";SPACE$ (7);"--- — " PRINT “Couldn't find Fonts. Cleaning up..." COLOR 1,0 FreeMemExit FOR Num% a 1 TO NumFonts% END IF StrLen% ¦ LEN(AvailName$
(Num%)) PRINT “Found Fonts!!"
Pad% b 15 — StrLen% PRINT"AvailFontsHeaders and AvailFonts structures created at"; Ysize$ b STR$ (PointSize%(Num%)) Print BufPtrfi IF LEN(YSize$) 3 THEN Ysize$ ¦ " " + Ysize$ NumFonts% ¦ PEEKW(BufPtrfi) flype$ b •* " + STR$ (afType% (Num%)) + " " PRINT "I found";PEEKW(BufPtrfi);"fonts on the disk and in AvailName$ (Num%) ¦ memory.11 AvailName$ (Num%)+SPACE$ (Pad%)+YSize$ +flype$ NewPtrfi b BufPtrfi + 4 PRINT AvailName$ (Num%); NEXT Num% vV-.*¦
* • V 6 LOCATE 19,1: COLOR 3,0 PRINT "Enter the name of the font
and its point size"; Print 1 from the chart above list" PRINT
"Type 'END,0,0' to exit";SPACE$ (50) PRINT "Font Name, Point
size and Type (separated by commas) "-I*; Print SPACE$ (20)
LOCATE 21,53: INPUT Ft$, Pt%, Type%: COLOR 1,0 IF UCASE$ (Ft$)
— "END" THEN FreeMemExit END IF IF UCASE$ (RIGHT$ (Ft$,5)) O
".FONT" THEN Ft$ « Ft$ +".font" DisplayFont: WHILE HOUSE (0) O
0: WEND WINDOW 2, Ft$ +" "+STR$ (Pt%)+" Points",
(0,0)-(631,186),0, — 1 Rpfi » WINDOW (8) Font Ft$, Pt%,0,0 enable%
«¦ AskSoftStylefi (Rpfi) PRINT: COLOR 3,0 FOR i — 0 TO 7
SetStyle CINT(i): PRINT Ft$ +" "+STR$ (Pt%)+STR$ (i)+" SetStyle
CINT(i + 8): PRINT Ft$ +" " +STR$ (Pt%)+STR$ (i+8) NEXT i Type% “
1 Font "topaz.font",8,0,0: COLOR 1,0 PRINT "Click the HOUSE to
GetDecision SUB FreeMemExit STATIC SHARED
BufPtrfi, BufSizefi, pFontfi IF pFontfi 0 THEN CALL
CloseFont (pFontfi) IF BufPtrfi O 0 THEN CALL FreeHemfi
(BufPtrfi, BufSizefi) CLS: PRINT: PRINT PRINT "Memory
at";BufPtrfi;"Returned to the HEAP."
END IF LIBRARY CLOSE STOP END SUB SUB Font (fontName$, height%, style%, press%) STATIC SHARED pFontfi, Rpfi, Type% IF pFontfi 0 THEN CALL CloseFont (pFontfi).
FontName0$ ¦ fontName$ + CHR$ (0) textAttrfi (0) ¦ SADD (fontName0$) textAttrfi (l) ¦ height%*6553 6fi + style%*256 + press% IF Type% — 2 THEN pFontfi — OpenDiskFontfi (VARPTR(textAttrfi (0))) IF pFontfi 0 THEN CALL SetFontfi (Rpfi, pFontfi) ELSE PRINT "Couldn't set the font to ";fontNama$ FreeMemExit END IF ELSEIF Type% — 1 THEN pFontfi o OpenFontfi (VARPTR (textAttrfi (0))) IF pFontfi 0 THEN CALL SetFontfi (Rpfi, pFontfi) ELSE PRINT "Couldn't set the font to ";fontName$ FreeMemExit END IF END IF END SUB 14840 Build America Dr. X%. Woodbridge, VA 22191
• AC* Info: 703-491-6494 Amiga is a ™ for Commodore Business
Machines "The Amiga sound situation is looking... er...
sounding.. _ better by the moment."
By Rick Rae CIS 76703,4253 The Amiga sound situation is looking... er... sounding... better by the moment. As of this writing (September), I have, in house, four MIDI interfaces, three audio samplers, and several software packages. And more goodies are on the wayl This month we have our first audio-oriented submission by another author. Stephen Pietrowicz shares his impressions of EA's Instant Music with us elsewhere in this issue (see our special insert). I received Stephen's article as I was working on MY review of Instant Music, so you'll get a double shot this month.
Don't expect widely diverging opinions, though; we were both pleased with this product.
Before I launch into the review, I want to take a moment to make my first retraction. In the July issue I reviewed ActiVision's Music Studio. In that review I accused the authors of using "fairly large amplitude steps in their program", and blamed this for a certain roughness in the synthesized sounds as they swelled or faded out; I also complained about clicks and pops as voices were reassigned..
Since that review was written I have had a chance to play with several music- and sampling programs, and ALL of them have exactly the same symptoms. I am now beginning to attribute these vagaries to the routines in the Amiga itself.
Still, I firmly believe that these extraneous noises can be eliminated through careful programming. We are just beginning our journey up the Amiga learning curve, and time will do wonders for the quality of our programs. What we already have is impressive and far outstrips what can be done on any other general purpose computer of comparable price.
REVIEW: ELECTRONIC ARTS INSTANT MUSIC I wanted to start this review by classifying Instant Music, but I cant seem to find a category in which to place it, except for one: it's FUN. IM is different from anything which has gone before; it lets you create music, in real time, while knowing absolutely nothing about the subject. EA says the program uses artificial intelligence; I would say they are stretching the definition a bit.
Let's take a look at exactly what makes IM work.
"Jamming" is a colloquial term for what happens when several musicians play together with nothing more than a song's framework in mind. I am involved with a very casual local band, and at least once during each practice session someone runs through a chord progression or riff we all like. Within moments all the members are playing appropriate parts, and a tune springs to life.
This is the essence of a jam: the spontanaity of the moment.
In order to jam, each player must have an understanding of the basic framework and rules of music; to simply play random notes is not sufficient. Perhaps the most fundamental rules are those of harmony.
For example, all musical tones can be described as ratios. Let's start with middle C. If we strike this key on a piano keyboard, a tone with a fundamental frequency of roughly 261.5 hertz rings out. If we strike the next C above, the tone created is roughly 523 hertz. This means that each "C" is twice the frequency of the one below it; in other words, the octave is a 2:1 ratio. If we strike both C keys simultaneously, the result is a very pleasant melding of the tones.
The next simplest ratio occurs if we strike the C and the G above it.
This is referred to as a fifth, and is roughly a ratio of 3:2. Striking these two notes together is also a pleasing experience. But what if you strike a C and the B just below it? This is a rather distasteful combination, and it is because the ratio is roughly 18:17.
Generally speaking, the simpler the ratio, the more pleasant the results. This principle, in conjunction with others, allows us to determine what notes will harmonize with a given melody.
Instant Music uses these rules to generate a "template" of acceptable notes, leaving the player the decision as to _which_of these notes will be heard. Although hardly in the category of artificial intelligence, it is a novel idea I haven't seen implemented elsewhere. It is vaguely reminiscent of the old "Music Minus One" records: the Amiga plays three backup parts and lets YOU play the lead line. The difference is, with Instant Music you can also pick which part you want to play AND be assured that you will always be on key.
Instant Music comes in a colorful "slip cover" folder which includes the disk, a 64 page manual, and 6 page reference card,.
The disk is copy protected and utilizes a key disk scheme. It IS possible to make a backup using DISKCOPY, but you will have to insert the master disk briefly each time you boot. I am told that Marauder will make a bootable backup copy if the speed of the external drive is adjusted, but I'm not ready to tear my hardware down for this, so I can’t verify the claim. If you munge your master disk EA will replace it at no charge during the 90 day warranty period, or for $ 7.50 thereafter. To EA's credit they suggest you back up your master disk, and they do so on page one of the manual.
The Instant Music disk came to me write protected. This is an excellent idea: it protects you from yourself if you slip up while making the backup copy. I wish more manufacturers would flip or remove the write protect tab before shipment.
With the exception of the copy protection information, Instant Music is shipped on a stock AmigaDOS disk. It will run on a single drive 512K system and boots directly from 1.1 Kickstart; a second drive is helpful but not essential. For some reason Instant Music exhibited the same quirk as Music Studio: I was not able to launch it via CLI from my normal system disk without the Guru dropping by for tea and cookies.
The IM disk is not auto-booting; it loads up with a standard Workbench screen. To start the program, you must double click the disk icon, then the Instant Music icon, and then wait. And wait... the time from clicking the icon to a usable system is well over a minute. A part of this time is spent loading the introductory song, which begins playing automatically in mousejam mode.
One of the beauties of Instant Music is that you can start playing with it immediately. Grab the mouse, push the left button, and move it forward and backward: you're playing musicl The motion of the mouse controls a small white cursor on the screen; this corresponds to the note to be played. When the left button is pushed, Instant Music uses its "template" and plays the closest selectable note at the next acceptable point.
An awful lot of time can pass while you do nothing more than mousejam using the default parameters and the supplied songs.
Seven song subdirectories cover everything from classical to rock, with a grand total of 66 tunes and song segments. A few of these songs are VERY well done; my pick for best orchestration is Anitra's Dance.
GOING BEYOND THE DEFAULTS Once you get the hang of mousejamming, you'll want to begin exploring variations on the stock themes. Many changes can be made on the fly as you play.
By pressing function keys F1 through F4 you can change the selected instrument — the one you are mousejamming with -
- without having to stop playing. The up and down arrows allow
you to transpose the song a half step at a time over a fairly
wide range; again, this happens real time as you play. The
right or left arrow will instantly return the song to the
original pitch.
You can also change the rhythmic pattern in real time. Instant Music supports ten preset rhythms accessed by touching digits on the Amiga's numeric keypad. Or, you can turn the rhythm guides off completely by selecting Free mode. Between transposing, changing rhythms, and switching instruments, you can turn a simple repeating progression into a fairly impressive tune.
Instant Music gives you additional flexibility by allowing you to select the pitch template used. The Melody template is the most restrictive, sometimes allowing only selection of the octave in which a note is to be played. Chord mode gives you a bit more freedom, allowing you to select from the three or four notes which make up the selected chord; this lets you wander around quite a bit while still staying in perfect harmony. Scale mode opens up the entire scale for the defined key; at this point you have seven notes per octave and can throw in a few klinkers if you aren't careful. Finally,
Free mode turns the pitch template off completely, leaving you totally on your own.
After you've played with the default settings for a while, you'll probably feel very good about your skill at mousejamming. When your head starts to swell there's nothing like trying to jam with the pitch and rhythm guides set to "free" to bring you back down to Earth! I tend to forget just how much help the system is lending.
COMPOSING YOUR OWN SONGS At some point you may want to try your hand at writing some of your own music, and Instant Music provides reasonable facilities for this. A song may be up to 64 measures in length, which is sufficient for most popular music and even some classical pieces.
There are no provisions for repeats, but the song automatically plays continuously. This is especially useful for rock and jazz jamming, where a given chord progression is repeated over and over.
There is no way to specify an intro or coda, so the entire song must be written out in its long form if this is required. You will also have to stop the song manually at its conclusion.
These limitations may sound restrictive, but remember that IM is not intended as a compositional tool. What it is supposed to do, it does quite well. In fact, the only thing that bothered me about composing was that I could find no way to clear or change a pitch guide. There is no way to start with a "clean slate"; you always begin with an existing song. Each song contains preset pitch templates, and I was never able to find a way to defeat or alter them. This is not a restriction if the pitch guide is set to Free during composing, but in mousejamming with the new song you may not play what
you had intended!
One particularly nice feature is the cut and paste buffer. Instant Music allows you to mark any section of music and copy the music into the buffer; you may then paste the buffer into the song elsewhere. More importantly, you can cut a section from one song, load a new song, and then paste the buffer into the new song. This allows you to save files with snippets of songs and assemble them into a complete composition at a later date. This is especially useful with the drum kit: you can build up a library of patterns and then string those patterns together to form a complete song. This is the
system used by most drum machines, and it works quite well.
SCREEN LAYOUT Instant Music divides the screen into three sections. The uppermost section includes the menu bar and is used to select various options and control operating modes. Menus are used to load and save sounds, songs, and templates, edit the song in memory, and control jamming modes.
The bottom of the screen contains controls for the four instruments used in the current song. Each instrument has its own control block which indicates the name of the the sample; the instrument which is currently selected (for mousejamming, sample loading, note placement, etc.) is highlighted.
Directly below each name is a slider gadget which controls the volume of the associated instrument. A cute trick is that the intensity of each instrument's color tracks the volume slider.
Decrease the volume and the note blocks become dimmer; increase the volume and they become brighter. The only potential downside of this is that at very low volumes you can lose sight of the instrument altogether.
Also included is a display enable pushbutton for each instrument; click the button and that instrument's part is removed from the display. This is useful if you have a complex multi-part composition and want to look at only one instrument.
Finally, each instrument includes three buttons for selecting the octave in which it plays; this allows you to shift a sound up or down for the best rendition. More range would have been nice, but plus or minus one octave is certainly useful.
The majority of the screen is devoted to the song itself. This display takes the form of colored rectangles representing notes.
Vertical position represents pitch, horizontal position indicates time, length is duration, and color indicates timbre (instrument).
At first glance this seems to be the same system used by Music Studio on it's "musical paintbox" screen, but the resemblance is superficial. Music Studio uses an arbitrary relationship between block length and tone duration: one unit is a 32nd note, two units a 16th note, three units an 8th note, and so on. In contrast, Instant Music's block length is proportional to the tone: an 8th note's block is four times longer than a 32nd note, and the sounding of the notes corresponds exactly to the movement of the tempo pointer across the screen. This system is, to my mind, far superior to that used
by Music Studio.
The screen is divided by a number of vertical lines which split the display into bars; these provide a handy reference as to where you are in the song. Along the bottom of the score display there is a stripe which is the rhythm line. At high magnifications this stripe displays the rhythm template; on more global screens it melds into a solid bar. Moving along this stripe during playback is a small pointer which indicates what portion is playing at each instant.
The program seems to be well thought out. Unlike many programs I've worked with lately, the requesters are very snappy and not sluggish at all. This may be due to the way the disk is broken down into small subdirectories. Whatever the technique, little touches like this show forethought by the author.
Also nice is the fact that everything is adjustable while the score is playing. You can change tempo, volume, you name it. In fact, you can even load and change instruments AS THE MUSIC CONTINUES. The only clue that something special is going on is an occasional break in the tempo of the song. Nicely done to say the least.
SAMPLED SOUNDS Electronic Arts didn't skimp with the selection of instruments; there are 19 on the disk, running the gamut from the traditional piano and strings to esoteric sounds like DoVoice (a person singing "Do") and synthesized textures. Only a few of these sounds are so bad as to be pointless, and some of them are excellent. The only negative point is that most are not multi- VT100 Emulation for the Commodore Amiga™ MiddleMan™ Communicate with information services, mainframes, and other personal computers? Provides true DEC™ VT1 DO1*4emulation? Emulates the VT100 numeric keypad?
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stretch across the entire musical range. Due to the laws of
musical acoustics this results in a sound which is only
realistic across a narrow range.
(We'll be taking a look at this phenomenon in a future column.)
The Drum Kit voice is particularly interesting, because it IS multisampled and includes five instruments: bass drum, tom tom, snare drum, high hat cymbal, and wood block. There are eight tunings forthe wood block and twelve for each of the others.
Of course there is nothing to prevent you from importing your own instruments, or even creating your own multi-instrument sets like the Drum Kit. All of the samplers I have at this time are capable of writing IFF format files, and any of them may be used to create instruments for IM. (A review of these samplers is coming up; stay tuned!) I tried my hand at this almost immediately; after all, what good is a DoVoice without a WopVoice? Grin THE INSTANT MUSIC MANUAL The manual is very well done, and is divided into several logical sections. You can read far enough to learn what you need to know
and ignore the rest with very few side effects.
The first section is a quick introduction to the program, including information on mousejamming, loading songs and instruments, changing existing songs, and saving modified scores. This section, ten pages in length, is all you need if you simply want to make music with what is provided.
The second section goes into greater detail, providing information on creating your own songs and templates. This section is divided into tiny lessons called "etudes" (technically, a piece of music taught for the sake of learning a lesson other than the music itself). Each etude covers a small part of composition, such as laying down bass lines, placing chords, or the like. I would have enjoyed a few examples which went through the complete composition of a song from beginning to end, but the information provided is sufficient..
The third section is a reference which defines the terms used by Instant Music and explains the function of all commands.
Following this is a glossary of musical terms which covers a fairly wide spectrum. Probably very few of us need to have a chord explained to us, and even fewer want to know anything about Mixolydian mode, but it's all there forthe perusing.
The fourth section is an appendix which comments on all the songs included. This is a handy section for study, as it details the progression and rhythmic devices used in each song and suggests modifications for the user to try. This is especially useful for the tunes in the Progressions subdirectory, which are chord changes taken from various rock and jazz tunes. These progressions are excellent starting points for your own songs.
The manual seems to be geared to a one drive system. It mentions that there is room for about forty songs per backup disk and suggests that you make multiple backups for additional storage space. Since the requester supports DF1 I see no reason not to use data disks for virtually unlimited storage if you have a second drive. Speaking of this, one of the nice features for the future is support for HD1, This was ghosted in my copy,' presumably because I don’t have a hard disk installed.
Here once again is a manual with no index, but somehow I don't mind this one as much as usual. The table of contents is done in outline fashion, making it relatively easy to locate a desired section.
FLAKIES I ran across a few minor bugs in both the program and the manual.
Fortunately most were not fatal, and all are avoidable once you know about them.
The manual suggests that you back up the master disk, and warns you to name the backup disk anything but "IM", which is reserved for the master disk. Fine, thought I, let's do that, and we'll call the backup "InstantMusic”. The backup proceeded without a hitch, but the disk refused to boot: I would get an infinite pause after the Instant Music logo screen, and double clicking would simply restart the boot with the same result. The reason? The master disk is NOT named "IM” as the manual indicates; instead it's named ~ you guessed it — "InstantMusic". Name your backup anything else and you'll
be safe.
When playing in mousejam mode, the lowest note is sometimes enabled when it shouldn't be: dragging the cursor block to the absolute bottom of the screen plays notes whether they are in key or not.
Moving the tempo bar all the way to the left sometimes sets zero tempo: the playback freezes until the slider is moved to the right.
On some disk requesters there is blank space below the last file name. If you click in this area, the requester will set up a file name which is a random truncation of one of the listed names. (If you should be so silly as to try to load this file, IM catches the error gracefully and posts a "File not found" message. You would never do this under normal circumstances; remember, I was TRYING to crash the system!).
I did a lot of menu and option manipulation while songs were playing, and occasionally I confused the system as it was refreshing the screen, resulting in random diagonal lines being drawn. Some went away, others remained on the screen until I reset the computer.
When experimenting with imported samples, I was able to crash Instant Music by playing large samples. A 42K sample created with the Mimetics sampling package caused playback to freeze after playing only a few notes; the only cure was a reboot. An 18K sample created with the same software loaded and played correctly, so I would guess the maximum sample length to be 32K. Apparently the author did not anticipate the possibility of importing extremely large samples.
IN CONCLUSION Instant Music will probably go in my bottom drawer after this review is written, since it’s a program I wont be using very often. On the other hand, when people come over and I want to impress them with my Amiga, IM will probably be one of the first programs I run.
And that, my friends, is one of the highest compliments I can pay toaprogram.
That's all for now. Till next month... Nybbles, Rick — SUMMARY: ELECTRONIC ARTS INSTANTMUSIC This one is especially for those of us with little or no musical skill. I found a few bugs, but most of them are non*fatal and all are avoidable. At the price you should definitely consider it if you are interested in music at all. Forthe sake of fun, a hearty thumbs up.
PRODUCT: Instant Music $ 49.95 COPY PROTECTION: Key disk.
REQUIREMENTS: Amiga with 512K, one drive, KS1.1 Electronic Arts
- 1820 Gateway Drive ¦ San Mateo, CA 94404 800-245-4525
• AC- By John Foust Roomers The most-asked questions of a
rumor-monger and more...... Fill in the blank: When
will_arrive? This is the most- asked question of a
rumor-monger. The most popular blanks are:
A. Sidecar
B. AmigaDOS 1.2
C. Genlock
D. Flight Simulator
E. Turbo Pascal followed by generic pleas for 'a good word
processor', 'a good database' and 'a good programming
And what might be the answers to these questions?
A. Sidecar: Perhaps mid-December. Your local dealer will probably
get a demo unit several weeks before you can buy one, for
between $ 695 and $ 795. Production was rumored to begin in
early November, but one rumor persists that there is a
warehouse with 1,500 Sidecars here in the US.
B. You might have it already. When I wrote this, the master disks
had not been duplicated, and only developers had 1.2 gamma 1
release disks. More details can be found below.
C. Genlock is being manufactured now, according to a
Commodore-Amiga engineer who worked closely with the design.
Some delays are expected because of problems finding second
sources for some electronic parts in the Genlock.
D. Again, you might have it now. Working demos were shown at the
West Coast Commodore Association convention. According to
some, Jet will be released two months after Flight Simulator.
I presume its release also depends on the sales of Flight
E Even the legendary Borland has fallen to advertising non products. They are making enough money in the IBM P C world to afford large ads in AmigaWorld, and to whip up the wrath of a group of computer owners as large as the Amiga market. Some people sent letters to Phillipe Kahn, the head of Borland. His replies said "No way," in so many words.
Of course, this leaves the possibility that another company will out- Borland Borland, and produce a nice interpretive Pascal for the Amiga. Of course, Borland could port Turbo Pascal for much less money and effort than someone else could write another Turbo Pascal.
AmigaDOS 1.2 nears shipment AmigaDOS 1.2 will be shipped to dealers in late November. It is expected to retail for $ 15. It includes three disks, and a manual printed update for the new commands, in an Amiga-style binder, with tabs on the side.
The Extras disk includes a utility that reads and writes IBM format 5 1 4 inch disks under AmigaDOS. It should also have an update of Amiga Basic, with a few new commands, but mostly bug fixes and speedups.
AmigaDOS 1.2 developer updates AmigaDOS version 1.2, gamma 1, number 33.44 was shipped to developers in mid October. It was a seven disk set.
Some developers have reported strange lock-ups with this version, especially when initializing disks. Hopefully, the release version will be truly free of strange bugs.
This was the last free update to today's developers. Commodore- Amiga will be switching to a new developer support plan. Future updates will be available for a price. The details of this plan haven't been released yet, but the bug report sheets for the gamma 1 release offer a dollar credit reward to developers who report true bugs in this version.
Big surprises The biggest surprise in the gamma update was the Wack documentation. Wack, a debugger, was supplied on the first developer tool disks without documentation. It has more features than any developer ever imagined. It was just sitting on our developer's extra disk, all this time.
One night, when I had a little free time, I looked through the binary code, using the CLI 'type opt h' command. (The words 'free time' on my lips means I'm talking about pre-Amazing Computing days.)
I saw many debugging command keywords, and I couldn't guess at their syntax or use, so the disk went back in the box. Other developers surely did the same thing.
The real Wack has a Lisp-like debugging language that allows you to write extensible macros that are executed at specified conditions, and things like that. Now developers can write Lisplike macros to poke around in BCPL and 68000 assembler, and hunt bugs in C compilers. Somehow, this all makes sense. It's not just a game to force you to learn more than one language.
Infominderdemo The gamma disk set contained a demo version of Infominder, the information organizer from Jim Becker of Terrapin Software, distributed through Byte-by-Byte. The program was loaded with an index to the 'autodocs', the self-documentation traditionally supplied with the developer updates.
Why did these disks carry a warning "Do not duplicate without express written permission"? Early in the summer, Commodore sent developers the 1.2 beta 4 disks. Soon afterwards, developers gave copies of these disks to their local dealer, and then they spread to local user groups.
In effect, if not in deed, Commodore had just released a new buggy operating system. So Commodore sent a memo to all dealers, reminding them not to copy the beta disks for customers.
Of course, it wasut an official release. But tell that to the press.
Computer Chronicles and CompuServe's Electronic Online Today reported that Commodore was recalling its buggy operating system.
New Lattice compiler 3.1 It is said that the developers are getting a not-so-great Lattice C compiler in the next update. One version will be given to developers, and another more optimized and feature-packed version will be sold separately. The next version of Lattice C is
3. 10. Developer Conference It is hard to guess what will happen
there, since the agenda was.
Circulated only a week or so before the conference. Developers jumped at the chance to go, without any confirmation of the content of the conference. It could have been about Amiga Basic, for all anyone really knew.
Tuesday is registration and a cocktail party. Wednesday will have Carl Sassenrath, the author of Exec talking about the Exec, a speech on the ANSI C standarization effort, someone from Electronic Arts will talk about workstation development environments, (Hmm, a lot of developers have those in their garage...) a talk on IFF by Commodore West Chester techie Carolyn Scheppner, Los Gatos' Jim Mackraz on the improvements to AmigaDOS 1.2, RJ Mical on a programmer's suite of high-level routines to make Intuition even easier, Dale Luck on graphics, and Barry Whitebrook on advanced graphics topics.
Thursday has Neil Kahn and Glenn Keller on bus expansions and interfaces, a talk about MIDI and Amiga music, Gail Wellington on European topics, Tim Jenison, of New Tek on video processing, a talk on scientific applications of the Amiga. Last but not least, a representative from marketing will uncover the highly secret future products in the Amiga line.
Friday is the closing remarks, a press conference, and a developer's fair, open to the public. Several workshops will be held in the afternoon, including a presentation from Lattice, Luck and Mical on Intuition and graphics, another MIDI presentation.
Finally, Jom Goodnow, of Manx Software, will demonstrate his new debuggers. The evening will linger over an awards dinner.
_ -AC* A programming environment gg designed specifically for the Amiga.. & gg Multi-Forth™ for the Amiga. Sif Multi-Forth is a new language which was designed to unleash the full power of the Amiga. Multi-Forth provides complete access to all Amiga libraries including Intuition. It compiles stand-alone applications in seconds (other languages typically take several minutes). There are no royalties, and no "levels." CSI provides the best support of any computer language vendor, including CSI technical hot line, our own CompuServe net (GO FORTH), and comprehensive documentation. Programming
the amazing Amiga is interactive and fun with Multi-Forth. Contact us for a technical data sheet with the complete list of Multi-Forth's features.
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(301) 984-0262 in MD or 1-800-FORTHOK by Jon Bryan I'd like to
think that some of you readers out there are enjoying my
series of articles on the language called "Forth". No, I
take that back. I hope that a LOT of you are enjoying it!
Things have been a little slow in my first few
installments, and I apologize for that. At first there
wasn’t much that I could do simply because I didn’t have
anything to do it with. Multi-Fort from Creative Solutions
solved that problem, and I've since shown you an
implementation of a circle-drawing algorithm and some
sprite tools. They demonstrated some of the unique
characteristics of Forth in general and Creative Solutions'
implementation of the language in particular, but were
still pretty limited.
One of my goals in writing these articles is to illustrate the power, utility and flexibility of this truly unique language. As a vehicle for the task, I proposed back in the July issue that I would write a three-dimensional simulation of a bouncing ball. Well, without further fanfare, here it is!
If you were given the task of describing, in English, exactly how a ball bounces, what would you say? That it starts with some initial velocity and flies through the air until it hits something? That it then bounces? That it loses a little bit of energy on each bounce, and that air friction works to slow it down some more? Oh, and don't forget gravity.
So, after bouncing around for a while the ball's velocity eventually decays to nothing and it stops, right? Well, as we all know, computers need precise instructions. A program to animate an image of a bouncing ball on a CRT has to be very precise.
Precisely what I've done in this demo program is this: first, a custom screen and window are opened, the perspective view is drawn in the window, and the ball sprite is set up. The main loop animates the ball. When the velocities decay to zero the loop starts over with new velocities. Within the loop the window is monitored for a click on the close gadget, which causes the sprites to be freed and the screen closed. Here's how it looks in Forth:: Bouncer ( ) Initialize BEGIN InitVelocities BEGIN BouncerEvents DoMove Bounce Stoppea?
UNTIL AGAIN; Rather concisely put, if I do say so myself.
BACK TO THE BEGINNING All the details of the code are hidden in a few simple words. Let me go through the listing step by step and explain them.
But first, let me say that you're wasting your time trying to do any serious programming on the Amiga without the full set of reference manuals. I would also like to commend the people at Amiga who put them together. Bravo!
The Hardware Reference Manual gives all the details on creating, changing and moving sprites, along with a tremendous amount of other information. One of the things it says is that "it is convenient to lay out the sprite on paper first." I don't know about you, but I'd rather let the computer do the work.
The first few words in the listing are an implementation of some sprite-defining tools. In fact, they're basically the same tools that were in my last column. I've made some changes (dare I say improvements?) After thinking about the problem for a few more weeks, but the basic idea is still the same. The word Sprite interprets a block of ASCII characters and lays down the binary image of a simple sprite in memory. Attached does the same for an "attached" sprite. They provide simple, but powerful, tools for the creation of sprite images.
The real power of Forth can be seen in the word MakeBall, though. MakeBall is something Forth programmers call a "defining" word. It allows the creation of a class of words which all share the same run-time behavior. The sprites named Oball, 1 Ball, 2Ball, 3Ball, 4Ball and 5Ball, when executed, CHANGE THEMSELVES! That allows an elegant solution to the problem of changing the size of the ball as it moves further away from and closer to our point of view.
After the definitions of the ball sprites are the following two lines: CREATE BallVectora] Oball Iball 2Ball 3Ball 4Ball 5Ball [For those non-Forth programmers out there, CREATE builds the header for the word BallVectors, but doesn't allocate any space in the dictionary. When executed, BallVectors will place its address on the stack, which in this case will be the address of the first value in an array of execution vectors. The Forth word] (right bracket) turns on the compiler and causes the 16-bit tokens for the words which follow it to be placed in the dictionary. The word [(left
bracket) turns the compiler back off. The word ChangeBall takes a number off the stack, multiplies it by two to get a word offset which it adds to the address provided by BallVectors, and fetches the appropriate token for subsequent execution. Later, when we want to change the size of the ball all we need to do is calculate the vector.
If you're not a Forth programmer you're probably saying "what is this turning the compiler on and off?" That's an excellent question. Forth doesn’t "compile" in the same sense that C or Pascal does. What it does is find words in the dictionary and either execute them or store their address or token (depending on the implementation) in the "parameter field" of the word being defined. The word: is a good example. When "colon" executes it looks forward in the input stream for a name and lays down that Rmi Project Journal for the Amiga Computer Are you tired of Amiga magazines that seem to be
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invited (Formerly Amiga Project) sequence of characters as
part of the "header" for a new word.
This program takes about twenty seconds to compile, so you can see that it's a very efficient method. (To complicate things a bit, some words are "immediate" and execute even when the compiler is turned on. Then there are the "subroutine-threaded" Forths, which really DO compile machine code for each word.
Continuing with bouncing balls, the words which are used to define the shadows are much the same as those for the balls, but the shadows are "simple" sprites, unlike the "attached" ball sprites.
After the sprite definitions are the words for getting the sprites from the operating system and freeing them when the program finishes. GetBall tries to get two consecutive sprites and aborts with an error message if it's unsuccessful. GetShadow will only accept the sprite it asks for, number seven, because it requires specific color registers. Of course, if one of the requests gets a sprite that it cant use, it has to free that sprite before it can continue.
Moving the ball and shadow are accomplished at the lowest level by MoveBallSprite and MoveShadowSprite which expect screen coordinates on the stack and make calls to the system routine MoveSprite.
The colors for the shaded balls are set by 19-31. Greys, which explicitly sets color registers 19 through 31. There's a little story in this. I began by assigning a brighter shade to each successive register. Then when I started work on the shadow, I discovered that I couldn't make it a dark color without assigning it to a lower- numbered sprite than the ball sprite. Because a low-numbered sprite has a higher priority than one with a higher number, that meant the shadow appeared in front of the ball when it was rolling on the floor. I had to go back and redo the sprite definitions.
A DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVE We’re finally to the portion of the program that animates the ball.
First there are a number of constants and a few variables. These define the coordinate system that the ball will move within and provide the proportions to generate the proper perspective view.
There are constants for the force of gravity and the coefficient of restitution for the ball, and variables which will hold the velocities in each axis. The Z-axis (depth) coordinate is also kept in a variable to cut down on stack manipulation.
The word Perspective generates the screen coordinates for a given X, V and Z axis position. Ycrt and Xcrt use it, whereas Zcrt simply divides the Z-axis position by a constant (4096). The value (0-5) returned by Zcrt is used later by ChangeBall to change the size of the ball and shadow.
MoveBall puts all the perspective calculations together. After the screen coordinates and size vectors are calculated for both the ball and its shadow, the system routine WaitTOF waits for the vertical blanking period before moving the images. If the sprites were moved while the beam was drawing the screen display they would be "sliced" up frequently because they would move somewhere else before they had been completely drawn. I had to write my own routine to wait for blanking when I did this on the Commodore 64.
There are several words which clip the X, V and Z coordinates in order to keep the ball within the confines of the "room." There is also a subtle problem to be solved here. Suppose the ball is moving very fast and when the next position is calculated it's outside the room. We can clip the coordinates to the boundaries, but that's only part of the problem. Suppose the ball is falling and its velocity is increasing. If the new velocity is already calculated and we simply clip to the boundaries, the ball gains velocity that it shouldn't have, allowing oscillatory conditions to occur. In other
words, the ball can get stuck bouncing and never stop (which is a bit unrealistic). I know because I did it wrong the first time.
The solution I use is to test the coordinates and, if they're outside the room, to calculate the actual velocity using the equation: +-SQRT(Calculated_VelocityA2- (2*Acceleration*Distance_outside))
- YvelAdjust, YvelAdjust, and AdjustVelocity are the RPN
implementation of the equation. You'll notice that they only
deal with the V axis. The X and Z axis don't have the problem.
I won't go into the derivation of the equation, but it comes
from the equations that follow.
We're gradually working up to gravity, but first let's take a look at friction. There are several variables for the remainders of divisions, and constants for air and surface friction which will be stored in the variable FrictionCoef. In the word Friction, I do some fixed-point scaling. The problem is that with integer values calculating a small percentage has to be handled specially for small values. I've set AIR to 999 and Surface to 990, which will provide a coefficient for air friction of 0.1% and surface friction of
1. 0%. If I did a simple Xvel 6 FrictionCoef 6 1000 * THE for
example, with a value for FrictionCoef of 999 and an Xvel of
10, I'd get an answer of 9 instead of 9.99. The solution is to
scale Xvel up by 1000 before the calculation, then scale it
back down using 1000 MOD to get a quotient and a remainder
and save the remainder for use the next time around. It gives
three decimal places of accuracy to the calculation and
prevents the velocity from decaying unnaturally quickly.
And now, Gravity. Here are the equations.
Distance=initial_Velocity*Time+Acceleration 2*TimeA2 Final_Velocity=initial_Velocity+Acceleration*Time We can arbitrarily, and conveniently, say that one unit of time passes each time we move the ball. Then, with Time=1, the equations simplify to: Distance=initial_Velocity+Acceleration 2 and Final_Velocity=initial_Velocity+Acceleration assuming cancellation of units. Since the value for acceleration is constant, Acceleration 2 is a constant as well, allowing the calculations to be reduced to two additions. NewX, NewY and NewZ calculate the new coordinates and velocities with the appropriate
adjustments for gravity and friction, and DoMove puts it all together.
The next thing you'll see is the word Blip, which does nothing at ail. Next month I intend to give you the extensions to add sound.
I simply ran out of time this time around, and I apologize.
With movement and sound out of the way the next thing to handle is the bounce. I've arbitrarily set the coefficient of restitution of the ball at 95%. Each time the ball strikes a surface it will lose 5% of its velocity in the axis perpendicular to that surface.
With clipping already in place, all that remains for the detection of a bounce is a test for equality with the maximum or minimum value on each axis. Or is it? Say the ball is on the floor rolling around.
Going back to the sound which isn't done yet, if the only condition for a bounce (which assumes a Blip) that is tested is equality with the maximum value of V we'll get some very strange sound effects for a rolling ball. (It sounded like a motorboat on my C-64.) The word Enough? Checks to see if the ball has enough velocity to make noise. Finally, if the ball is determined to be rolling, the friction coefficient is changed. At first I thought that changing the friction coefficient would be a problem, but it turned out that the test for changing it came free as part the bounce.
A perspective view is the next requirement. The ball wouldn't bounce very realistically against a blank screen. DrawBackground uses Multi-Forth's graphics extensions moveto and drawto in conjunction with the system call SetApen to draw a simple perspective view of the room using the border color.
Before the view can be drawn a window has to be opened for it, and before that can be done a screen has to be opened. The Simulator for the AMIGA 512K Only $ 24.95 Now play BLACKJACK on your AMIGA just like you were in Nevada. Deals up to nine players using a simulated shuffled deck. The program actually analyses and reports on your progress during the game so you can mathematically build your own system of betting and winning. With Hi-res graphics and color, its like you’re playing with genuine cards. The instructions are built into the program so there are no manuals to lose.
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(208) 322-4958 BounceScreen and BounceWindow structures are used
for those calls. To avoid recalculating the view and
keeping track of offsets I made the window immovable and
unsizeable. The window is positioned a few lines down from
the top of the screen to expose the screen's drag bar and
allow it to be moved (try it!).
The only event I'm looking for is a click on the close gadget in the window. Since we must be polite when programming on the Amiga, there are a few words which free the sprites and close the window and screen at exit.
Unless we want the ball to bounce forever a test for clicks must be made within the main loop. The word BouncerEvents checks for a CLOSEWINDOW message. The CASE statement is used even though an IF... THEN would do just as well because other tests might be added in the future.
In the home stretch now, Initialize opens the screen and window, gets the sprites and sets their colors, draws the background, and places the initial values for the X and V axis positions on the stack.
InitVelocities sets the friction coefficient, zeroes the velocity remainders, and selects the initial X, V and Z velocities.
You'll see the definitions tstO and tst1 at the very end of the listing. I decided to leave them in to let you see one of the methods I used for debugging. The first moves the ball slowly from front to back. I used it to fudge the constants and correct the room proportions. The second displays the ball in one position for the same purpose.
A FEW FINAL NOTES There are endless improvements that can (and will) be made to this program. Obviously sound remains to be implemented. I'd like to add a control panel with slider gadgets for varying the coefficients, or use the mouse for a throttle. I expect other versions of Forth to be out soon and I'll be translating it over to those dialects. I may discover a much better way to do something that I would want to share with you. It should make an excellent vehicle for illustrating the Amiga's extensive capabilities.
All that aside, I would like to know whether you're getting anything out of this column. Are you enjoying it? What are your suggestions? My User I.D. on CompuServe is 73557,465 and on PeopleLink it's JON*FORTH. Feel free to leave a message. I post all of the code from this column to the Forth forum on CompuServe (GO FORTH, DL3), and the "turnkeyed" version of this month's program that can be run from the CLI will be downloadable from PeopleLink, and probably CompuServe as well.
Have fun with this machine 11 know I ami This is an example of hardware sprit a animation using attaohad spritas.
Jon Bryan:10-16-86 anew DemoMarker If DamoMarkar exists, it and all subsaquant words ara forgottan and a naw word DamoMarkar is than craatad which doss nothing. Handy during development.
DECIMAL 256 CONSTANT ScanBufSiza CREATE ScanBuf ScanBufSiza ALLOT SpritaLina ( addd addr2) ScanBuf ScanBufSiza INFILE @ READ.TEXT 1- ScanBuf + DUP 16 -; (trim dalim:? SpritePixel (charactar bass value) DIGIT NOT ERROR11 Illegal Sprite Color”;: OrjSpritePlanea (number address ) SWAP 2 MOD (separate the two bits) SWAP 16 SCALE (elide the low-order bit up a word) OR (put them back together) OVER @2* (move the stored value one place left) OR SWAP f (and OR the new bite into place.);: DoSimplePlanes (image height ) 0 DO SpriteLine DO IC@ 4? Sprit ePixel OVER
OR_SpritePlanes LOOP 4+ ~ LOOP DROP;: ImageSize (height height bytee) DUP 4* 8+;: Sprite (height ) ImageSize CREATE HERE LOCALS| image size height | size ALLOT image size ERASE image 44- height DoSimplePlanes; structure AttachedSprite simpleSprite STRUCT: +asEvenSprite simpleSprite STRUCT: +asOddSprite structure.end OR_AttachedPlane* (char even sprite odd sprite ) LOCALS | odd even | DUP 4 odd OR_SpritePlanes shift the two MSB's 3 AND even ORJSpritePlanes; mask the two lowest bits: aImageSize (height height offsat total size) ImageSize DUP 2*; for two sprites:
DoAttachedPlanes (image height offset ) LOCALS! Offset | 0 DO SpriteLine DO IC@ 16? SpritePixel allows characters 0-F OVER DUP offset + ORJLttachedPlanes LOOP 4+ increment the pointer LOOP DROP;: Attached (height ) almageSize CREATE HERE LOCALS| image size offset height | offset 2+ W, lay down offset to "attached" image size ALLOT image 2+ size ERASE reserve the space 12S image 2+ offset +! set "attach" bit image 6+ height offset DoAttachedPlanes;: +£venlmage (addd addr2) 2+;: +OddImage (addd addr2) DUP +; struct AttachedSprite Ball 15 Ball +asEvenSprite
+soHeight W!
15 Ball +asOddSprite +ssHeight W!
Structend: MakeBall (height ) Attached CREATE is imbedded here DOES ViewAddress +vViewPort @ SWAP 2DUP Ball +asEvenSprite SWAP +Evenlmage ChangeSprite Ball +asOddSprite SWAP +OddXmage ChangeSprite; The values for the following images were derived with a combination of an equation gleaned from "Graphics and Image Processing" by Theo Pavlidis and "Calibrated Eyeball."
15 MakeBall Oball 0000007777000000 0000754444570000 00A6544334456A00 0086544334456800 0B87 6544445678B0 0B987665566789B0 KCA9877777789ACE EDBA99888899ABDE EEDCBBAAAABBCDEE 0FEEDCCCCCCDEEF0 0FFEEEEEEEEEEFF0 00FFFEEEEEEFFF00 00FFFFFFFFFFFF00 OOOOFFFFFFFFOOOO 000000FFFF000000 15 MakeBall lBall 0000000000000000 0000087777800000 0009544334459000 00A6544334456A00 0097654444567900 0B987665566789B0 0DA9877777789AD0 0EBA99888899ABE0 0EDCBBAAAABBCDE0 0FEEDCCCCCCDEEF0 OOFEEEEEEEEEEFOO 00FFFEEEEEEFFF00 000FFFFFFFFFF000 00000FFFFFF00000 0000000000000000 15 MakeBall 2Ball 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000009779000000 0000964334690000 0009654334569000 0009766556679000 00B9877777789B00 00GA99888899AC00 00ECBAAAAAABCE00 000EDDCCCCDDE000 000FEEEEREEEF000 OOOOFFFFFFFFOOOO 000000FFFF000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 92 Volume 1, 9 15 MakeBall 3Ball 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000009779000000 0000A743347A0000 0000965445690000 000A87777778A000 000CA988889AC000 000EDBAAAABDE000 OOOOEEEDDEEEOOOO OOOOFFFFFFFFOOOO OOOOOOFFFFOOOOOO 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 15 MakeBall 4Ball 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000009669000000 0000075335700000 0000976556790000 0000B987789B0000 OOOOEDBBBBDEOOOO OOOOOFEEEEFOOOOO OOOOOOFFFFOOOOOO 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 15 MakeBall 5Ball 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000009669000000 0000096336900000 00000B9779B00000 OOOOOEDCCDEOOOOO OOOOOOFFFFOOOOOO 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 CREATE BallVectors] Oball lBall 2Ball 3Ball 4Ball 5Ball [ For non-Forth people: The compiled fora of a word in Multi-Forth is a 16-bit
"token." The] turns on the compiler and [turns it off.
The result is that six 16-bit values are stored consecutively in memory. "BallVectors" puts the address of the beginning of the array on the stack.
: Change Ball (n ) 2* BallVectors + WQ EXECUTE; struct SimpleSprite Shadow 18 Shadow +ssHeight W!
Structend: MakeShadow (height ) Sprite DOES ViewAddress +vViewPort 8 Shadow ROT ChangeSprite; These simple sprites are a bit taller than the ball sprites.
That way they both use the same x, y coordinates and no offsets are necessary.
18 MakeShadow Oshadow 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000_ GO TO JAIL!
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0000000000000000 0000222222220000 0222222222222220
2222222222222222 2222222222222222 0222222222222220
0000222222220000 18 MakeShadow 1Shadow oooooooooooooooo
oooooooooooooooo OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO oooooooooooooooo
oooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooo
oooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooo
oooooooooooooooo 0000022222200000 0022222222222200
0222222222222220 0022222222222200 0000022222200000
oooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooo 18 MakeShadow 2Shadow
oooooooooooooooo OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO oooooooooooooooo
oooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooo
oooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooo
oooooooooooooooo 0000022222200000 0002222222222000
0022222222222200 0000000000000000 WELCOME TO CANADA!
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0002222222222000 0000022222200000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 18 MakeShadow 3Shadow
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000222222220000 0002222222222000
0000222222220000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 18
MakeShadow 4Shadow 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000022222200000 0000222222220000
0000022222200000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000_ 18
MakeShadow 5Shadow 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000002222000000 0000022222200000 0000002222000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000
0000000000000000 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 CREATE
ShadowVecfcora] Oshadow lShadow 2Shadow 3Shadow 4Shadow
5Shadow [: ChangeShadow (vector ) 2* ShadoWVectora +
WSEXECUTE;: Fro©Ball ( ) Ball +asEvenSprite +ssNum W@
FreeSprite Ball +asOddSprite +ssNum W@ FrooSprito;:
FrooShadow ( ) Shadow +ssNum W@ FrooSprit©;:
Consecutive? (n n ) — 1 »;:? Balls (f ) Ball
+asEvenSprite +ssNum W@ Ball +asOddSprite +sarum W@
Consecutive? NOT DUP IF Freeball FrooShadow THEN ERROR"
Unable to allocate sprites";: GetShadow ( ) Shadow 7
GetSprite 7 — NOT DUP IF FreeShadow THEN ERROR" Unable to
allocate sprites";: GetBall ( ) GetShadow 7 4 DO Ball
+asEvenSprite I GetSprite I ¦ Ball +asOddSprite I 1+
GetSprite I 1+ — AND IF LEAVE ELSE FreeBall FreeShadow THEN
2 +LOOP? Balls; Under 1.1 KickATARI, moving the even
sprite moves them both, but according to reports that has
changed on 1.2: MovoBallSprite (x y ) ViewAddress
+vViewPort 6 LOCALS | viewport y x | viewport Ball
-fasEvenSprite x y HoveSprite viewport Ball +asOddSprite x
y MoveSprite;: MoveShadowSprite (x y ) ViewAddress
+vViowPort @ Shadow 2SNAP MoveSprite; Executing this
definition will set up the colors for the ball.
It will also change one color of the mouse cursor.
: 19-31. Greys ( ) Only for registers 19 through 31 ViewAddress +WiewPort 8 32 16 3 DO 1- 2DUP III SetRGB4 LOOP 2DROP; These values were derived from a combination of geometry and fudging them until they worked.
15500 CONSTANT Xviewpoint 13200 CONSTANT Yviewpoint 500 CONSTANT Zmin 24575 CONSTANT Zmax (4096 will return a value 0-!
319 CONSTANT xmin 38465 CONSTANT X2nax 1152 CONSTANT Ymin 11712 CONSTANT Yaax 19392 CONSTANT Xcenter 6400 CONSTANT Ycenter 64 CONSTANT Gravity 32 CONSTANT HalfGrav 128 CONSTANT TwOGrav 95 CONSTANT Spring VARIABLE Zvel VARIABLE Zpos VARIABLE Xvel VARIABLE Yvel: Perspective (coord center viewpoint new coord) LOCALS | viewpoint center | center — viewpoint DUB Zpos 8 + * center +;: Ycrt (y yl) Ycenter Yviewpoint Perspective -6 SCALE (64 );: Xcrt (x xl) Xcenter Xviewpoint Perspective -6 SCALE;: Zcrt ( vector) Zpos 0 -12 SCALE (4096 )?
: MoveBall (x y x y) 2DUP LOCALS| y * | x Xcrt Yfeax Ycrt OVER y Ycrt Zcrt DUP WaitTOF ChangeBall ChangeShadow MoveBallSprite MoveShadowSprite;: ClipX (x y xl y) SWAP »nax MIN Xmin MAX SWAP;: ClipY (y yl) Yteax MIN Yfein MAX;: ClipZ ( ) Zpos @ Zmax MIN Zmin MAX Zpos!;: ClipToWindow (x y xl yl) ClipX ClipY ClipZ;: — YvelAdjust (y y) Yvel 6 DUP * OVER Ytoin — TwoGrav * — SORT NEGATE Yvel!;: YvelAdjust (y y) Yvel 0 DUP * OVER Ytaax — TwoGrav * — SORT Yvel I;: AdjustVelocity (y y) DUP tt&in off the top of the screen IF -YvelAdjust ELSE DUP Yfcax
off the bottom IF YvelAdjust THEN THEN; VARIABLE Yrem Storage for velocity remainders VARIABLE Xrem VARIABLE Zrem VARIABLE FrictionCoef Friction parameters 999 CONSTANT Air 0.1% friction loss in the air 990 CONSTANT Surface 1.0% friction when rolling: Friction (adds of remainder velocity velocityl) 1000 * Scale up the velocity OVER 0 + add the last remainder FrictionCoef 0 1000 * 1000 MOD break out the new remainder SWAP ROT!; and save it away: NewY (y yl) Yrem Yvel 6 Friction DUP Gravity + Yvel I HalfGrav + + AdjustVelocity;: NewX (x y xl y) SWAP Xrem Xvel
0 Friction DUP Xvel! + SWAP;: NewZ ( ) Zrem Zvel 0 Friction DUP Zvel! Zpos 0 + Zpos!
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: Reflect (adds ) DUP 0 Spring 100 * NEGATE SWAP!
: Enough? (adds f) 0 ABS Halfgrav NOT;: Stopped? (y y f) DUP tt&ax — Xvel 0 OR Yvel 0 OR Zvel 0 OR NOT;: Front Back ( ) Zpos 0 DUP Zmin ¦ SWAP Zmax " OR IF Zvel Enough?
IF Blip THEN Zvel Reflect THEN;: Sides (x y x y) OVER DUP Xmin « SWAP Xmax « OR IF Xvel Enough?
IF Blip THEN Xvel Reflect THEN;: Top Bottom (y y) DUP Ytoin — OVER Tmax ¦ OR IF Yvel Enough?
IF Blip ELSE Surface FrictionCoef! THEN Yvel Reflect: Bounce (x y x y) Front Back Sides Top Bottom;: DrawBackground ( ) GINIT sport 1 SetApen (same color as border) 2 10 moveto 201 69 drawto 2 188 moveto 201 128 drawto 637 10 moveto 438 69 drawto 637 188 moveto 438 128 drawto 438 69 drawto 201 69 drawto 201 128 drawto 438 128 drawto; define a custom screen with 2 bit planes struct NewScreen Bouncescreen BounceScreen InitScreen copy default values 2 Bouncescreen +nsDepth w! bit planes CUSTOMSCREEN Bouncescreen tnsType W!
Structend A non-movable, non-sizable window struct NewWindow BounceWindow BounceWindow InitWindow copies default values 0 BounceWindow +nwLeftEdge W!
8 BounceWindow +nwTopEdge W!
640 BounceWindow +nwWidth W) 190 BounceWindow +nwHoight W!
WINDOWCLOSE ACTIVATE | BounceWindow tuwFlags!
FCLOSEWINDOW MOUSEBUTTONS | BounceWindow +nwIDCMPFlags t CUSTOMSCREEN BounceWindow +nwType WI structend: CleanupBouncer ( ) when fCLOSEWINDOW detected FreeShadow FreeBall CurrentWindow @ CloseWindow CurrentScreen @ ClosoScreen ginit;: goodbye ( )?turnkey IF bye ELSE abort THEN;: BouncerEvents ( ) process IDCMP events GetEvent CASE fCLOSEWINDOW OF CleanupBouncer goodbye ENDOF ENDCASE; InitVelocities ( ) Air FrictionCoef t 0 Xrem I 0 Yrem I 0 Zrem t 4000 Xvel! 2000 Yvel t 2000 Zvel!
Initialize 0" Animation of an Attached Sprite in Multi-Forth Bounces creen +n*Default Title!
GatBall Xmax Ymax (first X and Y) Bouncescreen OpenScreen verifyscreen CurrentScreen 6 BounceWindow +nwScreen!
BounceWindow OpenWindow verifywindow DrawBackground 19-31. Greys; Bouncer ( ) Initialize BEGIN InitVelocities BEGIN BouncerEvents UNTIL AGAIN;: tstO (x y ) initialize 2DROP BEGIN zmax 1+ zmin DO I zpos! BouncerEvents MoveBall 10 +LOOP zmin zaax DO I zpos! BouncerEvents MoveBall
- 10 +LOOP AGAIN;: tstl (x y ) initialize 2DROP BEGIN
BouncerEvents MoveBall AGAIN DoMove Bounce Stopped?
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68000 MACROS ON THE AMIGA "It means that the resourceful programmer has a practically unlimited ability to add new, powerful commands to his or her assembly language programs. " by Gerald Hull If you look at your assembler disk, you will see that it says "Amiga MACRO Assembler." This macro capability is no small potatoes.
It means that the resourceful programmer has a practically unlimited ability to add new, powerful commands to his or her assembly language programs. In what follows, we will learn how these macros work, concentrating in particular on ones associated with the Amiga. In the process, we will learn how to make them dance to ourown peculiar tunes.
By itself, the word 'macro' simply represents the opposite of 'micro'. We use a Microscope to look into an organic cell, but when we study MACROevolution, we look outward to the forces ruling its function.
In the computer culture, 'macro' is used more specifically as the abbreviation of 'macroinstruction'. As such, it refers to an entire sequence of instructions invoked with a single command.
You will find "macro" capabilities touted not only in assemblers, but in spreadsheets, word-processors, and high-level languages like C and Lisp.
I like to divide computer people into two categories: spreadsheet people and game people. I'm a game person. I know nothing about spreadsheets, and cannot be trusted to lecture on that subject.
We will, however, take a look at C macros. They are clearly modeled after their assembly language counterparts, and provide a good way of illustrating the features of "macroinstructions" in general.
CMACROS You can do monstrous, clever things with C macros. But even a look at a relatively simple C macro will help to illustrate some of the important features shared by C and assembly language macros.
C macros are created with the define' preprocessor command.
There are three different things you can do with define commands in C. First, you can simply turn on other preprocessor commands, as when define FOO’ turns on later code segments bracketed by ifdef FOO' and ’ endif'.
Second, you can use it to declare a constant, similar to the assembler programmer's use of the EQU command. You are saying that such-and-such a character string will represent this- or-that value throughout the program. For instance, the command define WINDOWMAX 200' causes the C preprocessor to replace every occurrence of WINDOWMAX' with '200'.
Usage number three of define' is the one that provides something equivalent to assembly language macros. In fact, it is the very same mechanism brought into play by the first two uses.
They simply involve more limited applications. A mathematician would express this by saying that the first two uses are "degenerate instances" of the third, an expression I find quite delightful.
What makes this third kind of define statement so powerful and so tricky is its use of variables. Here is a simple example from the file 'INCLUDE CLIO MACROS. H' provided with the Lattice and Manx Amiga C compilers: define MIN(a, b) ((a) (b)? (a): (b)) What such a define statement says to the C preprocessor is this: "As you go through the rest of the text, every time you encounter the string 'MIN' with two arguments separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses, replace it with the substitution string '((a) (b)? (a): (b))'. At the same time, substitute the first and second arguments
for 'a' and 'b' throughout."
So if somewhere in your program there's the line least = MIN(least, table[i]); by the time it gets to the C compiler, the preprocessor will have transformed it into least= ((least) (table[1])? (least): (table[i])); In effect, then, this C macro albws you to use a convenient abbreviation to represent a much more complicated operation.
The variables in this example are 'a' and 'b'. In your use of the MIN macro, you can substitute practically any numeric expression for them. However, some expressions are best avoided in macros, such as ones involving functions or the increment and decrement operators. This is because, of course, the "expansion* of the macro may use such expressions two or more times, with unintended consequences.
It is important to remember that these macros are no more than abbreviations or recipes. By themselves, they generate no code. Only if you call or "invoke" them somewhere else in your program, do they generate any instructions. Indeed, they expand into a new, separate patch of code each time they are invoked.
MIN d0, dl it will insert the following "macro expansion": ** IN: d0, dl signed long ints ** OUT: do lesser if do!- dl ** dl unchanged cmp. l dl, d0 ble. b.007 move. l dl, d0.007 68000 MACROS A 68000 assembly language macro provides the very same kind of flexibility. Essentially, it consists of any sequence of commands which begins with a label followed by the word MACRO, and ends with the word ENDM.
Such "macro definitions" are stored up by the assembler as it passes through your program. Once in store, they can be invoked by the labels that introduced them. Every time the assembler encounters such a predefined macro label, it will "expand" your program by inserting the instruction sequence associated with it. Figures One and Two illustrate this deceptively simple mechanism.
The above C MIN macro can be rendered as an assembly language macro as follows: MIN macro ** IN: 2 signed long ints ** OUT: lesser if != 2 ** 2 unchanged cmp. l 2, ble. b e move.1 2, 8 endm If you are typing this into your own program, make sure that the 'MIN' and the label @' are left justified. That is, start them in the first column of text.
As with the C macro, this macro definition doesn't by itself generate any code. It is rather a "directive" to the assembler in its role as preprocessor, during its first pass through your code.
It is saying: "Store up this sequence of instructions, treating backslashes followed by a number as slots to be filled later with character strings. And a backslash followed by ’ § is to be replaced by '. nun', where nun is the number of macros expanded so far."
The slots created with M' and 2' are equivalent to the variables 'a' and 'b' in the C example. And just like the high-level macro, the assembler will fill them with whatever you tell it to. So, in addition, our macro definition says: "Every time the string 'MIN' crops up later on, followed by character strings separated by commas, expand it by inserting the previously stored up sequence, with the first character string in the M' slot, the second in the W slot, and so forth.” Consequently, when the assembler finds a line in your program which invokes this macro, Interestingly enough, as I
have shown, the Amiga Metacomco assembler will also expand the comments! This is because the assembler makes no distinction between code and comment during macro expansion. Your program is being treated simply as a piece of text to be processed according to certain rules.
The character string 'd0' goes into the slot created by VT, and 'd1' goes into the X slot. Finally, @' has been replaced by '.007' throughout, since I am pretending that this is the seventh macro expansion performed so far.
MACROS VERSUS SUBROUTINES Why use macros? At the very least, they provide an interesting alternative to subroutines. For comparison, let's look at a subroutine version of MIN:
* * MIN subroutine
* * in: d0, dl signed long ints lesser if do!= dl unchanged
* * out: do
* * dl MIN cmp. l dl, d0 ble. b 1$ move. l dl, do 1$ rts Such a
subroutine would be typically invoked with a JSR: Cload up
registers do and dl jsr MIN extract the desired minimum from
d0 Unlike the macro version of MIN, this subroutine is not a
recipe stored up by the assembler during the construction of
your program. Instead, it is translated directly into code
which takes up space regardless of whether it is ever executed.
That is to say, a subroutine does not have to be called to
exist in a program, as we sometimes discover to our
considerable regret!
By contrast, any number of macros may exist in your program and never show up in the actual code it generates: the so-called "executable image." (Sounds terribly ruthless, doesn't it?)
Because, just as with C macros, if you don't invoke them, they don't do anything. This is why, generally speaking, it does not matter if you have unnecessary Amiga library INCLUDE files in your programs, except to put the assembler into apparent coma.
Those files consist largely of macro definitions.
But as well, a single macro may generate many pieces of code, one for each time it is invoked. And since every invocation of a macro expands into a distinct patch of code, they are inherently space-wasteful. Offsetting this, however, is the fact that they are time-efficient. You don't have to JSR and RTS, or push and pop parameters, or maybe even save and restore registers, each time you invoke them. Subroutines, of course, while space- efficient because every call jumps to the same code, are complementary time-wasteful.
In our little MIN subroutine, we did not have to worry about pushing parameters on a stack. But we did have to make sure that do and d1 contained the values we wanted, which amounts to nearly the same thing. In practice, this would likely require additional Moves, since those registers would probably perform other functions elsewhere.
When using the MIN macro, however, we are free to use it on whatever registers or memory locations we please, so long as we don't fall afoul of the addressing modes for CMP and MOVE. So in that respect, macros boast an extra element of flexibility.
Despite these differences, macros and subroutines, share a number of features. One, they provide a convenient means of breaking a program up into self-contained, single-function modules. Two, in virtue of that modularity, they can render programs much more readable and auto-documenting. And three, they can be gathered up into libraries of well-tested sequences which can be reused in other programs, perhaps by other programmers.
To sum up, in those instances where macros and subroutines are both plausible means of performing some function, subroutines are recommended when it is important to conserve space.
However, if you're not worried that the multiple utilization of that function will exhaust your memory, macros can provide important advantages of speed and flexibility.
Run- S1818) DIRECTIVES AND PSEUDO-OPS So macros would be a pretty useful thing, even if all one could say on their behalf is that they provide an important alternative to subroutines.
But in fact, 68000 macros can do things mere subroutines cannot. For, as we have seen, macro definitions are classified as "assembler directives." As such, they have their impact during the very process of constructing your program, and not merely when it executes. There are many such directives, also called "pseudo-operations," or "pseudo-ops” for short.
So there are two different kinds of commands you can use when you are writing 68000 code. First, there are the regular instructions, which tell the processor what operations to perform when your program is run: MOVE’S, Imp's, Ada's, and so forth.
Second, there are these pseudo-ops or assembly directives, which have nothing to do with the execution of your program, but instead control the assembler's behavior during the process of generating machine code. Here we have commands like NOLIST, which turns off listing file production; DC. L, which allocates a longword of storage space; and indeed the MACRO and ENDM instructions which enclose a macro definition.
For non-interpreted languages like C and 68000 assembler, as contrasted with Basic, the process of getting code up and running can be divided into two distinct stages.
366-5305 • 366-9120 10815 Zelzah Avenue Granada Hills, CA 91344 CALL There is the program construction stage, during which the code gets translated into an executable image, and the program execution stage, during which that image makes the computer in fact do something. FigureThree illustrates this important distinction. The point is this: just as assembler commands can be concerned with either one or the other of these two stages, so can your assembler macros.
And during the constructive stage macros can provide forms of subtlety and power no subroutine, indeed no portion of an executing program, could possibly possess. They give you control over the program before it executes. Although we'll be looking at both "constructive" and "executive” macros (as you could distinguish them), I'm going to emphasize the former. It is here, I feel, that assembly language macros truly come into their own, and where the 68000 Amiga macros particularly shine.
By the way, to induce the assembler to provide you with listings of your 68000 programs, if it does not already do so, you want to add option '-I' ("dash L") to the ASSEM command. This is what I have in my assembler MAKE file:: c assem file.asm -o file. o -1 file.lst + -i: Include -c W80000 This generates '.LST files which show exactly how macro definitions and the other assembler directives have affected the assembled program. The *W80000’ has the effect of expanding the workspace available. You will need the larger space to accomodate your more ambitious assembly language efforts.
68000 AMIGA MACROS We finish up with a look at some of the macros intimately involved with 68000 assembly language programming on the Amiga.
Listing One begins with group of exective macros from EXEC TYPES. I. The Amiga operating system consists largely of doubly linked lists of specialized structures. As you can imagine, it is important to manipulate and traverse those lists as quickly as possible. So instead of subroutines, these utilities are provided in the form of macros.
However, we will not attempt to peer into the details of what these particular macros are doing. Doubly linked lists can be very confusing, as anyone who has attempted to understand Chapter One of the ROM Kernal Manual will attest. (It is not your fault -
- there are a large number of flat-out errors in that part of the
RKM. Perhaps a future article will address the subject.)
The next bunch of macros, beginning with CALLLIB, are all variously involved in invoking Amiga ROM Kernal modules. In order to make the operating system as flexible as possible, different functions are grouped into libraries. Every module in a particular library is accessed through a table of vectors determined through that library's base address. (Please note, however, that so far as memory is concerned, this "base" address comes at the end of the table, not the beginning; see below.)
If you are working in C, the only glimpse you are likely to get of this feature of the Amiga system architecture is the need to call OpenLibrary (), which attempts to load the library modules and associated vector table into memory, and returns the address of its base. At this point, all you need to do is make sure that the address isn't zero — which would signal that the loading attempt failed — and remember to use CloseLibrary () when you're done.
If you are working in an assembler, on the other hand, you will probably have to become more deeply involved in the process.
You still have to call the assembly language equivalents of the OpenLibrary () and CloseLibary () routines, unless you are linking your assembler into a C program and can lean on C library handling.
However, you will also have to call the various ROM Kernal functions via the "library vector offset" (LVO) protocol. This protocol requires, first, that you move the appropriate library base address into register A6. For example move.1 GfxBase, a6 That particular register is necessary, unless you're a friend of the Flashing Guru, because the functions you call will feel free to to use the contents of A6 to access their library siblings.
Now you prefix the name of the particular module you wish to call (say, 'Draw') with the string ’_LVO', and JSR using "address register indirect with displacement" addressing: JSR _LVODraw (a6) Figure Four illustrates this type of addressing on the Motorola 68000. In addition, you must have previously defined your offset vector — '_LVODraw' in our example — either through an equate (EQU) or as an external reference (XREF).
CALLLIB, LINKLIB, ETC. All of this seems pretty messy, you're thinking, and of course you're right. So we are provided with some macros which, in various ways, smooth over all that mess. The first two, CALLLIB and LINKLIB, allow you to forget about addressing modes.
Assuming that you have already opened the appropriate library (say, for graphics) and loaded up A6, you can simply say CALLLIB _LVODraw Again, assuming the library is open, however A6 has been used for something else, you can still say LINKLIB __LVODraw, Gf xBase where GfxBase is a longword into which you’ve stored the base address. The macro will correctly set up A6 for you, and return it containing whatever it had before you called LINKLIB.
To protect the unwary programmer against confusion, these macros use the special symbol 'NARG' and the 'FAIL' directive to check that the proper number of parameters have been passed in. For example, the sequence IFGT NARG-1 FAIL ENDC will cause the assembler to generate an error message if somewhere CALLLIB has been called with more than one parameter: "Error 122: User'FAIL'Statement."
It does so through a "conditional assembly" capability that will also be familiar to C programmers. Just as ifdef FOO...
endif’ removes code from compilation, 'IFGT... ENDC' is just one way the 68000 programmer can exclude code from assembling. Here we are checking to see IF NARG-1 is Greater Than zero. NARY is a special symbol representing the number of parameters, separated by commas, contained in the macro’s invocation.
However, this conditional assembly capability is a lot more flexible than the C version. Other possible conditions include IFEQ (IF Equal), IFNE (IF Not Equal), IFGE (IF Greater or Equal), IFLT (IF Less Than), IFD (IF Defined), IFC (IF strings are identical -
- Coequal?), and so forth.
But, back to the story! You can even forget about all the LVO business by using CALLSYS: CALLSYS Draw This macro shows, as does LINKLIB, that there is nothing to prevent one macro from calling another, as long as this "nesting" is no more than ten deep.
Note that CALLSYS presupposes that A6 has been correctly set up. However, there's nothing to prevent you from defining a version that calls upon LINKLIB instead. And while you're at it, you could put in a conditional assembly to ensure that you don't send too few, as well as too many, parameters: LINKSYS MACRO * FuncOffset, LibBase IFLT NARG-2 FAIL LINKSYS — too few args ENDC LINKLIB _LVO l, 2, 3 ENDM To use this high-test version of LINKLIB, all you'd need to say is LINKSYS Draw, GfxBase Two other macros, XLIB and FUNCDEF, address the task of defining your LVO references for the assembler. In
fact, they provide two different ways of doing this.
XLIB is the first way. You tell the assembler to regard your "_LVO" references as external, for example: xlib _LVODraw This means that the linker needs to find these expressions defined elsewhere. You can provide this by including LIB AMIGA.LIB as a library file in the linking process; as for instance:: c blink file. o to file library: lib amiga.lib + map file.map By the way, this use of BLINK will also produce a ’.MAP' file which will list all of the LVO references in any of the libraries you have used.
BLINK, for those of you who haven't yet acquired it, is a public domain replacement for ALINK released by John Toebes and The Software Distillery. It does everything that ALINK does and more, yet is anywhere from 2 1 2 to 6 times faster. You can find it on the AMICUS and Fred Fish disks, and most Amiga bulletin boards. I heartily endorse it!
The second way to define your LVO references is to use the FUNCDEF macro with a specially sequenced list of invocations.
For instance, if your copy of the Amiga Macro Assembler is like mine, it contains a "read-me" which tells you to include EXEC FUNCDEF.I prior to any inclusion of EXEC EXEC_LIB.I, which contains the list in question. There is a similar macro and list in LIBRARIES DOSJ.IB.I. As you can see, FUNCDEF contains a special variable, FUNC_CNT, which is initialized (SET) immediately following the macro definition. Each time FUNCDEF is called, it prefixes the ROM module name sent to it with '_LVO', and equates the result (using EQU) to the current value of FUNC_CNT. Then the latter is decremented by 6 in
preparation for the next FUNCDEF call.
Thus, as alluded to earlier, the LVO vectors are negative offsets to the library "base" address.
The only problem with FUNCDEF — if your version of the assembler's INCLUDE files is the same as mine — is that the value used to initialize it (4*-6 = -24) is wrong. I have changed this to the correct value in the listing: 5*-6 = -30. However, just to be on the safe side, I never use FUNCDEF, preferring the (to me) more reassuring XREF route.
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Send check or money order to: STACAR International 14755 Ventura Blvd., Suite 1 -812 Sherman Oaks, California 91403 Telephone (818) 904-1262 THE STRUCTURE MACROS Next we look at a whole series of interrelated macros beginning with STRUCTURE. Unlike the list processing macros we began with, these are what I have called "constructive" macros. You don't use them because they are faster. You use them to do things no subroutine could do.
These particular macros enormously facilitate access to the special data structures which are at the heart of the Amaga operating system, linked together with the lists we touched on earlier. You can't do diddly on the Amiga without dealing with these structures, and the STRUCTURE macros make dealing with them as easy as in a high-level language.
For instance, in C the following defines the elements in the List data structure: struct List struct Node *lh__Head; struct Node *lhifail; struct Node *lh__TailPred; UBYTE lhJType; UBYTE lhjpad;}; Such a definition makes it simple to deal with those elements.
For example, you can say "List. lh_Tail» 0."
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STRUCTURE macros, dealing with List structures is just as
transparent in assembler. Indeed, the definition seems
as does dealing with the elements: "CLR. L LH_TAIL(A0)".
How does all this work? Well, when you invoke the STRUCTURE macro itself, you zero out a special counter, SOFFSET ("structure offset"). Then, as you invoke each of the "data type" macros, for example APTR or UBYTE, they increment the counter by the number of bytes they require (4 and 1, respectively).
As a result, the parameter associated with each of them becomes Equated with the size of the offset from the base address of the structure being defined. For example, LH_TAIL will equal 4. So if you have to deal with this element, you simply move the structure's base address into any handy register, and take advantage of indirect addressing with displacement. Again, take a look at Figure Four.
When you finish up with the LABEL macro, which itself adds nothing to SOFFSET, you end of with the amount of memory, in bytes, required to store the data structure in question. Hence, LH_SIZE will equal 4+4+4+1+1 =14. So if it is a component of some other structure, this size together with the STRUCT macro provides a means to augment the SOFFSET of the latter by the appropriate amount. The STRUCTURE macros, like any that are well-designed, make your programs self-documenting and much more readable, as well as easier to write.
BITDEF AND BEYOND We finish up our survey of Amiga macros with a pair that facilitate the setting and clearing of signal bits: BITDEF and BITDEFO.
There are two related pieces of information you want handy when dealing with such a signal: its mathematical value (say, 32), and its bit position (5th, starting with zero).
As the documentation in the listing makes clear, by invoking BITDEF with the appropriate information, you produce the desired pair of Equates. This is an excellent example of macro documentation, by the way.
I will leave it as an exercise to the reader to analyze exactly how these macros produce the desired result. (Note, however, the way that @' can be combined with a string — ’VgJBITDEF.
Voilal, 999 unique labels at your disposal.) To me they represent an amazing display of software ingenuity. However, I cant, for the life of me, figure out why such an intricate device is necessary.
For it seems possible to get the same result with a much simpler macro: BITDEF macro B_ 2 equ 3 F~ 2 equ (1« 3) endro However, the many bruises on my ego testify that things I cant figure out arent always meaningless. Some circumstantial evidence suggests that this code might have originally been written for a different (and somewhat simpler) assembler. But I'm not betting on it.
There it is: the Amiga Macro Story, Part I (The Beginning). You can write the later episodes yourself. You likely have inferred, assuming you've made it all this way, that I regard assembly language macros pretty highly. I find utterly fascinating the ingenuity that shines through the best of them. My recommendation is that, after studying the Amiga macros real hard (even those in EXEC TYPES.I), you go out and make up your own.
• AC* In some ways, I am a disadvantaged Amiga writer. I want to
bring you the latest Amiga news, and the latest-greatest public
domain software — but I live in the Midwest, and the Amiga was
born and raised in California.
The AMICUS Network This past month, I turned off my Amiga and traveled to Los Angeles to the West Coast Commodore Association show.
By John Foust Some Amiga enthusiasts live down the street from Commodore- Amiga. They know the nightspots where employees gather.
They hear who might be out of a job, and where so-and-so is working now.
My sole link to the left coast is the cold glow of my monitor screen, and the red eyes of my modem's lights. This past month, I turned off my Amiga and traveled to Los Angeles to the West Coast Commodore Association show.
A conference at the WCCA WCCAinLA On September 20 and 21, the West Coast Commodore Association presented the Los Angeles Commodore Show at the Airport Hilton.
The WCCA show differs from many computer conventions. The exhibitors are free to sell their wares from the booth. There were a lot of open wallets in the crowd, and people carrying bags and bags of new Amiga software, Amiga magazines, Amiga t-shirts, Amiga bumperstickers, and Amiga socks. No kidding. Even Amiga sweat socks.
The show wasn't Amiga-specific, only Commodore-specific.
About half the booths carried Amiga products. The Commodore 64 and 128 were in full force, but I didn't see any Pets behind a booth. I'm sure there was one, just to remind people of the good old days.
WCCA speakers Aside from the exhibitor areas, the WCCA show also featured lectures from names well-known in the Commodore world, such as Jim Butterfield, of Compute! Magazine and books, Richard Immers, author of several nitty-gritty Commodore 64 programming books, Len Lindsay of the COMAL user group, RJ Mical, former Commodore-Amiga programmer, and William Volk, of Aegis Development.
Aegis Aegis Development's Bill Volk demonstrated Draw Plus, an upgrade to Aegis Draw, and evangelized about the Aegis user interface style. He showed demo screens from future products, including a game called "Defender of the Crown" (Designed by Master Designer Software as part of their Cinemaware™ and to be marketed by Mindscape.)
Artist Jim Sachs spent as many as several weeks on individual background pictures for soon-to-be-released Defender of the Crown. It is an interactive adventure game centered on the theme of the Robin Hood adventures.
Volk demonstrated several example sequences from the game.
The video artistry was seamless. In one scene, Robin's gang is fighting a band of rogues in the courtyard of a castle. Your character leads the actions of the other characters. As your character backs away from the scene, through an open door, the viewpoint changes, and the fight continue up a staircase. There is even a love scene.
Areas of scenes are animated, apart from the actions of the characters. Flames flicker, and birds fly in the sky. Many scenes showed evidence of the Amiga's dual playfield mode, where video images overlay one another, and scroll independently. This technique greatly enhances a sense of motion and depth in Sachs' paintings.
The techniques of video art can be difficult, however. "It's hard to get something that looks like a horse using about six pixels," said Sachs.
RJ Mical is one of the programmers for the project. Aegis secured him because he knows the intimate details of the Amiga's low- level animation routines. Mical's wit was present in some of the demo screens. Mical formerly worked for Williams as a video game designer, and one of the screens looked like the opening of the Defender video game. Another was labeled "Defender of the Crow."
Aegis demonstrated Defender of the Crown Byte by Byte also showed the PAL Jr., a box with a 20 megabyte DMA hard disk, one megabyte of memory and a SCSI port, all for $ 1,495. It auto-configures under AmigaDOS 1.2. In other words, at the expense of using RAM space, a ROM- based Amiga will be able to use newer operating systems. There is always the potential of ROM upgrade kits, also. The yet- unannounced 'baby Amiga' is expected to be ROM-based. It is not known whether the present form of the Amiga will ever be ROM-based.
Byte-by-Byte Several booths showed the Byte by Byte PAL expansion box.
This comes in several flavors that support up to 8 megs of RAM, ST-506 and SCSI hard disks, from 20 to 40 megabytes storage, Zorro expansion boards and clock calendar options.
Volk also said they are working on a program that translates Animator sequences directly to a form that can be used directly by programmers. They also plan to release the details of a text-based script language that serves as the undercarriage of Animator scripts. This method would allow the creation and editing of an animation sequence using a everyday text editor.
RJ Mical Intuition programmer RJ Mical held several Amiga-oriented lectures. Much of the time was spent fielding questions from the audience. Asked to compare programming languages, Mical said C is "a great language for programmers that pretend to be human beings,” and that BCPL is "a language that will make your teeth hurt. Avoid it if you can.” Many questions were directed at his involvement with the software of the Sidecar. Commodore-Amiga techie Dale Luck was in the audience, and confirmed that the Sidecar had passed FCC clearance the week before the show. When asked if Microsoft Windows,
an IBM windowing system, would run on the Sidecar, Mical said yes, and that "it's great to have Microsoft Windows in an Amiga window, especially when you make it real small, and push it to the back.” The ROM-based Amiga Mical also confirmed Commodore-Amiga engineers have completed the ROM-based Amiga. When powered on, this Amiga would not need a Kickstart disk, only a Workbench disk.
This change was made to lower the overall cost of the Amiga. The present system, with the Kickstart in RAM, adds an estimated $ 60 in parts, which translates to a $ 200 increase in the consumer cost of the Amiga, he said.
Commodore-Amiga programmers shoe-horned the new 1.2 operating system into ROM at the expense of some luxuries in the present Kickstart code. The names of the Commodore-Amiga programmers were present in previous Kickstart code images, but the names were removed in order to make more space in the ROMs. ”lt was that tight," according to Mical, explaining that only a few bytes were left free in the ROMs.
Does a ROM-based Amiga mean it can never use a new version of the operating system? According to Commodore engineers, the ROM-based Amigas will recognize a Kickstart disk, if it is inserted immediately after power-up. The machine will then disable the Kickstart-in-ROM, and use some of the machine's RAM space to hold the newer Kickstart code.
Jim Becker, of Terrapin Software, showed a version of his Infominder product in the Byte by Byte booth. The program linked the Amiga to a laser disc player. The twelve-inch laser disk contained more than 2400 images of paintings from the National Gallery of Art, and Infominder was loaded with an index of the paintings.
As you selected a leaf from the outline, the painting was displayed on the television next to the Amiga. You could select a list of all paintings by artists whose names began with 'S', and then select pictures of George Washington, and see Gilbert Stuart's paintings. This version of Infominder is called Infominder Plus, and will be available this fall.
C Ltd. AMega card Ed Lippert and Breck Ricketts were the founders of Cardco.
Perhaps you remember them as printer interface manufacturers for the Commodore 64. They now head C Ltd., and today their products enhance the Amiga.
"We came out here to sell boards. We brought 20 boards with us.
We figured if we sold 10, we'd be doing great. By 3 o'clock, all twenty were gone. We took orders for another half-dozen, and called back to Wichita, to have them air-freight 25 more, and it looks like those will be gone by the end of the day.
Lippert said C Ltd. Has been very careful to meet the specifications set down by the engineers at Commodore-Amiga.
The one megabyte aMEGA card has a list price of $ 549, and auto- configures under AmigaDOS 1.2. The C Ltd. 'rumor sheet' forecast several products from their future line, such as a 6 slot expansion box and a typesetting package for the HP Laserjet laser printer, called LJ Typesetter.
This software includes several hundred licensed fonts, and a simple dot-command driven composition system.
At press time, C Ltd. Announced their 20 megabyte hard disk. It is non-DMA SCSI disk, with pass-through. The price is $ 995.
Comspec The Comspec memory expansion board was the first memory board available for the Amiga. The first model was available in November, and the present auto-config model came out in April.
Comspec's Meyer Toole stressed that his product is different from other boards in the Amiga market. It uses OKI surface-mount chip modules, nine in all, for a total of 81 chips in a small area. Meyer Toole explained that these chips consume much less power than conventional chips, and spread less radio interference.
Unfortunately, OKI raised chip prices under the order of recent US Department of Commerce rulings. Toole estimated it would triple the cost of the chips, in the long run. Comspec showed one and two megabyte RAM boards, at $ 749 and $ 999, subject to change.
NewTek New Tek, the Digi-View people, showed several new products, and improvements to the current video digitizing software. New Tek's Tim Jenison said "The new software supports consumer color cameras. You still have to use the filter. It has a new hold- and-modify mode that cleans up the cobred speckles."
What sort of improvements did he make to enhance the color camera image? Jenison said "The problem with color cameras was that the color signal itself has a high frequnecy carrier in the video signal that causes an interference pattern, because it was of a very similar frequency to the sampling rate. We found a software technique to filter out that color signal, so it looks exactly like a black-and-white camera."
"The [new] palette features will let you take a Deluxe Paint picture, load the palette into Digi-View, and Digi-View will match the picture to that palette, so you can take that picture back and make a brush out of it, and put it into the original painting without messing up the palette.
"You can also use any arbitrary number of colors as opposed to thirty-two before — you can go down to eight colors or two colors.
You can construct your own palette with the red, green and blue sliders.
"That's part of the special effects project we're doing for low-end video applications. Even broadcast stations have shown a lot of interest in this. Even if they have the effects to do this, people are still lined up to use them, and rent time on these machines.
"We're taking a still image, and then geometrically manipulating it, revolving it, wrapping it around, that sort of thing. These machines, like ADCs and Dyes, cost generally a minimum of $ 100,000. We're not going to replace those machines, because they can work with a live video signal. We are working with a still frame.
"For a lot of things, that’s enough. If you are producing a commercial, you have a still product shot or a screenful of text.
This special effects package is planned for release in about three or four months. Most of the effects will require expansion RAM, because they work by calculating the frame one by one, and placing them in high memory, and then pulling them in realtime.
"We also have the motorized filter wheel for extremely lazy people, so you don't have to move your arm and reach up to rotate the wheel by hand. Lazy people aside, a lot of people have their camera some distance from the computer, and it's a lot of work to run back and forth.
What are some of the interesting applications of the Digi-View?
Jenison claimed "Most of them don't really want to talk about it, or if they do want to talk about it, they swear me to secrecy first, because they have these get-rich-quick schemes. There are a lot of those, a lot of vertical market niches that the Amiga makes possible, because of the low price, and the fact that you can display a color photograph on the screen.
"For example, a lot of medical uses have come up, such as transmitting medical images over the phone. The neatest ones are the point-of-sale terminals. For example, you put up a picture of a person, and you change their lipstick color, or put eyeglasses on them. There are so many applications that I never expected."
First Amiga Users Group (FAUG) booth FAUG Another popular booth was the First Amiga User Group, mainly due to the flashy demo software shown. This software included the SubLogic Flight Simulator, and Deluxe Music Construction Set.
FAUG is based in the Belmont area. Paul Montgomery, a founder of FAUG, and now an employee of Electronic Arts, said "We go to shows like this, whenever we can, when it will benefit the Amiga.
We really don't make any money from them. We are here to promote the Amiga, because we think it's an awesome machine, and deserves to do great."
The FAUG meetings are well-attended. "We have between 250 and 500 people at our meetings. We've had Trip Hawkins speak, and Jay Miner did a meeting. Generally, though, about 300 people come to an average meeting. Jay Miner was our very first paid member... He comes to every meeting. He's there to talk to people, and answer questions."
RS Data Systems RS Data Systems makes an unusual RAM expansion for the Amiga. It is roughly L-shaped, and protrudes several inches in front of the right edge of the Amiga. The Amiga on display had the external drive tucked between the monitor and the RAM expansion.
According to Roy Eubanks, "It's the most expandable product here. It's the only one that goes to eight megs. It's more versatile for people who have access to their own RAM chips. We can give them a bare board, and they can upgrade to four megs, and then they can buy an additional board, and upgrade to eight megs."
"Admittedly, it is large, but for maximum expandability, you just can't get around that. Either you are going to grow outward, or make it one unit. If you start trying to stack them, then you run into problems with power. If they are cascaded on to each other, they reach a limit."
RS Data Systems sold several eight megabyte RAM boards at the show, at $ 1675 each. The board is not auto-configure, but an optional auto-configure daughterboard is available. The two megabyte board lists for $ 950.
Copperstate Next to a stack of Amiga sweatshirts, Copperstate showed QuickNibble, a copy program that will both copy and de-protect the all latest Amiga software.
Somehow, with a straight face, a Copperstate employee explained that QuickNibble is "for archival purposes only”, and then started the program.
After a title screen that explained the legality of making an archive copy, the program launched into a digital recording of the first seven notes of the Disneyland theme of "The Pirates of the Caribbean", which goes "yo, ho, yo, ho". He then explained that eight notes would have violated ASCAP's copyright regulations.
According to Dave Devenport, a programmer of QuickNibble, "the most common protection I've seen on the Amiga is what I call a 'sync track', where they use a non-standard index sync, and write an extra-long track. The Amiga can read twice the density that it can write. They try to read the sync track to see that it is an original disk."
Devenport explained the "Pirates" theme was all in fun.
"Everyone understands the opening screen," he said.
Manx Software Jim Goodnow, the author of the Manx Aztec C compiler, explained recent changes to the program development system.
The code generator has been improved, and four floating point formats are available.
The linker now supports scatter loading. It also supports segmentation, a form of overlays. It is dynamic, but not the same as the tree-oriented overlays in 'alink'. The linker will also link the Metacomco object format. Although the new Aztec linker can use this format, register use conflicts still prevent the mixing of Lattice and Aztec code.
"We still have our own [object module] format, because it is much faster. I have much more respect for 'alink' now. It's not 'alink's fault, it's the object format's fault. It's just terrible." When using the 'alink' format, "doing a straightforward 'amiga.lib' link with my linker is twice as slow, as compared to 'alink'."
Goodnow's new debugger supports multiple tasks, multiple segments and scatterloading. It can trace function calls, indenting diagnostics and showing return values.
Goodnow said a source-level debugger is shipping now for his IBM PC compiler. He is using his Amiga to develop the code, and periodically uploads the code to his IBM PC to use the source- level debugger. An Amiga version of this debugger will be offered as an update in the future.
Developer area The WCCA officials set aside part of the floor for developers, at a reduced cost, provided they didn't sell products. Jenday Software showed its Conversation with a Computer program, all 2000 lines of Amiga Basic. Zen Software showed a Amiga system monitor program that peeked around in the system task and device lists.
Spring WCCA in SF Talking with the WCCA show organizers, I learned that the majority of the show's attendees heard about the show through Amazing Computing. This is incredible, since the only mention of the show was a short description at the end of my last column.
The next WCCA show will be in February 20 through 22 in San Francisco, at Brooks Hall. WCCA officials expect a larger crowd.
CES and COMDEX Commodore will not be present at the COMDEX Fall convention in Las Vegas.
Commodore might be present at the January Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. According to a source close to Commodore, Commodore has reassessed their marketing plans, and wants to present the Amiga and their other computers as consumer products.
World of Commodore December 4 to 7 marks the World of Commodore show in Mississauga, Ontario, just outside Toronto, at the Toronto International Centre.
Like the WCCA show, it is a for sale' show. The two shows differ in size; the World of Commodore is huge, the largest Commodore show in North America.
The organizers of the WOC presented a video tape demonstrating the magnitude and popularity of last year's show.
Last year, over 32,000 people visited the three-day show.
Since the tape was aimed at potential exhibitors, it explained the magnitude of sales one could expect. They set up temporary warehouse space on the show floor, so vendors can keep a smooth supply of goods behind the counter.
I hope to be there. Either way, Amazing Computing will be represented by Tim Grantham, former Amiga columnist for TPUG magazine. Grantham has a deep understanding of the Canadian Commodore community. (TPUG stands for the Toronto PET User Group, the largest Commodore user group in the world.)
The Amiga Zone The People Link Amiga group was formerly a sub-section of the Commodore Club. In mid-October, it split off to form a new club, the Amiga Zone. In a matter of days, it grew to be the largest club on People Link. The Sunday night conference attendance surpassed all previous records. One Sunday, over sixty Amiga enthusiasts were online at one time.
Amazing Computing has a section in the Amiga Zone, as it did in the old club. When the new club formed, I was given a chairman position in the club. I don't think there is a conflict of interest in this, I’m not paid for my work there, but I do get free access to People Link for my work in the Zone.
Consider this balanced by the recent co-SYSOP appointment of Amazing Computing music editor Richard Rae. Rae will be assisting the SYSOPs on CompuServe's Amiga Forum. He gets the same treatment there as I do on People Link.
Our presence on these networks means you, the Amiga user, has even more contact with Amazing Computing. Our presence on the networks means better articles for you, since we are introduced to people doing new and interesting things with the Amiga. We can secure resident experts for review of products, and solicit general opinions and bug reports from Amiga users.
Telecom issue Amazing Computing. Volume 2, number I will be the Telecommunications issue. It will carry reviews of the latest Amiga telecommunications products, and describe the national and local Amiga computer groups you can join with your modem. It will include the announcement of a special-purpose AMICUS disk telecom AMICUS disk, with a collection of the best telecommunication utilities.
Both commercial network computer systems and local, private bulletin board systems will be described. This will include instructions for registering an account on each service, a short guide to getting to the Amiga group on that network, and a synopsis of what you might find there.
ICUG's Source Amiga group Deepak Midha and Larry Phillips are the primary organizers of the Independent Computer User Group, ICUG, a user service organization for Commodore computers at present, but for all computer users in the future. They have a number of exciting ventures planned for the future, aside from supporting all computer types.
They have an Amiga club on the Source. The Source uses a system called Participate to organize the topics of conversation within the ICUG area. I found Participate somewhat imposing at first. However, with a little practice, it is easy to use. The ICUG area also has a special area set aside for developers, called
C. O.M.B.I.N.E.. To sign up for the Source, call 1-800-336-3366.
If you mention this column, and give this waiver number,
6450110, you wont pay the regular Source signup fee, set at
$ 49.95. The Well and Usenet Perhaps you've seen messages on
public domain disks with strange, unreadable sequences of
nonsense words, separated by exclamation marks. This text was
a message that travelled on Usenet, the world-wide Unix user
Usenet is one of the best-kept secrets of the network community.
Imagine a world-wide computer mail system that gives door-to- door delivery, sometimes in minutes. Its participants are mostly university and Defense Department computer programmers, among the cream of the crop.
Because it's free to most users, people participate without reservation, and spend a lot of time on the system. It is my impression that many Usenet members spend an hour or two a day reading and posting messages.
If you weren't a college student or working for a contracted company, you had little chance of getting on Usenet. That has changed, with a system called the Well.
The Well is a Unix system open to the public, on a subscriber basis, much like People Link or CompuServe. The Well now has Telenet access. With Telenet's buyout of Uninet, more cities will have access to the Telenet and the Well. The rates are low, around $ 3 an hour if you are in the Sausalito area. Add standard Telenet charges if you aren't.
If you aren't familiar with Unix, you can still use the Well, since it the default user interface is command- and menu-driven, and help is available at any prompt. If you are a Unix user, you can drop out of the menu shell, and onto the bare metal of the $ prompt, so to speak.
How do you signup for the Well? Call your local Telenet node number. If you don't know it, call 1 -800-TEL-ENET, and ask them.
With your modem, dial this number, hit RETURN twice a moment after the modem detects the carrier tone. Hit RETURN again at the TERMINAL-’ prompt. You will then see an at-sign prompt, ’0'.
Enter 'C well', and when it asks for your 'login:', enter 'newuser'. You will be guided through a series of questions.
Have your credit card number handy.
The signup procedure will ask who told you about the Well. If you answer ’ifoust', I will get a few hours' time added to my tab. I'd appreciate it. This obligates me to help you on the system, once you get there. To send me a message, just type 'mail ifoust’ at most prompts on the Well. Enter 'g amiga' to join the Amiga group there.
AMICUS 14 The newest AMICUS disk is now available. It has several programs from past issues of Amazing Computing, including Daniel Kary’s index to Amiga C programming structures, Mike Swinger’s Amiga Basic program to convert small IFF brushes to BOBs, and Tim Jones'.bmap reader, including all the latest.bmap files.
There is also an AmigaBasic example of using autorequesters.
Other programs include 'cdf, a filter to add or remove carriage returns to line feeds in documents, and 'queryWB', a program to get a yes no response from the user during a startup sequence, and set an exit code.
'DosHelper' is a program much in the style of Kary's structure reference. It presents an Intuition menus with AmigaDOS commands. Selecting a command gives a screenful of tips on using that command.
There is a program to convert Commodore PET ASCII files to normal ASCII. If you have text files on your Commodore 64, you can use this program to convert them to text files on the Amiga.
Scientific American readers must like the Amiga. Yet another "Computer Recreations" column program has been converted to the Amiga. The September column features a program called C Squared. It generates screens of interesting patterns. The C source and executable are present, along with documentation.
'dpdecode' is a program to decrypt Deluxe Paint. It turns out that the 'dpaint. dat' file in the 'c' directory is the executable itself, and the 'dpaint' program is only a loader. An incredibly patient and wise programmer uncovered the encryption scheme, and wrote a program to convert your copy-protected Deluxe Paint into a non- copy-proteded version.
'vc' is a visual calculator, in the style of VisiCalc. This is a simple spreadsheet. It doesn't use the mouse, only cryptic key commands. It is a port of the public domain Unix program of the same name.
View* lets you look through a text file, using a window and a side scroll gadget.
There are four Oing-type programs here. If you haven't seen it, the 'oing' program bounces nine boing-style balls on the screen at once. Three other versions have appeared. One uses sound, so the original boing demo is more faithfully reproduced. One is like an air-hockey game, another is a chase-tag game.
There are three clocks on this disk. These are variations on a theme. They present themselves on the menu bar of the current Intuition window, and update the time periodically.
The text files include a tipsheet for Deluxe Paint, to make brushes from variable-shaped areas, an article on long- persistance monitors, and a list of suggested methods for icon user interfaces, from Commodore-Amiga.
New Fred Fish disks At press time, as usual, the list of the latest Fred Fish disks arrived. They are listed in the public domain catalog in this issue.
The next AMICUS Network column will discuss their contents.
Next issue Next month, I will travel to the Amiga developer conference in Monterey, California, followed by COMDEX Fall in Las Vegas.
Every developer at the conference must sign a non-disclosure agreement. Presumably, Commodore will tell the developers about yet-unannounced products. I've promised to sign one, so my lips and typing fingers will be closed to expressing some thoughts in the future.
In some ways, this will be an advantage to the magazine. We'll be in on a few more secrets, and this buys more time to research, and get the latest Amiga news to you quicker than before. We won't be surprised when the "baby Amiga' is launched, or when the Amiga 2500 is revealed.
Come to think of it, I don't think I'll be surprised about the announcements at the developer conference. The rumor mills will always grind, and i'm sure the announcements will be rumor-grist the night after the day's conferences, when people get on the telephone, or go back to their portable computers in the hotel rooms.
On top of that, COMDEX takes place the week after the conference, and many developers will travel to Vegas afterwards. As soon as someone says "What's new?," I'm sure some of the secrets will leak out.
Addresses: West Coast Commodore Association
P. O. Box 210638 San Francisco, California 94121
(415) 982-1040 World of Commodore The Hunter Group 204 Richmond
Street West Suite 410 Toronto, Ontario, M5VIV6
(416) 595-5906 The Source
P. O. Box 1305 McLean, Virginia 22102 Customer info 1
-800-336-3330 Signup 1-800-336-3366 People Link 3215 N.
Frontage Road, Suite 1505 Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004
Customer info 1 -800-524-0100 Signup (modem) 1-800-826-8855
• AC* Reviewed by Steve Faiwiszewski Amazing Reviews... TDI
Modula-2 Amiga Compiler "Modula-2 is a new and powerful
language, and is a perfect match for the Amiga. " 'The TDI
Modula-2 Amiga is a state of the art high level language,
simple enough for beginners to pick up easily, and powerful
enough for serious programmers to write large complicated
programs.' So claims the manual for this compiler. Before
discussing the TDI package I must say a few words about Modula-
Why Modula-2?
Modula-2 is a general purpose language created by Niklaus Wirth, the author of Pascal. Wirth designed the language primarily for writing systems software. As such, the language is quite similar to Pascal but has the following advantages:
1. The language's syntax has been cleaned up, improving
readability and efficiency.
2. Modula allows low-level programming without having to resort
to assembly language, thus allowing the programmer to take
advantage of unique system features.
3. Most importantly, Modula-2 introduces the concept of the
"module”, a programming technique which facilitates
development of large systems and of multi-programmer projects.
Here are a few of the features that make Modula better than Pascal:
A. Open arrays: One of the annoying things about Pascal is that
you can only pass a fixed size array as a parameter to a
procedure. For example, if you have the following piece of
code: TYPE alfa40 — ARMY [1..40] OF CHAR; alfaSO *¦ ARRAY
[1..80] OF CHAR; VAR a: alfa40; b: alfaSO; PROCEDURE
Print (one: alfa40); BEGIN END; you can call Print only if the
variable you pass it is of type alfa40. If you need to pass to
Print a variable of type alfa80 you're out of luck; the only
thing to do is to declare another procedure which accepts an
alfa80 variable.
This makes it difficult (if not impossible) to write general routines in Pascal. Modula-2 addresses this problem by providing a means of the open array. This simply means that you can pass any size array to a procedure, such as PROCEDURE Print (VAR one: ARRAY OF CHAR); BEGIN END Print; Now Print will accept any size array. You can find out the size of the passed array by using the Modula-2 function HIGH.
B. Type transfer. Like Pascal, Modula-2 is a strongly typed
language. That means that, unlike C, you can assign the value
of one variable to another only if both are of the same type.
However, once in a while it is very desirable to eliminate type checking. Modula lets you do so in an orderly and controlled manner, unlike the haphazard way type casting is done in C. In Modula-2 every type name can be used as a type transfer function. To change one type to another you simply use the type name as a function. For example to assign a value from a variable declared as WORD to a variable declared as INTEGER you would have: VAR w: WORD; i: INTEGER; BEGIN i INTEGER(w); END; No conversion is done on the data; it is simply treated as the new type. Therefore type transfer only works
between types of the same size (i.e. both types WORD and INTEGER take up 2 bytes, so you can transfer one to the other).
C. Short-circuiting of boolean expressions. In Pascal all parts
of a boolean expression (such as an IF or WHILE statement) are
evaluated. This could some times lead to trouble. Examine the
following piece of code. R VAR i: INTEGER; table: ARRAY[1.
.Max] OF INTEGER; BEGIN 1 0; WHILE (i — Max) AND (table[1] O
0) DO BEGIN 1 i + 1; END; END; You might notice that at one
point the value of T will exceed Max and then the expression
'(table[i]oO)' will cause an "index out of bounds" error.
Modula-2 corrects this problem by stopping the evaluation of
the expression as soon as the value is determined.
In the above example, when 'i' exceeds 'Max' the expression '(i = Max)' is false, and therefore Modula wont continue to evaluate the next part of the expression, and will never encounter the "index out of bounds" error.
D. Low level access. Unlike Pascal, which isolated the programmer
from the computer, Modula-2 allows you to "get to the guts of
the machine". There are features in the language to let you
access the computer memory and hardware through bits, bytes,
words and pointers (addresses).
The SYSTEM module (more about modules later on) defines such types as WORD and ADDRESS. WORD is a type whose size is equal to the word size of the machine (Actually WORD is defined as 16 bits in the TDI implementation, while LONGWORD is defined as 32 bits). ADDRESS is defined as POINTER TO WORD.
Some of the procedures usually defined in SYSTEM are: SIZE which returns the size of a given variable, TSIZE which returns the size of a given type, and ADR which returns the address of a given variable in memory.
Separate Compilation and Modules By far the most significant change in Modula-2 is the ability to create and compile individual pieces of code separate from each other.
C also supports the idea of separately compiled modules, but it doesn't define any control over this feature. In C you declare in one module a function which accepts an integer, but from another module you may call it and pass it an array, and neither the compiler nor the linker will complain!
This will never happen in Modula, as it does type checking across modules. If you try to pass an array to a procedure which is defined in another module to accept an integer, the compiler will flag that as an error. Modula-2 also has version control. That means that if you changed something in the way a procedure is defined in one module, you will be forced to recompile any other module which might make use of the modified module. This feature guarantees that you will always be using the most updated code, and might save you hours of hair pulling.
The use of separately compiled modules is accomplished through the MODULE construct. There are 3 types of modules: main modules, definition modules, and implementation modules.
The main MODULE is equivalent to the Pascal PROGRAM, and contains the usual type, variable and procedure declaration in addition to the main line of code.
A DEFINITION MODULE contains declarations of types, variables, and procedures, but it has no code. The definition module serves to define an interface to routines that are found in a corresponding IMPLEMENTATION MODULE. All items defined in a definition module (constants, types, variables and procedures) are "visible" to other modules, meaning that other modules "know" that these items exist, and might refer to them.
An IMPLEMENTATION MODULE contains the code of all the procedures defined in the definition modules, plus all other types, variables and procedures that are to be used only within the implementation module and are not visible to other modules.
Additionally an implementation module might contain some initialization code that is to be executed once, before the main line of the program begins executing.
There is an IMPLEMENTATION MODULE for each DEFINITION MODULE. Any module that refers to an item which is declared in another module, must contain a statement which instructs the compiler to look the item up in the module it is declared in. This statement is known as the IMPORT statement.
For example suppose we have a module called DateAndTime which contains various procedures concerning dates and times.
The definition module might look like this: DEFINITION MODULE Dats&ndTima; PROCEDURE DayOfWeek (n: CARDINAL; VAR nano: ARRAY OF CHAR); END DateAndTime.
And the implementation module might look like this: IMPLEMENTATION MODULE DateAndTime; CONST MaxDayNameLength = g; TYPE DayString — ARRAY[0.. MaxDayNameLongth] OF CHAR; VAR Week: ARRAY[1..7] OF DayString; PROCEDURE DayOfWeek (n: CARDINAL; VAR name: ARRAY OF CHAR); (* This will return th* name of the n'th day of the week *) VAR i: CARDINAL; BEGIN i 0; WHILE (KHIGH (name)) AND (i -*ftaxDayNameLength) DO nama[i]:¦ Week[n][i]; INC(i) END; END DayOfWeek; BEGIN Week[l]:¦ 'Sunday';Week[2]:® 'Monday'; Week[3]:¦ 'Tuesday';Week[4]:® 'Wednesday'; Week[5]:« 'Thursday';Week[6] 'Friday'; Week[7]:«¦
’Saturday'; END DateAndTime.
A module which makes use of the DayOfWeek procedure may look like this: MODULE Test; FROM DateAndTime IMPORT DayOfWeek; VAR name: ARRAY[1.. 10J OF CHAR; BEGIN DayOfWeek (5, name); (* his should return 'Thursday' in name *) END Test.
Notice that the variable 'Week' is visible only within this IMPLEMENTATION module, and no other module can refer to it, since it is not declared in the DEFINITION module. This ability to "hide" information within a module is known as data hiding (or information hiding) and is one of the more important benefits of using modules. Data hiding is desirable when writing large programs, or when more than one programmer is involved.
In the example above, the person who wrote MODULE Test does not have to concern himself how DayOfWeek works. Data hiding also allows you to have what is known in C as static variables: variables which are only visible to certain procedures, but which maintain their value even when those procedures are not running. Notice that there is some initialization code which sets the Week array to the names of the days. This code will run before the main line of the program starts running.
The manner in which you would compile the above example is as follows: First you compile the definition file (using the TDI compiler, it would be called DateAndTime.Def). The compiler will produce a special symbol file (called DateAndTime.Sym). This symbol file is used by the compiler whenever you compile the implementation module, or any module which imports from DateAndTime. Next you would compile the implementation module (called DateAndTime.Mod), and the compiler would produce DateAndTime.Lnk. Once you compile all your Test.Mod (and any other modules it might use) you are ready to link
them. The linker links all the necessary.Lnk files into one executable file (called Test). Note that once you compile a definition file, you don't have to recompile it again even when you change some code in the implementation module (as long as you don't change the way a procedure is declared).
Advanced Features Modula-2 supports some advanced features, such as coroutines and interrupt handling. These features are used to implement multi-tasking and other things related to operating systems.
These features are beyond the scope of this article, but suffice it to say that whole operating systems HAVE been written in Modula- 2.
As you can see, Modula-2 has combined the strict type checking and control of Pascal with the flexibility and power of C, yet it managed to avoid the disadvantages of the two older languages while introducing some new concepts. Modula-2 is a state-of-the- art language, and what is more befitting than to use it on a state-of- the-art machine such as the Amiga?
The TDI Modula-2 Amiga Package TDI Software, Inc. markets a Modula-2 compiler package for the Amiga, as well as for the Atari ST and the Pinnacle.
The TDI Amiga package consists of a multi-pass compiler, a linker and a few other utilities, and it's a faithful implementation of the language, including such features as coroutines and interrupt handling. Most importantly the compiler allows access to all the ROM Kernel routines.
System Requirements The minimum system requirements to run the compiler is an Amiga with 512K and one disk drive. However, I would very strongly recommend that you get two drives if you are going to use the package for anything more than just playing with it.
What You Get Release 2.00a of the TDI package comes in three flavors:
1. The Regular version sells for $ 89.95 and comes with one disk
which contains the compiler, linker, error lister utility, a
large number of support files (.Lnk &.Sym files), and a
spiral bound manual.
2. The Developer version sells for $ 149.95 and comes with
everything the Regular version has plus another disk which
contains the source for all the definition files (for all the
.Sym files), some demo programs, additional modules that
handle IFF and ILBM, and a bunch of utilities (a decoder of
symbol files, a disassembler for link and load files, a
cross-reference utility, and a hermit file transfer utility).
This version also contains the source of some of the support
modules (such as the InOut and Streams modules).
3. The Commercial version contains all of the above plus a third
disk which has the source to all the support modules.
The disks are not bootable (that is they don't contain any of the WorkBench stuff on them), so before you can use the compiler you have to set up a couple of work disks. The package comes with installation instructions for a system with one or two disk drives, but I came up with my own setup, which I found to be more useful. I have a Workbench disk in dfO: which contains the compiler and editor in the c: directory as well as my favorite editor (MicroEmacs), and any other program I might use. In df1:1 have a disk which contains all the.Lnk and.Sym files (in a directory called M2) as well as
any source code I'm working on.
The M2 directory is huge, so once in awhile I have to make room on this work disk by moving finished or old code to another disk. I assign T: to RAM: and this way the compiler uses the RAM disk for its work space. When it's time to link, I copy the main.Lnk file to RAM and link from there. This cuts down on head seeks and speeds up the linkage time while reducing the wear and tear on the drive head.
Once I get more memory, I might change this setup and put more things in RAM, but with only 512K, you cant do much better than this setup. The manual gives instructions how to use the package on a one-drive system, but due to the size of the compiler and the M2 directory, I found that to be a real inconvenience.
Running it Once you create the definition and implementation modules (as well as the main module) for your program you invoke the compiler by typing 'modula filename where filename is the name of the module to compile.
As an example let's assume that you have created a module called Test. So you have two files: Test.Def (the definition module) and Test.Mod (the implementation module). First you must compile the definition module by typing 'modula test.def'. If there are no errors, the compiler will create the symbol file Test.Sym in the directory to which you are presently connected.
If any errors were encountered the compiler will produce an error file called Test.erd. You can list the errors using the M2ERROR utility by typing 'm2error test.def'. M2Error will display the offending line in the module and the type of error encountered in that line. I usually run M2Error as one task, and my editor as another so I can correct the errors as they are displayed in M2Error's window.
Care must be taken, though, not to save the changes before M2Error completes running, as it keeps the source file open during its execution, and modifying the source file on disk can confuse M2Error and you might encounter the Guru!
Once you're done with compiling the definition module you would compile the implementation module by typing 'modula test'. Note that if you don't specify an extension to the file name, the compiler defaults to ’.Mod'. If any errors are encountered the compiler will generate Test.Erm, otherwise it will produce Test.Lnk. Whenever the module being compiled imports something from another module the compiler has to read the symbol (.Sym) file for that other module. The symbol file is first searched for in the current directory, and if it wasn't found then the search continues in the M2: directory.
The compiler can optionally prompt you for the location of the.Sym file, and it can also produce a listing file for the module being compiled. The listing file contains the source lines of the module, and addresses of statements. This information might be useful during debugging.
After you compile all the code into.Lnk files you link them into an executable program by invoking LINK. As with the compiler, Link first searches for the appropriate.Lnk file in the current directory, and if it can't find the file, then it searches the M2: directory.
The linker can also optionally prompt you for the location of the.Lnk files. LINK is also capable of producing a listing file (known as the Map file) of the program which contains addresses of the various modules. Again, this information might be useful during debugging.
The linker supplied with Release 2.00a of the package also has the option to optimize the generated code, which can shrink the size of the resulting executable file significantly. Using the Optimize option will increase linkage time a bit, but you can get as much as 80% reduction in file sisel Standard Features The TDI compiler implements most of Modula-2's standard features. Standard types INTEGER and CARDINAL are represented by 16-bit words. The LONGCARD and LONGINT types are implemented as 32-bit longwords, the standard type BITSET is 16-bit long, and the standard type CHAR is one byte.
All pointer types are 32-bit longwords, as the 68000 uses longwords for addresses.
The SYSTEM module defines such types as BYTE (8 bits), WORD (16 bits), LONGWORD and ADDRESS (32 bits). The ADDRESS type is compatible with all pointer types. SYSTEM also defines the SIZE, TSIZE, and ADR functions.
The SYSTEM modules also defines procedures such as NEWPROCESS, IOTRANSFER, TRANSFER, and LISTEN.
These procedures are used for Modula-2 multi-tasking (not to be confused with Amiga multi-tasking). You can examine and modify the 68000 registers by using the REGISTER and SETREG procedures, and you can use in-line machine code by using the CODE procedure.
Non-standard Features TDI implemented certain things a bit differently from Wirth's definition and the program must be aware of these deviations from the standard. Here are a few of these non-standard features:
a. The TDI compiler insists that open arrays should be passed by
reference (that is, as VAR parameters), and this means that
you can modify these arrays from within the procedure. Yet you
can pass string constants as open arrays. This means that you
could possibly change the passed string constant!
B. The compiler automatically removes code that could not
possibly execute. For example: CONST xxx — FALSE; IF XXX THEN
WriteString ('This is a tast'); WriteLn END; For this piece of
source code the compiler wont generate object code because it
knows that xxx cannot possibly be true and the WriteString
will never be executed. This feature is handy when you want to
put a lot of debugging statements in your program, but you
dent want the debugging code to take up any space in final
version of your program.
During the debugging phase you'll declare xxx as TRUE, and in the final version you simply set it to FALSE. You must be aware, however, of a potentially dangerous effect of this feature.
Suppose you have the following statement: IF OpenWindow (window) AND xxx THEN... END; Well, if you have xxx declared as FALSE, then the compiler will not generate any code for this statement at all and OpenWindow will never get executed!)
C. Whenever you use the NEW and DISPOSE standard procedures in
Modula-2, you have to import the ALLOCATE and DEALLOCATE
procedures from the Storage modules. However, using the TDI
compiler, you must also import and use the CreateHeap
procedure before you can use NEW and DISPOSE, and before your
program exits it must call DestroyHeap, or else the chunk of
memory allocated by your program won't be accessible to the
Amiga until you reboot.
D. Wirth's definition of Modula-2 allows set types to contain up
to 16 elements (basically each element in a set is represented
as one bit, and a set takes up 16 bits). The TDI
implementation, however extended this limit to 65535 elements
in a set. This is quite convenient and particularly allows you
to do the following: TYPE CharSet — SET OF CHAR; VAR Answer:
CHAR; IF Answer IN CharSet 'A'..'D','Q'} THEN... The above
piece of code is quite common in Pascal programming, but
impossible to do using the original definition of Modula-2.
Documentation The TDI compiler comes with a 300-page small spiral bound manual. The first part of the manual gives instruction as to how to set up and use the compiler and linker, and also briefly discusses the standard library modules such as InOut, Streams, Storage, Strings, and MathLibO as well as SYSTEM. The first part also discusses the various points where the TDI implementation departs from the original language definition.
The second and largest part of the manual consists of listings of the definitions modules for all the support files found in the M2 directory. If you are going to any ROM Kernel, Intuition, or AmigaDOS routines you'll be referring to this section again and again.
The last part of the manual contains an extensive item cross reference which facilitates a search for a specific identifier (constant, type, variable or procedure). For example, if you want to look up the declaration of type Window, you simply look up Window in the cross reference, find in which module it's declared (Window happens to be defined in the Intuition module), and then turn to the page that has the corresponding definition module listing.
There are some serious problems with the manual. The manual that comes with release 2.00a of the compiler is an updated version; it contains references to new modules that did not exist in the first release (such as LonglnOut and ReallnOut). However it contains some old information too.
For example, the definition module listing for InOut is an old listing. The actual module that comes with the compiler has some nice new procedures (such as OpenluputOutputFile, which lets you open another window and route the standard input and output to it) which are not mentioned in the manual at all. The only way you would find out about them is if you get the Developer or Commercial version and go through the definition modules on the disk. If you get the regular version... well you're out of luck.
Another problem is certain topics are discussed very briefly, and others are not discussed at all. For example, there is no mention — aside from a one-page listing of the definition module — of a module called Trapper which lets you trap and display run-time errors. The only way you would find out about it is by reading the listings for all the definition modules.
There is more information missing. I know that the implementation of type transfer functions is not complete, but there is no discussion of this fact and I have no idea exactly which type transfer functions are not implemented. The SYSTEM module exports a procedure called ExitM2. Now this sounds interesting, but there is no mention of this anywhere in the manual and I still don't know what it does.
Bugs Yes, there are some. The compiler seems to be quite solid, but I did come across a few problems with it. The first one is the way the compiler handles the unary minus. The following code should print "0", but instead it prints "-10": VAR n: INTEGER; n:= 5; Writeint (-n + 5, 1); The compiler has another bug in comparing functions: Any conditional evaluation of function comparison is interpreted incorrectly. For example, suppose you have the following code: IF Foo(x) Foo(y) THEN WriteString ('Foo(x) is greater than Foo(y)1); WriteLn END; Now suppose that Foo(x) returns 4 and Foo(y)
returns 2. Well, the above IF statement is evaluated by the compiler as FALSE and the WriteString never gets executed. I've literally spent hours tracking this one down.
Another item which isn't quite a bug, but is certainly a misfeature, is the limit on the size of declared data within a module. If the total size of declared variables in a module exceeds a certain limit (let's say 35K) then the compiler will complain. However, if you spread these variables among a few modules you will be able to compile and link them all correctly.
There are more bugs in the various modules, such as Streams and other Amiga-specific modules. The nice things about Modula- 2 is that as soon as a bug is found and fixed in a module, the.Lnk file for that module can be placed on various systems such CompuServe and local bulletin boards, and everyone can download them. Compare that to C, where if you have a bug in the library file, you have to wait for a new release to get the fix.
TDI is aware of these bugs and fixes them as they are reported. I was informed by a TDI representative that a new release should be ready in about 3 months, and it will have many bug fixes, as well as the removal of the restriction on data size, and a new fullscreen editor which replaces M2Error.
Benchmarks I suppose that no compiler review is complete without some benchmarks. Well, here they are. I benchmarked the TDI compiler against the Lattice and Aztec C compilers using three programs. The program calculates primes in a very inefficient manner (I've extracted the source from the letters' column of a past issue of Amazing Computing).
This basically will test the modulo operator of the compiler. The second program is the infamous Sieve of Erathosene benchmark. The final program is the sample "Window" program found in the beginning of the Intuition manual. Please note that the Modula programs were compiled without stack and range checking. I omitted range checking because C doesn't do any range checking, and I disabled stack checking because I disabled stack checking in the Lattice benchmarks (so I could link the Lattice code without LC.Lib). The C and Modula-2 source listing for the three programs, as well as the tabulated
result follow.
As always, please keep in mind benchmarks are intended to give only a rough idea as to how a compiler performs, and should be taken with a grain of salt. As you can see, the TDI compiler produced results as good as • if not better than — the Lattice C compiler. You should remember, though, that Modula-2 offers more than just good run-time performance.
Summary Modula-2 is a new and powerful language, and is a perfect match for the Amiga. Despite its few problems, the TDI implementation is good and quite usable. I, for one, intend to stick with Modula-2 programming on the Amiga.
Suggested Reading Should you want to learn more about Modula, here is a list of a few good books: "Programming in Modula-2" by N. Wirth (Springer Verlag, 1985 0-387-12206-0). This is the definitive book about Modula-2. This small book is very concise, and must be read carefully. It is not the ideal book for the novice.
"Modula-2 for Pascal Programmers" by R. Cleaves (Springer Verlag, 1984). This is a good book for someone who already knows Pascal and wants to start using Modula-2.
"Modula-2: A Seafaring Guide and Shipyard Manual" by Joyce. A good introduction to Modula-2 forthe novice.
"Modula-2: a Software Development Approach" by G. Ford and R. Wiener. An excellent book which covers more advanced topics in software development.
Listings Listing la: Prim*.Mod MODULE Prim*; (*$ T-*) (* turn off rang* chocking *) (*$ S-*) (* turn off stack chocking *) FROM InOut IMPORT WriteCard, Writ*; CONST MaxCount — 4020; VAR i, n: CARDINAL; BEGIN FOR n:¦ 1 TO MaxCount DO i 2; WHILE (i n) AND ((n MOD i) 0) DO INC(i) END; IF i ¦ n THEN Writ*Card (n,1); Writ*(' '); END; END; END Prim*.
Listing la: Prima. C * prima. c * d*fin* MAX 4020 main () int i, n«0; whit* (++n «MAX) i — l; while (++i n) if (n%i««0) break;) Listing 2a: Siova.Mod MODULE Sieve; (*$ T-*) (* turn off range checking *) (*$ S-*) (* turn off stack checking *) FROM InOut IMPORT WriteString, WriteCard, Write, WriteLn; CONST size » 8190; VAR flags: ARRAY[0.. size] OF BOOLEAN; i, prime, k, count, iter: CARDINAL; BEGIN WriteString ('All primes from 1 to '); WriteCard (2*size+3,1); WriteLn; FOR it*r: — 1 TO 10 DO (* we do it 10 times!! *) count:¦ 0; FOR i:«0 TO size DO flags[i]:=TRUE END; FOR i:«0 TO size DO IF
flags[i] THEN prime:¦ i+i+3; k:«i+prime; WHILE k «size DO flags[k]: — FALSE; INC(k, prim*); END; INC (count); (* WriteCard (prime, 1); Write (' 1); *) END; END; END; WriteCard (count, 1); WriteString (” primes. Last one was "); WriteCard (prim*,1); WriteLn; END Sieve.
Listing 2b: Si*v*.C * Si*v*.c * fdefin* TRUE 1 d*fin* FALSE 0 fdefin* size 8190 unsigned char flags[size+1]; main () int i, prim*, k, count, iter; prints "10 ITERATIONS n"); for (it*r«l;iter BlO;++iter) count ¦ 0; for (i*0;i «siz*;++i) flags[i] ¦ TRUE; for (iB0;i Bsize;*H*i) if (flags[i]) prim* ¦ i + i + 3; for (k»i+prime;k «size;k+®prime) flags[k] « FALSE; count++;)}} prints ("%ld primes n", count); Listing 3c: Window. C findude intuit ion intuit ion. H) Listing 3a: Window.mod MODULE Window; (* Based on the first sample program in the Intuition manual *) (*$ T-*) (* turn off range
checking *) (*$ S-*) (* turn off stack checking *) FROM SYSTEM IMPORT ADR, BYTE, ADDRESS, NULL; FROM Intuition IMPORT IntuitionName, IntuitionBase, WindowFlags, NewWindow, IDCMPFlags, IDCMPFlagSet, ScreenFlagSet, WindowFlagSet, WindowPtr, SmartRefresh, WbenchScreen; FROM Libraries IMPORT OpenLibrary; FROM Windows IMPORT OpenWindow, CloseWindow; FROM Tasks IMPORT SignalSet, Wait; FROM InOut IMPORT WriteString, WriteLn; CONST IntuitionRev ¦ 0; VAR My Window: NewWindow; WindowName: ARRAY [0..13] OF CHAR; wp: WindowPtr; Signal: SignalSet; BEGIN WindowName:= "Simple Window"; (* Open intuition
library *) Intuit ionBase: ** OpenLibrary (Intuit ionName, Intuit ionRev); IF IntuitionBase » NULL THEN WriteString ("Failed to open Intuition"); WriteLn; ELSE (*0 pened the Intuition library, so let's continue *) (* First, initialize the New window structure *) WITH MyWindow DO LeftEdge:« 20; TopEdge:¦ 20; Width 300; Height:« 100; DetailPen:« BYTE(0); BlockPen:« BYTE(1); Title:• ADR (WindowName); Flags:«¦ WindowFlagSet (Activate, WindowClose, WindowDrag, WindowDepth, WindowSizing, NoCareRefresh) + SmartRefresh; IDCMPFlags:¦ IDCMPFlagSet (CloseWindowFlag); Type:¦
ScreenFlagSet (WBenchScreen); Checkmark:« NULL; FirstGadget: — NULL;; Screen:« NULL; Bitmap:¦ NULL; MinWidth:¦ 10; MinHeight:« 10; MaxWidth 640; MaxHeight:« 200; END; (* Now open the window *) wp: “ OpenWindow (MyWindow);.
(* Initialize the signal Mask *) Signal:¦ SignalSet}; (* Convert signal to a bit mask *) INCL (Signal, CARDINAL (wpA. UserPortA. mpSigBit)); (* Wait for the signal *) Signal:¦ Wait (Signal); (* Signal was received, so let's close the window and exit *) CloseWindow (wpA); END END Window.
Struct IntuitionBase *IntuitionBase; struct GfzBase *G£xBase; struct NewWindow NW « 20,20, 300,100, 0,1, CLOSEWINDOW, WINDOWCLOSE | SMARTJREFRESH | ACTIVATE | WINDOWSIZING | WINDOWDRAG | WINDOWDEPTH, NULL, NULL, "A Simple Window", NULL, NULL, 100,25, 640,200, WBENCHSCREEN,; struct Window *w; main () IntuitionBase « (struct IntuitionBase
*)OpenLibrary ("intuition. library",0); if (IntuitionBase »NULL)
exit (FALSE); GfxBase*(struct GfxBase
*)OpenLibrary ("graphics. library", 0); if (GfxBaae NULL) exit
(FALSE); if ((w « (struct Window *) OpenWindow (&NW)) NULL)
exit (FALSE); Wait (l«w- UserPort- mp__SigBit); CloseWindow
(w); exit (TRUE);) Benchmark Results Notes:
1. All times are in seconds.
2. All sizes are in bytes.
3. All compiles were done on disk. All links were done in RAM.
4. TDI reg' refers to linking without the optimize switch
5. TDI opt' refers to linking with optimization
6. Lattice code was linked using Blink 5.7 and linked without
LC. Lib and without stack checking, except 'primes' which
required LC.Lib because of the % (modulo) operator.
7. TDI code was compiled without stack and range checking.
Primes Compile Tima Link Tima Build Tima Run Tima Obj (.Lnk) Siza | Executable Size | TDI reg TDI opt Lattice
- ---------+ Aztec | _________| 31- 30
- ------1 17 | _________i 35 44 38 62 | 66 75 68 79 | 55 54 313
48 | 376-
- — 260 256 | 9184 3164 13892 4780 | Sieve | TDI reg i _________
TDI opt Lattice Aztec | _________I Compile Time 1--------- |
35- 32
- --------1 20 | Link Time i W | C* 1 iii iii 45 26 i iii
i i 1 Ol i to i Build Time 1 71 80 58 82 | Run Time | 6.9
6. 5
6. 5
5. 3 | Obj (.Lnk) Size | 830- 404 512 | Executable Size | 9536
3540 2592 4888 |
- ---------+ TDI reg | TDI opt 1--------- 92--- 79 | 102 171 |
194 1354--- 15276 | 3256 Lattice Aztec 68 52 26 74 94 126 636
512 2536 1928 Window Compile Time Link Time Build Time Obj
(.Lnk) Size Executable Size
• AC* Amazing Computing Index Of Advertisers Access Associates 7
Lattice 5 Accolade, Inc. 8 MacroWare 55 Actionware- David Crane
22 Marksman Technologies 50 Adept Software 58 Megaport Computer
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Corp. 96 Cardinal Software 82 Overland Laboratories, Inc. 59
Central Coast Software 43 Phase Four Software Distributers 94
Century Systems 18 PiM Publications, Inc. 75,73 Computer
Systems Associates 60 Progressive Peripherals Cl, Clll,16
Creative Solutions 88 Promiga 59 Crystal Computer 63 R & S Data
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