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With the Amiga 2000, these cards will be competing against Commodore's own hard disk controller card, which is said to be priced at 9, and include both SCSI and ST-506 interfaces. The ST-506 is the interface used in PCcompatible hard disks, so this type of hard disk is the lowest priced in the market, because of the large number of PC computers. SCSI hard disks are more expensive than ST-506 drives by several hundred dollars. Hard drives are hard sectored. can always tell if a sector is bad. SCSI drives do that automatically. SCSI does validations of write automatically. ST-506 drives dont do that. Converts C64C128 Files to the Amiga! DISK-2-DISK '" from Central Coast Software makes it easy and convenient to transfer C64C128 files to and from the Amiga. DISK-2-DISK programs the Amiga model 1020 external 5.25" disk drive to read and write 1541 4040 and 157011571 disk formats including 1541 "flippies". You can even format a 1541 or 1571 diskette on your Amiga! DISK-2-DISK converts CommodorePET ASCII to AmigaDOS standard ASCII and vice versa. Use DISK-2-DISK to transfer word processing text files (such as PaperClip, SpeedScript and Pocket Writer) to and from the Amiga for use with popular Amiga word processors. DISK-2-DISK includes a utility to find and flag dialect differences between Commodore Basic and Amiga Basic files. e DISK-2-DISK includes VALIDATE BAM and CHECK DISK utilities. VALiDATE BAM verifies the directory structure of the 15411571 diskette. CHECK DISK reads every block of a 1541 1571 diskette to detect diskette errors. DISK- 2 -DISK sells for .95 plus shipping and handling. CA residents add 6% sales tax. Telephone orders welcome. Dealer in- 1: ;;ted II Central Coast Software268 Bowie Drive, Los Osos, CA 93402 805 I 528-4906 l1adcmaiks Amiga.
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SS Commodore Amiga™ Information & Programs AMIGA POWER TOOLS Microbotics Hard Drives Go Head to Head Seven Amiga Assemblers Reviewed “Open the pod bay doors, HAL...” Programmers cast their vote!
Right now, leading software developers are hard at work on the next generation of Amiga® products. To add the spectacular sound effects we've all come to expect from Amiga software, they are overwhelmingly choosing one sound recording package... FutureSound. As one developer put it, "FutureSound should be standard equipment for the Amiga."
FutureSound the clear winner... Why has FutureSound become the clear choice for digital sound sampling on the Amiga? The reason is obvious: a hardware design that has left nothing out. FutureSound includes two input sources, each with its own amplifier, one for a microphone and one for direct recording; input volume control; high speed 8-bit parallel interface, complete with an additional printer port; extra filters that take care of everything from background hiss to interference from the monitor; and of course, a microphone so that you can begin recording immediately.
What about software?
FutureSound transforms your Amiga into a powerful, multi-track recording studio. Of course, this innovative software package provides you with all the basic recording features you expect.
But with FutureSound, this is just the beginning. A forty-page manual will guide you through such features as variable sampling rates, visual editing, mixing, special effects generation, and more. A major software publisher is soon to release a simulation with an engine roar that will ratde your teeth.
This incredible reverberation effect was designed with FutureSound's software.
Question; What can a 300 pound space creature do with these sounds?
Answer: Anything he wants.
Since FutureSound is IFF compatible (actually three separate formats are supported) your sounds can be used by most Amiga sound applications. With FutureSound and Deluxe Video Construction Set from Electronic Arts, your video creations can use the voice of Mr. Spock, your mother-in-law, ora disturbed supercomputer.
Programming support is also provided.
Whether you're a "C" programming wiz or a Sunday afternoon BASIC hacker, all the routines you need are on the non-copy protected diskette.
Your Amiga dealer should have FutureSound in stock. If not, just give us a call and for $ 175 (VISA, MasterCard or COD) we’ll send one right out to you. Ahead warp factor one!
Amazing Dealers The following are Amazing Dealers, dedicated to supporting the Commodore-Amiga™.
They carry Amazing Computing™, your resource for information on the Amiga™.
If you are not an Amazing Dealer, but would like to become one, contact: PiM Publications, Inc.
P. O.Box 869 Fall River, MA. 02722 1-617-678-4200 Alabama
Elecvonlci Boutique Mam!
LCA Video A Computer Ck.
Norwood Synfalre Trading New York Computer Revetalons Houston Alabama Book Store Tuscaloosa Electronics Boutique Orlando Memory Local on WeilsJey Tadkan New York ComputsrTlmelnc.
Marshall Abax Data Systems Huntsville Family Computers Sarasota OmnlTek Computers Tewksbury Tedraw Business Pradues Rochester DotePro Wchtta Falls Command Computers Birmingham Florida Book Store Galnsvlle Pioneer Valley Date Equipment Amherst 1h8 Computer Cellar Albany FNS ComputarServtoes Texarkana Etocronies Boutque Hoover Games N Gauges Orange Pork The Bit Bucket West Newton The Working Computer Saney Brook Mekcpel Bn Computer Bchardson Madsen Books & Compilers Madsen Games Vgadgets Jacksonvlte The Software Haus Quincy Vdeo Computer Bin Brooklyn Mcro Sear* Houston Man Tel Communications
Mobile Games Vgadgets Taflahassee Tyccmlnc.
Pitslold Vdeo Computer Center Rome Regency Educations! Systems Dellas Mel's Photo a Computer Shop Montgomery Games Vgadges Clearwater Maine Vdeo Connection Schenectady Soltax Watauga Universal Compu»r System Mobile Gull Coast Computer Exchange Panama City Computer Bern Damariscotta Vlaga Computer Inc New York Software A max Houston Arkansas Ho art and Computers Mrtberry Michigan Wtorid Computers Inc. Hkksvito Software Lftrary WthiaFafis SIS Inc. ML Home K&L Computers
E. Poistka Basic Business Ccnkol Sys.
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Walton Beach Direct Acoess Lansing TDS Computers Durham Vermont Copperstae Business Sysems Phoenix Softwalls Computer Center Inc HoByHI Edmunton Computer Center Pontiac TDS Computers Durham Ray Supply Inc. So uh Burlington Copperslae Compilers Tucson 8unnyY at Sunset Inc Sunrise Gelaxy Computers Allen Park Triad Computers Greensboro Virginia Hacko's Tempo The Open Door Cocoa Globe) Computer Center Dearborn North Dakota Colony Ltd.
Hampton North American Digital Tucson The PC Collection Corel Gables lOSoftware Flirt Computer Associates Fargo Dhkovery Fafis Church Cnmnrnla Georgia Mx Vgan Software Novi GF. Computers Grand Forks Famly Computer Center Fairfa* Ami Link San Rates!
Eleckonlcs Boutique Atlanta Midland Computer Shop Midland The Computer Stare ftfimt Games Vgodgote Hampton Augnet Freemont ElecvonicsBoutique Alanta Cental Parti Computers Okamos fWn Games Vgodgeto Vrtfrto Beach BaD»aOffloe Supply Sen Diego Electronics Boutique Kennesaw Programs Unfimlted Grand Rapids Computer NoIwork Newark Games Vgadgets Vrglnte Beach Bits n Pleoes Comp Prod.
Anahien Future System Augusta Rosevtle Computer Store Warren Computer Site Cleveland Software Cental Norblk Brown Knows Compiling Redands Games Vgadges Alanta SlpOlsk Madison Hoights Computers Phis olOhd Upper Sandusky Software City Hchmond Bye Factory Computers Sal Ings Games Vgadges Alanta Software Plus Grand Rapids Earhrbe Micro Systems Coiumbus VtrgktoMcro8ystoms
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La Habra Software Souh Inc. Savannah State Street Computers
Ann Arbor Fairborn Home Computer Fairborn AP.PI.E.COOP Renton
Circus of Books II LosAngelea The 64 Store Alanta TJ.
Enterprises Clinton Games Vgadgets North Randal] Apple Valley
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Software House Kalamazoo Ldtes Consumer Eleckontos Akron Bull
Dog News Seatde Comparable Ridgecrest Astro Computers &
Electronics Aieia Ye Olde ComputerShoppe Ypsilanl MelnOffioe
Supply Coshocton Byte Worid Kent Computer Attic Palo Alto
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A. B.I. Computer & Video Bcfso Computer Place Mlmeapolt Persona!
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Hibbing Qiallty Computer Appliances Toledo Micro Age Computer store ; .Bsivtoik Computed, end Freemont Freemont Abitcketer Rodtbrd Midwest Computer Servloas Clearwater Quality Computer AppOanoas Toledo ¦ Micro Space Inc. 1
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Ohare Park Ridge OnUne Computers Mimetenka Saxton Computer
Center Sandusky Nibble Site Toccxna Oaephie Watsonvtto
ComputerLand of Niles Njes SpsdalstsIN Hopkins Sofswairo Cenke
International North Olmsted Omni International Sbade De LauedS
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StillWBter Software and More Cincinnati PCTech Kirkland Etockontas Boutque West Los Angeles
I. C.V. Data Cemer Inc Mjndetoln Mississippi Software Cl y
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IIW Mtcroeomputers Inc Napervile Bectronici Boutque Rtdgetand
Software Connection Mnyletd Hte.
Take-AEyte Ksnnewkk Herding Way News Stockton Interstate CompusrServtoe LeMont Enterprises Unlimited Jadison Cmnhoma WmtVkgWe Home Compiling Center Concord KrochYABrentanoY Chicago Nation* Computer Center Ocon Springs Andromeda LaGrende Loyhtl Newstend Charleston Home Compiling Center Mil VOIley MicroAge Oaktewn Lnsnuri Colonial Video & Computer Bartiesvtle Wbconsln Heme Compiling Center San Leandro Software Or Systems FairviewHts.
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Double E Electonlcs Omaha IB Computers Portland Compute or Play Aberta Ridgecrest Computer Cff. Inc. Ridgecrest Greg Chaney Greenfield Nnvnrin Software Express Eugene Computerwotks Aberta
S. O.S. Computers Los Angeles Micro Computer Centers Inc
Indianapolis Centiry 23 Inc. Las Vegas Rbrmsvtvanlfl
ComputerShop Aberta Software First Santa Resa Spectre Computer
Sys. Inc Evansvtle Computer White Las Vegas Alpha Omega EBE
Warren Data Pro Aberta Software Cental Pasadena Vons Computers
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Computer Systems Hermitage Computer Shop of Ceigary Aberta
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Computer Ephrata The Software House Aberta Tower Books Chico
Century Systems DesMolne New Hampshire Computers and Games
Reading Hbteski Computing Aberta Tower Books Citrus hights
Gronet Computers Dos Moira Computer Mart ol New Hampshire
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Software Hershoy Computer King BritWiCokjmbia Tower Books
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Whnehsfl Mtoromart Manitoba Computer Room Aurora Reality Worid
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Computers Aurora The Software Source Louis Wle Famly Compiling
Centos Ridgewood Gomes Vgadgets King of Prussia
J. W. Alton Manitoba Micro Computer World Fort Cotins Lnulitlann
Games Vgadgets Burlngton Games Vgadgets Mato Kobetak
fiitanitobe Micro World Lakewood Computer Time Shreveport
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Boutique Kenner Morris County Stalonen Chester GenelY Books
King of Pros xla Ariton Ontario AuroraNewsstend Aurora
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Systems Dartvlle Chafim Computer Ontario Wtole Ufa
Distributors Englewood Electronics Boutique Laurencevflle
Academy Computers Albuquetque Rtisburgh Computer Stare
Pittsburgh Computertond Ontario Whole Life Distributors
Englewood Modern Business Machines Metairie CVMSystms
SantaTeresa The Eieckonlc Boutque Norristown Com spec Ontario.
Cnnnnctimt Software Center Internalonai Metairie New Horizon Computer System Alamogordo Triangle Computers Imtona Eteeten!ea2001 Ontario AMIGA Business Computer Norwah Software Sohr tons Baton Rougo Page One Newatand Albuquerque Iteariia Intend Hastings Dots Ontario Computer Outfit PtaVsmon Software Source Lateyette Technological Conoepa Las Cruces MooUmlti Smfthfieid The Computer A You Ontario Electonlcs Boutque Dartbury The Computer Cflnic Lafayette New York tetemslonal Computer Servtaes Johnston ThomMl Ontario Friendly Computers Plante vlla Manriand Anise New York Mcro Limits Warwick
Software Ca Quebec Mnemonics Inc Norwak Buried Treasure Rockvfle Amicus -Hudson Volley WappingatsFals £gil2l£SIDSflfl Deftrorto Solars Qjebec Personal Computer center Norwkh Computer Craftam Wheaton AMIGA Business Computer NarhPort Arcom International Inc. West Columbia Meredate Qrebec Software City Orange Compulsion Vision Center Columbia Bye Stop Merrkk Boctranics Boutina GreenWle IntoMeretor Qjebec Software Kingdom EastWlndsor Elect onics Boutique Baltimore CIA So (torero Center Rushing Horizon GreanvUe LovteMtaro Spectrum Computers New Haven Etockorties Boutique Boftimore Campurito Center
White Plains Mcro Computer Depot Sumter Vision Tronlque QojOyOOl Electonlcs Boutique Amo Arundel County " ComputerOutet Jamestown Software Selt lons Westwood Ptsza DtotlbulonVilpro Qjebec Caste Vktao Newark Bectortics Boutique Owlngs Mis Computers Ete.
Syracuse WhtsonYJewtory Chesterfield Dtotlbutee In Cammn bv Ftefklw Games V Gadgets Baltimore Crom land Inc. Brooklyn 9outeDakirta Avia Software Distributers Concord, Ontario A A Computers Jaeksonvfle Games V Gadgets Baltimore Etoctronlcs Bouique Ltota Grave Computer Business Center Rapid City Compult Distributors Brash Columbia Book Mama Ortando Games Vgadgets Cotembla Electronics Bouique Huntington Staton Tnttnpnun Phase 4 Of st Inc. Calgary, Aberta Commodore ComputerShop Ocala LoyhBl Newsstand Kensington Etoctronlcs Bouique Albany ComputerLab of Memphis Memphis Argon Ina ComputerBar
Pennsacola Micro Computer Center Baltimore Etoctronlcs Bouique Valley Skoam Games Vgadgets Memphis Logie Computer Bbonos Ares Computer Base Brandon Software Advantage Rockvlle Games Vgadgets Nanuet Software Rrst Nashvlle Australia Computer Image Miami Software N Things CoflegePark Games Vgadgets Garden City Tnms Huh Technology Computer Suppfies Computer Terminal inc. Sebrlng Waldorf Computer Waldorf LoighY Computers New York A & Computer Round Rock frighten, kMbom Computers 4 Rent
W. Palm Beach Mranachimntti Mnemonics Norte Port Byte Shop Austin
Maxwol Oftce Equipment Abboaford, Melbum Computers Plus South
Daytona Club Computer Cambridge Softwaire Centre Intarnalonal
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Boston Software A Such Scotia Colonial Video Houston Pineapple 6502 Tokyo, 111 Education Computers Etc. Talahasse Electronics Boutique Holyoke Software City Forest Mis ComputerAge Houston flmxflnArnbto Electronics Boutque Boynton Baach General Computer Store Framingham Software Supermarket Kenmore Computer Age Dsfias Abdulla Fouad A Sons Daman Etockontas Boutque Teftahassee HCSComputer Center Marshfield Star Tech Systems Massana Computer Magic Austin flwftaBrtmd Software Land AG Zberich Amazing Computing™ is also available in most B. Dalton Booksellers stores, B. Dalton Software stores, and
Software Etc. locations.
MetaScopc: MetaScope gives you everything you've always wanted in an application program debugger; e Memory Windows Move through memory, display data or disassembled code live, freeze to preserve display and allow restoration.
• Other Windows Status windows show register contents and program
state with freeze and restore; symbol, hunk, and breakpoint
windows list current!
E Execution Control . , Breakpoints with repetition counts .
And conditional expressions; trace for all Instructions or subroutine level both single-step and continuous execution.
Full Symbolic Capability Bead symbols from files, define new ones, use anywhere.
....delete, sejt tabs; and Metadigm products are designed to fully utilize the capabilities of the Amiga™ in helping you ’ develop your programs. If you're programming the Amiga, you can't afford to'be without them.
The Debugger !: ' ¦
• Powerful Expression Evaluation Use extended operator set
including relationals, all assemblernumber
- - formats*
• Direct to Memory Assembler Enter instruction statements for
direct conversion tocodein memory
• and Morel Mouse support for value selection and command menus,
log file for operations and displays, , modify search fill
memory, etc. A program that lets you access PC-DOS MS~l OS™
diskettes on your Amiga. Use it to list file information and
copy files between the PC-DOS MS-DOS diskettes and Amiga
diskettes or devices. Patterns con be used lor file names, and
you, can even operate on all files in a directory at one time.
A copy option converts source file line-end sequences as the
copy is performed. .
MetaScope $ 95.00 MetaScribe $ 85.00 MetdTools $ 69.95 DosDisk $ 49.95 (California residents add 6% sales tax).
Visa MasterCard accepted.
Dealer Inquiries Welcome AMIGA is a trademark of Commodore*Amiga Inc. MS-DOS ie a trademark oi Microsoft* Incorporated $ Distortion-free fills in raster lines crisp bright colors, converts all IFF files * Photographic prints in various formats also available Call (212) 777-7609 FOR DETAILS Ask for llcnc or wrilc TRU-IMAGE
P. O. Box 660, Cooper Station New York, N.Y. 1U2 0 Publisher:
Joyce Hicks Circulation Manager: Doris Gamble Assistant to the
Publisher: Robert James Hicks Traffic Manager: Robert Gamble
Managing Editor: Don Hicks Submissions Editor: Ernest
Hardware Editor: Ernest P. Viveiros Sr.
Amicus & Technical Editor: John Foust Music & Sound Editor: Richard Rae Art Director: Keith M. Conforti Advertising Manager: John D. Fastino Copy Editor: Michael T. Cabral Production Manager: Mark Thibault Assistant P.M.: Keven Desmarais Advertising Sales & Editorial 1-617-678-4200 Amazing Computing™ (ISSN 0886-9480) is published by PiM Publications, Inc.,
P. O. Box 869, Fall River, MA02722.
Subscriptions: in the U.S. 12 issues for $ 24.00; in Canada & Mexico, $ 30.00; Overseas; $ 35.00. Printed in the U.S.A. Copyright© 1987 by PiM Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.
First Class or Air Mail rates available upon request.
PiM Publications, Inc. maintains the right to refuse any advertising.
PiM Publications, Inc. is not obligated to return unsolicited materials. All materials requesting return must be received with a Self Addressed Stamped Mailer.
Interested in becoming an Amazing Author? Write us for our Author's Gude.
13 Suora 4x4 Hard Drive by John Foust The Amazing Computing Hard Disk Review Page 8 by John Foust and Sheldon Leemon C Ltd Hard Drive by John Foust Mlcmbotics MAS-Drlve20 by Sheldon Leemon PAL Jr. From Bvte bv Bvte by John Foust l« Xebec 9720H Hard Drive by Sheldon Leemon 15 New m Driver Software Under Development by John Foust rAmazing Columns.
AmlaaNotes A look at the Applied Visions' FutureSound audio digitizer Forth!
Access the huge resources intheROMKemal 68000 Assembly Language Programming on the Amloa™ A look into the Status Register Roomers Amiga trade-in, Zorro transputers andMOREIII by Richard Rae by John Bryan by Chris Martin 51 56 65 81 34 37 39 42 Modula-2 AmiaaDOS™ Utilities A Modula-2 demonstration of calls to AmigaDOS and the ROM kernal Amloa Technical Support by John Foust 78 How to get technical support materials from Commodore Goodbye Los Gatos by John Foust 79 Last respects were paid to the Amiga Corp. in Los Gatos, as former empbyees Organized an "Amiga Wake Party" fAmazing Interviews...
Peter J. Baczor by Steve Hull The Manager ofCBM's Customer and User Support gives us an inside look TheMaolcSac... Run Mac programs on vour Amlaa by John Foust Data Pacilic's David Small by Steve Faiwiszewsld 59 75 84 iMArnfcvsmm™ §1 John tells his tales of the by John Foust 87 4 fAmazing Reviews... 1 LOGISTIX | A powerful speadshoet, database, graphics, 1 and time-management package.
1 Protect Manaaement Techniques by Richard Knepper 21 24 1 Organize!bvMicro-Svstems Software | An inexpensive database that gets the job done by Richard Knepper 27 1 Sunerbase Personal Relational Database bvRavMcCabe | An accomplished database package 31 1 Metacomco Shell and Toolkit | A critical review of two products from the | developers of AmigaDOS™ by John Foust 44 1 7 Assemblers for the Amloa™ Decide which assembler suits you best by Gerald Hull 69 Hlah Level Shakeuo Replaces Top Management at Commodore by Stove Hull For the third time in less than three years, Commodore undergoes a
major management shakeup What vou should know before choosing an Amloa 1QOO expansion device by Stephen Grant Know what to look for in an expansion device Amloa Expansion Peripheral by John Foust John cleans up the confusion about Amiga expansion peripherals Amazing Features... Commodore shows the Amlaa 2000 and Amiga 500 at the Boston Computer Society H. Maybeck Tolly The first official glimpse for US users From the Editor 4 Amazing Mall 6 Public Domain Catalog 90 Index of Advertisers 96 Amazing Departments From the Submissions Editor... Trailblazers are created, not born Are you a
As an Amiga™ user, you are a pioneer and the Amiga is your covered wagon. Your Amiga will take you as far as you dare to go and beyond your personal frontier. If you carefully choose a path and prepare your gear properly, your Amiga will whisk you away on new and exciting journeys.
For the novice, the frontier can be a scary, frustrating and very lonely place. At Amazing Computing™, we realize that trailblazers are created, not born. We give aspiring Amiga pioneers the chance to learn from seasoned Amazing Trailblazers like John Foust, Gerald Hull, Bryan Catley and all our other Amazing Authors. These pioneers offer their personal experiences as maps to a vast world of Amiga frontiers: from extensive C programming and Amiga internals to AmigaBASIC programming techniques.
Once you learn the basics of trailblazing, you are ready to explore on your own. By taking your own risks, you can discover many interesting things about your Amiga.
Exploration is the key to actually understanding "what goes on under the hood". Once you get a grip on your newly staked claim, you will want to share your findings with other pioneers. This is our obsession.
You can become atrailguide by becoming an Amazing Author... it's much easier than you think. Drop me a line and I will send you an Author's guide to get you rolling.
Remember, Amazing Computing™ s always searching for NEW PATHFINDERS.
IN THIS ISSUE The cover tells the story... this issue is dedicated to Amiga Power Tools. Power tools are hardware and software products (such as hard disks, spreadsheets and programming support packages) which strengthen your abilities. Power tools speed us to increased productivity and better results.
Ernest P. ViveirosJr.
Submissions Editor Hard Disks Review On behalf of hardware tools, this issue features the "Amazing Computing™ Hard Disk Review" by John Foust and Sheldon Leemon. John and Sheldon went all out to push the five available hard disks (as of late March) to their respective limits. Please note that these reviews do not pick a winner or a loser, but rather lay down the facts. Basic fads allow you, the reader, to weigh each drive's pluses and minuses and choose which drive will best fit your needs.
What's the spec?
There is a rising tide of hardware support for the Amiga 1000.
Searching through the oysters for the pearls can be a losing battle. Wading through a jumble of technical jargon can wear out the average user. With the user's sanity in mind, Stephen Grants' "What you should know before choosing an Amiga 1000 expansion device" is a must for any Amiga user in the market for an expansion device. The technically- oriented user will appreciate John Foust's helpful pearls of wisdom on "Amiga Expansion Peripherals."
The software Is here!
Finally, we have lots of software tools available. More packages are hitting the Amiga market every day, ranging from databases to assemblers. Having all these software choices is great, but it breathes life into the age old problem of choosing the right package forvou.
Remember, tools are only good if you use them. Take the time to learn how to use the tools available. Frustration will reign at first and the "old way" will probably seem much easier... but you will thank yourself later and wonder how you ever got along without such valuable Amiga tools.
Remember, the key to getting your money’s worth out of any Amiga produd is implementation.
Lattice® C Compiler $ 225.00 Software designed for AMIGA.
New version 3.1 of the AMIGA DOS C Compiler replaces version
3. 03. Major enhancements include the addition of: TMU, an
assembler, a faster linker and version 3 MS-DOS.
With more than 30,000 users worldwide, Lattice C Compilers set the industry standard for MS-DOS software development.
Lattice C gives you all you need for development of programs on the AMIGA. Lattice C is a full implementation of Kernighan and Ritchie with the ANSI C extensions and many additional features.
Professional Lattice® C Compiler $ 3 75.00 A new product called the Professional Lattice C Compiler is now available. It includes the C Compiler package (complete with TMU), plus LMK, LSE and the Metascope Debugger.
AMIGA® C Cross Compiler $ 500.00 Allows AMIGA development on your MS-DOS system. Price includes the Professional Lattice C Compiler described above.
Lattice Screen Editor (LSEm) $ 100.00 Designed as a programmer’s editor, Lattice Screen Editor (LSE) is fast, flexible and easy to learn. LSE's multi-window environment provides all the editor functions you need including block moves, pattern searches and “cut and paste." In addition, LSE offers special features for programmers such as an error tracking mode and three Assembly Language input modes. You can also create macros or customize keystrokes, menus, and prompts to your style and preferences.
Lattice dBC JJ™ Library $ 150.00 The dBC III library lets you create, access and update files that are compatible with Ashton-Tate’s dBASE system. DBC Ill's C functions let you extend existing dBASE applications or allow your users to process their data using dBC III or dBASE III.
Lattice Text Utilities (TMU™) $ 75.00 Ixittice Text Utilities consists of eight software tools to help you manage your text files. GREP searches files for the specified pattern. DIFF compares two files and lists their differences.
EXTRACT creates a list of file names to be extracted from the current directory. BUILD creates batch files from a previously generated file name list. WC displays the number of characters and optionally the checksum of a specified file. ED is a line editor which can utilize output from other TMU software in an automated batch mode. SPLAT searches files for a specified character string and replaces every occurrence with a specified string. And FILES lists, copies, erases or removes files or entire directory structures which meet the specified conditions.
Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Lattice Unicalc® Spreadsheet $ 79.95 Unicalc is a simple-to-operate program that turns your AMIGA computer into an electronic spreadsheet. Using Unicalc you can easily create sales reports, expense accounts, balance sheets, or any other reports you had to do manually.
Unicalc offers the versatility you've come to expect from business software, plus the speed and processing power of the AMIGA.
• 8192 row by 256 column processing area • Comprehensive context-
sensitive help screens • Cells can contain numeric, algebraic
formulas and titles • Foreign language customization for all
prompts and messages • Complete library of algebraic and
• Dual window capabilities • Floating point and scientific
notation available • Complete load, save and print capabilities
• Unique customization capability for your every application •
Full compatibility with other leading spreadsheets • Full menu
and mouse support.
Lattice MacLihrary ™ $ 100.00 The Lattice MacLibrary™ is a collection of more than sixty C functions which allow you to quickly and efficiently take advantage of the powerful capabilities of the AMIGA.
Even if your knowledge of the AMIGA is limited, MacLibrary can ease your job of implementing screens, windows and gadgets by utilizing the functions, examples and sample programs included with the package.
Other MacLibrary» routines are functionally compatible with the most widely used Apple® Macintosh™ Quickdraw Routines™, Standard File Package and Toolbox Utility Routines enabling vou to rapidlv convert vour Macintosh programs to run on the AMIGA. * ' Panel™ $ 195.00 Panel will help you write your screen programs and layer your screen designs with up to ten overlapping images. Panel's screen layouts can be assigned to individual windows and may be dynAMIGAlly loaded from files or compiled into a program. Panel will output C source for including in your applications. A monitor and keyboard
utility is also included to allow you to customize your applications for other systems.
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858-8473 Lattice INTERNATIONAL SALES OFFICES: Benelux:
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Associates Italia (02) 46.46.01 I just did Chris Erving's
memory upgrade on my Amiga. I am very happy with it. I
suggest using a very fine long-tipped soldering iron, as
things are very close together inside the box when putting
the sockets on the internal memory. Be very careful
removing the Kickstart daughter board; I thought for sure
it was going to break when pulling it out the first time. I
tried to stick my fingers between it [the daughter board]
and the main board and pry it apart on opposite sides.
Amazing Mail... Dear Amazing Computing, It is very easy'to get cold-solder joints. These result in memory errors of various kinds. What's handy in debugging is using a debugger (or maybe a basic program could be written) to write stuff into the memory and then check what's there. The memory organization of the new chips is: Location Address range U2B,BOTTOM 80000-9FFFF, even bytes, upper nibble U2C,BOTTOM 80000-9FFFF, even bytes, lower nibble U2D,BOTTOM 80000-9FFFF, odd bytes, upper nibble U2E,BOTTOM 80000-9FFFF, odd bytes, lower nibble
1) 1 B,BOTTOM A0000-BFFFF, even bytes, upper nibble U1C,BOTTOM
A0000-BFFFF, even bytes, lower nibble U1D,BOTTOM A0000-BFFFF,
odd bytes, upper nibble U1E,BOTTOM AOOOO-BFFFF, odd bytes,
lower nibble U2B.TOP C0000-DFFFF, even bytes, upper nibble
U2C.TOP COOOO-DFFFF, even bytes, lower nibble U2D.TOP
COOOO-DFFFF, odd bytes, upper nibble U2E.TOP COOOO-DFFFF, odd
bytes, lower nibble U1 B.TOP E0000-FFFFF, even bytes, upper
nibble U1 C.TOP E0000-FFFFF, even bytes, lower nibble U1 D,TOP
E0000-FFFFF, odd bytes, upper nibble U1 E.TOP EOOOO-FFFFF, odd
bytes, lower nibble The software fix for 1.2 that Chris
presents works, but there is a problem. When 1.2 reboots, it
boks for memory starting at zero and up. When it reaches the
limit, it declares it [the memory] all to be CHIP memory and
begins using it. At the very highest address possible, it
places the supervisor stack. This means that after this
upgrade, 1.2 puts the stack at $ 0FFFFF. The fix program tells
the machine to forget the new memory, but the supervisor stack
is still using it, so when you do the 1 ADDMEM 80000 FFFFF
command, it is possible to overwrite the stack by writing to
the outskirts of memory. What happens is that the machine
bombs when your ramdisk gets too full. So, it would be better
to do1 ADDMEM 80000 F8000 (More or less, I'm not sure) to
leave space for the supervisor stack.
An even better fix is to modify the kickstart disk itself. I have looked at the reboot code and found where it boks for memory. At address $ FC020C there is a LEA $ 200000 ,A1 which sets the upperlimit. You must change this to LEA $ 080000,A1 and everything works. How do you do it? You must use DISKED on the kickstart disk. Enter these commands: g 2 ;Get sector 2 sx ;Set default printing to hex 3 ;Look at long word 3 ;It should print out 43F90020 3 x43f90008 ;Modify long word 3 x ;Remove write protect p ;Write it back ;It will give you a checksum ;error message, but that's ok.
Now we have to fix the Kickstart checksum. The checksum is a sum of the 16-bit words in the ROM. When we change the 0020 to a 0008, we subtract 0018 from the sum; so, we must add it back somewhere else. I picked the ACSII copyright notice at the start. Now do g 1 16 16 x20524f65 w Get sector 1 Look at long word 16 It should be 20524F4D Enter Patch Write back and exit Now rekick the machine.
I had a hard time figuring out the kickstart fix. Finding the place was easy, as it wasn't too far into the boot code, but I couldn’t find any documentation about the format of the kickstart checksum.
Without the correct checksum, the machine re-kbks after every warm-boot because it thinks the ROM is corrupted. If anyone knows where the real checksum is stored, it could help things.
After this fix to kickstart 1.2, you don't have to worry about any software incompatibilities. You must do an ADDMEM to get the new memory - 1 ADDMEM 80000 FFFFF You don't have to worry about the supervisor stack either.
My thanks to Chris Erving and Amazing Computing for that fine article.
David Ashley Pasadena, CA On behalf on all those frustrated hackers out there, THANKS DAVE! - Ed AVAILABLE NOW!
StaiBoaid2 If you've owned your Amiga® for a while now, you know you definitely need more than 512k of memory.
You probably need at least double that amount...but you might need as much as an additional two megabytes.
We want to urge you to use StarBoard2 as the solution to your memory expansion problem -and to some of your other Amiga-expansion needs as well!
Ifs small, but ifs BIG- Since most of you want to expand your Amiga's memory without having to also expand your computer table, we designed StarBoard2 and its two optional "daughterboards" to fit into a sleek, unobtrusive Amiga-styled case that snugly fastens to your computer with two precision- machined jackscrews.
The sculpted steel case of StarBoard2 measures only 1.6" wide by 4.3" high by
10. 2" long. You can access the inside of the case by removing
just two small screws on the bottom and pulling it apart. We
make StarBoard2 easy to get into so that you or your dealer
can expand it by installing up to one megabyte of RAM on the
standard StarBoard2 or up to two megabytes by adding in an
This card has decks!
The basic StarBoard2 starts out as a one megabyte memory space with Ok, 512k, or one megabyte installed. If you add in an optional Upper Deck (which plugs onto the Main Board inside the case) you bring StarBoard2 up to its full two megabyte potential. You can buy your StarBoard2 with the Upper Deck (populated or unpopulated) or buy the Upper Deck later as your need for memory grows.
And you can add other functions to StarBoard2 by plugging in its second optional deck -the Multifunction Module!
StarBoard2: functions five!
If we count Fast Memory as one function, the addition of the MultiFunction Module brings the total up to five!
THE CLOCK FUNCTION: Whenever you boot your Amiga you have to tell it what time it is! Add a MultiFunction Module to your StarBoard2 and you can hand that tedious task to the battery-backed, MicroBotics. Inc. AMIGA is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga 811 Alpha Drive, Suite 335, Richardson, Texas 75081 (214) 437-5330 Auto-Configuring Fast RAM Zero Wait Slates User Expandable from512kto 2 Megabytes Bus Pass• Through MultiFunction Option: battery clock, FPU, parity, Sticky-Disk real-time clock calendar. A small piece of MicroBotics software in your WorkBench Startup-Sequence reads the
clock and automatically sets the time and date in your Amiga. And the battery is included (we designed it to use an inexpensive, standard AAA battery which will last at least two years before needing replacement).
THE FLOATING POINT FUNCTION: If any one aspect most characterizes the Amiga it's fast graphics! Most graphic routines make heavy use of the Amiga Floating Point Library. Replacing this library with the one we give you with your MultiFunction Module and installing a separately purchased Motorola 68881 FPU chip in the socket provided by the Module will speed up these math operations from 5 to 40 times! And if you write your own software, you can directly address this chip for increased speed in integer arithmetic operations in addition to floating point math.
THE PARITY CHECKING FUNCTION: If you install an additional ninth RAM chip for every eight in your StarBoard2, then you can enable parity checking. Parity checking will alert you (with a bus-error message) in the event of any data corruption in StarBoard2's memory space. So what good is it to know that your data's messed up if the hardware can't fix it for you? It will warn you against saving that data to disk and possibly destroying your database or your massive spreadsheet. The more memory you have in your system the more likely it is, statistically, that random errors will occur.
Parity checking gives you some protection from this threat to your data residing in Fast RAM. Note that the Amiga's "chip" RAM cannot be parity checked.
THE IMMORTAL MEMORY DISK FUNCTION (STICKY-DISK): When you've got a lot of RAM, you can make nice big RAM-Disks and speed up your Amiga's operations a lot! But there's one bad thing about RAM-Disks: they go away when you re-boot your machine. Sticky-Disk solves that problem for you. It turns all of the memory space inside a single StarBoard2 into a Memory Disk that will survive a warm-reboot! When your Amiga attempts to grab a StarBoard2 in Sticky-Disk mode, a hardware signal prevents the system from acquiring the StarBoard2 as FastRAM (and thereby erasing your files) -instead it is re
recognized as a Memory Disk and its contents are preserved intact. If you want to work rapidly with large files of data that are being constantly updated (such as when developing software) you can appreciate the Sticky-Disk!
Fast RAM -no waiting!
StarBoard2 is a totally engineered product. It is a ZERO WAIT-STATE design, auto-configuring under AmigaDOS 1.2 as Fast RAM. Since AmigaDOS 1.1 doesn't support autoconfiguration, we also give you the software to configure memory in 1.1. Any applications software which "looks" for Fast RAM will "find" StarBoard2. And you’ll find that your applications run more efficiently due to StarBoard2 on the bus.
A passing bus? Indeed!
What good is an Expansion Bus if it hits a dead end, as with some memory cards? Not much, we think -that's why we carefully and compatibly passed through the bus so you could attach other devices onto your Amiga (including another StarBoard2, of course!).
The sum of the parts... A really nice feature of the StarBoard2 system is that you can buy exactly what you need now without closing off your options for future exapansion. You can even buy a Ok StarBoard2 (with a one megabyte capacity) and populate it with your own RAM (commonly available 256k by 1 by 150ns memory chips). When you add StarBoard2 to your Amiga you have a powerful hardware combination, superior to any single-user micro on the market. See your Authorized Amiga Dealer today and ask for StarBoard2 SUGGESTED RETAIL PRICING: StarBoard2, Ok (1 meg space): $ 349 StarBoard2, Ok (2 meg
space): $ 395 StarBoard2, 512k (1 meg space): $ 495 StarBoard2, 1 meg (1 meg space) $ 595 StarBoard2, 2 megs installed: $ 879 StarBoard2, 2 megs & MultiFunction: $ 959 Upper Deck, Ok (1 meg space): $ 99 MultiFunction Module: $ 99 also available: Standard 256k memory card: $ 129 MAS-Drive20, 20 meg harddisk: $ 1495 MouseTime, mouseport clock: $ 50 ©M&pa&im Imk Comparing C Ltd., Microbotics, PAL Jr., Supra, and Xebec By John Foust and Sheldon Leemon Introduction by John Foust With the Amiga nearing its second birthday, many Amiga owners are considering the purchase of a mass storage device to enhance
their system. So many questions exist in the Amiga expansion market. Which drive is best for your system?
This is a review of the five Amiga hard disks; the C Ltd Amega, the Microbotics MAS-20, the Byte-by-Byte PAL Jr., the Supra 4x4, and the Xebec 9720H. At the time of this review, in late March, these were the only Amiga hard disks shipping and available in quantity. All the hard disks in this review are 20 megabyte hard disks.
First, a few definitions. If you are new to computers, you may not be familar with hard disks. A hard disk is a fast, reliable floppy disk sealed in a box. They are ranked in megabytes, a measurement of the amount of storage they hold. For example, a 10 megabyte holds the equivalent of more than ten Amiga floppy disks, because Amiga floppies hold slightly less than a megabyte of information.
Another term is "SCSI." It stands for "Small Computer Standard Interface.” (It is often pronounced "scuzzy," but market-conscious Apple executives once encouraged "sexy," because they did not want their products called "scuzzy.") SCSI is a method of connecting high-speed peripherals to many kinds of computers. Some of the Amiga hard disks here are SCSI devices. An Amiga hardware company designs an Amiga-to-SCSI interface card and mates this with an industry-standard SCSI hard disk.
While hard disks may be an off-the-shelf computer commodity these days, there is much more to an Amiga hard disk system. For starters, a hard disk driver program must be written by the manufacturer. This program serves as an interface between the drive hardware and the operating system. Commodore Amiga has a recommended method of operation for disk drivers, and some manufacturers do not follow this guideline, and instead craft their own form of disk driver software.
With ail the charts and numbers, it may appear that this review has an emphasis on hard disk speed. Many factors will contribute to the speed of a hard disk system, more so on the Amiga than other computer systems, because of the sophistication of the operating system. While disk performance is of ultimate concern to speed freaks and high- power computer hackers, other factors should loom larger in the consumer mind.
Hard disk benchmark Creating a benchmark is an extremely difficult proposition.
A benchmark should provide a method for measuring performance, and serve as a logical basis for comparison between devices. A benchmark should be repeatable and yield consistent results.
One benchmark emerges as a popular Amiga benchmark because it was included on a Fish disk. It is 'diskperf'. The suite of tests in this review include 'diskperf' and two tests of our own design. The exact steps of the test are not described here, but are available in files on the CompuServe and People Link networks. All timing tests were not done by hand, but automatically by computer, using the lime' program by Scott Everndon, and averaged with ten trials.
We wanted tests that reflected common use of an Amiga.
The validity of 'diskperf' as a good benchmark can be debated, especially with the results we found, so we included two others.
First, record the time of low level format, if possible, then record the time of an AmigaDOS format'. In this way, the tests start with a blank, freshly formatted drive.
Run the ’diskperf’ program on the freshly formatted drive. In general, only the first run on each machine was recorded for these results, but other testing revealed that the nonread write 'diskperf' numbers would vary by as much as 3 each, and the numbers for reads and writes would vary as much as 300 bytes per second from run to run, so take them with a grain of salt. Also, the results shown here include the 'diskperf' results from the AmigaDOS RAM: disk and an external floppy drive.
The second step measures how fast a large program loads off the disk, specifically, the 'arc' file compression program on AMICUS disk 8.
Next, a standard set of files was copied to a subdirectory on the hard disk. This set of files was public domain disk AMICUS 8. On the first copy, the files are moved from floppy to hard disk, and on subsequent copies, from hard disk to hard disk. Nineteen more subdirectories were created on the hard disk, and the first subdirectory copied recursively to each of the nineteen, in turn. At the end of this, a 20 megabyte hard disk is filled to about 70 percent of capacity.
The list of times creates a curve that should demonstrate how the disk performance changes as the disk is filled with data.
In general, hard disks perform more slowly as they fill. This part of the test hopes to describe 'real world' hard disk use.
It means a lot of thrashing disk access, and a lot of interfacing with AmigaDOS, which is widely known to be slow. It means copying a lot of small files with the unusually small buffers of the 'copy' command.
However, it could be interpreted as a fair benchmark. The resulting twenty numbers reflect the performance of the drive on 'real world' tasks over time, as the drive approaches fullness. Again, these numbers would vary by as much as five seconds each in time trials.
The first copy from floppy to disk should ideally be constant forthe drives, because the hard disk should always be faster than the floppy. This was not the case.
After the hard disk is filled with this standard set of files, the load time of the 'arc' program is again measured.
Benchmark results The first part of the 'diskperf' test measures the number of files created per second. Opening a file can be a timeconsuming process for an operating system. Arguably, most programs do not spend that much time opening and closing files. The results range between 2 and 7 files per second, as seen in Table 1.
The second part of 'diskperf' measures the number of files deleted per second. Results range between 3 and 25, as seen in Table 2.
The third part measures the number of directory entries scanned per second. Scanning a directory means asking the operating system for a short description of each file present in a directory. A common example of this is the list of files in a file requester. Results are fairly close on this, between 44 and 51, in Table 3.
Continued... The fourth part measures the number of seeks and reads per second. This part shows how well the disk can move between ends of a file and read data. This part of the 'diskperf' test gets closer to real-world situations, where a program is manipulating a database, for example. Results range between 76 and 36 in Table 4.
The last part of 'diskperf' measures read write speeds, varying the size of the chuck of data read each time.
Increasing the size of the data block increases performance. Table 5 shows that the average time ranges froml 6 to 50 K per second. Table 6 shows the individual buffer values for each drive.
The times for an AmigaDOS format' are shown in Table 7.
The results of the 'arc' test are shown in Table 8. Table 9 shows the retail prices for each drive, and summarizes the options for each.
Benchmark summary The PAL Jr. Fared the best in most tests, and comes out on top of this review. For performance in the real world, the Supra and C Ltd follow, and they probably represent the best value for the lowest price, barring future major improvements in the Xebec arid Microbotics designs.
The disk copying test results are graphed in Chart 1. The closer the curve to the bottom of the graph, the better the performance on this test. Also, the slope of the curve is important. If the curve rises slowly, then the disk performs as well when it is empty as it does full.
If nothing else, this review can serve to invalidate the 'diskperf' test as a proper benchmark. The results of the test are hard to interpret. There is little correlation between 'diskperf' results and real-world performance, as shown by the Xebec results. This contention is also affirmed by the results from the updated C Ltd driver software, which scored higher in the 'diskperf test than before, but showed little increase in the real world disk copy test. Be wary of 'diskperf' results in hard disk advertisements.
Things to consider There are many factors that can influence hard disk speeds.
Among these are the speed of hard disk itself, the speed of the controller and the corresponding speed of the data transfer method. On top of all this lies the disk driver software speed, and the overhead induced by the operating system. Each of these factors is significant for the Amiga.
Partitions are one easy way to speed disk access.
Partitions are a software method of splitting a single physical hard disk into several smaller disks, at least from the perspective of the operating system. Partitions are created by editing the 'mountlist' file in the 'devs:' directory. This file is changed to reserve area of the disk that should be treated as separate disks. The Amiga 2000 will use this method to share a hard disk between MS-DOS and AmigaDOS.
Partitions can speed access to a hard disk. Small partitions are easier for the operating system to manipulate. Partitions can organize files more logically on a hard disk. Partitions have another advantage. If you develop a read write error in a partition, just reformat that partition, and other partitions are spared. Many developers will do testing in a partition, so their program and programming tools don't get blown away if a program spits up on the disk.
Interesting variations on partitions emerge. If you create a partition with the same number of cylinders, tracks and surfaces as an Amiga floppy disk, the AmigaDOS 'diskcopy' command will work between that partition and a floppy drive.
This will duplicate floppies about three times faster than floppy-to-floppy.
There are some disadvantages to partitions. Each partition will get its own buffers, and these are in CHIP memory.
Creating a large number of partitions will rapidly consume precious CHIP memory needed for graphics. Also, running programs that access different partitions at the same tiime will prove to be inefficient, because the head of the disk drive will spend more time moving between areas on the disk than reading or writing data.
An interleave factor can affect speed. The interleave is a method of accessing blocks of data on a disk. Because the magnetic platter is spinning, a read of one sector means the platter will probably move before the request for the next sector arrives. An interleave factor places consecutively numbered sectors at spaced intervals on a track, instead of placing them directly next to each other. When two consecutive sectors are to be read, the platter will have moved, but the second sector might be directly under the read head of the drive, so it can be read immediately.
According to Ed Lippert of C Ltd, the choice of an interleave factor can reduce 'diskperf' performance by as much as half.
Hard disk manufacturers choose the best interleave factor for their drives, and give this recommended value in the documentation.
DMA vs. non-DMA Input and output devices are concerned with moving data At the lowest level, data is eight-bit bytes and sixteen-bit words. Most data paths (called buses) within the Amiga are sixteen bits wide, so bytes travel in pairs. No matter the data path to and from computer memory, a certain handshaking process must occur with the memory chips. There is an ultimate speed limit for moving data within the computer, governed by the speed of the processor, and the speed of the memory chips.
With a simple peripheral and the 68000 CPU available to move data, the process is easy. The data word or byte is present at a fixed address in Amiga expansion slot memory.
The CPU reads that data into a holding register within the CPU, and then copies the data to a location in Amiga program memory. By reading data from the expansion device location, and copying each to consecutive locations in regular memory, data such as a file is transferred to a waiting program. .
Direct memory access, or DMA, works in a similar fashion.
The data is read from a single memory location in expansion device memory and copied to consecutive buffer memory locations somewhere else in memory. However, with DMA, the CPU is not involved. In effect, the transfer process occurs behind the CPU's back. For each data unit, the DMA hardware takes control of the memory transfer bus for a moment and moves the data without using the CPU. In reality, the transfer cannot occur without some penalty to the CPU. Although it may not coordinate the transfer, one one device can access the bus at atime, so the CPU can do less work while the DMA transfer
Because the CPU is not involved in the transfer, DMA is regarded as a more optimal method of data transfer, particularly in a multitasking environment. The CPU is free to execute another program while the data is transferred from an external device. When the transfer is complete, the DMA chip interrupts the CPU.
However, DMA has limitations. The DMA hardware must be programmed with relevant information, such as the fixed memory location of the device, and the range of consecutive memory addresses to hold the transferred data, before the transfer can occur, ft takes time to inform the DMA chip of the nature of the transfer. It also takes time to process the interrupt after the data has been transferred. In the same amount of time, it might be faster to transfer the data with the simple, non-DMA method of data transfer. If only small amounts of data are to be transferred, DMA may actually take longer
than moving the data with the CPU.
Among Amiga hardware manufacturers, there is some debate as to the merits of DMA versus non-DMA transfers.
As Jerry Robinson of Microbotics put it, "How fast it takes me to read a book does not depend on how fast it takes the light to get here from the sun.” According to Scott Peterson of Byte-by-Byte, non-DMA severely affects multitasking abilities. As an example, he suggested, open several CLI windows, and enter 'dir opt a' in each, and then rapidly press return on each, to start them at the same time. He claims the resulting slowdown is minimized on a DMA drive, because data transfer happens transparently. On a non-DMA drive, performance is slow and jerky.
When we tried this, this type of reaction was bore out.
Although the Amiga may be performing similar tasks with each drive, the subjective impression of smoothness and speed can vary significantly, as well as objective measures of speed.
Slow drives An important issue of perspective must be raised in this review, in the interest of objectivity and a sense of balance.
Current Amiga hard disks are slow as compared to other common microcomputer hard disks. While the best Amiga hard disks manage 50 K bytes per second throughput, today's Macintosh and IBM AT clones get about 180 K bytes per second in normal use.
For Amiga hard disks, the greatest factor limiting speed is AmigaDOS, often affectionately referred to as AmigaDOG.
A large amount of software effort is expended to access files and directory structures. This effort far surpasses minor increases in data transfer speeds. Small improvements in the operating system will lead to much greater performance imcreases in hard disks. These operating system tweaks are much more important than small increases in speed due to changes and improvements in a given manufacturer's disk driver software.
Jerry Robinson of Microbotics also challenged Amiga hard disk manufacturers to improve throughput to be more in line with the performance of other microcomputers. Robinson thought the goal should be about 160 K bytes per second.
At best, the SCSI interface can sustain 1000 K bytes per second, and the Amiga expansion bus can transfer 800 K per second. There are few limits in hardware, only software.
The new fast AmigaDOS (described below) should bring these numbers into the 80 K bytes per second range. A faster hard disk can help, too. New high-capacity hard disks are becoming more affordable. In addition to the increased storage capacity, these new drives are much faster than smaller drives.
It is important to consider that the Amiga needs more time to evolve. The early Macintosh operating system ROMs did not fare with with early hard disks, and even today's Macintosh hard disks from Apple are slower than third-party Macintosh hard disks.
Central Coast Software™ Trademarks Amiga. AmigaDOS. Commodore-Amiga. Inc.. PaperClip, Baltcries Included; Pocket Writer.
Digital Solutions. Inc : DISK-2-DISK Central Coast Soltwarc.
Converts C64 C128 Files to the Amiga!
DISK-2-DISK™ from Central Coast Software makes it easy and convenient to transfer C64 C128 files to and from the Amiga. DISK-2-DISK programs the Amiga model 1020 external 5.25" disk drive to read and write 1541 4040 and 1570 1571 disk formats including 1541 “flippies”. You can even format a 1541 or 1571 diskette on your Amiga! • DISK-2-DISK converts Commodore PET ASCII to AmigaDOS standard ASCII and vice versa. Use DISK-2-DISK to transfer word processing text files (such as PaperClip, SpeedScript and Pocket Writer) to and from the Amiga for use with popular Amiga word processors. •
DISK-2-DISK includes a utility to find and flag dialect differences between Commodore Basic and Amiga Basic files.
• DISK-2-DISK includes VALIDATE BAM and CHECK DISK utilities.
VALIDATE BAM verifies the directory structure of the
1541 1571 diskette.
CHECK DISK reads every block of a 1541 1571 diskette to detect diskette errors. • DISK- 2 -DISK sells for $ 49.95 plus $ 3 shipping and handling.
CA residents add 6% sales tax. Telephone orders welcome. Dealer inquires invited.
IS Homebrew drives Other options are available for the experienced computer owner. It is possible to buy a hard disk controller card and hard disk separately, perhaps from discount computer mail order houses, and fashion a custom hard disk system.
Many companies have or are planning hard disk controller cards. These include ASDG Inc., ASDG Pacific Cypress, Computer Systems Associates, Technisoft, Side Effects, Interactive Video, Microbotics and Jefferson Enterprises.
Interestingly, the Microbotics interface will be a daughterboard for their Starboard two megabyte memory expansion.
With the Amiga 2000, these cards will be competing against Commodore's own hard disk controller card, which is said to be priced at $ 349, and include both SCSI and ST-506 interfaces. The ST-506 is the interface used in PC- compatible hard disks, so this type of hard disk is the lowest priced in the market, because of the large number of PC computers.
SCSI hard disks are more expensive than ST-506 drives by several hundred dollars. Hard drives are hard sectored, can always tell if a sector is bad. SCSI drives do that automatically. SCSI does validations of write automatically.
ST-506 drives don't do that.
Summary To answer the opening question of this review, the best system for you will fit your present and future needs.
Consider your future buying plans. Do you have all the memory you want? Will you want to add other expansion port peripherals? Because of the finite nature of Amiga expansion, you might forego a simple and inexpensive expansion port device for a more expensive but expandable Zorro box; or vice-versa, because your expansion plans are limited.
There is only one ultimate way to insure that a peripheral will work with your Amiga. Before buying any peripheral, check it out on your Amiga at your Amiga dealer. It may be important to check it on your machine, not just the dealer's machine. Bring along the other peripherals you may own, including external drives. This test run can be very important.
Remember, reality is the ultimate benchmark. If you are satisfied with the price and performance of a hard drive, and it works with your machine, and it fits into your expansion plans, do not be swayed by nit-picking benchmarks.
Instead, enjoy your expanded Amiga.
• AC* By John Foust SEDfelk Bmroo’ fcfe An improved version of
the AmigaDOS operating system is being developed to increase
the performance of Amiga hard disk drives by up to four times.
This should bring Amiga hard disks into the normal speed range
for microcomputer hard disk$ . Why i$ this upgrade necessary?
The current version of AmigaDOS file handling is optimized for
floppy disk access, because hard disks were non-existent when
the Amiga was created.
The work is being done by Tim King, a programmer formerly with England’s Metacomco, the producers of Tripos, the operating system on which AmigaDOS is based. He is doing this work under contract to Commodore, in response to Commodore’s first hard disk product forthe Amiga 2000.
(This product is the A2090 hard disk controller card. At this time, it is not clear if Commodore will sell hard disk drives themselves, or leave the disk choice up to dealers who configure the Amiga 2000.)
According to Dale Luck, former head of Commodore Amiga Los Gafos, "The new software should speed up the file .
System three to four times." Luck thought the system should be ready in mid summer. Because the system is in a state he described as "pre-alpha," Luck did not want the new file system to be part of this review.
Because of the nature of the new software, the hard disk must use the Commodore-approved method of mounting the hard disk, using the 'mount' or foinddrivers' commands. This means that hard disk systems that do not u$ e the official method will not be able to use the improved file system. It wilt be the responsibility of each non-conforming disk drive system manufacturer to change their software.. The most speed is gained in reading large files. Disk write speeds are not expected to improve as much as reading data from the disk. King's own preliminary benchmarks claim reading a 400 K file took
16 seconds in the present file system, and 3 seconds in the new system. Copying the same 400K file to the Same disk takes 39 seconds now, and only 8 seconds in the new file system.
A beta tester of the new system agrees with these benchmarks. "The speed increase is just tremendous. The loading of programs is just a few seconds now, as compared to ten or twenty seconds before. Everything f've got runs on it." This beta tester, who prefers to remain anonymous, is neither an Amiga hardware manufacturer or representative of Commodore. This tester has tried the new file system on both C Ltd and PAL Jr. Systems, and reports the greatest speed increase on the PAL Jr. System. They attribute this to the similarity between the PAL Jr. Design and the Commodore hard disk controller
card forthe Amiga 2000.
The new file system is compatible with the present file system, in most respects. To install the new system, it will be necessary to reformat the disk in question, and re-copy all the files to the newly formatted disk.
In detail, the new software keeps the filename hash chains in block order, and the ExNext() operating system function call will return items in block order. This means that 'dir' command style access of the disk - such as a file requester - will read a list of files much faster than before. Directory entry information is now more contiguous, so that directories take place much faster. In some form, this optimization was added to the floppy-oriented AmigaDOS 1.2, Each data block on the disk now contains only data. Before this, data blocks also contained header information. With data blocks of
pure data, they can be loaded directly from disk to buffers in memory without interpretation and removal of the header information. Normally, the data would be placed in an intermediate buffer, the extra header data stripped off, The data would be copied to the buffer that is presented to the next higher level of the file system - for interpretation by an application program, for example.
Another optimization allows the new disk driver software to copy the data blocks directly to the application's data buffers, without the intermediate data buffer step. In effect, data will be read directly from disk to the program requesting the information.
The new fife system will attempt to place files on the disk contiguously, so that all the data blocks of a file are physically near each other in the disk. The new system will read contiguous files more quickly, and can read all the data directly in the program buffers.
The size of some file system buffers has been increased, which leads to other performance increases. With these improvements, the speed at which the operating system loads a executable program file is expected to at least double, as Well. This is due to increased buffer size, and the size of these buffers might become a user-settable option in the new file system. .
In addition, a new version of the 'copy' command might be included with the new file system. This new version of 'copy' will use larger buffers that will speed 'copy' command execution. King is also working on a new 'diskdoctor' for hard disks. This program (now included on the standard AmigaDOS disks) can recover deleted files and restore disks with read Write errors. While the current 'diskdoctor1 program will work on hard disks today, it is limited by the size of the system memory. The new version will operate in less memory.
Hard disk boot Work is also progressing on changes in Kickstart and Workbench to allow future hard-disk-based Amiga systems to boot directly from the hard disk, without inserting a Kickstart or Workbench. This necessarily means a change of Kickstart ROMs in the Amiga 500 and 2000, and a specially modified Kickstart disk forthe Amiga 1000. At this time, the auto-boot system is working. Thirteen seconds after power-up, the first hard disk activity starts. .
Reviewed by John Foust The C Ltd hard disk was available in two forms at the time of the review. Both an older, metal box as well as a newer plastic case were reviewed. Both were the approximate color of the Amiga. The metal box was sturdy. The joints of the expansion box did not mate tightly, giving an less-than- reputable impression.
The molded plastic case had a much nicer appearance. The model tested was a prototype. The C Ltd logo is on the face of the drive, and an LED shows disk activity. The plastic box is about the shape and size of a loaf of white bread. The metal box is about one foot square, and three inches tall.
After a day's use, the metal drive case was very warm to the touch.
Because the SCSI card has two female connectors, an optional pass-through connector is available for $ 20. It is a simple circuit board that presses into a female connector on the circuit board. If you like, you can also add an external power supply to the SCSI expansion card for $ 50.
The low-level SCSI formatting program is icon and gadget driven. The AmigaDOS format took an exceptionally long time, more than twenty minutes. The supplied boot disk uses the public domain 'Kickbench' program to combine both Kickstart and Workbench on one disk. After power-up, only one disk needs to be inserted. Ed Lippert of C Ltd explained why they used Kickbench. "First of all, because everyone said That would be neat,'" explaining that the one-disk solution is good for most situations.
Programs like Kickbench make me nervous. In order for the disk to again function as a Kickstart disk, it must be 'kick'ed with a special program. If you remove this disk after it has been kicked, it will appear to be a Kickstart disk, not a Workbench disk. If for some reason you want programs from this Workbench disk, be sure not to remove it after startup.
An experienced user can make up their own Workbench disks that do not use Kickbench, but it takes some wading through the manual to see how to do this. If you are already experienced with installing devices like this, you could examine the 'startup-sequence' and 'mountlist' files on the supplied disk and do it yourself. The standard Commodore method of 'mount' will mount the C Ltd drive.
I had the general impression that the manual could use a rewrite. It took a tot of searching to find specific things. For example, something like the little tidbit that says the 'binddrivers' command needs to be called before loading Workbench. Another unfortunate consequence of using programs such as Kickbench is that they too must be explained in the manual.
The C Ltd drive comes formatted and loaded with several megabytes of public domain software. They ship the disk 43 percent full of demos and programs in the public domain. C Ltd is formatting the drive to 22.4 megabytes now, slightly more than the other 20 meg drives in the review.
C Ltd is the latest incarnation of the company formerly called Cardco. They have been in the Commodore hardware business for a long time, and have a good reputation among C Ltd owners. C Ltd has been very cooperative to special requests from some C Ltd owners.
For example, one user wanted to connect a SCSI-interfaced CD ROM drive to the Amiga using the C Ltd SCSI interface.
C Ltd offerred to modify the hard disk driver software to work with this CD ROM player, for free. Another wanted to drive an 880 megabyte Maxtor hard disk, and C Ltd modified the driver to support such a large disk. Of course, this research and development is in C Ltd's self-interest, and will pay off in the long run when big disks and CD ROM readers are more commonplace.
Recovering from errors I did crash the C Ltd drive once, when compiling and testing C programs. The hard disk would appearto start as usual, but then would hang at the first access. I should have read the instruction better at this point. I would have learned that a few more reboots might help recover the disk. SCSI devices have an ability to recover from errors, given time and initialization sequences.
At press time, C Ltd had completed a new version of their hard disk driver software. Leemon and I felt it unfair to compare the performance of this new software against the other hard disks, because we wanted to compare the hard disks at a given frozen instant in Amiga history. Time marches on, and all hard disk makers should improve their software. Perhaps the new software will be reviewed in a future issue.
Among other things, such as down-coding portions into assembly language, the new driver software implements a software prefetch. This means that if disk block 4 is requested, then blocks 5 and 6 may be read as well, continued... wagering that they will be requested next. The data for blocks 5 and 6 will be present in buffers when the next request arrives, and the blocks will not be read from disk, but only copied from the buffers.
While 'diskperf' results were generally higher with the preliminary improved driver, (creating 7 files, deleting 12 files, scanning 50 files, and performing 58 seek read operations per second) the AMICUS disk copying test was only two to seven seconds faster per iteration. The loading of the 'arc' program fell to about 4 seconds flat, as compared to 4.5 seconds before.
»AC* Reviewed by Sheldon Leemon The Microbotics MAS-20 has the most seniority of all the drives tested, having been around for a good ten months.
Tecmar and the Micro Forge shipped a few hard drives prior to Microbotics, but these entries soon fell by the wayside, victims of Commodore's ever-changing DOS hardware interface standard.
Perhaps as a reaction to the unfortunate experience of its predecessor's, the MAS-20 alone, of all the devices tested, does not interface through the expansion card on the right side of the Amiga. Instead, it uses the parallel port, normally used by the printer. There's a printer port pass-through located on the back of the drive.
Because of its interface, there are some special considerations to take into account if you're thinking of buying a MAS-20 (or its work-alike cousin from A*Systems).
The first is that you may have trouble using some of the other peripherals that interface through the parallel port at the same time. The FutureSound audio digitizer and the Digi- View video digitizer both fit into this category. In addition, problems have been reported when trying to run the BBS-PC!
Bulletin-board program on the MAS-20.
There seems to be no problem using the system with a parallel printer, however. The installation disk that comes with the drive contains a substitute parallel device driver that replaces the one that comes in the DEVS: directory of the Workbench. With this driver in place, there was no conflict between the printer and the hard disk. On the other hand, the MAS-20 installation guide states that you must always have your printer powered up when running the drive.
On the positive side, there may be reasons why you would want a hard disk that did not use the expansion connector.
It certainly avoids contention problems that sometimes occur when multiple devices are placed on the bus at once (see sidebar for an explanation of the controversy). This means that the MAS-20 may be the only Amiga hard drive to work with the Sidecar (should it ever be released). And it may be the first drive to be available for the Amiga 500, since a simple printer adapter should make it compatible.
The most significant side effect of the way in which the MAS- 20 is connected may be its speed. From the test results, it appears that the MAS-20 is at least marginally slower than the other drives. Hardware designer Jerry Robinson of Microbotics says, however, that reliability, not speed was not the primary consideration. Microbotics' philosophy seems to be that a third-party device should f it in with the overall design scheme of the Amiga, and that the minor speed gains achieved by setting the hard disk driver task to a high priority, or shutting off multi-tasking altogether, just aren't
Robinson stresses that the difference between reading 25K of data per second and 50K isn't that great, when you consider that reasonable hard disk performance should be at least 160K per second (see sidebar on how Amiga hard disk speed stacks up to other systems). In order to insure the maximum compatibility, Microbotics commissioned Carl Sassenrath and Bob "Kodiak” Bums, members of the original Amiga design team, to write the driver software for the MAS-
Physically, the MAS-20 is one of the smaller hard drives, measuring about three inches tall, seven wide, and fifteen deep. The neat system box includes the power supply. The unit is convection cooled, so no fan is required. The front of the drive contains only a "busy" light; there's no power light.
On the back, there are parallel in and parallel out connectors, a SCSI port D-shell connector, a replaceable fuse, and the on off switch.
Setting up the MAS-20 is relatively easy. A single-sheet installation guide is included with the drive, along with a floppy disk. The guide shows how to plug the drive into the printer port. The installation disk does not contain the Workbench files, so you must first put in a Workbench disk and then open a CLI window. The installation disk contains scripts for initializing the hard disk, and installing the necessary files on your own Workbench disk.
The initialization process consists of formatting the drive with the standard AmigaDOS "Format" command. No "deep formatting" is necessary. The only files required that must be added to your workbench disk are the "DHMount" command, the new "paralleLdevice" file and a new "Startup- sequence". The installation disk also includes a "Park” program to move the drive head to an unused part of the media, so as to avoid damaging the drive when transporting it.
It is possible to partition the MAS-20 into a number of logical drive units. The process consists of issuing a separate "DHMount" command line for each logical unit, and using the "Format” command to format each. Instructions for this process are included in a "Readme" text file in the "Docs" directory of the installation disk.
In summary, the Microbotics drive performance is slow but steady. It has a proven record of reliable performance, and comes from a company with solid credentials for producing quality Amiga add-ons. Although the initial list price of the drive was $ 1495, Microbotics recently licensed the technology to A'Systems, who is selling the drive under its own name for a.list price of $ 995. It appears that Microbotics will still be supplying controllers and software for the A*Systems drive, but will no longer be selling the finished drives themselves.
_ *AC* Tk§ FML JJr0 Reviewed by John Foust The PAL Jr. Came in under the wire; the first units were shipped the week of this review. The PAL Jr. Has been redesigned since its announcement late last year. It does not resemble the tower-style prototype in the advertisements. The new design is an Amiga-colored metal box nearly the exact size of an Amiga.
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P. O. Box 10832 Eugene, Oregon 97440 A staple-shaped connector
bridges the Amiga expansion port to the PAL box. There is no
provision for a pass-through connector, so no other expansion
port devices can be connected to an Amiga with a PAL Jr. It
has a fan to cool the box. Even after a day's use, the PAL Jr.
Remained cool. The fan and drive were a little noisy to my
The PAL Jr. Box has two Zorro slots. One slot is dedicated to the hard disk controller card, so only one slot is free for future devices. The motherboard for the slots includes a megabyte of memory, as well as a battery-backed clock.
The controller card has provisions for supporting another SCSI device, as well as two more ST-506 drives.
Byte-by-Byte has an auto-config two megabyte memory board called the GargantuRAM, priced at $ 836. This card filled the Zorro slot in the unit under test, so this PAL Jr.
Added three megabytes of RAM to the system, as well as the 20 megabyte hard disk. With one megabyte SIP chips, this board can become an eight megabyte memory board.
The PAL Jr. Hard disk controller design is a licensed version of the official Commodore design used in the Amiga 2000.
The PAL Jr. Design is the same as the older PAL expansion box, so these test results should be the same for both devices.
Both PAL designs use a MOS Technology hard disk controller chip that brings true DMA (direct memory access) data transfer to the Amiga. The PAL design is currently the only true DMA hard disk in the Amiga market. MOS Technology is Commodore's own chip-making facility.
The Amiga power cord must be plugged into a switched plug on the back of the PAL Jr. According to the manual, this allows the PAL Jr. To control the power-up sequence. The manual recommends that the Amiga power switch be left in the 'on' position. In this setup, the PAL Jr. Switch controls power to both devices.
Unfortunately, the power switch is placed on the back of the PAL Jr. With a monitor centered on top of the Amiga and PAL Jr., the switch is almost unreachable, behind the left corner of the monitor. In my computer hutch, my arm can barely squeeze between the hutch support and monitor to reach the back of the PAL Jr. According to Scott Peterson, president of Byte-by-Byte, several PAL Jr. Owners have already complained about this, and they are considering a design change to move the switch to the front of the box.
In my mind, this sort of oversight is hard to fathom. The power switches on all the hard drives reviewed are on the back of the hard disk box, so the PAL Jr. Is not the only drive at fault. One possible solution would be a switched power strip for all the computer power cables. Meanwhile, I can only hope that companies do a little more human-factors testing of prototype products.
How unhappy would you be if the power switch for the Amiga was on the back of the machine? My most common vision of a computer desk is a nestled hutch, with barely an inch of desk space to spare. The external drive for the Amiga is turned on its side, set next to the monitor to conserve precious desk space, and the mouse is cramped by spreading papers and tea cups. One could argue the switch placement from an engineering standpoint, I am sure, as well as pointing out that most IBM PC clone power switches are at the back edge.
The PAL Jr. Is fairly heavy. The box is thick metal, and the card cage and power supply add to the weight of the box.
With it on top, it becomes difficult to move your Amiga. If it is any consolation, the heavy-duty box is probably a better support stand for a monitor than the Amiga's plastic case.
The PAL Jr. Is clearly the highest performance Amiga hard disk. Without equivocation, it is faster than the rest.
Because of the similarity in design, when Commodore releases their own hard disk controller card for the Amiga 2000, owners should see similar performance with comparable hard disks.
With the Pal Jr., price and performance will be the deciding factors for most buyers. The list price of $ 1495 is reasonable if you consider that the standard PAL Jr. Comes with one megabyte of memory, a Zorro slot, and a battery- backed clock.
By all indications and the private remarks of other Amiga developers, Byte-by-Byte plays by the rules, and this costs extra. The additional Zorro slot offers some comfort for future expansion, but so many Amiga owners have expansion port peripherals today. With a PAL Jr., they are no longer functional. I know I yearn for the expansion port peripherals that will arrive in the future. For some Amiga owners, this will not matter as much, and the PAL Jr. Would be an proper solution to the expansion question.
Byte-by-Byte started from scratch in the fall of 1985 when Peterson read the Amiga introduction article in Byte magazine. They started as an Amiga dealership, and grew to develop hardware as well. They have two full-time support people.
Unfortunately, on the day when the other drives were tested, the PAL Jr. Was dead on arrival and didn't make the first round of tests. Another unit was shipped later, and therefore it was tested on a different day than the other disks.
According to the official postmortem, the failure was due to a broken cold solder joint in a power supply made by an outside manufacturer. The break happened in shipping, because the unit was tested before it was shipped.
Functioning PAL Jrs. Were shown at recent Amiga shows, and several dozen units have been shipped to buyers without any other failures, according to Byte-by-Byte.
• AC* ATTENTION!
• AO At the back, a wide ribbon cable connects the drive to the
expansion interface that resides on the Amiga expansion bus on
the right side port on the Amiga. The model under test had a
simple Berg-stick ribbon connector, but production models have
a D-shell connector like most SCSI cables and drives.
The internal design of the expansion box is clean and simple.
No traces or jumpers are present. The design is remarkably simple, using a standard SCSI interface chip. The expansion box also contains the battery-backed clock circuit. It does pass the bus.
An internal connector is present for future memory expansion. At the time of this review, the one megabyte board was in production, but not yet shipping. Two and four megabyte versions have been announced, but are not yet designed or produced. According to Mark White of Supra, they are waiting because of fluctuating prices for one megabyte RAM chips.
A disk of software is supplied, along with a minimal manual.
The manual contains enough information for installation and ordinary use, but most owners would prefer more explanation, I think. A 'supramount' program is used in lieu of the AmigaDOS 'mount' command. The AmigaDOS 'mount' command does work, and the 'mountlist' is used to mount the drive, but it isn't clear why the 'supramount' program is necessary.
Reviewed by John Foust The Supra 4x4 hard disk is tightly packed in foam for shipping. The disk box and expansion interface are matte beige color, similar to the color of the Amiga. Two LEDs show disk access and power. The face of the hard disk is slightly smaller than an external floppy drive, but the box is about a foot deep.
Again, the power switch is on the back of the drive, which could be very hard to reach in some configurations. Like the C Ltd drive, the Supra drive box gets hot to the touch after long periods of use. A fan is available, according to White.
Supra has products for many computers. Their line of hard disks for the Atari ST have been very popular. The Supra performed well in most tests, and it is available for under $ 800 from mail order companies. All in all, I gained a very favorable impression of the Supra drive.
Reviewed by Sheldon Leemon The 9720H marks the initial entry into the Amiga hard disk market of a well-known manufacturer of mass storage devices. Xebec is a solid, established company that has supplied hard drives to PC manufactures such as IBM. The fact that such a company has decided to make a hard disk for the Amiga is itself some indication that the Amiga is beginning to gain credibility in minicomputer community.
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(208) 322-4958 The 9720H box contains the drive, a controller
module that fits onto the Amiga's expansion port, a cable,
a terminator plug, and two manuals. Although the controller
is Amiga- specific, the hard drive itself is the same SCSI
drive that Xebec provides for other computer systems. This
is reflected in the two professional-looking manuals that
accompany the system. The drive manual refers to
installation of the IBM-PC controller card, while the
controller manual gives the Amiga-specific details.
The drive itself is a bit larger than the Microbotics unit, and is unusually oriented. Unlike the other drives, the Xebec is mounted vertically, so that it's several inches taller than it is wide. It comes mounted on a base to add mechanical stability. The metal case is impressive-looking, and appears to be very well constructed. The top and bottom of the case sport a series of cooling vents, and no cooling fan is needed.
The drive is fairly quiet in operation. The front of the drive contains only a "busy" light. The power switch, and the two SCSI ports are on the back. One SCSI port is used for the connection to the drive controller, and the other is free for chaining additional SCSI devices. If you don't have any other SCSI devices to chain, a little terminator plug goes in the unused port.
The other part of the drive is the "sidecar" drive controller box that fits on the Amiga expansion port. This metal box resembles some of the stand-alone memory add-ons for the Amiga, ft does not have a pass-through connector for the expansion bus, so this controller must be the last device in the chain. The Xebec drive was successfully tested with a Microbotics Starboard II memory card between the controller and the Amiga.
Setting up the Xebec drive is extremely easy, since the hard drive software comes on a bootable Workbench disk. The startup-sequence file on this disk looks for a file called "HDParms" that’s created when the low-level initialization ("deep formatting") takes place. If the file isnt there, the low- level initialization program "hdinst" is run. Xebec recommends that you turn on the drive and let it run for at least 15 minutes before performing the deep formatting.
Some people have interpreted this to mean that you must warm up the drive for this period before each use. This warmup period is only necessary before the deep formatting, however, and that procedure needs to be performed only once.
After the low-level format, the drive is mounted with the "scsimount" command, and then comes the DOS formatting stage. This is not performed using the normal AmigaDOS "Format" command, but rather with a special proprietary "hdformat" program. All of this goes on automatically. Of course, once you've installed the drive, you may want to change the startup-sequence file to skip checking to see if the drive is formatted. Other software on the startup disk includes a head-park program, and a backup-restore utility that will only do a full-drive backup.
The special commands used to mount and format the drive indicate that Xebec does not use the standard Amiga hardware and software interface. The Xebec drive is not an auto-config device. Xebec project manager Dave Lahti explained that the company went ahead with its own interface scheme because Commodore kept changing the Amiga expansion specifications. Some questions were raised about the stability of the Xebec software drivers when early users found that copying files or using the Workbench "snapshot" function too rapidly could cause validation errors. In our tests, this "bug" was
duplicated, but only by moving icons around at a frantic pace-not exactly normal operating conditions.
As this report was being written, Xebec issued a new revision of its software, version 1.2B, that is supposed to remedy the problem. This revision was received too late to be included in the test, but based on Xebec's reputation, it seems likely that they will take the necessary steps to insure that their software works reliably.
As the test results show, the Xebec drive was one of the fastest non-DMA drives. And though it is list-priced at $ 1095, the dealer price is one of the lowest around, so it may be possible to pick one up for a song from the various "deep- cut" discounters. Because of its speed, the reputation of its manufacturer, and its relatively low price, it seems a good choice among the current field of drives.
• AC* Table 1
- ----------- .. Table 2 Tabled Tabled Number of dies Number of
files Number of directory entries Number of seeks and roads
created per second deleted per second scanned per second of one
byte per second Blank Full Blank Full Blank Full Blank Full
7 2 Pa! Jr.
25 25 Supra 51 52 PalJr.
76 72 Cud 7 2 Cud 12 6 Cud. .
51 51 Supra 55 48 Supra 6 2 Supra 12 6 MAS-20 49 49 Xebec 49 42 MAS-20 4 2 MAS-20 9 6 Xebec 48 46 Cud 49 40 Xebec 2 1 Xebec 3 2 PalJr.
44 42 MAS-20 36 35 Floppy 0 Floppy 1 Floppy 37 Floppy 18 RAM: 5 RAM: 10 RAM: 5 RAM: 52 Table 6
* Dlskper f read write times PalJr I!!!
MAS-20 Buffer Size Blank Read Write Full Read ilii Buffer !$ !!!!!
Blank Read Write Fun Read Write Buffer Size Blank Read Write Full Read Write 512 4096 8192 32768 39125 52428 55775 55775 13443 14169 14324 14483 37449 51400 52428 51400 112725 i:38ii 13797 13724 5121111 4096 8192 32768 24730 24499 24272 24049 13041 17593 17712 17476 22405 22795 22995 23198 11299: 15065 15697 15887 512 4096 8192 32768 15240 17246 17246 17476 10485 14169 9362 10527 16384 9429 10527 16487 9497 10527 16591 9463 Xebec Supra Floppy disk RAMidisk Buffer Size Blank Read Write Full Read Write Buffer Size Blank Read Write Full Read Write Buffer Size Blank Read Write Buffer Blank Size
Read Write 512 4096 8192 32768 32363 37449 37449 37991 12663 13306 13443 13239 29454 34492 34952 36408 11107 12136 12423 12542 512 4096 8192 32768 22995 22995 22995 22598 16192 19275 19275 19134 . 21845 22028 22028 22215 15420 17712 17955 18204 512 4096 8192 32768 11702 12483 12483 12483 5041 5160 5050 5060 '512 201649 124830 4096 655360 238312 8192 655360 262144 32768 873813 262144 Table 5 Read write averages of tables above Table 7 AmigaDOS Format times Tables 4Arc* load times Blank Full PALJr.
5:07 Blank Disk Full Disk Read Write Read Write Xebec 8:26 Print NIL: Print Nib PalJr. 50776 14105 48169 13475 Sup a 9:00 PAL Jr.
5. 39 320
5. 53 3.33 Xebec 36313 13163 GJUd Zmi 16455 33826 12052 Cud 21:40
6. 55 4.35
6. 79 4.57 22848 14487 MAS-20 2623 Xebec
6. 64 4,43
7. 02 4.50 Supra 22896 18469 22029 17333 ..... .
6. 65 446
6. 65 4.46 MAS-20 16802 10S16 15908 9438 MAS-20
8. 13 5.92
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2801 260- S'--- Xebec 240- 220' s £ 200- C 180' o iL, MAS-20 N 160 D , 1 C Ltd Z 140- S 1 ' 1 Supra 120- 100- on , , ..Jr. OU 1 II 1 1 I II III 1 I I I I 1 1 l “Chart 1 ” By Richard Knepper Amazing Reviews... LOGiSTiX A Powerful Spreadsheet, Database, Graphics, and Time Management Package Most spreadsheet users fall into two catagories: those who use them to balance their checkbook and those who use them to run their lives. I fall into the second category. I use spreadsheets for everything from simplifying everyday tasks to the creation of complex financial
Although some excellent Amiga spreadsheets exist, they often can't provide the raw power I need. Until now,I've had to choke down my pride, abandon my Amiga and use an IBM to accomplish certain tasks. Now that Logistix is available on the Amiga, I can leave those awful days behind.
Logistix is a powerful productivity tool from Grayfox of England and Progressive Peripherals & Software. It is an integrated package consisting of worksheet, database, graphics and time management.
Logistix also has macro programming capability, allowing for the creation of specific applications.
Although origionally designed for the IBM PC, Logistix takes advantage of some of the Amiga's unique capabilities.
Logistix loads from Workbench or the CLI and is capable of multitasking with any programs that do not use dongle copyprotection. With a megabyte or more available, Logistix can be used in interlaced screen mode, so more information can be displayed onscreen. Pull-down menus are not used, so the functions of the programs must be accessed through the keyboard.
Logistix requires a 512K Amiga with one disk drive. The program runs much better with 1 megabyte or more memory and many users will consider expansion memory necessary.
|n all fairness, after loading Logistix a 512K Amiga will have enough free memory available to accomplish most tasks.
All the capabilities of Logistix are accessed through the quite large spreadsheet. The sheet is 1024 columns by 2048 rows and yields over two million unique cells. This workspace should prove large enough to handle any task imaginable.
The Worksheet The layout of Logistix's worksheet is standard. There are columns across the top (labeled A, B, C, etc.) and rows down the side (labeled 1,2,3, etc.) which serve to deliniate unique cells (A1, B2, C3 for example) into which a variety of different information may be entered. Cells may hold text, numbers, or mathmatical expressions. They may also contain information about graphs or time commands, which are used in project management. This setup yields a workspace similiarto one you would create if you were doing all calculations on paper.
Logistix has four lines at the bottom of the screen that provide the user with all necessary operating information.
The first of these is the status line. This line provides information about the worksheet and also about the cell currently selected. The system memory used is displayed, indicating how much is available for other programs and for further use by the worksheet. The cell reference, type, and contents are also shown.
The second line is the prompt line. This line displays the options available when keystroke commands are accessed.
They also provide a way to select the options available when exact keystrokes required cannot be remembered. This is accomplished by pressing the arrow keys until the selection is highlighted and then pressing the return key.
The third line is the help line, which displays an explanation of the option that is highlighted on the prompt line.
The fourth line is the entry line, which displays the information that you are entering into the cell. It is also where Logistix first indicates what type of information it thinks you are entering.
The worksheet has a number of built-in functions that simplify computations. These will help in everything from statistical analysis to advanced financial calculations.
Although none of these functions are unique, it should be noted that just about every function that you could conceiveably need has been included.
Continued... There is also a large array of keystroke commands that allow you to manipulate the appearance of the worksheet. These are accessed through menus in the same manner as Lotus 12-3. Note that they are not pull-down menus, but rather ones that are invoked by pressing the slash (!) Key. Slash commands allow loading, saving, and printing of data. They also allow manipulation of blocks of data - analoguous to the cut, copy, and paste functions in so many Amiga programs.
The manner in which cell contents will be displayed can also be specified using slash commands. All of the normal formats, such as general, integer, currency, and exponential may be specified. The user may also define their own user format. Finally, numbers may be displayed as astrisks, which serve to generate simple bar graphs.
The worksheet portion of Logistix is quite good, but it has one flaw. It fails to take advantage of the Amiga's pull-down menus. I was told that this was because the programmers felt that using a mouse in a number intensive program like spreadsheets was a pain and better left out. The use of slash commands, once mastered, was much faster. Their other reason was that they wanted to get Logistix ported to the Amiga as quickly as possible.
I can understand both arguments, and agree to some extent.
But I feel that the user should be allowed to make the choice between pull-down menus and keyboard commands. Pulldown menus are very useful when first learning the program, and they could be abandoned if the user progressed to the point where keyboard commands were more useful.
Hopefully the designers of Logistix will take this into consideration and incorporate pull-down menus into a future revision.
Macros Version 1.1 of Logistix includes very powerful macro programming capabilities. For those unfamiliar with macros, they are used to store keystrokes. For example, all of the keystrokes required to print the worksheet could be stored as Control P. Then, whenever the user wished to print the worksheet, he could do so by pressing the control key, then the P key.
But the power of macros is much greater than that. A macro application allows chaining of several different macro commands. Custom menus may be created that allow users unfamiliar with your application to access its functions easily. Special commands may also be used which keep the user in the application. They cannot break out of it and alter your application in any way. These capabilities are very powerful.
The macros capability of Logistix is very good, and it seems that they have learned from the mistakes made by Lotus 1 -2
3. The commands are easy to learn and use, and Logistix provides
a learn mode” that allows easy entry of macro commands. Power
users will find this one of the best dedicated macro programs
available, and novices will find it easy to learn. Any book on
Lotus macros would serve as a good tutorial on the theory of
macros, even though the commands are not quite the same.
Database The database capabilities of spreadsheets are generally much more limited than database programs, and Logistix is no exception. It does have all of the function necessary to create simple databases. Data from database programs, such as dBase, or any DIF compatable program, may also be incorporated and manipulated.
Spreadsheet databases are not intended to compete with their more powerful counterparts. Rather, they are used in conjunction with the worksheet or timesheet to provide data for "what if" analysis. For complex data manipulation, it is best to presort the data using a database program and import the results into the spreadsheet.
Logistix's database is a bit more limited than some other spreadsheet programs in that sorts may only be done on one level at a time. This results in lost time when doing database manipulation, and as the designers say, time is money.
Timesheet A unique capability of Logistix is its incorporation of time management into a spreadsheet. As time management may be new to some users, it is explained separately, in the sidebar "Project Management Techniques."
The timesheet capabilities of Logistix are quite good. PERT techniques serve as guidelines for scheduling project tasks and reducing job lag time. These guidelines can often translate into thousands of dollars savings, and the difference between a successful and a failed project.
One of the most powerful capabilities of PERT is its ability to provide "what if" analysis. Logistix can instantly show the effect of changing one of the input variables. This can yield worst case projections and provide critical knowledge to the planner.
Graphics The graphics capabilities of Logistix are rather good. Many different graph types can be created and combined. The graphs printed are of presentation quality, and no retouching is required. This is nice since the graphs cannot be saved in IFF format and used in paint programs. Although other programs exist that allow you to save the screen as an IFF file, this capability is not integral to Logistix.
Graphs can include titles, footnotes, legends, and other notes. Your control over the output of the graphs is the best and most extensive I have seen this side of a professional graphics program. A large number of character fonts are also included, and their output can be controlled through the simple print commands. Logistix graphs also support color (or colour, as they say - they're Brits), either to the screen or to a color printer.
The printing of the graphs is accomplished from Logistix's own list of printers. They have created their own driver for each printer, and the drivers seem to be quite good. In fact, they seem better than any others I have seen, at least when printing graphs.
The only problem I have with the graphics is that they are not compatable with the Amiga standard. This is not much of a problem because, as I said earlier, the graphs are good enough that they do not need retouching. Nevertheless, it would have been nice if the designers had incorporated an .
IFF screensaver into the program.
The Manual Logistix's manual is quite imposing. It is over 400 pages contained in a hardbound binder. It probably weighs in at about three pounds, the weight of Lotus 1-2-3, dBase III+, and other IBM professional programs.
The layout of the manual is logical. Each of the major capabilities of Logistix is given its own chapter and reviewed in detail. There is also a section of examples, and a very good appendix and index. Most users will have no problem answering any question they have about the program.
I was amazed by the manual. I could read it, and everything made sense the first time! This is a cut above most manuals, which are written in a strange dialect called Computerese. In order to understand Computerese, you must be able to read the mind of the program designer. This can be a bit difficult, especially if large distances are involved.
It seems that Logistix got around this problem by having a person who actually understands English write the manual.
The net result is a manual that clearly explains the capabilities of the program. It is well laid-out and chock-full of examples which should clear up any misunderstandings.
The only area that the manual did not explain to my satisfaction was the Timesheet. This confusion is understandable though, as Logistix has assumed that you have some prior knowledge of PERT techniques. Those of you who do not have such knowledge (and have not completely understood my example) should consult any university textbook on operations or production management. Business publications may also be good sources of information.
Additional Comments I found no bugs at all in the program. The worksheet and all other aspects of the program seem error-free. A few flaws may appear when Workbench 1.1 is used, but this is due to flaws in the operating system and not in Logistix. It is very nice to find an Amiga program which doesn't have any bugs that cause the program to Guru at the worst possible time.
If you want to use expansion memory, it is necessary to copy and move files around on your Logistix disks so that the correct Logistix program will load. While this is no big deal, it would have been nice if the designers had provided another disk with this busy work already done.
Progressive Peripherals & Software Seems very willing to provide technical support. Any problems found by users can be addressed by calling Progressive at their office between 2 and 6 p.m. Rocky Mountain Time.
My only major problem with Logistix is that it is copyprotected. It uses a dongle for protection. For those unfamiliar with dongles, they are small hardware devices that plug into joystick port two. When the program is running, the dongle checks the port and looks for a specific code. If it doesn't find the particular code (that is, if the dongle isn't plugged in), the program crashes. Archival copies can be made, as the disk itself is not copyprotected.
Although dongle protection may be one of the least offensive ways of protecting software, it does have its faults. First, if you lose the dongle, there is no way to run the software. Allf the great applications and wonderful graphs you have created will be useless. Dongles can also be defeated, either by altering the original program or by constructing your own. The net result is that the dongle is no better than other device at preventing piracy... and its loss can prove disasterous to legitimate users.
Progressive Peripherals & Software has attempted to answer this complaint. First, they have made replacement dongles available for $ 50.00, no questions asked. This option allows legitimate users an alternative to purchasing Logistix again if the dongle is lost. Progressive is also considering selling unprotected copies to registered users at a small cost. Electronic Arts was the first company to respond to the outcry against copy-protection in this manner and Progressive is ready to hop on the bandwagon.
Business software should not be copy-protected. The quality, complexity and documentation of Logistix should provide sufficient defense against piracy. I use spreadsheets nearly every day and even I could not have used the power of Logistix without frequent reference to the manual. It is my belief that Logistix is a program which serious users will purchase, seemingly making protection unnecessary.
Conclusion One of my early reservations about Logistix was cost: $ 249.95. This high figure seemed a bit much to pay for any program. But when I called Progressive Peripherals, I found that the retail price had dropped to $ 149.95. Logistix is $ 100.00 cheaper than VIP Professional, the same cost as Analyze! And five cents cheaper than MaxiPlan.
I am very vocal in my support of programs which take advantage of the Amiga interface. Logistix doesn't accomplish this to my complete satisfaction, but it does support some of the major capabilities. I believe most users will not be thrilled with the interface, but will nevertheless find Logistix to be the best spreadsheet program available.
I either own, or have used every spreadsheet available for the Amiga. My best endorsement of Logistix is that it is the spreadsheet I'm now using. The power of Logistix far exceeds that of any other Amiga spreadsheet... and it does so at a price as low, or lower than all other spreadsheets.
Logistix is also easy enough for the beginner to use.
Continued... Finally, Logistix does not contain any of the bugs that show up in some of its counterparts.
Progressive Peripherals sees Logistix as a program for power users. They see Logistix as one of the first serious business programs which takes advantage of the powerful capabilities of the Amiga. I agree. Although not perfect, Logistix is the best integrated package available for the Amiga. Thus far, high quality business packages for the Amiga have been few and far between. Logistix emphatically proves that the Amiga is a viable tool for all business uses.
Project Management Techniques Program Evaluation and Review Technique Program Evaluation and Review Technique, more commonly known by the acronym PERT, is a powerful tool for planning and controlling projects. Logistix is the onfy Amiga program currently offering PERT programming. Your purchase decision should be based, in part, on whether or not you need the additional capabilities that PERT provides.
The following is a brief introduction to PERT techniques and an example of Its use, PERT was developed by the US Navy Special Projects Office in 1958 as a management tool for scheduling and controlling the Polaris missile project, PERT breaks down a project into a series of tasks and then schedules these tasks as efficiently as possible, PERT focuses attention on those activities in the project most critical to timely completion. The subset of those most critical activities are said to be on the critical path. This path is the most timeconsuming path and provides a basis for planning and
controlling the project For PERTtechniques to be most applicable, a project must have the following characteristics:
1. The project must have well-defined tasks whose completion
marks the end of the project.
2. The tasks must be independent. That is, they maybe conducted
separately within a given sequence.
3. The tasks must be ordered.That is, they must Mow each other in
a given sequence.
In other words, you must be able to list the separate tasks involved in a project. You then must estimate the time that each task willconsumeandits order of precedence in the project.
Theactual steps for devebping a classical PERT network are as follows:
1. Identify each task in the project.
2. Determine the precedence relationship for each task.
3. Calculate the expected time and variance of each task.
4. Determine the critical path.
5. Determine the probability of completing the project on a given
Unfortunately, Logistix larks the capability to determine the probability of completing the project on time. In my example, I will show how to calculate this all-important figure.
While all of this may seem a bit confusing, the folbwing example should dearly demonstrate the use of PERT programming techniques.
Project Review Logistix in 21 days or less.
Summary. In writing my Logistix review, I can divide my efforts into various tasks. Once I determine what these tasks are, I can estimate the time required for each task and determine which tasks are most critical to the project's completion. I can then Indbate to the editors whether I will meet my deadline of not.
1. Identify each task to be done in the project. Thetasks
A) Test Logistix
B) Read Manual
C) Construct review outline
D) Question software developer about product
E) Write review
F) Retest product
G) Revise and rewrite review
2. Determine precedence relationships. Table 1 shows each task
and explains which tasks must be completed before the next
task may be started.
3. Calculate the expected time and variance for each task.
The formula for calculating expected time is: ET=(0+4*L+P) 6 where: O = Optimistic estimate (the shortest reasonable time in which the task may be completed) L » Likely estimate (the most likely amount of time required to complete the task)
- P m Pessimistic estimate (the bngest amount of time in which
the task may be completed) The variance of the estimate is:
VAR=((P*0) 6)"2 where P and O are the pessimistic and
The results of these estimates are shown in table 1 - Table 1 Expected Time Estimates Task Code After 0 I P Time Variance Test A _ 3 4 10
1. 36 Read B A 1 2 3
0. 11 Outline C B 1 1 2
0. 03 Question D B 6 7 14
1. 78 Write E C, D 2 4 5
0. 25 Retest F C, D 1 3 4
0. 25 Rewrite G E,F 2 3 4
* All times in days
4. Determine the crirical path. The critical path is the longest
sequence of activities connected through the network. To
determine this path, a graphic representation of the tasks is
most useful. This is where Logistix comes in. By specifying
the expected times and precedence relationships. Logistix will
draw the PERT network and specify the critical path. In my
example, the critical path is A - B - D - E - G. The tasks
noted are the tasks whose planning and control are most
important to the timely completion of the project.
5. Determine the probability of completing the project on a given
date. The formula is as follows: Z=(D-Te) SQRRT(SUM VARcp)
where: D = Due date Te - Earliest expected completion date for
the project SUM VARcp = um of variances of the tasks on the
criticat ; path (if more than two paths exist, take the
branch with the largest variance.)
The Z value for the project is: Z =(21 * 21.6) SQR RT (1.36 + 0.11 +1.78 + 0.25 + 0.11) = *0.316 Cross referencing this value on a Cumulative Standard Distribution Table yields a value of 0.37, or a 37% chance of meeting the deadline. (I'd better tell the editor I need more time!)
Table 2 is aCumulative Standard Distribution Table. This process provides Logistix users with a way of calculating the probability of completing the project on time.
This example is not typical of a normal project; but it does fulfill the basic requirements needed for PERT scheduling. It has separate tasks which can be done at the same time.
Each task can be given a time estimate. A precedence relationship for the various tasks can be developed.
As this example shows, PERT programming is useful for optimizing time expenditures in just about anything you do.
Whether or not PERT is useful to you depends upon whether you are the type of person inclined to use this type of productivity tool, If you lean towards productivity fools, then PERT is perhaps the best time management tool availabl for you... and Logistix is the best tool for PERT use on an Amiga, Table 2 Cumulative Standard Distributions Probability 5% 15% 25% 35% 45% 55% 65% 75% 85% 95% 95% to to to to to to to to to
1. 03 5% 15% 25% 35% 45% 55% 65% 75% 85% to to to to to to to to
Z Values -1.64 to -1.03
1. 64 Table 3 Pert Path Structure Feb , 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 = denotes tasks on the critical path
- denotes tasks not on the critical path C ========:====D:::
====E==== F ===G=== =B= Micro-Systems Software
Bigger and Better for the Amiga r- ORGANIZE! DATABASE MANAGER,
VERSION 1.0 Mailing lists! Club memberships! Patient records!
Client files! Video tape libraries! Phone call logs! Nearly
anything that needs to be filed, sorted or calculated is a can
didate for Organize!
In seconds, Organize! Can scan your files, locate information, and display or print in the format you want. Use it to print form letters with the Mailmerge function of Scribble!. Or calculate fields and do statistical analyses of your files with many of the same built-in math functions from Analyze!.
Easily design input forms and output reports with the mouse and pull-down menus. Just as simply - store, sort, review and print. The file size is limited only by disk space and the format is compatible with the industry standard dBASE format.
End your paper shuffle! Get Organize! Today.
Only $ 99.”
• Expanded Memory Support; for larger documents.
• More Amiga Keys; menu commands from keyboard or mouse.
See your local dealer or call: Brown-Waeh Publishing 1-800-451-0900 1-408-395-3838 (in California) 16795 Lark Ave., Suite 210, Los Gatos, CA 95030 ANALYZE! SPREADSHEET, VERSION 2.0 ANALYZE! FEATURES:
• Pulldown menu interface (mouse- driven).
• Large spreadsheets with efficient memory usage.
• Dedicated function keys for common commands.
• Business Graphics; print bar, stacked bar, pie graphs in 2 or
3-D; line, X-Y, area graphs; all in 4 or 8 colors; data from
spreadsheets; IFF format; view up to 4 graphs at same time;
instantly redraw graphs when data changes; ranges, labels,
titles, legends, rotation, scaling; fast and effective!
• Command Macros; save keystrokes; create templates.
• Sorting; rearrange row or column data quickly.
• File Icons; access spreadsheets via icons or names.
NEW PRICE Only $ 149.95 WORD PROCESSOR, VERSION 2.0 SCRIBBLE! FEATURES:
• Pulldown menu interface (mouse-driven)
• Multiple windows; edit cut & paste 4 documents on screen
• Preview; see final form on screen before printing.
• Spellcheck; expandable 40,000 word dictionary; check word, all
words on screen, or entire document; alternative spellings
• Mailmerge; print form letters, mailing • More Flexibility;
Wordstar™ commands; labels; create data file with Scribble! Or
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• File Icons; access documents via icons or J|J QnJy $ QQ 95
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By Micro-Systems Software An inexpensive database which gets the job done with very littie amounthassie.
Reviewed by Richard Knepper Amiga databases are like snowflakes. They all showed up this winter and no two are alike. All vary in sophistication and in exploitation of the Amiga’s capabilities. The spectrum ranges from simple filers to fully relational, IFF- compatible superprograms.
Falling somewhere between those extremes is Organize!, a database by the same people who brought you Scribble! And Online!. Organize! Has a number of strengths and weaknesses which make it unique.
Databases can be placed in two catagories: either with or without relational capabilities. Those databases that do have relational capabilities allow multifile searching and sorting of data for report generation. Relational capabilities allow for the creation of a diversified, yet integrated, information network. Serious microcomputer-based users (such as small businesses) will find relational systems necessary for future expansion and for the programming capability needed to generate large sets of linked files.
Non-relational databases are really just spreadsheets in disguise and, accordingly, are not as well suited for business uses. The main difference between a non-relational database and a spreadsheet database is where they store the records. A spreadsheet keeps all records in memory when in use and the database size is limited by the system memory available. Conversely, a relational database keeps all records on a disk and the database size is limited only by the total amount of storage space available.
The net result is that non-relational databases are useful for large, simple projects. Organize! Occupies the non-relational niche and many people will find this level of sophistication just fine for their needs. Organize! Lends itself well to creating mailing lists, simple inventories and other personal uses.
Organize! Requires a 512K Amiga and a single disk drive. It takes full advantage of the intuition interface. All commands are accessed through pulj-down menus. Data input uses requesters and point- to-click mouse commands.
Multitasking is fully supported. The program is not copyprotected.
Continued... Getting Started Organize! Loads from either the Workbench of the CLI. The initial screen is similiarto a normal intuition window, with both scroll bars and page-front page-back gadgets. The only important feature absent from Organize! Is page- resizing.
Although the menu bar allows mouse access to all the database's features, I was pleased to note that these commands are also accessible through simple keystrokes.
This option gives the user easy access to the commands when learning the program. It is also a fast way to access the commands once you have them mastered.
As you might expect from an Intuition- based program, the creation and maintenance of an Organize! Database is relatively simple. Selecting Database Create from the menu brings up a requester for creating, changing and saving databases. Selecting Add will bring up another requester allowing field specification. You can enter field name, type (meaning that entries may be either text, numeric, date or Yes No), number of decimal places and field widths.
It is important to be prudent when specifying field widths.
Record sizes are constant, that is, equal to the total of all field widths in the record. Records with only one or two entries will be just as long as those that are chock-full of information. If you are going to make a big database, you want to make your records as small as possible. Such economy will keep the program relativel quick when accessing records.
Each record can have up to 128 field and each field may be up to 254 characters wide (numeric fields can be only 16 characters wide). Each field name may be up to 10 characters wide. Finally, each database can hold up to 4.2 billion records.
Setting up a database is quite simple. In fact, I was able to create one before I even read the manual. Such simplicity is a credit to the program's design. The only real limitation I found was that field names could only be 10 characters wide. I later discovered that this quirk poses no real problem because Organize! Provides a method for relabeling fields.
Making Everything Look Nice ?r! l°U h?.V® SJ!V8d y°ur abase structure (’submitted ’ f "9° you 030 change how it is viewed. This Ef' Jed form creation, is one of the more powerful aspeds of Organize!. Multiple forms can be created for each database and each can display any or all of the information contained in the records. A mailing list program could have one form for mailmerging and anotherfor label- making. You are limited only by your creativity.
The record fields, stacked vertically during database creation, may be moved anywhere on the screen. The field's names can also be changed to suite your taste. This changeability is useful in creating a mailing label form. You could mask the field names out completely, so that only the information contained in each field would be visible. Again, the legnth of each field name you change is limited.
Fortunately, the developers provided a method for adding text onto a database form. Although the process is a bit awkward, you can use this method to create ten or more character fields.
Finally, you can set up fields containing formulas. Organize!
Has a full array of logical operators and over three dozen mathematical functions available to perform calculations on fields containing numeric data For example, if you had fields that yield cash flow, periods until expiration and discount rates, you could use a formula field to calculate the value of the combined cash flows. The very powerful feature is similiarto a spreadsheet.
Once the forms meet your approval, you can archive them.
Archive is 'Save' in Organize l-speak. For some reason, the developers couldn't use common menu commands. Instead of using 'Open' and 'Save' like all other Amiga programs, Micro-Systems' uses 'Archive.' 'Cancel' accomplishes the same thing as 'Resume'. Finally, once you have chosen a program, you use 'Get' instead of 'Ok.' Although I'm nitpicking a bit, a program with four different menu commands all called 'Archive' can get a bit confusing.
Organizel's ability to create many different forms from a single database is extremely useful. Even though multi-file relational capabilities are missing, the custom forms allow you to create specific applications from a single data source.
Entering Records Once you've created your database and forms, you must enter your record. Organize! Provides a no-nonsense routine for entering records. By pulling down a menu or hitting right-Amiga A key, you can add new records to a database. A display of all of the fields in the database is shown and you are free to move about with the mouse and enter information into any of the fields. Once you are finished entering, use the menu orthe right-Amiga S keys to save your records.
Sorting Things Out Manipulation of your database for retrieving soecific D ram °nT?thS ?0St imP°rtant aspect of a databse Eh*' Th®sPrtln9Provi'ded by Organize! Is straightforward, but simple.
The first step is the sorting of the records, so that they are logically arranged. Organize! Does this sort through a process called indexing. Each index sorts the records, in amending or descending order, using a single field for' reference. You can create as many indexes as you have fields in your database. Unfortunately, though, only one index at a time may be open. This drawback means that sorts can be only one level deep.
For instance, you could specify a mailing list index according to ascending zip codes or alphabetically by last name, but not ascending zip code and then alphabetically by last name. Another problem with indexes is that they must be updated every time additional records are added.
Organize! Should provide a method for automatic updating of all indexes whenever a database file is closed. Such a feature would eliminate the tiresome process of manual updating.
Now that you have indexed your database, you must be able to search and retrieve specific records, based upon certain search criteria. Organize! Uses search filters to search and retrieve. The complete set of logical operators is available for specifying filters. Up to four filters may be defined for each form, but again, only one filter may be used at a time.
The net result of the sorting and filtering limitations is that your sorts can only be one deep and your filters can be based on only one piece of information. An example of how these limitations hold back your database would be in a file of the company's salesmen. You could generate an alphabetical report, showing all salesmen with over $ 20,000 in sales or showing the seniority of all the salesmen in California. But you could not generate a report showing all California salesmen, listed alphabetically and then by seniority, who have had sales in excess of $ 20,000.
In all fairness, I was able to accomplish a sort similiarto the above sort using Organize!. The methods I was forced to use were time consuming and kludgey, though. First, I had to enter the records very carefully. Salesmen with identical last names had to be entered in order of seniority. Next, I replicated the database using specific filtering criteria. Itris option provided by Organize! Allows you to produce separate databases that are identical in structure.
Organize! Lets you make a copy of the database and include any records that meet the given filter criteria Using this option, you could take your salesmen database and make another database consisting only of those salesmen from California. You could then index the database alphabetically. Finally, you would filter your database to generate a report of those salesmen with sales over $ 20,000.
These days an Amiga with only 512K memory is operating at a fraction of its’ potential.
Why Should Kbur Amiga; Fortunately we’re here to change all that.
We’re Expansion Technologies, and we’ve developed the best RAM expansion board available for your Amiga 1000.
The Escort 2.
It’s a 2 megabyte, auto-configuring card that meets all the known standards and then some.
It’s also a uniquely designed vertical two-slot card cage with buss return that offers incredible flexibility.
Like the ability to upgrade to a whopping 4 megabytes of memory. Or if you prefer you can add a hard disk controller card, or an external power supply for the buss or...well, you get the idea.
And it’s fast.
We’ve utilized a no wait-state design so it keeps perfect pace with your Amiga.
All this for less than $ 600.
We’re even readying products for the new 500 and 2000 series Amigas. Among them hard drives, controller cards and memory expansion.
All of this from Expansion Technologies. A company whose people have been making Commodore products for years, not weeks.
So if your Amiga’s a bit light headed give us a call at 415 656-2890.
Or write us at 46127 Landing Parkway, Fremont, CA 94538.
EXPANSION 0 LOG T E C Amiga is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Generating reports in this way is more a tribute to creative use of a program than to actual program design. Organize! Is simply not set up for this sort of manipulation. If you think you will need higher levels of sorting and filtering than those provided by Organize!, then you would be better off buying a program with more extensive abilities.
Report Specifics .
Despite its sorting and filtering limitations, Organize! Does do a reasonably good job of generating reports. Such relative success is a result of the forms created earlier which are used to generate the reports. This flexibility is perhaps the saving grace of the program.
Another useful feature of report generation is that you can make a file that is compatible with Scribble! MailMerge. I'm certain that this feature alone has prompted many Scribble!
Users to purchase Organize!.
The Manual After a few hours of tinkering with the program, I turned to the manual. The clear, concise manual gives step-by-step instructions of the database generation process. I was pleased to find that I had done everything correctly without the the manual. I believe that my success can be attributed to good program design rather than to my own intuitive genius, though.
The only confusing area I found was in archiving the database, forms and indexes. My familiarity with Onlinel helped me out in this area, however. In any event, I found the manual to be better than most, requiring only a single pass to grasp even the most advanced features. Organize!
Users will find the manual very helpful when learning the program and once the program is mastered, the manual is a useful reference tool.
Additional Features and Utilities Organize! Has a number of additional features worth mentioning. First and foremost, the program is Dbase III compatible. This means that you can import IBM Dbase III files to the Amiga, using either the PC-Utility from the Workbench Extras disk or a telecommunications program.
The Dbase file will not be completely compatible, however.
Memo fields from Dbase will not be recognized and none of the Indexes created in Dbase can be imported.
Nevertheless, this compatability should prove very useful to those users who use Dbase at work and want to take it home with them.
Organize! Also has several other useful features, all of which are accessed through the CLI. The first of these features is a program called dBinfo. DBinfo provides a listing of the database's field names, the number of records and the number of active and inactive records.
The second utility is called dBpack. DBpack discards all deleted records. When you delete a record, it is not removed from the database. Instead, the record is kept in the background in case you ever want it back. When your database gets too big and unwieldy, dBpack can help speed things up.
DBimport takes an ASCII MailMerge-compatible file and import it into an Organize! Compatible database. This option is useful for converting all those Scribble! MailMerge files you've got lying around.
DBMerge merges structurally identical databases. This feature comes in handy when you've got dozens of such databases lying around, the product of multiple sorts.
Finally, dBindex albws you to index field names without loading Organize!. DBindex can create a batch file which will automate the indexing process. This feature avoids the tiresome process of updating all the indexes whenever you add to your database.
Conclusions I find it difficult to make recommendations for or against Organize!. A number of the argumentsl have made against Organize! Can be applied to most databases... But I dont feel that this in any way diminishes the validity of these arguments. Databases should do everything that you would expect from a program of this genre, including using multiple filters and performing multi-level sorts. They must be able to perform functions above and beyond those offered in other, more diversified programs. If databases do not accomplish this, then they are little better than the spreadsheet
databases and much more limited in use.
Organize! Has a number of strength. First and foremost, the program is well- written. Even after extensive testing, I couldn't crash the program. Organize! Is easy to use and works well in a multi-tasking environment. The program is not just another Dbase clone, but rather one designed to truly exploit the capabilities of the Amiga.
On the negative side, the program doesn't have much going for it. It is really tough to get excited over any database that can only sort and filter on one level. This drawback severely limits the usefulness of the program and, perhaps, dooms it to mediocrity.
If you're looking for a program to competently organize your information flow, then you had best look past Organize!.
On the bright side, if you are looking for a program that can handle customer files for MailMerging with Scribble!, then Organize! May be your best bet. H is inexpensive and gets the job done with very little amount hassle.
• AO Organize!
Suggested Retail$ $ 9.95 512K Amiga, 1 Disk Drive Required Micro-Systems Software, Inc. 4301-18 Oak Circle Boca Raton, FI 33431 305-391-5077 Amazing Reviews... oxmwoi Relational Database System Reviewed by Ray McCabe PeopleLink ID IGZ761, CompuServe ID 74306,243 Certain programs are said to give a machine "validity" in the business world. Programs commonly placed on this list are word processors, spreadsheets, financial planners and databases. There are many arguments as to whether the Amiga needs to be valid. I choose to stay away from such arguments, but I am very thankful that there are
programmers out there who feel there is a need for these programs. Special thanks to Simon D. Tranmer and Dr. Bruce Hunt for creating the Superbase Personal Relational Database System for the Amiga.
Amiga users come from varied computer backgrounds.
Many Amiga newcomers are users upgrading from the Commodore 64 128, Macintosh and various IBMs and IBM clones. For others, the Amiga is their very first computer.
The following section is intended for raw rookies and users unfamiliar with relational databases and databases in general. If you don't fit into either of these categories, skip over the next three paragraphs.
Databases For Beginners Databases help organize information, recipes, collections, addresses or any other kind of information. Databases help you to find information quickly and with little effort.
Databases help you find information quickly with little effort.
For ease of example, think of a database as a month. Refer to each day of the week as a field. Refer to a week (which is a collection of days) as a record. Now we're back to a database as a month (which is a collection of weeks). The database "December 1986" contains five records. Each record contains seven fields ("Sunday thru Saturday") and each field contains information in the form of dates. The first record (week) contains a zero (look at a calender) in the field "Sunday". This first record also contains fields "Monday thru Saturday". These fields contain dates one thru six. This example
illustrates that a field within a record contains the data in the database. To find the information in record two, field three, we use the previously established database.
"Tuesday" (field) of the second week (record) on contains the date (data) nine. This calendar-like example illustrates the simplest form of a database. If we wanted to find out what data is contained in the database "January 1987" (record three, field five), we would load the database for "January 1987" and look up the data... unless we were using a more sophisticated form of database called a relational database.
Continued... A relational database allows us to search not only the current database, but any database which is "related" by means of a similar field. Such relations are set up ahead of time using the database's relational system. In this case, let's relate the field "Tuesday", since it contains the same type of information in both "December 1986" and "January 1987". The relational database allows the two datbases to exchange information. Now, it is a simple matter for the system to determine that the database "January 1987" (record three, field five) contains data fifteen. This loose
explanation of the workings of a database should be enough to help for those unfamiliar with databases to understand the features of Superbase Personal.
Dongle Quirks Superbase comes with a sizable manual and a registration card. Also included is a device that looks like a joystick plug with a one inch by three quarter inch box attached: a dongle. This dongle is Superbase's form copy protection. In order to run the program, you must have the dongle plugged into the joystick port. Without the dongle, the program will not run. I am not a great fan of copy protection, but the dongle system does not offend the machine as badly as some other forms of protection. The dongle does not gronk the drive and you can make as many archival copies of the
program as you wish. You must, however, have the dongle in place for any of the copies to work. This includes any copy on a hard drive. This quirk would not pose a problem, if other programs did not use dongle protection. Many other programs do use dongles, though. Leader Board and Logistix are two others which come to mind.
The possibility of confusing the various dongles is real. The problem of losing a dongle is also very real. Dongles are small and look like great toys for cats, dogs or kids. The documentation notes that you can send to Precision Software for a replacement dongle. But what do you do in the meantime? You can always send for the replacement before you need it, but we all know if you do so, you will never misplace or damage the original (Murphy’s Law!). The bottom line is that a replacement dongle costs money (not to mention that all forms of copy protection accuse the user of wrongdoing before
the software is even out of the box!).
With all that out of the way, I'd like to add that Superbase Personal is one of the finest databases I have ever worked with and worth every penny!
Superbase Features The features of Superbase are VERY impressive. It allows up to seventeen gigabytes of storage, sixteen million records and over nine hundred indexes per file (database).
The number of files available is limited only by the size of the system. The number of fields within a record are also limited only by the size of the system. The fields accept many forms of data text, numeric, date and a special external file field which will be explained shortly. Fields may be derived from other fields in other records or calculated using information from different fields or records.
Math precision accomodates up to thirteen digits and many different numeric formats are supported. There are even multiple formats for currency fields, supporting forms of currency I have never even heard of I All this data can be password protected.
Even with all these features, a database is useless if you cannot present the information in a manner which is easily understood. Superbas conquers this challenge in style.
Superbase allows reports up to 255 columns wide and has a full complement of titling, dating and page- numbering features. These report requests (queries) can be stored and retrieved whenever you need them. The reports may be directed to the screen, a printer or a disk. The report can also be used to create a new database. Within the report, data may be sorted with subtotals, totals, averages and record counts. First, though, we have to create a database.
Creating A Superbase Database The creation of a database in Superbase is very simple. The designers very effectively exploited the features of the Amiga. Pull-down menus reveal intricate and well done requesters. For file creation, there is a menu item to indicate that a new database (file) is being created. Once the file is named, another requester will help you create the fields which make up the records. A space for the field name, type (attributes), size and whether or not the field is indexed is included. If the field needs formatting, there is space forthat process as well. Text field
definitions bring a requester asking for the field length. Numeric field definitions bring an additional requester with selections for the numeric type. There are many different types of numeric fields, plus an option to calculate the field from other available information. There are two different currency formats, with seventeen different currency symbols ranging from the U.S. dollar to the Finnish markka.
The date field brings a requester, allowing you to choose date format from three month styles, two year styles and five types of seperators ( ,-). The final field type available is the external field type, a specialized text field type. This field type is intended only to hold file names for picture or text files which can be accessed by Superbase from outside the database. More about this later.
When all the fields you need are defined, the system will present a requester asking for index fields to be defined. Up to 99 fields may be selected as index fields. Of course, the more indexes used, the more work the program has to do to keep track of all the sorting. The result is a process which allows the simplest, as well as the most complex sorts on all available data.
Once the database is created, it is simple to fill the records with data. Just select "new" from the record menu and you will get a blank form to fill with data. If the placement of fields on the form does not match the layout you had in mind, it is simple enough to move the fields around on the form. Just click the mouse anywhere within the field name and move it anywhere on the screen, as if it were an icon on the workbench screen.
All input and editing of data is done on the form screen.
When the data is correct, just choose "save" from the record menu. If you forget to save and try to continue, you will be prompted to save the current record. The records menu also contains commands to duplicate, remove and edit records.
Many commands can also be selected by combining the Amiga key and a letter.
.. .Separating The Good From The So-So The ability to sort through the data and present it in a report format separates a good database from a so-so one In this respect, the query features of Superbase raise it above many other databases. I work with databases on both mainframes and on IBM PC's. Superbase can hold its own against any package I have worked with on a PC and comes very close to the versatility of many mainframe products.
The process menu is used to access the powerful report (query) features of Superbase. This menu shows the true relational talents of Superbase. The process menu executes all the different database commands which search and sort the data. The searches and sorts vary in complexity from alphabetizing a small list to creating a report consisting of thousands of entries from many different databases!
The seven different commands associated with the process menu use a filter to choose which records and fields fulfill certain criteria. Understanding the capabilites of this filter is the key to understanding the relational capabilities of Superbase. The queries are constructed with the filter requester. The filter is a list of available fields and relational operators (= , =, , =,+,-,*, ,AND,OR,NOT,LIKE). The manner in which the data will be included in the report is dictated by these operators. The complexity of a filter is limited only by the person building it. Ten pages in the manual
cover this very important feature and many textbooks on the market explain how to construct databases and associated queries.
Main Screen Access The data can also be accessed from the main screen. The set menu controls many of the display attributes of the main screen. This menu allow you to select output to the printer or the screen. The view menu on the set menu allows you to choose table view, form view or record view. Table view displays data in column format. Form view allows custom design of input and output screens. Record view is a basic display, with the field names on the left side of the screen andthe associated data on the right. Paging, which changes how screens are displayed in both table and record
view, can be turned on and off from this menu. In table view, records are displayed one screen at a time when paging is on. In record view, records are displayed one at a time with paging on and a screen at a time with paging off. Speed and buffer count are also controlled by the set menu. These features control how long a record is on the screen and how many records are in memory.
Twelve icons, resembling the buttons on a VCR or tape deck, appear along the bottom of the screen. The first nine are the playback buttons left to right, pause, stop, first record, rewind, previous record, current record, next record, fast forward and last record. You activate these features by clicking on the button. These controls allow you to scan records in the current file. All move through the records one at a time, except for fast forward and rewind. They scan through the records until pause or stop button is hit.
The three buttons on the right have special functions. The first, the key lookup, has a question mark on it. Key lookup quickly finds a record using the current index field. The filter key, which has an equal sign on it, brings up a filter requester which allows sorts on multiple fields and databases. The button on the far right is called the external file requester.
This button, which has a cute little camera on it, allows you to access one of the most useful features of Superbase, the ability to display IFF images and pictures from within Superbase.
External File Magic This external file feature uses a database to organize images by color, texture, subject or any other criteria. This feature can be very useful to real estate brokers. Brokers can then sort by neighborhood, style of house, price or whatever.
Photographers can use it to keep track of photographs.
Modeling agencies can use the file to keep track of models.
When you select the external file button, it access the external file associated with the current record. When the image appears, the main database screen remains in the backgroud. The image menu has commands to scan through the images of the buttons along the bottom of the main screen. This option allows users to create their own custom slideshows using the filter requester to select the images and the image menu to display the images. If you need hard copy, a menu item is available on the system menu to request a screen dump (text or graphics).
The external file feature, in conjunction with the ability to sort records across databases, makes Superbase Personal one of the most powerful packages I have ever worked with. The entire program fits in memory, leaving about 200K free for data. The program also supports multi-tasking and works more quickly with Kickstart and Workbench 1.2. Introducing Robot Readers a powerful new way for your child to learn to read Even if your child isn't a reader yet he can read these classic stories at his own speed through interactive speech. And he can play a game that builds vocabulary and reading
ability. These beautifully illustrated stories are designed to be used by children with little or no help. More stories will soon be available. To introduce the series and help build a library for your children we make this LIMITED TIME OFFER: Buy one, get one free ?CHICKEN LITTLE $ 29.95 each ?LITTLE RED HEN for the Amiga 612k ?AESOP'S FABLES call or write today ?THREE LITTLE PIGS titles) HILTON ANDROID CORPORATION PO Box 7437 • Huntington Beach, CA 92615-7437
(714) 960-3984 An Overview Superbase Personal is published by
Precision Software in Surrey, England and distributed in
the United States by Progressive Peripherals and Software,
464 Klamath Street, Denver, Colorado. The list price is
$ 149.95... and is worth as much as many "serious" database
programs for the IBM PC ranging from six to eight hundred
dollars. The only drawback to this program is the dongle
The documentation is clear and covers the various features with explanations and tutorials. The package comes with sample databases already built, so experimentation is easy. (Experimentation is the best way to learn about Superbase). If there are bugs, I have not found them yet. I recommend Superbase Personal as a very useful tool for many different people in many different fields, both at home and at work.
The Amiga 500 and Amiga 2000 were officially unveiled in Hannover, Germany in March. For United States users, the first official glimpse was at the Boston Computer Society general meeting on March 25.
Commodore shows the Amiga 2000 and Amiga 500 at the Boston Computer Society by Harriet Maybeck Tolly The BCS meeting was the first publicized showing of the 500 and 2000, including an appearance by former Commodore president Thomas Rattigan. The BCS seems to be a Commodore favorite as they also chose the BCS for a showing of the Amiga 1000 just aft9r the Lincoln Center launch in New York City, August 1985.
The evening of the Amiga 500 and 2000 included talks by Rattigan, Henry Ruben, chief operating officer of Commodore Germany, Gail Wellington, international Amiga product manager and RJ Mical of the original Amiga development team.
Rattigan opened with a recent history of Commodore and the Amiga. He stated that "the Amiga 1000 was universally acclaimed as a technical marvel and was the first of what was likely to become the next generation of micros. Since the time the Amiga 1000 was released, no product has received the level of favorable technical reviews generated by the Amiga 1000, in terms of state of the art technology and value." He suggested that no one was better suited than Commodore to one-up the Amiga 1000 with two fully compatible sister products that offer even more technology and value.
He quoted a February 1986 Chicago Tribune article which speculated that Commodore's name "could very well be etched on the next tombstone to go up on computer hill."
Around the same time, Time magazine stated "Commodore is also having trouble finding a market niche for the Amiga.
Business customers are not enthusiastic because it is not compatible with the IBM machines and home shoppers are discouraged by the Amiga price of $ 1795 with color monitor."
Rattigan went on to say that that since those predictions, Commodore has accomplished their primary 1986 objective: "We survived."
"Not only did we return to profitability in the June quarter of last year, but we've been profitable every quarter since that time. Our bank debt is now down substantially, our cash position is at its highest level since March 1983 and our inventory level is at the lowest level since December 1982.
All of this was accomplished by substantial reduction in infrastructure, personnel, and expenses.
"As our company head count was being reduced 33 percent in December 1985, operating expenses were reduced 37 percent. Our people started doing things the old fashioned way they worked even harder. Nowhere was that [hard work] more evident than in our research and development group. During all of those reductions, and despite all of the ensuing turmoil, that group, under the direction of Dr. Henry Ruben, our chief operating officer, responsible for research and development and manufacturing, undertook and completed the development of two new Amiga micros.
"The Amiga 500 will be the product that permits Commodore to not only maintain, but to grow [in] its worldwide leadership position in the home sector of the market. The Amiga 2000 is Commodore's first oportunity since the late 70s to become a meaningful factor in the business, scientific and educational sectors, with both proprietary and state of the art technology. Commodore has, since March 1985, introduced eight new CPUs, including the two new Amigas.
With just under 8 million CPUs sold during the past three calendar years, Commodore is once again positioned to be an even more aggresive competitor from 1987 forward."
Rattigan turned the presentation over to Henry Ruben.
Ruben highlighted the new Amiga products. He stated that "the Amiga 2000 was conceived and built as an affordable, multitasking, multi-DOS, multi-processor, graphics- enhanced, large-memory, open-architecture personal computer."
Ruben pointed to the introduction of the Amiga 2000 as a turning point in the evolution of personal computers and that PC's must be affordable enough to justify the name "personal computer.” He admitted that "affordable" was relative, but pointed out that "...the lower the price, the larger the potential user base and the greater the software support."
Ruben discussed the multi-tasking coprocessors of the Amiga 2000 stating, "The open architecture of the Amiga 2000 does not limit us to these (68000 and 8088) continued... coprocessors. We do have some very interesting developments in progress, involving 68020 processors in combination with MMUs (memory management units) of our own design. ...In an environment where processors can communicate and assign tasks to one another, some very special attributes can flow from it."
Excitement mounts as the NEW Amigas are introduced to US Amiga users.
Addressing the various markets of the Amiga 2000, Ruben said "...the Amiga is significantly graphics-based. Graphics is one more of the very important information-based facilities that business systems haven't yet fully exploited." He also explained that Amiga graphics could make slides archaic by providing the ability to change the material just moments before presentation.
"The basic performance of facilities like the genlock, go well beyond things like desktop video. They go right to the core of subjects like education, where video content could be an important part of the communication activity. The ability to genlock that VCR, optical disk, etc. into the machine and to overlay or mix it with computer activites represents a very powerful educational tool. It is a tool of every kind. It belongs in almost every environment."
Ruben stressed that the really important thing, in terms of AmigaDos, is that the Amiga 500 and the Amiga 2000 are completely upward and downward compatible: "the two machines feed off each other. Software for one is available to the other."
Gail Wellington started the actual demonstration of the Amiga 2000. She explained that the Amiga 2000 leaves plenty of room for adaptability, allowing the user to fit the system to his own needs. Users can take advantage of future technological advances by adding cards or devices.
Wellington's keywords for the Amiga 2000 were "flexibility and power."
Wellington demonstrated four screens at once. Two pictures created by Aegis Draw Plus (one in high resolution ,640 by 400 pixels, and one in medium resolution,640 by 200 pixels), a WorkBench screen with SuperBase loaded in medium resolution and an IFF image in low resolution (320 by 200 pixels) filled the screens.
Wellington also described Commodore's own hard disk controller, which has both ST-506 and SCSI standard interfaces on one card. The card supports two ST-506 devices and six daisy-chained SCSI devices and both 50 and 25 pin SCSI connectors. Wellington pointed out that this card "will be sitting there ready to go when SCSI laser printers and CD ROM become more readily available in the market. This [potential for expansion] typifies the philosophy of this machine: today's popular cost-effective solution, plus an easy upgrade path to the new technology."
The 2000 demonstration continued with the loading of MS- DOS. Wellington showed the machine's ability to change the size of the PC monochrome window and remove or restore its borders. She explained that the bridgeboard which makes this possible is based on the Commodore PC-10. The PC-10 is already very successful abroad and has a proven track record for IBM compatibility. Wellington showed off the Amiga's multi-tasking, on different resolution screens, with Lotus 1-2-3. Spontaneous applause souded when Wellington unveiled the spreadsheet text in the Amiga PC monochrome window and the graph in
the Amiga PC color window at the same time.
The cut-and-paste integration of the Amiga and PC was demonstrated by its creator, RJ Mical. Mical explained that "the PC display prog ram is an example of using the Am iga to expand on an otherwise somewhat constricted system: namely the PC." The cut and paste operation allows you to move text or graphics data from one application to another.
Mical showed how a piece of text from the PC window can be cut and then pasted into another Amiga application or back into the PC window. Continued... Gail Wellington and RJ Mical later demonstrated the new machines' capabilities.
The PC's lack of multi-tasking and multi-windowing is confronted by another useful feature of the PC display program. You can interact with the second one normally. If you quit the second window, the frozen window's information is still displayed. This option allows you to keep data available for reference, after you have quit the actual program.
Other features available on the PC menu include changing the color of the PC display, changing the cursor blink speed and turning on interlace mode of the Amiga. All these settings can be saved for future sessions. Mical showed one of the many "screens-full" of online help available for all these options.
Wellington summarized the overall power of the Amiga 2000 by stating "If you have the need for IBM compatibility, but really want multitasking, power and hot technology, the Amiga 2000 is your cost effective solution. It can be configured to meet your individual needs today and in the future. You won’t be shut out from new technology developments....we think it's the hottest thing on the streets and we hope you agree."
A question and answer session was chaired by Jonathan Rotenberg, president and founder of the Boston Computer Society.
The first question was perhaps the most important. Is Commodore going to advertise this time around? Rattigan answered with a brief yes'. He explained that varied media coverage would be used to reach the different audiences of the two machines.
Will the price of the Amiga 1000 be reduced? Rattigan pointed out that we've already seen a fair amount of price fluxuation on the Amiga 1000. Commodore does not control, but rather recommends prices to retailers. Betsy Piper of Tech Plus Inc., the Commodore manufacturer's representative in New England, stated that they would not lower the cost of the Amigal 000, so that." ..you won't see the Amiga 1000 blown out." She mentioned that retailers fear they'll run out of Amiga 1000s. Rattigan confirmed that she just may be right.
When will the expanded graphics chips be available? Ruben noted that work is being done, but would not discuss the status of the chips.
Can the Amiga 2000 handle networking? Yes, in more than one way, the Amiga 2000 can handle networking. Ruben explained that "there are no problems in supporting it with networking cards of various kinds in the Amiga slots. You can, if you have the bridge card, use any IBM network card of your choice."
The Amiga 500 has the same 86- pin expansion bus as the Amiga 1000, but in a different location. Conceivably, it's just as expandable as the 1000. Will there be adapters, so you can expand your Amiga 500? The Amiga 500 has the same basic bus access as Amiga 1000. Third- party developers will be offering expansion boxes for the Amiga 500 to take both Amiga 1000 cards and Amiga 2000 cards (not in same box because it's a different form factor). So, you could expand the Amiga 500 to 8.5 megabytes? Yes, but not internally, according to Ruben.
Amiga 2000s and 500s were available for hands-on experimentation. One Amiga 500 was opened up, so that the cost-cutting measures could be seen. Stations with everything from hardware to games to productivity tools were set up for the curious.
The following people were available for questions and demonstrations: Steve Beats of the German development group, along with Jeff Boyer, a senior engineer in West Chester, showed the AT compatible card. Boyer developed the hard disk controller and memory expansion cards for the Amiga 2000. Keith Johnson, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, demonstrated the CSA Turbo Amiga on the Amiga 2000. Kailash Ambwani of Gold Disk, showed the desktop publishing program, Page Setter Professional. RJ Mical and Dale Luck of the original Los Gatos development team were also on hand for questioning.
About the author Harriet Maybeck Tolly owns TollySoft, a software company in Massachusetts. She and her husband Bob currently specialize in Amiga software. Bob runs the Amiga Technical Group of the Boston Computer Society.
They can be reached at: PeopleLink - TollySoft BIX - rtolly Usenet - rtolly@CCA.CCA.COM
• AO For the third time in less than three years, Commodore has
undergone a major management shakeup. Irving Gould, Chairman of
the Board of Commodore International Ltd. Has replaced Thomas
Rattigan as Chief Executive Officer, following Rattigan's
suspension and subsequent resignation.
Nigel Shepherd, Commodore's General Manager for North American Operations, as well as several top executives from Commodore America’s financial department, have also been dismissed.
HIGH LEVEL SHAKEUP REPLACES TOP MANAGEMENT AT COMMODORE by Steve Hull Observers note that differences in philosophy between Chairman Gould and CEO Rattigan had been steadily growing. While the full story has yet to come out, the Wall Street Journal attributes events that occurred at an April 14 board meeting as bringing the situation to a head. At that meeting, Rattigan objected to what he perceived as Gould's undercutting his authority. At that time, the board took no action.
Within two days, Rattigan received a letter placing him on suspension, pending a special board meeting where his dismissal - in the words of the memo, Tor cause" - would be discussed. Rattigan resigned six days later and immediately filed a $ 9 million breach of contract suit against his former employer. Rattigan's suit claims he was "suspended without reason"; CBM counter that the legal action is "wholly without merit." Neither side is willing to offer comment.
No one anticipated this chain of events; if anything, outward signs appeared to assure the security of Rattigan's position at Commodore. Many attributed the company's turnaround - three profitable quarters, after five quarters of loss - to Rattigan's streamlining of company operations and his institution of cost-cutting measures (included the sale of unprofitable operations and drastic employee layoffs).
Rattigan's austerity measures seemed to be paying off. In the past yea, Commodore stock rose from a low of 4 7 8 last spring to a recent high of 15. This growth, in addition to Rattigan's generous five year contract - signed only months ago, made his suspension and subsequent resignation such a shock.
Irving Gould now adds the duties of Chief Executive Officer to his responsibilities as Chairman of the Board, Commodore International. Ironically, a feature article in the March 9th issue of Business Week noted that Gould was becoming more active in Commodore operations.
Sources report that Gould had been dissatisfied with the performance of operations in the US and felt Rattigan may have been more involved in self-promotion than in the needs of the company. Among the examples cited: Commodore Magazine's May 1987 cover story, an interview with Mr. Rattigan headlined, "What Next For Commodore?"
What next, indeed. When asked what CEO Gould would bring to Commodore operations, one company insider answered, "a vested interest,” clearly a reference to the Chairman's 19.5% controlling interest in Commodore stock.
More specifically, we can now look for more emphasis on marketing and distribution and fewer resources devoted to administrative overhead. According to the Wall Street Journal, employees are bracing for a new wave of layoffs that could reduce Commodore's administrative staff by as much as 40%.
Other management changes have come about as well. Nigel Shepherd, Commodore's General Manager for North America Operations, was replaced by Al Duncan, a veteran of the computer wars his resume includes stints as the General Manager of Commodore’s operations in Canada and Italy.
Duncan has a strong financial background and has the confidence of CBM’s bankers.
Rich McIntyre, former manager of Commodore's Canadian operation, assumes the newly created position of General Manager of Sales, North America. McIntyre is described as aggressive wih plenty of saavy, "a straight-shooter who knows how to get the job done."
What are we to make of the situation? Perhaps by the time this issue reaches the newsstand, some of the blanks to this puzzling situation will be filled in. Irving Gould has called this shakeup simply another part of Commodore's recovery.
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Introducing promise At last, the introduction of a new generation of SPELL CHECKING PROGRAMS. Promise contains many features to meet the expectations of demanding users.
• A 95,000 word dictionary that resides in memory and uses
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• A spell checking rate of 18 words per second! (1080 words per
• PROMISE features a SPELL HELP that actually helps you spell any
SPELL HELP will operate with virtually any word processor.
• SPELL HELP takes full advantage of the Amiga’s multi-tasking
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• The ability to create custom dictionaries at the mere click of
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• Total mouse and gadget control, giving an ease of use never
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Promise makes word processing faster and easier. Promise is a must for any serious writer, student, or business person.
Amiga is a trademark of Commodore Amiga Requires 512K Amiga.
THE OTHER GUYS
(800) 949-9409 The Other Guys 55 N. Main Suite 301D Logan, Utah
84321 What you should know before choosing an Amiga 1000
expansion device by Stephen P. Grant CompuServe
(76515,1371) People Link STEVEG Usenet
...ihnp4!ptfsa!well!spg BIXaccessa Anyone hoping to fully
explore the range of power and options that the Amiga
offers has probably run into the frustration of selecting
an expansion device. Though Commodore has published
specifications for Amiga expansion, the end-user is
unlikely to have this information.
This article summarizes some important points you need to know about Commodore's specifications and FCC compliance.
There are three types of expansion devices for the 86- pin expansion connector on the Amiga 1000: expansion chassis, stand-alone units and internally-mounted devices.
An expansion chassis has two or more slots and a power supply. Memory expansion, disk controllers, 68020 68881 CPUs and other multifunction cards are available as addons. Most expansion chassis are designed to the "Zorro" specification, which is a part of the overall Amiga Expansion Specification and covers the mechanical (form-factor) and electrical specifications.
Stand-alones are the most common expansion devices available for the Amiga. In this category are memory expansion and hard disk controllers. These devices usually get their power from the Amiga and are available with or without pass-throughs. Stand-alones are useful for applications where only one or two expansion devices are required.
Internally-mounted expansion devices require that you to open your Amiga, thus will voiding your Amiga warranty, these devices mount in the 68000 socke and are considered to be on the expansion bus. This type of expansion is generally used for memory only, but some products incorporate a socket for a 68881 coprocessor or a battery- backed clock.
The expansion environment The Amiga expansion connector is attached directly to the 68000 processor. Commodore’s specification clearly states that buffers should be as close to the connector as possible.
This closeness reduces the length of the traces that connect to the bus, lowering the likelihood of signal reflections disrupting the Amiga's circuitry. Digital signals are like waves that ripple out when a stone is thrown into the water: when the signals hit a bank, they bounce (reflect) back towards the source, drawing new waves from the source.
Disruptive signal reflections can also be reduced by terminating the signals on the expansion bus. Proper bus termination requires that all the signals be cushioned by the expansion device before being sent on to the pass-through.
An example of improper termination is an unbuffered passthrough. This type of pass-through simply sends the bus through to the next device and taps into the signals. The bus is left unterminated and will cause reflections that interfere with reliable Amiga operation.
Bus loading The specification defines the maximum allowable load on any single signal line coming from the Amiga expansion connector as "one 74F TTL load". This title refers to a family of logic devices known as "FTTL" and describes both the AC and DC characteristics of that type of component. If you exceed this load limit, the rise and fall times of signals on the bus will slow considerably.
Such changes may result in inconsistent operation of the Amiga. For example, if your system has an internally- mounted expansion device and any other device on the expansion connector, you will exceed the load limit. Another possible scenario includes two expansion devices on the expansion connector, one with an unbuffered pass-through and any other device on that pass through. This combination will exceed the load limit and cause large, distorting reflections.
The only reliable method for adding a second stand-alone device on the expansion connector is to use a buffered passthrough. This set-up terminates all signals from the Amiga and drives them to the next device with its buffers. This method requires more circuitry than an unbuffered passthrough. Because of the delays (propagation delays) introduced by the addition of these buffers, no more than two stand-alone devices will operate reliably.
Most expansion chassis buffer the signals coming from the Amiga. By doing so, the chassis is placing only one load on the expansion bus. These signals are then controlled by the expansion chassis buffers and control bgic. The buffered signals are connected to two or more slots within the chassis. Each card in the chassis also buffers the signals.
No matter how many slots are in the chassis, each one is still only two propagation delays (two buffers) away from the Amiga. This balance allows you to add many more expansion devices without sacrificing reliability.
Continued... r COMMODORE 6 H « HH I 6 Ml i 8 1 (¦rsfsiraifsrsfsis mm yjiiJUiLdiiJuiiJiLJiidiuiL] uuua QQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQ QQQQ T TBI COMMODORE COMPUTERS 617-237-68HE The Memory Location 396 Washington 5t.
Ulellesley, MR 02181 Commodore Specialists autoconfiguration. Because the signals required for autoconfiguration are available only on the 86- pin expansion connector, devices must be attached to that expansion connector to be autoconfigured.
Internally-mounted devices do not autoconfigure. Rather, they rely on the fact that the 1.2 operating system "looks" at an area of reserved address space to see if any memory is available. This address space starts at hex C00000. Any memory found is then added to the system memory pool. For stand-alone units and expansion chassis, the normal autoconfiguration starts immediately after Kickstart 1.2 (or higher) is loaded.
On power-up, each autoconfigurable device answers to a range of addresses starting at hex E80000. The Amiga reads "registers" on the device and figures how much address space the device needs. The Amiga then sends a "base address," which configures the device, and passes the CONFIG* signal to the next device in line, where the process is repeated.
After all devices have been configured, the Amiga asks for the Workbench disk. As the Workbench loads, things like hard disk drivers will also be loaded, if the command "BindDrivers" is in the "Startup-Sequence" file. This command prompts the Amiga to look in the "Expansion" drawer for device drivers whose manufacturer's number matches that of an expansion device. If any are found, they are also loaded.
Power budget The expansion specification defines how much power is available on the expansion connector for stand-alone devices: "There is 1 amp available on the +5 volts." The total current drawn from the Amiga's +5 volt supply by devices on the expansion connector should not exceed 1 amp, including internally-mounted expansion devices.
If you exceed this limit, an eventual failure of the Amiga's power supply could occur. Systems with three disk drives and two or more stand-alone expansion devices connected to their Amigas, and are open to any power supply-related problems.
A good system design will allow a certain amount of "headroom" in the power budget. However, if your power supply is severely overloaded, it might be dying a slow death. If your application requires many different expansion . Devices, you should consider an expansion chassis. A properly designed expansion chassis will have its own power supply and will not drain power from the Amiga.
Autoconfiguration The Amiga's uniqueness lies in its ability to interrogate attached expansion devices and reserve space for them in the system memory pool. This feature is known as Design considerations The published specification is not the only guide to designing reliable expansion devices. A good design should also take into account the environment in which the device will be operating, the performance requirements and the target price forthe product. Many decisions affecting price and performance must be made. For example, can a simple two- layer printed circuit board (PCB) be used or is
a multi-layer board required? Multi-layer PCBs are more expensive to manufacture, but they have better noise immunity than two- layer boards.
This distinction can be critical if the product is meant for use in the home, where FCC Class B certification is required or if the circuits are sensitive to noise. Use of decoupling capacitors, which reduce the effect of signal switching noise, is another design consideration. This switching noise can be coupled through the power supply connections to the other devices.
If too few decoupling capacitors are used, noise spikes can affect other logic circuits and can make operation inconsistent. You should have at least one decoupling capacitor for every two logic devices. For memory arrays, each device should have its own decoupling capacitor because the DRAMs demand considerably more current.
In memory system design, the issue of "wait-states" also comes up. A standard 68000 memory access on the Amiga takes four clock-cycles. If the memory cannot run at that speed, it "wait-states" the processor. This delay gives the memory time to respond to the request; it signals the processor that the data is ready. If each wait-state equals one clock cycle, then memory runs 25% slower. The addition of "wait-states" can significantly affect the overall performance of the system.
For externally-mounted Amiga expansion devices, shielding is an important consideration. Shielding is necessary to prevent radio frequency signals from interfering with the operation of any equipment in the area. For example, the entire Amiga PCB is blanketed by a metal shield connected to the chassis ground. To comply with FCC regulations, external expansion devices must connect their shields to the Amiga's shield at the expansion connector.
FCC compliance Since October 1,1983, all electronic devices sold in the United States as commercial or consumer products must be tested and certified to comply with the FCC specifications for radiated and conducted emissions. These regulations guard against interference in the electromagnetic spectrum. The FCC has established two general classifications, determined by the intended usage of the device. If a device is intended for commercial use with a limited distribution, such as scientific or test equipment, Class A requirements apply.
If intended for consumer or home use, the device must meet Class B requirements. Class B requirements are more stringent than Class A requirements, since high emissions are more likely to interfere with home televisions and radios.
All personal computers, electronic games, and computer peripherials must be tested and certified to meet Class B requirements prior to release. All consumer products, including expansion devices, must have an FCC registration number and certification of compliance before they can legally be sold. Both the manufacturer and vendor are subject to penalties if compliance is not certified.
Anyone planning to purchase an Amiga expansion device should be aware of the choices. Do not be afraid to ask questions about how the "bus is passed," what the power requirements for a device are and if the device is FCC certified. Find out what support is available, the field failure rate and the warranty period. A manufacturer of quality products will be willing to answer all of your questions.
You don't need to violate your warranty to add an expansion device to your Amiga. You can add a device that conforms to the specifications and gives you even more memory, power and flexibility from your Amiga.
• AC* References Semi kit (no soldering) Board comes in a 4" x
8.5" case that connects externally to the BUS expansion port on
the right side of the Amiga The Jumbo Ram board contains all
control circuitry chips, but no RAM. Add 16 41256-15 RAM chips
for 1 2 megabyte. Add 32 41256-15 RAM chips for 1 megabyte
• Software auto-installs for 1.1 or
1. 2, disk provided. (Will not auto-install unless you tell it to
through software. If your other software doesn’t support extra
memory, you can disable the board, through software thus
saving you from having to remove the board each time you run
• No wait states, fast memory will not slow operating system.
• Pass through for stacking memory boards is an option (available
in May, $ 40.00 includes installation.) Additional Jumbo Ram
boards require additional power supplies. Power supplies
$ 40.00, available April 15,1987.
• Jumbo Ram board enhances VIP Professional, Draw, Digi View,
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unavailable until we have one to test!)
• Ram chips available at prevailing prices. 6 month warranty
Jumbo Ram board $ 199.95. S & II $ 3.50 EPSON ForYour EX"800 Amiga®!
• Prints 300 characters per second printhead speed in draft mode
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• 60 characters per second printhead speed in Near Letter Quality
• New push-button SelecType II front control panel lets you
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• Automatic Sheet Load easily and quickly inserts single sheets
• 8K internal buffer stores up to four pages of data at a time.
• User-installable color option kit adds color to text and
• Bidirectional printing provides maximum throughput performance
for both text and graphics.
Uses JX-80 Printer Driver
• Built-in Push Tractor Feed assures convenient loading.
EX-800 $ 449.95 ?
• One year warranty.
S&H Amiga Schematics You can investicatfc: 'RAM Expansion • Auto Boot ROM Mods • Disk Drive Interfaces • Additional Ports
• DMA Expansions • Video Enhancements • ETC.. $ 24.95 includes
Schematics and Expansion Specifications June 9,1986 Commodore Business Machines, Amiga Technical Support 1200 Wilson Drive West Chester, PA 19380 800-762-5645 FCC Rules and Regulations Part 15 Subpart J Federal Communications Commission 1919 M Street NW Washington, DC 20554 Cardinal Software ORDER TOLL FREE' 14840 Build America Dr., Woodbridge, VA, 22191 .
Info: (703) 491-6494 4 ' by John Foust There has been quite a bit of confusion about Amiga expansion peripherals. The confusion stems from different implementations of methods for limiting and propogating electrical signals on the bus, commonly called buffering.
A device can be buffered or unbuffered. Buffering is not unique to the Amiga; in fact, it is essential in all electronics design. The computer signals coming out of the Amiga expansion port are strong enough to drive only one device.
Also, signals must arrive within a specific time. If more devices are to receive a signals, the signal must be amplified and retransmitted. Buffering serves this purpose.
If a device gets a weak signal or if the signal is dominated by inordinate amounts of electrical noise or if the signal is late, then problems will arise.
In the words of a Commodore engineer, the expansion port of the Amiga 1000 is "a bunch of wires dangling from processor pins." These wires carry signals to and from the processor.
If external devices exceed the rated specifications for signals on these wires, things can go wrong.
At worst, the Amiga will not function. Even if the Amiga works, the number of functioning peripherals may be limited to one, two or three devices depending on the characteristics of that individual Amiga and the way it interacts with those peripherals. The order of the peripherals stacked on the side may be significant as well.
Boxes and cards The expansion device specification defines two types of peripherals. The first is the box, the expansion chassis. A box does four things: it provides physical stability for plug-in cards; it provides power to the plug-in cards; it provides functions to maintain the bus within the box; it buffers signals from the Amiga and retransmits them to the plug-in cards within the box.
Examples of boxes include the PAL and PAL Jr. Boxes from Byte-by-Byte, the Computer Systems Associates box and the Minirack D from ASDG Inc. Examples of unbuffered boxes include the Pacific Cypress Expander II and the ASDG Minirack C. Boxes provide the most expensive, but most problem-free method of Amiga expansion.
The most common Amiga peripheral is a card that fits on the side of the machine. Examples of such cards are most memory cards and hard disk devices.
A third type of add-on has emerged an internal device, such as an Insider memory expansion. Although they do not reside on the bus, such internal devices are still connected to the processor and the Amiga power supply. Thus, to avoid conflicts, the internal device must play by the rules with the other devices on the expansion bus.
Problems can occur when mixing boxes and cards. Boxes expect a certain type of signal to enter the box and many boxes do not pass the bus out the right side. So, many people are tempted to insert a card between the Amiga and the box; this can lead to problems, depending on the buffering scheme used in the card.
Most cards' designs that pass the bus do not buffer the bus.
Buffering the bus costs extra. This type of device gives the obvious benefit of passing the bus, but the negative aspect is not-so- obvious. Non-buffering can add noise because the wires of the bus are effectively lengthened, acting as antennas. Because noise limits can be violated in this way, downstream peripherals may not function. Some signals on the bus are driven by chips within the Amiga (called PAL chips). These chips have limited signal-driving strength. In this way, you may be limited in the number of devices that your Amiga can support.
If a side-card design had buffered the bus, then timing problems would limit expansion to about two devices (because buffering introduces delays in transmission).
Such timing difficulties can also slow the speed of memory by introducing "wait states" (delays in reads and writes).
Another common opinion offers the only "honorable" answer to the buffering question for an Amiga card: don't pass the bus. By not passing the bus, a card is not responsible for timing and electrical problems introduced by buffered signals for downstream devices... or for passing unbuffering signals and straining noise and timing specifications. This avenue is followed by the Access Associates Alegra memory card and the Progressive Peripherals memory card.
PAL timings Two PAL chips within the Amiga can create and solve Amiga expansion troubles. A PAL chip is a new type of programmable chip. At assembly time, the chip can be given different characteristics that allow it to replace dozens of smaller chips. The PAL (programmable array logic) has become a very popular element in computer design.
¦ Supports real numbers and transcendental functions ie. Sin, cos, tan, arctan, exp. In, log. Power, sqrt ¦ 3d graphics and multi-tasking demos ¦ CODE statement for assembly code ¦ Error lister will locate and identify all errors in source code ¦ Single character I O supported ¦ No royalties or copy protection ¦ Phone and network customer support provided ¦ 350-page manual 2 not found in Pascal Dynamic strings that may be any size Multi-tasking is supported Procedure variables Module version control Programmer definable scope of objects Open array parameters (VAR r: ARRAY OF REALS:) Elegant
type transfer functions Ramdisk Benchmarks (secs) Sieve of Eratosthenes: Float Calc Null program Optomized Size 1257 bytes 3944 bytes 1736 bytes 1100 bytes Link
4. 7 Execute
3. 6 MODULE Float; FROM MathLibO IMPORT sin, In. Exp.
Sqrt, arctan; VAR x.y: REAL: i: CARDINAL; BEGIN (*ST-,$ A-,$ S-*) x:= 1.0; FOR i:= 1 TO 1000 DO y:= sin (x); y:= In (x); y:= exp (x): y:= sqrt (x); y:= arctan (x); x:=x + 0.01; END; END float.
MODULE calc; VAR a.b.c; REAL; n. i: CARDINAL: BEGIN (*$ T-.SA-.SS-') n:= 5000; a:= 2.71828; b:= 3.14159; c:= 1.0; FOR i:= I TO n DO c:= c’a; c:= c'b; c:= c a; c:= c b; END; END calc.
A small board within the Amiga 1000 has two PAL chips on it.
In the first run of 40,000 Amigas, these chips were produced by Monolithic Memories (MMI). Since the first 40,000, the chips have been made by Texas Instruments (Tl). Although the chips were assumed to have indentical electrical characteristics, they, in fact, were quite different. The Tl PALs are less sensitive to noise and signal propagation delays, so an Amiga with the older MMI PAL chips may be more likely to have problems with expansion devices.
Because this sort of problem occurs more often with their products, C Ltd is selling a PAL upgrade kit. They have found that changing the PAL chips will solve many interaction problems between Amiga expansion peripherals.
Also, Commodore Canada is upgrading PAL chips under warranty for Sidecar owners because the Sidecar is very sensitive to timing problems.
Amidst these questions about the Amiga expansion bus, a common question is "What is the spec?" The answer may be that there is no precise spec. Parts of the hardware specification can be interpreted several ways, allowing for both expensive and inexpensive alternatives in Amiga peripherals.
Of course, if Commodore had provided more examples of proper expansion devices (either as examples to hardware manufacturers or as a de-facto standard created by a line of Commodore peripherals), there would be less confusion over expansion devices. According to Redmond Simonson of Microbotics, "Had there been slots, there would be less opportunity for interpretation."
The new Amiga machines, the Amiga 500 and 2000, provide more questions and answers for Amiga expansion. The Amiga 500, like the Amiga 1000, has an 86-pin expansion port. The Amiga 2000 has Zorro expansion slots, but the cards are a different shape than early Amiga expansion chassis designs.
According to Perry Kivolowitz of ASDG Inc., "The only sanctioned ballpark is real Zorro." Kivolowitz was referring to the 100-pin bus specification introduced at the developer conference, Fall 1986. The new Commodore peripheral cards for the Amiga 2000 card form factor should lead to a de- facto standard.
- AC* MODULE Sieve: CONST Size = 8190; FlagRange = [0..Sizej;
FlagSet = SET OF FlagRange: Flags: FlagSet; i: FlagRange;
Prime, k, Count, Iter: CARDINAL; (*$ S-,$ R-,$ A+ •) FOR Iter: = 1
TO 10 DO Count: = 0; Flags:= FlagSet(); (* empty set *) FOR i:=
0 TO Size DO IF (i IN Flags) THEN Prime:= (i ’ 2) + 3; k:= i +
Prime: WHILE k = Size DO INCL (Flags, k); k:= k + Prime; END;
Count:= Count +1: END; END; .
END; END Sieve.
Product History The TDI Modula-2 compiler has been running on the Pinnacle supermicro (Aug.
’84), Atari ST (Aug. ’85) and will soon appear on the Macintosh and UNIX in the 4th Qtr. '86.
¦ FULL interface to ROM Kernel, Intuition, Workbench and AmigaDos ¦ Smart linker for greatly reduced code size ¦ True native code implementation (Not UCSD p-Code or M-code) ¦ Sophisticated multi-pass compiler allows forward references and code optimization ¦ ReallnOut, LonglnOut, InOut, Strings, Storage, Terminal ¦ Streams. MathLibO and all standard modules ¦ Works with single floppy 512K RAM Pascal and Modula-2 source code are nearly identical. Modula-2 should be thought of as an enhanced superset of Pascal. Professor Niklaus Wirth (the creator of Pascal) designed Modula-2 to replace Pascal.
Added features of Modula- CASE has an ELSE and may contain ¦ subranges Programs may be broken up into B Modules for separate compilation ¦ Machine level interface B Bit-wise operators Direct port and Memory access ¦ Absolute addressing Interrupt structure ¦ Compile
4. 8 Regular Version $ 89.95 Developer’s Version $ 149.95
Commercial Version $ 299.95 The regular version contains all
the features listed above. The developer's version contains
additional Amiga modules, macros and demonstration programs -
a symbol file decoder - link and load file disassemblers - a
source file cross referencer
- the kermit file transfer utility - a Modula-2 CLI - modules for
JFF and ILBM. The commercial version contains all of the Amiga
module source files.
Other Modula-2 Products Kermit - Contains full source plus $ 15 connect time to CompuServe. $ 29.95 Examples - Many of the C programs from ROM Kernel and Intuition translated into Modula-2. $ 24.95 GRID - Sophisticated multi-key file access method with over 30 procedures to access variable length records. $ 49.95 wmmi® Amazing Reviews... by John Foust Toolkit The Toolkit is a collection of AmigaDOS utilities. The features that attract most users are the Toolkit's two 'mount'- able devices, AUX: and PIPE:. AUX: allows another CLI to be sent out the serial port, whilePIPE: brings Unix-like abilities
with inter-process communication. Other than these two options, only the Tookit's disassembler has much merit.
The command 'NEWCLISER:' sets up a CLI out the serial port. The main drawback here is that buffering of input and output occurs only in block-sized pieces, so it is not interactive and editing of command lines is impossible.
Playing with a CLI out the serial port can be fun. AUX: runs at the current Preferences serial port speed. I connected AUX: to my AT clone with a null modem cable which previously transfered data only via Xmodem and Kermit.
Transfers at 19200 baud were clean and CTRL-C and CTRLA worked just fine; It is quite possible to make mistakes at a remote CLI, such as entering 'cd dg1:', which brings up a system requester ("Please insert volume dg1 in any drive").
Unfortunately, there is no way to close such a a requester from the remote CLI.
Strange concurrencies, which quickly crashed the AUX: device, are also quite possible. While a CLI was working out AUX:, I entered 'copy file.txt aux:' from the keyboard. The file was immediately sent to the remote and the remote crashed. I also tried running 'ed'from the remote. The edit window appeared on the Amiga screen and responded to keyboard input. According to the manual, 'AUX:' can be opened like any other device with an Open() call, so I imagine it's possible to write applications to work on a remote terminal. I would like to learn more about these quirks of AUX:, but the manual
does not go into detail about its operation.
I was annoyed that text lines are sent in 'line feed, carriage return' sequences instead of vice-versa. I imagined many tricks I'd like to try in the future. How about connecting a modem to autoanswer on the serial port or getting another serial port on the Amiga and connecting the Amiga to itself?
Such capability would be useful for capturing CLI sessions (for writing examples or tutorials) and moving session transcripts directly to the AT. In some ways, this AUX: device brings multiuser abilities to the Amiga.
PIPE: sends the output of one program to another program, while the first is still running. You must name a file on this device, such as 'pipe:foofile', for it to work correctly.
Several programs can use PIPE: at the same time, but all must use different filenames.
Any program can be redirected and sent to PIPE:, such as 'dir pipe:foo dfO: opt a'. Until some other program opens and reads 'pipe:foo', the 'dir' program will be stalled because its writes to PIPE: are pending. It is best to 'run' the first program and let a second program wait on its output.
How is PIPE: useful? Well, if the programs you use are like Unix filters (that is, they use redirection for input and output), then pipes can connect programs without using temporary files.
Other utilities 'Alib' is a Metacomco-compatible object module librarian.
'Alib' was provided to registered developers on toolkit disks from Commodore. Unlike many other librarians in the MS- DOS world, 'Alib' can perform only one action at a time.
'Disasm' disassembles an object module or executable module to assembly language source. A perfect disassembler would recreate human-readable, programmer- sensical, assembler-acceptable assembly language source code.
I wasn't completely pleased with 'disasm's output. With only a casual knowledge of the Metacomco object module format, I would have guessed that a better disassembly could be produced. For example, I thought data and code hunks would be translated to a more life-like listing, thus becoming easier to understand. On the Amiga, executable modules are only slightly different from object modules, so this disassembler will operate on any executable program you might have.
Options to turn off a hexadecimal dump portion of the listing and to adjust the size of a workspace buffer are also included.
'Disasm' took 26 seconds to produce a 68K listing of the 'enlarge' program. Turning off the hex dump on the left edge reduced this time to 14 seconds and 26K. The 'enlarge' program uses bitmaps to produce the block characters.
Obviously, the disassembly showed these regions, but interpreted them as both code and data in 'DW' statements.
For large disassemblies, you need to manually set the workspace size in bytes. This guesswork can be a real pain on a512K machine. In a machine with more memory, setting the workspace to 150-200K will disassemble 50K executable module, taking much more time to produce.
Some executables produced with Manx Aztec C compiler draw 'Error in object module format' messages from 'disasm'.
The disassembly worked fine on the BCPL-written AmigaDOS commands in the C: directory.
The disassembly doesn't have any remarkable features, such as detecting ASCII character data and placing it in defined-data statements that would make it more readable.
The '$ 41'-style hexadecimal representations, or worse still 'MOVE.L -(AO),DO' representations of the data, are pretty tough to interpret.
A perfect disassembler ranks among the most unreachable of all computer programs, but this one could be improved considerably. I could imagine this disassembler being useful to people who do not have Lattice C (which has its own object module disassembler) or for people who like to poke around in executables. There are public domain disassemblers available, but their credibility is untested.
'Pack' and 'Unpack' are text file compression programs.
Users will compare the performance of these programs to the freely distributable compression and librarian program 'arc'.
Using a sample text file of 21392 bytes, 'pack' produced a 13465 byte file in 33 seconds, a reduction of 37 percent.
The corresponding 'unpack'took 16 seconds. The 'arc' program (version 0.23) produced a 10020 byte file in 15 seconds, a reduction of 53 percent. Unarcing took 9 seconds. Both input and output files were in the RAM: disk; the lime', 'arc' and 'pack' programs were on hard disk. On a 187K text file, Pack managed a 37 percent compression rate, while 'arc' achieved 43 percent in 128 seconds, half the time of 'pack'. Enough said.
Although it is stated in the manual that "Pack will work on a non-text file, but the reduction is not so good," I tried it anyway. Pack compressed the 50328 byte 'arc' program into a 40834 byte file in 139 seconds, an 18 percent reduction. 'Arc' was able to compress itself into a 40164 byte file in 53 seconds, a 20 percent reduction.
Enlarge’ is a very simple banner-producing program. Eight- by-eight block capital letters made of the number sign ' ' are produced. Just type the desired string on the command line and the output is printed across the page. String size is limited to about seven characters by the size of the page.
Horizontal banners cant be made. 'Enlarge' reminds me of the title page of a batch-job printout from a mainframe computer.
'Browse' is a file-viewing program. It can view only one file at a time and cannot move backwards in the file. It can perform simple text searches. 'Browse' is smart enough to recognize when the viewing window has been resized to change the number of lines, but not if the window is narrower than the lines being displayed. In any case, 'Browse' is not particularly fast as compared to other public domain file viewing programs such as 'more' or 'blitz'.
Shell If you are looking for a simple upgrade to replace the CLI, the Metacomco Shell could be it... but if you are expecting something similar to the the public domain shells available, this shell is not what you are looking for.. The Shell requires installation of several program files on the Workbench disk. Two 'execute' files transfer the files for you. The installed programs include modified 'run' and 'newcli' commands and 'endshell', which terminates the Shell. Another given program patches the AmigaDOS 1.1 for use with the Shell.
The Shell uses reentrant code, so that doing a NewCLI inside the Shell does not generate another copy of the Shell program code, but only allocates new data space. All invocations of the Shell share the same code.
The Shell gives you line editing abilities, using the same gross control sequences as the 'ed' editor. I did notice some bugs in the insert function. If the line becomes longer than the length of any line in the window, the line being composed is destroyed. The characters become mixed up because the characters at the end of the line do not move. Moving the cursor beyond the end of the physical line at the right edge of the window only confuses the situation. The manual does mention a CTRL V command that correctly redraws the line, but this seems like an awkward solution.
I often wait for commands to execute in the CLI. I also type several lines of commands ahead of time. They are passed into the buffer as each of the previous commands completes execution. I am always frustrated by the displays that appear, hopelessly mixed up after completion of each of these commands. For example, I often enter 'dir' to view the results of the last few commands, but the directory listing always begins tacked onto the last line of output from the last command. A series of RETURNS clears the lines just before the 'dir* executes. It is amazing how one compensates for the
Much to my pleasure, if you stack up commands by typing in advance in the Shell, it does retype each command as it executes, so 'dir's do appear correctly.
The Shell remembers previously entered command lines using 'history'. If unaltered, the Shell remembers ten commands, but that can be expanded. The commands can be recalled by number or partial name, using the'!' Recall character. '!13' recalls the thirteenth line entered at the CLI, if that line is still stored in the history buffer. If you continued... previously entered 'ed ram:bar', then entering 'led' would recall that command line, if no other command beginning with 'ed' had been entered since.
Several built-in commands are also incorporated in the Shell.
'History' prints the recorded command lines. A 'path' command is present in the Shell, but its not the same as the AmigaDOS 1.2 'path' command. 'Push' and 'pop' are for navigating directories. 'Push' is like 'cd', except that the present directory is remembered before moving to the next.
Entering 'pop' later returns to that directory.
The Metacomco Shell, like many Unix shells, has $ variables, as well as aliases and reprogrammable function keys.
Variables can be used to shorten command lines and make them more flexible. Entering 'set L dir opt a' sets the variable '$ L' to 'dir opt a'. Entering ’$ L' at a CLI prompt executes 'dir opt a'.
Aliases are simple text shorthand forms of other strings. The Shell comes with several predefined aliases, such as 'h' for 'history'. Aliases cannot be more than one word.
Function keys are reprogrammed with key’. 'Key 6 dir opt a' assigns 'dir opt a' to function key F6. On startup, a Shell can read initialization commands from a file, so the function keys, aliases and variables can be reprogrammed to your liking.
A 'resident' command is also built into the Shell. 'Resident' keeps programs resident in memory, instead of allocating all that memory when the program is loaded and freeing it when it is done. For example, you could make the 'ed' editor resident and each invocation of 'ed'from multiple CLIs would use the same code loaded in memory. 'Resident' does not work with all programs, however. In short, programs must be written in BCPL and follow BCPL reentrancy requirements to use 'resident.' This limitation means you can only 'resident' Metacomco programs, such as their own assembler or linker.
The Shell has some quirks. For example, if you resize a window, the window is cleared. Imagine you just did a 'dir' and want to resize the window to see only the directory information and work in another CLI window below. This scenario is impossible with the Shell the first window will clear and you must enter 'dir* again. Tapping the resize gadget on a window will also clear it, so be sure not to bump it.
Functional and cosmetic criticisms aside, the Shell seems as rock-solid as the CLI. After several months of daily use, Ive yet to experience a crash or malfunction of the Shell.
The Shell manual, like so many other Amiga books and manuals, contains yet another recounting of CLI commands such as 'cd', 'dir', 'assign', etc. Without these descriptions, the manual would have been a lot thinner about as thin as the Toolkit manual, which tops out at 21 pages. (I am sure this logic was used when the same exact text was used to fill out other Amiga books, too.)
• AC* The bottom line is that there are a half-dozen shells in
the public domain that do more than the Metacomco Shell. They
all use the Amiga cursor keys much more effectively and add
many more features. But none know enough about the internals of
the operating system to do everything perfectly.
They all lack consistency in some small respect (such as an inability to execute the format' command) because some tiny nugget of wisdom about AmigaDOS internals is not known to developers.
Recently, a public domain program called ConMan added another level of complexity and flexibility to Amiga public domain shells. ConMan redirects calls to the console.device, so the command line recall and editing features are available to all programs that use the device.
I’ll give some free advice to future AmigaDOS shell designers. We need a shell with clipboard support. All output from previously executed programs needs to be buffered. Hopefully, such support would include backscrolling of previous screenfuls of information as well.
The Amiga 2000 and Sidecar need a CLI that can clip text to the clipboard because the MS-DOS side uses the clipboard to accept information from the Amiga. Currently, information transfer between the MS-DOS screen and the Amiga is limited to programs that use the clipboard, such as TxEd, Analyze! And Scribble!. The CLI does not use the clipboard, so there is no way to move text to or from the CLI. Without this transfer ability, information exchange on the 2000 becomes a one-way street.
My pessimistic side guesses that in creating the shell, Metacomco wanted to show their knowledge of the AmigaDOS™ internal operating system. The secrets Metacomco flaunts in the shell are notable and trul not available to other programmers. Among developers, flaunting secrets is no sin. In fact, it can be the mark of a well-developed product... but flaunting secrets on a less- than-earth-shaking program is questionable. For this reason, the Metacomco shell fails.
Metacomco Shell $ 69 Metacomco Toolkit $ 39 Metacomco Tenchstar, Inc 5353 E Scotts Valley Drive Scotts Valley. CA 95066
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NEW YORK October 10-12,1987 LOS ANGELES January 22-24,1988 Featuring CHICAGO July 22-24,1988 Keynote Sessions Jay Miner, the Father of the Amiga™, will open the New York AmiEXPO. R. J. Mical, the Designer of Intuition, will provide insights into software development.
Exhibition Hall A sampling of exhibitors: Activision, Inc. Amazing Computing AMIGA Business Computers ASDG, Inc. Brown-Wagh Publishing Byte by Byte Central Coast Software Computer Systems Associates Creative Microsystems, Inc. Firebird Licensees, Inc. Lattice, Inc. Liquid Light, Inc. Manx Software Systems Microillusions NewTek, Inc. New Horizons Software PiM Publications, Inc. Octree Software Word Perfect Corporation Amiga™ is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Development Forums Intensive working sessions with the leading Amiga developers, such as NewTek, detailing specific
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The exhibit hall will also be a place to relax, enjoy the atmosphere in lounges, or to just get a bite to eat at the cafe or pub.
Fall Sheraton Centre Hotel October 10-12,1987 New York, New York iga Event - WHO SHOULD EXHIBIT If you manufacture, supply or compete with any Amiga compatible products, you’ll find many new prospects who need your products at AmiEXPO.
Commercial developers, who have demonstrated the ability to develop and market quality products are welcome on the exhibit floor. Retailers, locally selling a variety of products are welcome to participate in our Retailers Center. In our Developers Corner, we invite anyone*who is developing salable products for the Amiga.
AmiExpo Announces the 1st Annual Amiga's Cup Competition * AmiExpo is honored to announce its sponsorship of the 1st Annual Amiga's Cup User Group Competition. In recognition of the outstanding Public Domain and Shareware programs written by and for the Amiga community, AmiExpo is organizing a series of three regional competitions in conjunction with its Amiga-specific conferences and exhibitions being held in New York, Los Angeles and Chicago.
The Amiga's Cup will be given to those User Groups awarded the most points in the individual categories. Judging will be by leading Amiga developers and publishers attending AmiExpo. Two classes of software, Public Domain and Shareware, will be allowed to compete.
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1-800-32-AMIGA in N.Y. call (212) 867-4663 Applied Visions' FutureSound by Richard Rae Last month, we took a look at the Perfect Sound audio digitizer from SunRize Industries and the Mimetics Sound Sampler. This month's column rounds out my sound survey.
Applied Visions' FutureSound The FutureSound digitizer was obviously designed for the eyes. It is housed in a cream-colored plastic box complete with little rubber feet and will sit very nicely atop your second drive. The silk-screened front panel includes two input jacks, a lighted selector switch, and a level control. The sampler comes with 40-page manual, disk, microphone, micrpphone stand, and a registration card. The warranty period is 90 days.
FutureSound plugs into the Amiga's parallel port via a 22- inch ribbon cable which extends from the backof the sampler. ADB25, mounted on the rear of the sampler, is provided for your printer or other parallel device, which FutureSound would otherwise displace. A lighted pushbutton on the front panel lets you select either device; when the light is on, FutureSound is active. I've heard isolated reports of the sampler powering up enabled, but I've never experienced this. My unit always comes up disabled, allowing normal use of the printer without fiddling.
An RCA jack is included for line level signals, as well as a miniature jack for microphone level signals. The Future Sound microphone is more than adequate for typical sampling applications. By connecting both inputs simultaneously, you can even mix the audio. Unfortunately, there are no provisions available for controlling the balance, though.
THE FUTURESOUND SOFTWARE The main sampler program, Future, may be started from either WorkBench or the CLI. The program opens a window which looks like a multi-track recorder, complete with function buttons, track controls and a "VU" meter!
Four numbered gadgets at the top of the window select which of the four tracks are active. Only one track may be active at a time; selecting atrack highlights that gadget and clears the others.
The sound graph, positioned directly below the track selectors, takes up much ot the window. This display gives you a look at the data on the selected track. A slider to the right of the graph lets you control how much you see; all the way down displays the entire track, while higher settings reduce the display and increase the magnification._ An indicator above the magnifying bar shows the value of the sample point under the sound cursor. A thin vertical line running through the sound graph allows precise matching of start and end points for loops or splices.
The sound cursor can be set in a number of ways. You can get to a desired area quickly by left clicking the desired point on the graph. Fine adjustments can be madeusing the Counter gadget, which increments or decrements the sound cursor's location in steps as small as two bytes. The Rewind and FF gadgets perform the same function as the Counter gadget, but move the cursor at least an order faster. Finally, the Step gadget allows you to jump the cursorforward or backward a complete display, with the jump being in the direction the cursor was last moved.
Once you have positioned the sound cursor, you can set the beginning or end of your sample by clicking on the Start or End gadget. A dashed marker on the sound graph and a numeric position marker display your Start or End.
Six gadgets, located below the sound graph, achieve tape recorder-like functions. I've already discussed Rewind, FF, and Step. The remaining three -- Play, Record, and Stop -
- are self-explanatory.
Record starts the sampling, with the data stored in the active track. The parameters for the sample to be recorded are set by indicators and gadgets in the lower right hand corner of the FutureSound window.
FutureSound provides a Recording Level Monitor for setting the gain control on the digitizer. The RLM is a three-part indicator: a solid bar-graph shows a constant update of the signal level, a second smaller bar retains the peak value, and a third "clip" indicator flashes when the sampler is overdriven. The manual indicates that you should adjust the gain control for maximum deflection without clipping. It appears, however, that this indicator does not always show the fastest peaks, probably because of the time it takes to update the graphic display. The result of this lag is that some
samples will overload even though the level meter says the gain control is properly set. Your best bet is to back off the gain control slightly to be safe.
Three interacting gadgets, positioned below the level monitor, set the software up for recording. Rate sets the number of samples taken per second, and has a range of 1 Khz to 28KHz, with a default of 10KHz. (This direct continued... readout is a welcome change from dealing with a period related to a system clock.) Time is the length of the sample, ranging from one to 999 seconds, with a default of five seconds. Finally, Memory is the amount of memory given to the sample. The default is 50,000 bytes, and the range is from 1000 to (hah!) 9,999,000 bytes. (Speaking of memory, the title bar
constantly shows the amount of free memory available... a nice touch.)
As mentioned, these gadgets interact with each other. If you decrease the sample rate or increase the allocated memory, the sample time goes up. If you decrease the sample time, the memory requirement goes down. The nice thing about having all three gadgets is that you can apply the ones which best suit your application. If you know you need a 5- second sample at 7.5KHz, you can set only those sliders; if you have 24K of memory and need a 3- second sample, you can let the program figure out the sample rate required.
Once you have your sample in memory, you can play it back it by clicking the play gadget. What you actually hear is not controlled by the track selectors, but rather by the individual track controls below the tape deck gadgets. Each track control has a playback rate gadget, volume control, on off selector and loop selector.
The rate gadget, which sets the playback period, adjusts automatically to complement the sampling rate when recording begins. You can, of course, override this preset value if you want to change the playback rate and pitch.
The volume controls accomplish exactly what you'd expect, while* also allowing a reasonable analog of a multitrack mixdown. This allowance lets you layer the four tracks at whatever volume mix you wish. You can then record the tracks onto tape for the final result.
The Loop once gadget, when in the Loop position, causes the track to continuously repeat the section between the Start and End markers. If these markers have not been explicitly set, the entire sample is repeated. In the Once position, the sample will play once and stop.
The On Off gadget determines which tracks are active for playback. When you click the Play gadget, all the tracks which are On will "roll"; those set to Off will be muted.
The Stop gadget stops playback of a sample. Stop does nothing during recording.
Useful pull-down menus complete FutureSound's capabilities. A Disk menu includes selections for loading and saving files in either a raw internal format or IFF mode; IFF supports both one shot samples and three octave instruments. Other handy options on this menu include selections to rename files, delete files and change directories. The only apparent function of the option Make Data Disk is to create a directory named "SoundFiles" (FutureSound refuses to look at any disk without this directory). Finally, a Quit option accomplishes the same end as the close gadget.
The Tracks menu contains generic track- oriented options.
Clear Track erases the sample in the selected track and returns the memory to the free pool; Clear All Tracks does the same for all four tracks. Allocate Track assigns a memory space to an empty track. This process is done automatically when a sample is recorded, but since the program can't know what you have in mind, you must set aside the proper amount of space manually for other operations. You may allocate any amount of memory to a track, up to the largest contiguous block available. Finally, Reset Track will return the markers and playback rate to their originally recorded values.
The Bag Of Tricks menu is a potpourri of operations for manipulating samples. Reverse Sound simply plays the sample backward. Mix Sound allows you to combine two tracks. Watch out with Mix Sound, though. Due to the way this mixing is done, it is very easy to create an overdriven, distorted sample. Since one of the two original tracks is also the destination track, it's safest to create a copy of one of the originals and use that as the destination.
Scale Sound lets you make a sample or marked position louder or softer. Unlike the volume controls, this operation actually manipulates the sample data stored in memory.
Scale Sound is useful for reducing the volume of an echo track so it will sound more natural, or for reducing the levels of two tracks to prevent distortion when they are mixed.
Zero Sound is an extreme form of Scale Sound: it sets the sample or marked portion to zero, without affecting memory allocation.
So what can you do with all these software toys? Let's take a look at two quick examples: echo and flanging. If you have FutureSound and want to try out these examples, use the default settings for sample rate until you get the feel for the effect, as all the numbers I'll be using are based on the default 10KHz sample rate.
To add echo to a sound, first record the original sound on one track; I'll use track one for this discussion. Now we're going to make a copy of that sound, so select another track and make space for the copy. If you select track 3, all the sound will come from the same side; if you instead select an even-numbered track, you'll end up with stereo echo!
Allocate the same amount of space you used to record the sample, then use Copy Track to make a duplicate of your sample. Pick either track and run the Counter value up a bit, then click on the Start gadget. This processs causes the selected sample to start just a tad earlier than the other one.
When you play back both samples together, instant echo!
The type of echo effect is determined by the timing discrepancy between the two samples. A counter of 50 or so is a 5 millisecond difference: you won't hear this as an echo, but if the samples are assigned to left and right channels, this delay will turn a monophonic sample into a very rich simulated stereo sample. A counter of 200 or 20 milliseconds is in the range of what is often called "bathtub echo": a very fast repeat which enriches the sound and creates the illusion of two of each instrument. Counter values around 500 or 50 milliseconds produce the familiar "slapback echo" heard in
stadiums and coliseums. A value of 1000 or above generates a very distinct echo; so distant that you may have to turn down the volume of the echo track to avoid muddying the sound. If you find a perfect echo effect, you can use the Mix Sounds option to combine the original track and the echo into one composite sample.
Flanging, a comb filtering effect similar to (but more intense than) phase shifting, is just as easy as echo. Record your original sample, make a copy which will play on the same channel and advance the counter to 50 or so. Now for the difference... increase the advanced track's playback rate by one notch. Now we have one track starting slightly before the other, but also moving more slowly than the other. This difference means that the second track will catch up and pass the "head-started” track. The result is flanging, an effect which sounds like a jet flying overhead. The counter value
determines precisely where in the sample the effect will go "over the top”; the difference in playback rates determines how quickly the effect moves.
If you get drastic enough with these values, you can induce all sorts of changes. An example would be a quick flange which turns into an echo. (If you try to do this in stereo, you'll find that because of the way the ear brain functions, it'll sound more like the sound moving from one speaker to the other, rather than a flanging effect.)
Echo and flanging are just two of the many effects available from software which allows you to manipulate the samples in this way. If you're a sound junkie like me, you can happily spend an entire afternoon playing with this sort of thing. You wont get anything productive done, but you will learn... and eventually some effect you stumbled upon will be perfect for a project you’re working on.
HACKER SUPPORT The FutureSound disk provides many resources for both the C and BASIC hacker. The directories "BASICFiles" and "CFiles" include numerous source and documentation files for using FutureSound and incorporating sampled sounds into your own programs. You can thank our own John Foust for the BASIC routines; I can still remember Applied Visions' pleas for help at just about this time last year. The folks at Applied Visions were rapidly approaching the release deadline for FutureSound and hadn't had a chance to put together any BASIC demo code. They didn't want to leave the BASIC folks
out in the cold so they posted a call for help in the AmigaForum. John was intrigued enough by the problem to dig in and write the needed code. Thanks John!
THAT LITTLE OLD NIT PICKER I couldn't find any real bugs in the FutureSound system, so I'll have to fall back on nits to maintain my reputation. Grin The only item that was out of line was the free memory indicator in the title bar. When moving directly from six digits of free memory to four digits, the field is not properly cleared, resulting in hanging digits. For example, with 109,576 bytes of memory, if you take a 100,000 byte sample, the display will read "9576 6” bytes. Not really serious enough to be labeled a "bug”.
AMIGA HARD DISK BACKUP HARDHAT Full lncremental Directory Single File backup to microdisks.
Option list allows skipping of files by name with wildcards.
Catalog file provides display of backed up files by name with size, location and datestamp. Double data compression reduced disk space. Printer interface. Uses CLI or Workbench.
Multitasking provides background operation. $ 69.95 AMIGA DISK FILE ORGANIZER ADFO Having trouble finding that file somewhere in your stack of floppys? Can’t find all the copies of a particular file? ADFO maintains a database of directories and filenames from your collection of disks. Fast response inquiries return location and last update information. Printer interface. Uses CLI or Workbench. 512K ram and 2 drives recommended $ 59.95. AMIGA SPELLING CHECKER SPEL-IT Uses 40,000 word primary dictionary and optional second dictionary. Add Delete words to both dictionaries. Includes
plurals. Text wordcount totals. Uses CLI or Workbench, Mouse or keyboard. $ 49.95 Include $ 3.50 S&H Mastercard Visa Accepted Calif. Residents Add 61 2% Sales Tax Tozdtcom t)tocUtA&UeA' 3386 Floyd Los Angeles, CA 90068 (213) 851-4868 Order phone 1 800 621-0849 Ext. 494 My main gripe about Future Sound is the way numeric gadgets are implemented. You have no way to key a number directly into any of the main window gadgets; instead, you left click and optionally hold down either a + or - gadget. A single click advances the value by one increment; if the button is held down the value scrolls with
Even so, it can take a long time to make major changes. An extreme example: it takes about 6112 minutes to scroll from minimum to maximum sample memory values. More realistic times are in the range of ten seconds or so, but even ten seconds can be a long time to sit and hold a mouse button.
The software also requires quite a bit of wasted motion to get some things done. For example, to make the echo track in the earlier example, the exact steps are: click on Record to digitize the first sample using all defaults, select track two, select Allocate Track from the menu, click the Ok gadget to accept the default, select track one, select Copy Sound from the menu, click the numbertwo gadget to select the destination, click the OK gadget to accept your selection... it goes on, but you get the idea: lots of back and forth wasted motion. Not too bad once you get used to it, but it takes
getting used to.
The program also forces you to do some things it is better capable of doing itself. The Mix Sounds option is a good example of this: the program simply adds each data point continued... m mmm
• Software Publishers
• Peripheral Manufacturers
• Hardware Developers The hardware is very attractive and the
software is quite flexible. My quibbles are minor ones and very
much matters of personal preference. When reviewing a program,
I go out of my way looking for bugs... and if Future Sound had
any, they were very well hidden.
That winds up the sampler survey for now. Next month, a look at another music package. Until then... Nybbles, Rick
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Future Sound is a very solid product for anyone who needs an
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FutureSound Audio Digitizer $ 175.00 Requires Amiga with 512K, one drive, KS 1.1 or up.
Applied Visions, inc. Suite 2200, One Kendall Square Cambridge, MA 02139 . 617-494-5417 CALGARY • TORONTO • VANCOUVER • ST.JOHNS together, ignoring overflow, which often results in distortion.
The manual advises you to scale the samples before mixing them, but by how much? It becomes atrial and error process to achieve the best signal to noise ratio. The program could have easily done the mixing and also scaled the final values to the maximum or the level of either input sample.
There is no way to disable the sound graph; it is refreshed every time the Counter or marker locations are changed. No mouse actions are accepted while the redraw is in progress, so you just have to wait. Fortunately, the delay is fairly short.
In all fairness, I should mention that you may have some contention problems if you own an A-Time clock, which also plugs into the parallel port. Some users have reported that the combination works under 1.1 but not 1.2; others have had no problems.
IN CONCLUSION The FutureSound sampler was the first readily available digitizer and remains the favorite choice of many. Also to Future Sound’s credit are quite a few digitized sound programs done with the FutureSound system.
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" f * . „ ~ ”"*** i I Deluxe Music Con.Mruction Set. Deluxe Paint, Instant Music are trademarks of'EIectronic- Arts. Music Studio is a trademark of A%iVisioi [?@$ M t5S Making Calls to the Kemal One of the biggest adjustments Forth programmers have to make when programming on the Amiga is the Forth C interface. Since the Amiga's operating system is written almost entirely in C and it would be foolish to attempt to develop applications for the machine without using the immense resources provided in the ROM Kernel, some form of compromise is inevitable.
One mechanism which must be implemented is the one for making the calls to the kernel, and I have given examples of the different approaches taken by Multi-Forth and Jforth in previous columns. In orderto use those calls there are also agreat number of data structures which need to be properly defined and initialized. I thought that I would take some time this month to cover some of the details of creating those structures in Forth and give an example of the translation of C constants to Forth as well. I will be using Multi-Forth for the examples, but Jforth is similar.
Probably the biggest difference between structures as they are implemented in C and their equivalent definitions in Multi- Forth is the lack of "typing" in Multi-Forth. As an example, the structure used for controlling a hardware sprite in C is struct SimpleSprite UWORD *posctldata; UWORD height; UWORD x,y; UWORD num; }; The first member of the structure, posctldata, is defined as a pointer of type UWORD. It will direct the system to a Sprite Image structure which contains two sixteen-bit unsigned words of position-control data as well as the bit image of the sprite. The next member, height,
is an unsigned 16-bit value which specifies the vertical size of the sprite in noninterlaced scan lines. The other entries are unsigned words which hold the coordinates of the sprite and its number.
The asterisk denoting a pointer in C is used by the compiler to keep you from pointing at something the wrong size.
Because posctldata is qualified by UWORD it can only be used to point to data of that size. By contrast, in Multi-Forth the definition is structure SimpleSprite ptr; +ssposctldata short; +ssheight short; +ssx ‘ short; +ssy short; +ssnum structure.end There is no type checking in Multi-Forth, or Forth in general for that matter. In general, any entry in a C structure which contains an asterisk may be defined as a "ptr:" in Multi- Forth. The word "ptr:" specifies that it is a 32-bit member (and creates the member name). Also, member names in Multi-Forth are not context sensitive as those in C
are. In other words, in Multi-Forth each member of a structure must have a unique name. It can't share a name with a member of another structure, or any other word unless they are in separate vocabularies. That is one reason for adding a prefix. Creative Solutions suggests the use of a plus sign for member names because it denotes their run-time action and to differentiate them from other Forth words, and in this case the "ss" is taken from the structure name, SimpleSprite. Creative Solutions also chose to use "short:" to indicate a 16-bit quantity because "word" means something else in Forth.
Structure members can really only assume three "types" in Multi-Forth. They can be either 8-bit, 16-bit or 32-bit quantities. There is no checking for signed or unsigned, or even whether a member is an address or a value.
Functionally, a "long:" member and a "ptr:" member are identical. Each adds four bytes to the size of the structure, and the different names are used only for clarity. Likewise, WORD, UWORD, SHORT, USHORT and any other qualifier in C which denotes a 16-bit quantity can be replaced by "short:" in Multi-Forth. Likewise, in Multi-Forth any 8-bit entry can be flagged with "byte:".
Arrays within structures in Multi-Forth are handled by plural forms of the words already mentioned. Here is an example in C which will illustrate several points.
Struct collTable int (*collPtrs)(); }; This structure is in "graphics gels.h" of the C include files. It contains pointers to 16 collision procedure addresses, a subject I hope to cover one day. The equivalent in Multi- Forth is structure collTable 16 ptrs; -fctcollPtrs structure.end Remember, as I said earlier, any entry for a C structure member which contains an asterisk can be defined with "ptr:" and in this case it simplified the syntax a bit. Of course you lose something too. You will have to calculate your own offset to the appropriate entry when you later use the structure rather
than simply specifying the index. In that respect this is a bad example. In a real application I probably wouldn't use a "structure" at all. Instead I would build my own along with a simple method of indexing into the array with a syntax like "8 collTable @"to pick up the address. Slavishly following the C syntax can get you in trouble.
Here is another example using the structure for a file information block. First the C version.
Struct FilelnfoBlock LONG fib_DiskKey; LONG fib_DirEntryType; char fib_FileName ; LONG fib_Protection; LONG fib_EntryType; LONG fibJSize; LONG fib__NumBlocks; struct DateStamp fib_Date; char fib_Comment; }; and the equivalent in Multi-Forth structure FilelnfoBlock long: +fibDiskKey long: +fibDirEntryType 108 bytes: +fibFileName long: +fibProtection long: +fibEntryType long: +fibSize long: +fibNumBlocks DateStamp struct: +fibDate .
116 bytes: +fibComment structure.end In this example I have introduced the word "struct:” and it deserves a bit of explanation. At run-time the name of a structure template will return the size of the structure on the stack. Therefore the compile-time action of the phrase "DateStamp struct: +fibDate" is simply to create the word +fibDate and add the size of the DateStamp structure to the FilelnfoBlock structure. Multi-Forth also provides a synonym forthe word "bytes:" which inthiscase mightbe preferable. You could substitute "string:" for "bytes:" and it would be equivalent.
Multi-Forth syntax differs quite a bit from C syntax when it comes to defining unions, or as Creative Solutions prefers to call them, "multiforms.” I will use as an example the MemEntry structure, used when allocating memory. It demonstrates the insertion of a union within another data structure.
Struct MemEntry union ULONG meu_Reqs; APTR meu_Addr; } me_Un; ULONG me_Length; }; define me_un me_Un define meJReqs me_Un.meu_Reqs Idefine me__Addr me_Un.meu__Addr 1 " The structure could be defined in Multi-Forth to do away with C’s synonyms.
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+meAddr ;go.on long: +meLength structure.end This provides
a good example of the use of Multi-Forth's multiforms as
well as segueing nicely into a discussion of the
translation of " defineH statements.
C most commonly uses def ine for the definition of "symbolic" or "manifest" constants. A statement like idefine CMD_INVALID 0 may be simply translated as 0 constant CMD_INVALID A string constant such as idefine EXECNAME "exec.library" can be defined in Multi-Forth as 0" exec.library" constant EXECNAME But not all cases are so simple. The key is to remember that define is a C preprocessor directive. It replaces instances of one string with another before the source code is passed to the compiler, and any string is valid, not just numeric values. In some cases it would be appropriate to
translate define statements into colon definitions.
Continued... In general it isn't too difficult to translate the C "include" files into Forth. It can be surprisingly easy to convert even high- level C into Forth. For example, the CreatePort function is an easy translation, and the version presented in my column in Volume 2, Number 1 corresponds almost one-to-one to the listing in the ROM Kernel Exec manual. The version in Volume 2, Number 3 is factored further and is better from the standpoint of Forth coding style. Straight translations of C don't make for very good Forth, but I have used C source examples to get started on a number of
things. Then once I have a feel for the problem I clean things up. I'm learning C by osmosis that way.
BUG REPORTS I would like to thank John Kennan for pointing out a nasty little bug to me. It is a silly error on my part, and resulted from a bad case of wishful thinking. One cardinal rule is that if something you try is at all unusual, test it COMPLETELY, and I ignored it to my shame. The result was an error in the definition of the lOStdReq structure, for which this is the correct version structure IOStdReq structure IORequest Message struct: +ioMessage ptr: +ioDevice ptr: +ioUnit short: +ioCommand byte: +ioFlags byte: fioError structure.end IORequest + here's the fix long: +ioActual long:
+ioLength ptr: +ioData long: +ioOffset structure.end The word "structure" creates a new word, essentially a constant, and leaves that word's parameter field address and a zero on the stack. The zero is a dummy value into which the size of the structure is accumulated. When "structure.end" is reached the accumulated size of the structure is stored at the parameter field address of the word. As a result the structure name, when executed, returns the size of the structure.
Embedding IORequest inside IOStdReq worked fine to a point. At least the IORequest structure was properly defined. Unfortunately, it didn't do anything to modify the zero left. The offset returned by +ioActual was zero, which was obviously wrong. At least the fix is simple. Since the structure name returns its size, the insertion of "IORequest +" at the end of the IORequest structure adds the proper offset so that +ioActual has the correct behavior.
I wished that it worked the way that I originally did it hard enough to convince myself, so I didn't test it. Well, live and learn. If you want your name in a national publication, point out more of my mistakes to me. On CompuServe send mail to 70310,777. If you use PeopleLink, my handle is JON*FORTH. See you next time.
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1*800"FORXH"OK (367-8465) By Steve Faiwiszewski CompuServe
[74106,425] People Link THE INTERN Wouldn't it be nice to have
a little utility which will search throughout a disk, or a
directory (and it's subdirectories) for specific file names?
Wouldn't it also be nice to have another program which displays
the directory, and all its nested subdirectories, while
indenting the display for each level of directory nesting?
Well, wish no more: here are two relatively small Modula-2 programs that will do just that. The first, called Td, does a tree-like display of a directory. All directory names appear in a different color, and files of nested directories are displayed indented. The second, called Wherels, searches a disk (ora directory) and all its nested subdirectories for file names which contain a specific string.
Relevant AmigaDos Calls Before AmigaDOS lets you access a file or a directory (for either examination purpose, or modification) you must obtain a file system lock' on the file. You obtain the lock by calling the AmigaDos Lock function. You supply the file (or directory) name, and the desired access mode (read or write). For example: MyLock := Lock (Name, AccessMode); Once you obtain the lock, you can then ask AmigaDos for more information about the directory by calling the AmigaDos function 'Examine'. This function expects to receive the address of a longword-aligned data structure of the type
FilelnfoBlock. This data structure contains various fields, such as the file name, its size, etc. Since the TDI Modula-2 implementation does not guarantee longword alignment, you must allocate your own storage for the FilelnfoBlock, using the AllocMem function. For example: VAR fb : POINTER TO FilelnfoBlock; fb := AllocMem (TSIZE(FilelnfoBlock),MemReqSet )); success := Examine(MyLock,fbA); If Examine was successful (success is TRUE) then fbA contains valid information about the directory. To examine the next entry in the directory you simply call ExNext(MyLock,fbA).
How the Programs Work Both programs defer processing of subdirectories until all regularfiles have been processed. To accomplish this, a dynamic linked list of subdirectory names is created every time either program scans a directory. Once the directory scan is complete, all the subdirectories found on the linked list are scanned, and then the linked list is discarded.
In order to use dynamic storage allocation, the TDI Modula compiler requires that a call be made to CreateHeap. This procedure pre-allocates a chunk of memory out of the system memory pool, and it is this chunk that gets used for the dynamic allocation done by the Modula run-time environment. CreateHeap is called by the initialization code of the Storage module, with a default heapsize of 20K. If you need a larger heap, you must call CreateHeap yourself, but for our purpose, this size is more than enough.
DestroyHeap must be called before the program exits, or else the memory chunk allocated by CreateHeap will be unavailable to the rest of the system until you reboot.
The first thing both programs do is get the command line arguments, and validate them. Wherels requires at least one argument (the string to search for), while Td can accept either one (top directory to scan) or none (defaults to current directory). If there aren't enough valid arguments the appropriate message is displayed. Command line arguments are obtained through a call to the GetCL procedure.
Once the command line arguments are validated, both programs proceed to allocate storage for a FilelnfoBlock.
Remember that you can’t simply declare a variable of type FilelnfoBlock, or use NEW to allocate one, because AmigaDOS insists on longword alignment for this structure.
If the storage for the FilelnfoBlock was allocated successfully, each program calls procedure Dolt, with different parameters, depending on what is needed. Td specifies that Dolt should display all directory and file names, while Wherels specifies that Dolt should display just the names that contain a target string.
Continued... Since procedure Dolt is common to both programs, it is found in a separate module, which is imported by both programs. The module, DirStuff, contains all the code to access AmigaDos files and directories. Therefore, the Td and Wherels modules don't have to 'know' anything about AmigaDos calls. This style of ’inform'ation hiding' is encouraged by Modula-2.
The Dolt procedure verifies that the name passed to it is indeed a name of a directory and not of a file. If all is okay, Dolt calls procedure TraverseDir, which does the brunt of the work.
Each AmigaDos directory can have any number of subdirectories, and each subdirectory in itself can have any number of subdirectories. Such structure can be considered to be recursive, and the best way to scan through such a recursive structure is in a recursive manner.
Procedure TraverseDir is called a recursive procedure because it can call itself. Here is what it does if the calling program is Td:
1. Print the name of directory being examined
2. Examine all entries in the directory. If the entry is a file
name then print it. If the entry is a subdirectory, then add
its name to a list of subdirectories.
3. Once all entries are examined, process all the entries in the
list of subdirectories. For each entry call TraverseDir (start
at step 1 again) If the calling program is Wherels, instead of
printing all file names, TraverseDir prints just the file
names which contain the target string in them.
While TraverseDir is running it constantly checks to see whether a Control-C has been entered at the keyboard, and if so, it cleans up and exits gracefully. A check for Control-C is done by examining the tcSigRecvd field in the task control block. This field will have the SIGBreakC bit set if a Control- C was detected. In order to exmine the task control block, a pointerto that data structure must be obtained. This is done through a call to FindTask, which is done in the initialization section of DirStuff.
Going Further The above two programs were presented here to demonstrate the use of various calls to AmigaDos, as well as the ROM Kernel routines. As such, these programs are probably not as efficient as they could be. For example, a much better performance can be obtained in the Wherels utility if direct calls to the TrackDisk device were used, instead of AmigaDos calls. This is left as an exercise to the interested reader.
Listing of'dirstuff.def DEFINITION MODULE DirStuff; (****************************************************** (* Routine(s) related to AmigaDos directory scanning * (* * (* * (* (c) Copyright by Steve Faiwiszewski, 1986 * (* * (* For non-commercial, non-profit use only. * (****************************************************** FROM DOSFiles IMPORT FilelnfoBlockPtr; TYPE DirAction = (SearchAction, DisplayAction); PROCEDURE Dolt(fb : FilelnfoBlockPtr; VAR dirname, target : ARRAY OF CHAR; Action : DirAction); (* Scan through a dir and its subdirs and either *) (* list all files, or list only
filenamess containing *) (* target depending on what Action *) END DirStuff.
Listing of 'dirstuff.mod' IMPLEMENTATION MODULE DirStuff;
* Routines related to AmigaDos directory scanning. *
* (c) Copyright 1986, 1987 by Steve Faiwiszewski *
* For non-commercial, non-profit use only. *
* ******************************************************** FROM
DOSFiles IMPORT AccessRead, FileLock, FilelnfoBlockPtr,Examine,
ExNext, IoErr, Lock, Unlock; FROM DOSLibrary IMPORT
ErrorNoMoreEntries, SIGBreakC; FROM Strings IMPORT Pos; FROM
InOut IMPORT WriteString, WriteLn, Write; FROM Storage IMPORT
ALLOCATE, DEALLOCATE; FROM Tasks IMPORT TaskPtr, FindTask,
MyTask; FROM SYSTEM IMPORT NULL, TSIZE; CONST Esc = 033C;
MaxNameLength = 107; TYPE NamePtr = POINTER TO DirTable;
DirTable = RECORD Name : ARRAY[0..MaxNameLength] OF CHAR; next
: NamePtr; END; VAR AlreadyShowedBreakMsg : BOOLEAN; Myself :
TaskPtr; PROCEDURE CtrlC (): BOOLEAN; (* see if control-c
signal has arrived *) BEGIN RETURN SIGBreakC IN
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AMIGA is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. 220 West 2950 South • Salt Lake City, Utah 84115 ST-TC *: Time CalerWmcluding Battery Back-Up $ 59.50 List ASK ABOUT increased speed with the new 68010 Processor VISA and Mastercard Welcome CALL TOLL FREE: 1-800-433-7572 Factory direct: 1-801-485-4233 DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED SPIRIT TECHNOLOGY PROCEDURE ShowBreakMsg; BEGIN IF NOT AlreadyShowedBreakMsg THEN WriteString('*** Break ***'); WriteLn; AlreadyShowedBreakMsg := TRUE END; END ShowBreakMsg; PROCEDURE Uppercase(VAR line : ARRAY OF CHAR); VAR i ; CARDINAL; BEGIN i := 0; WHILE (i = HIGH (line))
AND (line [i ] O0C) DO line[i] ;= CAP(line [i]); INC (i) END; END Uppercase; PROCEDURE Indent(n : CARDINAL); VAR i : CARDINAL; BEGIN FOR i:=1 TO n*5 DO Write (' '); END; END Indent; PROCEDURE ColorVideo; BEGIN Write(Esc); WriteString('[37m'); END ColorVideo; PROCEDURE NormalVideo; BEGIN Write(Esc); WriteString('[0m‘); END NormalVideo; PROCEDURE FoundMatch(VAR name,target:ARRAY OF CHAR):BOOLEAN; (* Check if substring target appears in name. *) (* Before the test is done, name is 'upper-cased' *) **************************************************) VAR i, dummy : CARDINAL; CapName :
ARRAY[0..MaxNameLength] OF CHAR; BEGIN i := 0; WHILE (i = HIGH(name)) AND (name[i] 0C) DO CapName[i] ;= CAP(name[i]); INC(i); END; IF i = HIGH(name) THEN CapName[i] : = 0C END; RETURN(Pos(CapName,target,0,dummy)); END FoundMatch; PROCEDURE TransferName(VAR source, dest : ARRAY OF CHAR; VAR offs: CARDINAL); (****??********************** *****************?**********) (* Copy name from source into dest (at position 'offs') *) a*******************************************************) VAR i : CARDINAL; done : BOOLEAN; BEGIN i : = 0; REPEAT dest[offs] := source[i]; done := dest[i]=0C; INC(i); IF
NOT done THEN INC(offs) END; UNTIL done OR (i MaxNameLength); END TransferName; PROCEDURE ItsADevice(VAR name : ARRAY OF CHAR) : BOOLEAN; (* Find out if name is a dev by checking for color (':') *) ************ VAR max, i : CARDINAL; BEGIN max := HIGH(name); i : = 0; REPEAT INC (i) UNTIL (i max) OR (name[i] = 0C); IF i 0 THEN DEC(i) END; RETURN(name[i] = ':'); END ItsADevice; PROCEDURE SlashlsNeeded (VAR ParentDirName, dirname : ARRAY OF CHAR; level : CARDINAL): BOOLEAN; (* Must add a slash between dir names in a pathname. *) (* Here we check if we need the slash. *)
(*********************************************************) VAR needed : BOOLEAN; BEGIN IF level = 0 THEN needed := (ParentDirName  OOC) AND (dirname 0C) (* FALSE *) ELSIF level = 1 THEN needed := NOT ItsADevice(ParentDirName) AND (ParentDirName 0C) ELSE needed := TRUE END; RETURN(needed) END SlashlsNeeded; PROCEDURE DisplayDirName(Action : DirAction; level : CARDINAL; fb : FilelnfoBlockPtr); BEGIN IF Action = DisplayAction THEN Indent(level); ColorVideo; WriteString(fbA.fibFileName); WriteLn; NormalVideo END; END DisplayDirName; PROCEDURE DisplayFileName(Action : DirAction; level :
CARDINAL; fb : FilelnfoBlockPtr); BEGIN IF Action = DisplayAction THEN (* It's a regular file, so print it if we can *) Indent (level); WriteString(fbA.fibFileName); WriteLn; END END DisplayFileName; PROCEDURE TraverseDir (fb : FilelnfoBlockPtr; Action : DirAction; VAR ParentDirName, target, dirname: ARRAY OF CHAR; level : CARDINAL); (**?*******************?***?******************************) (* Go thru the dir and - depending on what Action is - *) (* print all filenames, or filenames that contain target.*) (* Keep track of all dirs, and build a list of them. *) (* Once all files are scanned,
call TraverseDir for each *) (* directory that we put on our list. *) I*********************************************************) VAR fail : BOOLEAN; offs : CARDINAL; TotalDirName : ARRAY[0..255] OF CHAR; h,n : NamePtr; dir : FileLock; PROCEDURE MaintainPathName; BEGIN (* Maintain the complete pathname in TotalDirName. *) (* The following few lines effectively do: *) (* TotalDirName := ParentDirName [+ ' '] + dirname *) TransferName(ParentDirName,TotalDirName,offs); IF SlashlsNeeded(ParentDirName,dirname,level) THEN TotalDirName[offs] := ' '; INC(offs) END; TransferName (dirname, TotalDirName,
off s); END MaintainPathName; PROCEDURE Continue(): BOOLEAN; BEGIN RETURN (NOT CtrlC() AND .
NOT fail AND (IoErr() ErrorNoMoreEntries)) END Continue; PROCEDURE Pri ntIfSearchedAndFound; BEGIN IF (Action = SearchAction) AND FoundMatch(fbA.fibFileName,target) THEN WriteString(TotalDirName); IF SlashlsNeeded(TotalDirName,dirname,level) THEN WriteC ') END; ' WriteString(fbA.fibFileName); WriteLn; END; END PrintlfSearchedAndFound; BEGIN (* TraverseDir *) h := NIL; offs := 0; MaintainPathName; (* Print directory name and begin traversing it *) dir := Lock(TotalDirName,LONGINT(AccessRead)); fail := (dir » 0) OR NOT Examine(dir,fbA); IF NOT fail THEN DisplayDirName(Action,level,fb); fail
:= NOT ExNext(dir,fbA); WHILE Continue() DO IF LONGINT(fbA.fibDirEntryType) LONGINT(0) THEN (* it's a dir entry, so add it to our list *) NEW(n); offs := 0; TransferName(fbA.fibFileName,nA.Name,offs); nA.next := h; h := n; ELSE , DisplayFileName(Action,level,fb) END; PrintlfSearchedAndFound; fail := NOT ExNext(dir,fbA); END; Unlock (dir); (* Now process all the directories on our list *) WHILE hONIL DO IF NOT CtrlC() THEN TraverseDir(fb,Action,TotalDirName,target,hA.Name,level+1 END; n:=h; h:=hA.next; DISPOSE(n); END; END; IF CtrlC() THEN ShowBreakMsg END; END TraverseDir; PROCEDURE Dolt(fb
: FilelnfoBlockPtr; VAR dirname, target : ARRAY OF CHAR; Action : DirAction); (ft********************************************************} (* Got the prelim stuff working, so look at what the *) (* the user wants to display. If he specified a dir *) (* then we go ahead and process its contents. *) (??????a**************************************************) VAR ItsAdirectory, fail : BOOLEAN; dir : FileLock; PROCEDURE DisplayError; BEGIN WriteString('Invalid directory '); WriteString(dirname); WriteString (' requested. '); IF dir = 0 THEN WriteString ('(Could not get a Lock on directory)') ELSE
WriteString ("(Could not examine directory's fcb)") END; WriteLn; END DisplayError; BEGIN IF Action = SearchAction THEN Uppercase (target) END; dir := Lock(dirname,LONGINT(AccessRead)); fail := (dir = 0) OR NOT Examine(dir,fbA); IF fail THEN DisplayError; ELSE ItsAdirectory := LONGINT(fbA.fibDirEntryType) LONGINT(0); Unlock(dir); IF ItsAdirectory THEN TraverseDir(fb,Action, " ,target,dirname,0) ELSE WriteString(dirname); WriteString(' is not a directory!'); WriteLn END; END; (* if not fail *) END Dolt; BEGIN (* Dirstuff initialization *) (* This gets exectued before *) (* the main module. *)
AlreadyShowedBreakMsg := FALSE; Myself :° FindTask(MyTask); END DirStuff.
MODULE td; (******************************************************* (* This prog does a directory tree display in a nested (* manner.
(* (* (c) Copyright 1986, 1987 by Steve Faiwiszewski (* (* For non-commercial, non-profit use only.
(******************************************************* (*$ A+*) (* Force JSRs to BSRs in this and all modules *) FROM DOSFiles IMPORT FilelnfoBlock, FilelnfoBlockPtr; FROM InOut IMPORT WriteString, WriteLn; FROM CommandLine IMPORT CLStrings, GetCL; FROM Memory IMPORT AllocMem, FreeMem, MemReqSet; FROM Storage IMPORT DestroyHeap; FROM Dirstuff IMPORT Dolt, DisplayAction; FROM SYSTEM IMPORT TSIZE, NULL; IMPORT Trapper; continued... VAR fb : FilelnfoBlockPtr; good : BOOLEAN; argv ; ARRAY[0..5] OF CLStrings; argc ; CARDINAL; dirname : CLStrings; PROCEDURE WriteLine(VAR line : ARRAY OF CHAR);
BEGIN WriteString(line); WriteLn END WriteLine; PROCEDURE DisplayUsage; BEGIN WriteLine('Usage: Td [dirname]'); WriteLn; WriteLine('Displays disk directory in tree form'); WriteLn; WriteLine('(c) Copyright 1986, 1987 by Steve Faiwiszewski'); END DisplayUsage; BEGIN good := TRUE; IF NOT GetCL(argc,argv) THEN WriteLine('Ooops!! Problem with Command Line!'); good := FALSE; END; CASE argc OF 0 : dirname := "" I 1 : IF argv = '?' THEN good := FALSE ELSE dirname := argv END ELSE good := FALSE; END; IF good THEN fb AllocMem(TSIZE(FilelnfoBlock),MemReqSet }); A IF fb NULL THEN
Dolt(fb,dirname,'',DisplayAction); FreeMem(fb,TSIZE(FilelnfoBlock)) ; END; ELSE DisplayUsage; END; DestroyHeap; (* Must deallocate the heap ourselves *) END td.
* Searches a directory and its subdirectories for all
* files that contain a specified string.
* (c) Copyright 1986, 1987 by Steve Faiwiszewski *
* For non-commercial, non-profit use only.
* $ A+ *) FROM DOSFiles IMPORT FilelnfoBlock, FilelnfoBlockPtr;
FROM InOut IMPORT WriteString, WriteLn, Write; FROM CommandLine
IMPORT CLStrings, GetCL; FROM Memory IMPORT AllocMem, FreeMem,
MemReqSet; FROM Storage IMPORT DestroyHeap; FROM DirStuff
IMPORT Dolt, SearchAction; FROM SYSTEM IMPORT TSIZE, NULL;
IMPORT Trapper; VAR fb : FilelnfoBlockPtr; good : BOOLEAN; argv
: ARRAY[0..5] OF CLStrings; argc : CARDINAL; target, dirname :
CLStrings; PROCEDURE WriteLine(VAR line : ARRAY OF CHAR); BEGIN
WriteString(line); WriteLn END WriteLine; PROCEDURE
DisplayUsage; BEGIN WriteLn; WriteLine('Usage: Whereis
substring [dirname]'); WriteLn; WriteLine ('Searches for all
filenames containing substring'); WriteLn; WriteLine ('(c)
Copyright 1986, 1987 by Steve Faiwiszewski'); END DisplayUsage;
BEGIN good := TRUE; IF NOT GetCL(argc,argv) THEN WriteLine
('Ooops!! Too much stuff on Command Line!'); good := FALSE;
END; CASE argc OF 0 : WriteLine('Missing search argument');
good := FALSE | 1 : IF argv = •?• THEN good := FALSE ELSE
target := argv; dirname := "" END I 2 : IF argv = •?¦
THEN good := FALSE ELSE target := argv; dirname := argv[l]
END ELSE good := FALSE; END; IF good THEN fb :=
AllocMem(TSIZE(FilelnfoBlock),MemReqSet }); IF fb NULL THEN
FreeMem(fb,TSIZE(FilelnfoBlock)); END; ELSE DisplayUsage; END;
DestroyHeap; (* Must deallocate the heap ourselves *) END
• AC* Last month, we discussed the various registers of the 68000
microprocessor and the different addressing modes. A brief
summmary of the addressing modes: 68000 Assembly Language
Programming on the Amiga ™ by Chris Martin Register Direct
Addressing Operations involving registers eg. MOVE! D3.D1
Copies long word (.L, 32 bits) data in register D3to register
Eg. MOVEA.W D2.A4 Copies a word of data in D2 into register A4.
Notice the "A" in MOVEA is used when the destination register is an address register.
Absolute Addressing Operations involving memory locattons and registers eg. MOVE.L D4,90000 Copies long word data in D4to memory location 90000.
Immediate Addressing Operations involving a number and a register eg. MOVE.B 10,D6 Copies a byte of 10 into register D6.
Address Register Indirect Accessing data in memory tocations pointed- to by address registers eg. MOVE! (A5),D3 Copies data in the memory location pointed-to by register A5 into register D3.
Eg. MOVE.L D4,(A2) Copies data in D4 into memory location in A2.
Continued... Address Register Indirect with Displacement Accessing data relative to a certain address.
Eg. MOVE.B 3(A3),D2 Copies data in the address pointed-to by A3 + 3 into the lowest byte of data register D2.
Address Register Indirect w Dlsplacement and Index Same as above, except with another offset.
Eg. MOVE.B 24(A3,D4),D2 Copies data in memory at A3 + D4 + 24 into D2.
With that out of the way, let's move on to condition flags.
Condition Flags Condition Flags in assembly tell the status of the microprocessor. The Flags can be used to make conditional decisions based on the status. For example, look at the BASIC statement: IF X 2 THEN GOT0100 Think of it like this: when the variable X is greater than 2, the computer waves a flag indicating that something must be done in this case, jumping to line 100. If X is less than or equal to 2, then the flag remains down and the program continues along normally.
Assembly language programs work in a very similar manner.
A register on the 68000 microprocessor called the Status Register (SR) contains these flags. This register is a 16 bit register, the lower 8 bits of which contain all the flags the computer needs. A visual example of the lower 8 bits, if the SR: bit: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 I I I I X | N | Z | V | C | These lower 8 bits are usually called the CCR (condition codes register). When a certain condition occurs in the program (like when X 2), one or more of these flags will be set to a 1, depending on the nature of the condition. If a certain condition does not occur, the corresponding flag will be set to
0. Also, when the program replies to one of these flags (like GOT0100), that flag will be cleared to 0.
Zero Flag (Z) Let's take the zero flag (Z) first. This flag is set to 1 when either:
1. The last operation left a result of 0 or...
2. We made a comparison that matched Imagine we subtracted two
numbers from each other. If the result was 0, the zero flag is
SUBI.B 10,D1 Subtract 10 (immediate mode) from the number in D1.
(Z=1 ifD1 contains 10) Suppose we wanted to compare the number in D2 to the number 90. If the numbers match, the Z flag is set to 1.
CMPI.B 90,D2 Compare 90 (immediate mode) to number in D2.
(Z= 1 is D2 contains 90) We can bok at a comparison as a subtraction; if the answer is 0, the numbers match.
Sign Flag (N) When dealing with numbers, it is often useful to represent positive and negative numbers. Although an 8- bit number can range from 0 to 255, it might be necessary to have an 8- bit number range from -127 to +127. The method is called 2's complement and works in assembly by using bit 7 as the sign bit.* The rules for binary addition and subtraction are the same as in decimal: 0 + 0-0,0 + 1-1,1+0 = 1,1 + 1= 0 carry the 1.
Consider the following binary addition of two bytes (8- bit numbers): Binary Decimal 00001010 10 + 00000100 4 = 00001110 14 In this case, there is no problem because the result falls in the range 0 to 255. But examine the following addition: Binary Decimal 10001010 138 + 10000100 132 = 00001110 14 carry 1 The decimal answer 14 is obviously incorrect, but 138 +132 falls outside of the range of 255. Thus, the carry flag is set.
Overflow Flag (V) The overflow flag is very similar to the carry flag, but it deals with 2's complement, signed arithmetic. Consider the following addition operations: Binary 2's Comp Binary 2's Comp 10001010 -118 01111000 +120 + 10001001 -119 + 00111000 +56 00010011 +19 10110000 -80 bit: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1“ +127 (bit 7 is 0 so sign is positive.)
Bit: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Not only is the answer incorrect, but the sign is also changed. Because the 1 in the last bit is carried, the overflow flag is set.
11111111= -127 (bit 7 is 1, so sign is negative.)
If we subtract (or compare as above) two numbers and the result is negative (or when the first number in a comparison is greater), the N flag will be set to 1. For example: CMPI.B 90,D3 Compare immediate 90 to number in D3.
If D3 is less than 90, then the sign flag is set to 1.
Carry Flag (C) Because the size of the byte, word or long word is limited to a certain number of bits, an arithmetic operation will often produce a result that goes out of range. In such a case, the carry bit is set.
Extend Flag (X) The Extend flag is similar to the carry flag, but involves another type of arithmetic called binary-coded decimal. We'll discuss its uses some other time!
Conditional Statements When certain flags in the SR are set, the programmer can test these bits and branch to different parts of the program.
Let's use the earlier BASIC statement: IF X 2 THEN GOT0100 This statement is classified as an IF-THEN or CONDITIONAL statement.
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(617) 678-4200 Amazing Computing™: Your Resource to the Commodore
Amiga™ We will set-up our own conditional statement and
then translate it to assembly language: If the number in D3
if less than 50, then you must branch to the section of the
program called "more".
In assembly: START: CMPI.B 50,D3 compare immediate 50 to D3 BGT MORE Branch if GreaTer to "MORE" . D3 is not 50, so go on.
MORE: ...etc. Three types of statements have many variations based on conditions. They are See (Set from condition), Bcc (Branch on condition) and Dbcc (Decrement and Branch on condition). For example, BEQ means Branch if equal. A list of the conditional suffixes: The branch commands are followed by the name of the label in the program (such as "MORE" in the example above).
Suffix Meaning Conditions cc carry clear if G=0 cs carry set rfC=1 EQ equal if Z=1 GE greater or equal if either (N=1 and V=1) or (N=0 and V=0) GT greater if either (N=1 & V=1 & Z=0) or (N=0 & V=0 & Z=0) HI high if C=0 and Z=0 LE less or equal if (N=1 & V=0) or (N=0 & V=1) orZ=1 LS low or same ff C=1 orZ=1 LT less than if either (N=1 & V=0) or (N=0& V=1) Ml minus if N=1 NE not equal if Z=0 PL plus if N=0 VS overflow if V=1 VC not overflow if V=0 Well, that's all folks. Next month, we’ll look at a list, description and example of every instruction avaliable in assembly.
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M COMPUTERS 10815 Zelzah Avenue, Granada Hills, California 91344 Amazing Reviews... mm tsm mm@£ By Gerald Hull Anyone interested in programming in 68000 assembly language for the Amiga is confronted by an embarrassment of riches. There are, in fact, at least seven different assemblers available, with varying qualifications in terms of speed, compatibility, user-friendliness, flexibility, and sophistication. There are two assemblers allied with C compilers (Lattice and Manx), three stand-alone commercial products (HiSoft, Metacomco, and Quelo), and two public domain assemblers (Howe and
Let me give you an idea of the kind of person I am. When I first got my Amiga, I bought just the computer, a monitor, and the (Metacomco) Amiga Macro Assembler. Period. I felt that would be enough to do anything I wanted with this neat new computer. Many dollars of peripherals, disks of software, and pounds of documentation later, I have become a tad more realistic.
But I still have the bias that, if you have an assembler, you can ultimately do anything you want. No matter how powerful or modular or user-accessible a "high-level language" may be, everything you write in it must get reduced to machine language before it can make your computer do anything.
Assembly language, by contrast, allows you to address this nitty-gritty level more or less directly. All the speed and power of the machine - as well as an unlimited potential for screw-ups - are right at your fingertips.
THE SETUP In order to guarantee a measure of consistency in my evaluations of the seven different assembler packages, I put each on a separate disk along with some test programs, some Amiga script files, and Commodore's Gamma 1 release of the assembly language (.I) include files. Any programs to be assembled were put into ram.
These .I files are fundamentally important for assembly language programming on the Amiga. They constitute a library of definitions and routines for interfacing every aspect of the computer. No language can do anything useful on the Amiga without such a library (which is why Metacomco's Pascal is such a waste). Commodore, of course, provides the official version of the .I files. Any assembler that cannot use them is at a serious disadvantage.
Two different programs provide the basis for most of my evaluations of the run-time characteristics of the assemblers. The first is STAR10, written by Andrew Tuline, and available on AMICUS disk 12. It is a graphics program that provides afast-moving, StarTrek-like star-field on your screen. The second is my own IMULDIV, containing a couple of number-crunching math routines; you can find it in the PLINK library. Both of these programs were written for use by the Metacomco assembler, the "default standard" for the Amiga (more on this later).
The STAR10 program provides a good measure of the Amiga compatibility of the different assemblers. It comes in two parts: STAR10.ASMandSTIN10.ASM. The latter draws on a lot of the .I include files and tests an assembler's ability to digest vast amounts of relatively intricate macros and associated directives. The former is subdivided into different CODE, DATA, and BSS sections.
However, most of the assemblers were SO different from the Metacomco standard that I couldn't produce an executable version of STAR10 in the time available. Only HiSoft and Manx could be persuaded to assemble both components of STAR10 without error. Since Manx requires its own proprietary linker, I was able to get an executable program only out of HiSoft. For lack of anything better, I drew on the familiar IMULDIV routines for timings.
THE CRITERIA The Metacomco assembler was very much intertwined with the inception of the Amiga computer. It is still sold as the "Amiga Macro Assembler," and to a great extent the assembler examples and official software support for the computer reflect its characteristics. This makes Metacomco's features the embodiment of "Amiga compatibility." They provide a measure of how easily you will be able to assimilate existing assembly language source for the Amiga, and how accessible the code you develop will be for others.
The Metacomco assembler, in turn, can be evaluated in terms of the "Motorola standard." The latter can be regarded as defined by document "M68KMASM D10" (September
1986) which describes the characteristics of Motorola's own
official 68000 assembler. Metacomco largely adheres to the
Motorola standard. However, it does leave some features out
(the FOR, REPEAT, and WHILE directives, for instance).
Continued... Here are some of the more important Motorola standards observed by Metacomco:
* comments Line begun with '*' is a comment Freeform comments
label op op’ands anything ! Restricted expressions No
blank spaces allowed DS.W 0 aligns Designating word space evens
the PC SECTION Liberal segmentation capabilities Label MACRO
Macros are preceded by a label However, Metacomco adds a number
of non-Motorola features: IFD IFND Control directive ("IF
Defined Not Defined") CNOP A special alignment directive 1 $ ,
etc. Permit local (or temporary) labels INCLUDESingle and
double quotes on include files CODE,DATA,BSS Standard types of
relocatable sections These features of the Metacomco "Amiga
standard” are important because they are so liberally strewn
throughout the .I include files. Consequently, any incompatible
assembler places a considerable burden of renovation on the
user. (Only Leavitt attempts to provide alternative .I files:
version 1.1 has STRINGS.I, TYPES.I, and LIBRARIES.I.) As we
shall see, this works as much against assemblers which more
purely reflect the Motorola standard like Quelo, as it does
more idiosyncratic variants like Howe and Leavitt.
Metacomco’s version of the Motorola SECTION command deserves special comment. It allows the programmer to divide segments of his source code into three different categories: CODE, DATA, and BSS. Because of the Amiga's operating system, all code designed to run on it must fall into oneof these relocatable types. Metacomco allows almost any mixture of such sections in a single assembly. All segments of the same name and type will be merged together at link-time. (The AmigaDOS Technical Reference Manual calls this "coagulation," which points to the lack of a good thesaurus.)
Consequently, we will want to look at whether the various assemblers provide a similar flexibility in their treatment of SECTIONS. Actually, some of the assemblers (Lattice and HiSoft) go even further, insofar as they are able to distinguish FAST and CHIP sections as well. This guarantees the best utilization of memory in Amiga computers expanded beyond the 512K addressed by the special chips.
Another important consideration in evaluating an assembler is how well it aids the user in diagnosing and fixing errors in the source code. This requires not only a wide array of specific and well-explained error messages, but also a display of the precise text causing the error. Unfortunately, some of the assemblers fail to display the offensive line on the screen: Howe, Lattice, and Leavitt. Even worse, Howe and Leavitt fail to distinguish the source file, forcing you to go to the listing. (And concatenated include files can make that listing ENORMOUS.)
Easily overlooked is an allied feature - the ability to halt an assembly with "control-C" to get to error correction quickly.
Some of the programs - Howe, Leavitt, and Quelo - are rather inflexible in this regard.
I also evaluate the listings produced by the different assemblers: the degree to which you can control the output, produce symbol tables, cross-references, and the like. Here Metacomco and Quelo are the stars. The latter, in particular, is capable of producing more information than you are ever likely to need (including timestamps). Finally, I compare the assemblers with regard to such features as 68010 (etc.)
Support, ALINK BLINK compatibility, the quality and amount of documentation, and of course the assemblers' cost.
HISOFT One of the most noteworthy packages comes from HiSoft, The Old School, Greenfield, Bedford, MK45 5DE England (USA: Apex Resources, 129 Sherman Street, Cambridge MA 02140; 617-876-2505). Their DevPac Amiga (version
1. 0) takes the "Turbo Pascal" approach to assemblers. You work
from inside a full-screen editor which just happens to be able
to assemble code. And when your code is assembled, they give
you a debug monitor to test it out on.
Like the Borland product, HiSoft is incredibly FAST (it is itself written in assembler). Similar, also, is its ability to place a cursor on the sections of code producing errors. What a joy to work in such an immediately responsive development environment! HiSoft gets further commendations for being the only assembler (other than Metacomco) which enabled me to produce an executable version of Tuline's STAR10.
However, the DevPac Amiga is not completely flawless; few things are. It only recognizes the first 16 characters of a label (unlike Metacomco), and permits only one SECTION per assembly. Further, it disallows local labels ('1 $ ', etc.), which the .I includes don't use, but which are very handy to have around.
Other complaints about HiSoft's assembler concern its "mousey" editor interface. You can't execute a sequence of assembles with a script file, and you can't see what is or isn't in a directory. And you have to keep going from keyboard to mouse, and back again, which "true programmers" like myself find annoying. (Thanks here to "paulandy" and "awal" on BIX for their input.)
Nonetheless, I'm going to buy a DevPac Amiga.
HOWE The Howe assembler is by W. Wesley Howe, 4800 Lakemont Dr., Raleigh, NC 27609. He calls it ASM68K. I have tested version 1.0.1. Recently, however, 1.0.2 was released, and apparently 1.0.3 is pending (I have not had the chance to test either).
Howe courteously sent me a note describing some of the philosophy behind his assembler. In particular, he defends allowing blanks in expressions as a means of "making your 5 Reasons Why You’re Ready For MacroModem
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then execute them with the mouse or keyboard.
3. You like automation, but not script languages. Our macros use
normal commands from MacroModem, remote systems, and AmigaDOS,
as well as text and control codes. A multi-windowed
MacroEditor is included. No new programming language to learn.
4. You want to do other things while downloading a file.
MacroModem is truly multi-tasking, with a NewCLI available anytime, even during file transfers. And MacroModem’s error checking won’t stop downloads unless you tell it to.
5. Of course MacroModem includes standard telecom software
features, too. Teach MacroModem what you want, and it will
remember for you.
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(315) 685-8237 source more readable." This may be true in the
abstract, but the consequence is that the .1 files drive
Howe's assembler crazy. They are filled with expressions
followed by comments beginning with which ASM68K interprets
as part of the expression.
Some other incompatibility problems appear to be things Howe is working on or has resolved in his more recent versions. I really can't complain too loudly about something I'm getting for free. Though perhaps I should qualify "free." I have already downloaded ASM68K three times, and soon will have to do so again. This mounts up even at PLINK rates!
If I could have my druthers, I would wish for more perspicuous error messages. In 1.0.1 he only provides the line number; you don't know which file (if there are includes) or what text. Also, the program has frozen or bombed on me four times, the last preceded by a dazzling monitor display.
Again, this may already be repaired in the more recent versions.
Continued... LATTICE Lattice, Incorporated can be found at P.O. Box 3072, Glen Ellyn, IL 60138 (voice 312-858-7950). They have included an assembler called ASM as part of the recent 3.10 release of their Amiga C compiler. Lattice's C compiler is just as "Amiga official" as the Metacomco assembler, so their providing their own assembler in addition seems a wonderful bonus.
Unfortunately, ASM suffers from serious restrictions so far as general purpose use is concerned. John Meissen, author of LSTARTUP.ASM (aka C.A) amongst others things, is the guy at Lattice who selected it. He is quite up-front about its restrictions: "the assembler was intended only as a support tool for the compiler, not for use as a separate development language."
Three different features of the Lattice assembler cause grief with the .I includes: no delimiters are allowed on INCLUDE file names, IFD IFND are not defined, and (worst!) Labels are not allowed on the same line as MACRO directives. (The
3. 10 release contains an entirely rewritten version of C.A to
compensate for the latter.) In addition, although the error
messages have both filename and line number, they don't show
the offending text, making debug more difficult.
On the positive side, in its intended role as a support tool for the compiler, ASM has lots of nice features. They include the ability to enforce 16-bit displacements, and to select between CHIP and FAST memory. Meissen, though he emphasizes that "our product is a C compiler," suggests that efforts may be made to render ASM "Motorola syntax compatible" in future releases. I hope this is just a polite way of saying "Metacomco compatible" - it's already TOO Motorola compatible I LEAVITT This compiler comes to us through the graces of Douglas J. Leavitt, Jr., at 3005 OFW 2, Venice CA 90291. He
calls it ASM as well, and qualifies it for the 68010. I have version
1. 1 from Fred Fish (FF) disk 50; an earlier version appeared on
FF 46. The documentation I have for it is quite slim. As a
consequence, I know less about this assembler than any of the
This program comes off about the worst, so it's good to remember that we have no right to expect anything of it at all. We can guess that the author is concerned with improving his program, and that better versions are already in the works.
Like Howe, Leavitt permits spaces in his expressions, with the same unfortunate results. Declarations of the form DS.W number do not automatically align, and expressions like NUMB'LENTH, where NUMB and LENTH are prior EQUates, are apparently not allowed. He does not allow single quotes to delimit INCLUDE filenames. His error messages are like Howe's (no text or filename), and once when I finally got control-C to work, the program didn't clean up after itself (the .LST file remained "in use").
On the positive side, ASM will handle 68010 menmonics, and the author has made a considerable effort to provide .I files that meet his assembler's perquisites. Leavitt is offering the program as "shareware," and I hope he gets enough support to make its continued development a worthwhile endeavor.
MANX Another company providing an assembler as part of their C compiler is Manx Software Systems, One Industrial Way, Eatontown, NJ 07724 (voice 1-800-221-0440). The program, called AS, has been significantly improved in their
3. 4 upgrade, largely in respects that make it more
Amiga Metacomco compatible.
For example, one can now set a flag to determine whether or not spaces are permitted in expressions. However, even when spaces are disallowed, Manx has a problem with comments in XREF and DC statements. There also seem to be some problems in how the assembler handles SECTION directives: "SECTION Aname, BBS" is not accepted, despite the documentation. Adequate get-arounds, however, seem available.
To its credit, AS can produce code for the 68010,68020, and even the 68881 co-processor. You can automatically enable optimizations that will reduce your code size, and you can enforce 16-bit offsets. Furthermore, its error messages are amongst the best, using a pointer ('A') to indicate the precise source of the problem. The Manx assembler is also one of the fastest. Finally, it is enough Metacomco compatible that I was able to get the STAR10 source through It without errors (only,after making numerous changes in the .I files, to be sure).
The only real problem with the Manx assembler is that it is not ALINK and BLINK compatible, formatting its output for the Manx linker only. I suppose this is no problem for Manx owners, who don't need that compatibility. Maybe they'll write a translator, and release it as a separate product.
METACOMCO The default standard is from Metacomco, 26 Portland Square, Bristol, BS2 8RZ, England (voice 011 -44-272-428
781) . My copy of ASSEM says version "10.178"; a newer release
has been rumored.
So far as overall technical qualifications are concerned, this assembler lacks little. No incompatibilities, of course, and good error messages and listings. Its only limitations here are the inability to deal with 68010, etc. processors, and a lack of control over FAST versus CHIP.
The only thing people really have against Metacomco is that it is SO SLOW. This really is not borne out by my timings below, which perhaps indicates that my timing benchmark isn't terribly revealing.
QUELO A truly "industrial strength" compiler comes from Quelo, Inc., 2464 33rd. West, Suite 173, Seattle, WA 98199 (voice 206285-2528). As indications of this, the documentation literally weighs four pounds, and their upgrade for BLINK was accomplished by adding yet a third disk to their package with just BLINK on it.
Quelo makes 68000 assemblers for a living. You can get an MSDOS version of exactly the same assembler (cross assembly to the Amiga) for $ 179. They make the most Motorola compatible assembler I have ever seen; they handle not only the 68010,68020, and 68881 chips, but also the 68851 MMU. They have no peer in terms of power and flexibility.
Unfortunately, because of its closeness to the Motorola standard, the Quelo assembler chokes on the Amiga .I files.
It doesn't recognize IFD IFND, and doesn't accept INCLUDE file delimiters. Furthermore, the assembly of a program with the Quelo system (version 6.2J3) involves the use of FOUR different programs: M68 Translates macros A68 Assembles code QSYM Generates symbol information LTXAMIGA Generates ALINK BLINK compatible obj code And these programs are not only sbw, they are huge as well, together taking up 327K!
However, unless you have incredibly demanding tastes, the point of the Quelo product is not to create programs for the Amiga. As Queb's Patrick Adams made clear to me, the real value of their assembler is to cross-develop applicatbns for other 68000 systems. For this purpose it seems nicely suited.
The company I work for (when I’m not writing articles) builds automated machinery controlled by 68000's distributed on a VME bus. It is currently considering using Quelo to help offload its code development burden, currently shouldered by a VAX 785. A considerable bonus is that we can get exactly the same assembler for the IBM PC.
THANKS A tip of my hat to everyone who provided input on their most and or least favorite assemblers. And special thanks to Rachel's Brownies, that helped me make it through the write.
I take sole responsibility for any errors not introduced by the staff. Though I have made every effort to insure that the information contained in here is accurate, some mistakes always seem to slip through my net. I apologize for any in advance.
• AC- Metacompat HiSoft
1. 0 good Howe
1. 0.1 fair Lattice
3. 1 poor Leavitt
1. 1 poor Manx
3. 4 good Metacomco
10. 178 excl Quelo
6. 2J3 fair Local label no ves no no ves yes no Comments •
ves .. no ves no ves a..... yes ..
ves . IFD.IFND yes yes no no yes yes no IFC.IFNC ves ves
ves no ves ves ves Incl ’" ves ves no "only ves ves no
CNOP ... .....yes ....
.....yes .. .....no ...... yes ...
yes .... yes .. no ..... DS.WO
yes no .....?5 ..... no yes yes yes SECTION flex fair fairc
fair aood aood excl good Fast, chip ves no ves no no no no
A blink comp yes ..yes .. yes yes no yes yes Error msas
excl poor fair poor excl good pood Control C fine poor fine
poor fine fine poor Listing flex good good fair fair fair excl
excl Svmbol tbl ves ves no no no ves ves 68010 etc no no no
ves ves no ves Speed nolist :01 d :17e :15 :10 :09 :15 :47 .
Speed list :24 d :23e :16 :14 :11 :19 1:01 Docs pages .... good 117 fair 17 poor 14 poor 6 fair llilllli good • 70 excl , 250 f Retail j $ 99,95 free $ 225 h free $ 1997?
$ 99,95 $ 99 Notes: a If one has selected the "noblanks" option, the Manx assembler will still balk at comments on XREF and DC lines.
B The HiSoft assembler allows only one SECTION declaration per assembly.
C Version 1.0.1 of Howe's assembler generates a "Relative reference outside of current section" in some cases. This appears to have been corrected in version 1.0.2. d HiSoft's timings are skewed by the fact that they don't include the time needed to load assembler and program; the latter would add 4" to the above amounts.
E Despite these numbers, Howe assures me that his assembler is "21 2 times" faster than Metacomco.
This is another indication that my timing benchmark is inadequate.
1 The Quelo documentation comes in a large, 3-ring binder, and is quite overwhelming. The 250 page figure, however, is an estimate (the pages are not summarily enumerated).
G Preliminary results indicate that the Lattice assembler is treating DS.W's very strangely. Perhaps I misunderstand the listings.
H The package includes a C compiler as well as other development tools.
Leavitt describes his assembler as "shareware," but does not suggest a donation amount.
J The prices forthe commercial products, of course, may be significantly discounted.
MagiCode is an encryption system MagiCode protects: film $ ®ffwm® fll®§ PkHnnir® fll®§ 7®%f film l .Send check or money order for $ 30.00 to: Magic Circle Software 37 Raldne Road Hyde Park, MA 02136 Specify Kickstart VI. 1 or VI.2 512K recommended.
MA residents add 6% tax.
Please allow 3-6 weeks for delivery Dealer inquiries welcomed.
Amazing Interviews... Imtcgi? QJJo Manager of CBM's Customer and User Support By Steve Hull Peter J. Baczor has to be Commodore's most overworked and under-sung hero. As manager of CBM's Customer and User Support, he has seen his staff cut in half from its strength at the height of the Commodore 64 boom, while the need for customer support - especially with the advent of the Amiga line - has skyrocketed.
Far from being a desk-bound executive, Baczor spends as much time on the road promoting Commodore, as he spends at the company headquarters in West Chester, Pennsylvania. We caught up with Bazcor in late April to get the straight word on several rumored topics: PHILOSOPHY OF THE AMIGA 2000 "The 2000 is the high-end of our Amiga line, incorporating expandability and flexibility in one machine. It allows you to use the Amiga as an Amiga with all of its advantages--- the graphics, the sound and the speed - yet still allows you the flexibility to run IBM-PC compatible products. Its integrated
design helps correct a problem that we ran into with the 1000, especially in the business environment desk space.
The expansion bus of the Amiga 1000 is an external connection and adding peripherals, like the Sidecar, can take up so much desk space [that] there's not much room for anything else. The Amiga 2000 is expandable too, but it expands internally, using standard Amiga and IBM-type slots.
The 2000 is a uniquely international computer; teams of engineers from both the United States and Germany were involved in its design. Our engineers from the United States worked on the "Amiga" side of the 2000 because nobody knows the Amiga better than they do. Our German engineers handled the PC-compatibility because that's their expertise; they were the ones who designed our PC and AT compatibles." THE BRIDGEBOARD "IBM-PC compatibility is not included in the standard Amiga 2000 package; it is an option called the Bridgeboard that will be available at the release of the machine. The
Bridgeboard really shows the evolution of our engineering capability over the past year and a half. To get an idea what we’ve done with the Bridgeboard, take a look at the Sidecar, which is a downsized version of our PC-10. In comparison, the Bridgeboard is essentially a PC-10 on a card. It comes with 512K of RAM and has a socket for the 8087 math co- processor, if you want to add one later. With the Bridgeboard, you'll be able to run PC programs in a window environment - Amiga and IBM tasks simultaneously."
ADDITIONAL PC HARDWARE "Aside from the Bridgeboard and our compatibles, we aren't planning to support the PC market as hardware manufacturers. We're facilitators; we supply the basic computer. There are so many hardware manufacturers out there building parts [so] that we don't have to. For example, support forthe IBM Enhanced Graphics Adapter standard would be through an add-on card to the PC side, available from third-party hardware vendors. In the case of EGA, there's the additional factor of screen display; right now, the PC side of the 2000 sends its graphics through the Amiga section. If
you want higher resolution graphics on the PC side, you'll have to buy an additional card and you'll also need a separate monitor. Our 1080 and 1902 monitors look great in EGA."
THE RUMOR MILL "One of the hardest things we've had to deal with in introducing the Amiga 2000 is countering the rumor mill - having to tell people what the computer is not. It is not a 68020-based machine; it does I not have a 68881; it does not support 1024 by 1024 graphics. The rumor mills have been going forthe past year, saying that that’s what we were bringing out, but that's not what we're bringing out! There are always enhancement possibilities, but we feel the 68020 isn't readily available enough to meet the kind of demand we anticipate.
Commodore's greatest strength has traditionally been to position a strong product and manufacture it inexpensive! and 68020's aren't cheap right now, even in quantities.
[Editor's Note: Street price for a 68020 microprocessor is between $ 100 and $ 200, versus $ 12 forthe 68000 chip found in the current Amiga line]. For this reason, we have no intention of bringing out a 68020-based machine this year.
What's in the future for 1988? We haven't gotten halfway through this year yet! But if need [develops for] the additional speed and capability, a third-party developer out of San Diego, called CSA, has announced a 68020 68881 card for the 2000 that we expect will be available at the launch of the machine."
Continued.. PRODUCT ENHANCEMENT "We're always looking into different things. At one time, we had a 16-bit Commodore 64 in the office! Once we release a product, we enter two modes of operation. One is the "enhancement" mode - an example would be the Amiga 2000, where we enhanced the 1000 and made a new product. The other mode is to research a "cost-reduced" version, where we look at how to cut costs on the product.
PRICING "Pricing has not been established yet. We estimate the Amiga 2000 to come in at about a $ 1500-1700 base price; that'll get you one megabyte of RAM and a single 880K disk drive. The Bridgeboard will be extra. We've discussed the possibility of bundling the 2000 in different configurations, for instance, shipping some with Bridgeboards installed. The final marketing decision has not been reached at this time.” THE 2000 VS WORKBENCH 1.1 "Most of the programmers who wrote programs under revision 1.1 of the operating system stayed within our specifications and their products work fine with
1.2. Some people did things differently - they didn't stay within the restrictions - consequently their products don't work with
1. 2. At this time, the 2000 will not run applications that
require Kickstart 1.1. We put 1.2 in ROM to show users and
developers that we've stabilized - this is the version we're
going with. A lot of the software vendors I've talked to are
upgrading their materials to vyork with 1.2. One major product
of ours that has trouble with 1.2 is the Transformer. We're
working on a 1.2 version and expect to have it ready to go by
MARKETING THE AMIGA 500 "We're planning to target the Amiga 500 to the home market, much as we did with the Commodore 64. The 500 is a tremendously capable machine, completely compatible with Amiga 1000 software; [it] includes half a meg of memory, an internal 880K drive and Kickstart 1.2 in ROM. Even though we're going to market the 500 as a "home" computer, I don't think it'll take long before we start getting letters from home users saying, 'Hey, you won't believe what I'm doing with my 500 at work...' We're going to let the people discover the power for themselves, as they did with the
Right now, the 500 is still undergoing FCC certification. Inhouse, we put the 500 through some tests and it came through real well. We have no reason to think it wont pass - but if for some reason FCC sees a problem, we're back up against their twelve-week cycle. If all goes well, look for the 500 around June. We'll be selling them through the same channels as the 1000's, the dealers. We have no plans to sell the 500 through mass-market channels at this time."
THE FUTURE OF THE 1000 "There are no plans to discontinue the Amiga 1000. The 1000 will be sold so long as there is a consumer demand for the product. Everything that works with the 2000 will, more or less, be available for the 1000. A lot of software and hardware developers have assured us they are going to continue to introduce products for the 1000, to assure its longevity.
As far as the possibility of an interface to allow the 1000 to use the Bridgeboard.J don't want to say it can't be done, because as soon as I say that, someone's going to do it.
The Bridgeboard has all the PC hardware there, it's just a matter of hooking everything up. I'm sure that, technologically, it can be done. In actual practice, I don’t know. The Sidecar will give the 1000 full IBM compatibility.
It will begin shipping in late May; we expect it to be available in quantities throughout the U.S. by mid-June."
C-64 EMULATOR "We've caught word here and there of people working on emulators to allow the Amiga to run Commodore 64 software.
.. but so far I haven't seen anyone successfully demonstrate a product - hardware or software - that really does the job. We have no plans to produce a Commodore 64 emulator, but if anyone out there has a product that shows promise, we'd be willing to look at it."
THE AMIGA ARCADE "One exciting development in software has come about through some agreements CBM has made with major arcade game manufacturers. Bally, Mastertronics and Grand were impressed enough with Amiga technology that they will be using the Amiga 500 for the brain of their upcoming coinoperated videogames. In exchange for our providing Amiga printed circuit boards and technical know-how, we will receive software licensing rights on the videogames developed from Amiga products. Among the titles mentioned so far are Boulderdash, Road Wars and a submarine simulation game called Up
MARKETING: PAST AND FUTURE "We feel we've turned a corner, but we're not completely out of the woods yet. In the meantime, we're preparing new advertising for the new machines. The atmosphere at Commodore is upbeat, but we have to be careful. In the past, after going through periods of time where we've had money problems, then all of a sudden coming into some money, we were like a kid in a candy store with a couple of bucks burning a hole in his pocket. We don't want that to happen again. You're going to see some direct efforts made; we're working with a variety of value-added retail
organizations like J.D.K. Images [Note: Producers of the Pro Video CG1 character generator], getting the Amiga into specific areas, such as the video market."
AMIGA ON TV "We're actively involved with getting the Amiga some exposure on television - shows such as Miami Vice and Amazing Stories. Max Headroom uses four or five Amigas for static and animated images on the show."
• • .Power
- Play for 'the AMIGA.
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• X* !vX s MIDI Interface Available From Your AMIGA Dealer.
SoundScape Pro MIDI Studio AMIGA MIDI Interface The most powerful performance and recording software on any computer. The recording studio-like environment provides complete facilities for routing, recording, editing, transposition and playback of any musical performance. As new modules are introduced, you can “install” them at any time. Music can be performed by the internal sampled sound synthesizer, or with any external MIDI equipment. Record from the QWERTY keyboard or any external MIDI source, including keyboards, guitar and pitch followers. Synchronize with, or provide MIDI clock
information, including MIDI Song Pointers. The complete flexibility of the system makes your imagination the only limit to its power.
• Number of notes and tracks determined by available memory
• MIDI patch panel links program modules
• Install new modules at any time
• Up to 16 internal instruments at one time
• Complete sample system with editing, looping, ADSR envelopes,
velocity sensitivity, and pitchbend.
• Up to 160 sampled sounds at one time i • Save and load IFF note
and sample files
• Quantize to any multiple of MIDI clock beats
• “Match" mode eases learning of a song
• Complete MIDI sequence and song editing
• Route, merge, split, or bounce any track to any other.
• Completely compatible with the standard Amiga MIDI interface
• MIDI In, Out, and Thru connectors
• Plugs into the serial port
• High quality
• Highest possible fidelity from the Amiga
• Stereo or mono
• Variable sample rates
• Mike and line inputs
• Digitally controlled volume on each channel
• IFF Sample File compatible
• Software included for sampling, editing, and MIDI performance
functions With the SoundScape Sound Digitizer, any sound may be
sampled and modified by the Amiga, including voice. IFF File
compatibility enables these samples to be used as musical
instruments, sound effects, or speech with any IFF compatible
music or animation system.
$ 149.00 $ 49.00 SoundScape Audio Digitizer $ 99.00 Amiga is a trade mark of Commodore Business Machines miena Prices and availability subject to change without notice ...the professional software source!!
P. O. Box 60238 Sta. A, Palo Alto, CA 94306 (408) 741-0117
CUSTOMER SUPPORT "We recognize that as far as customer support
goes, there's a lot of room for improvement. I can be candid
with you about this because part of my job is Manager of
The May '86 layoffs had a big impact on our customer support efforts; I was forced to lay off half the people out of my office. Of course, the workload didn't go away. Atone time, out of sheer self-defense, I instructed the switchboard operators to send me only those calls where the caller asked for me by name, [sending] general questions to Customer Support. Well, people got smart and everyone started asking for me by name - so I started taking about 75 calls a day and getting nothing done I have to shut off my phone and take messages from the secretaries. [I] then call back the people whose
names I recognize and pass off the rest as much as I can. I hate to do that, but it just gets to the point where I've got to get things done.
I figured there had to be a better way, so I've been researching the feasibility of an automated customer support phone system. I think I've just about sold management on it.
I'm proposing an interactive phone system that will allow a customer to quickly get the answers he needs by allowing him to select support departments and even get answers to specific questions, simply by pressing the buttons on his touch-tone phone. Banks have been doing this kind of thing for years and it has proved very popular. Our biggest concern is that our customers get the highest level of support we can offer."
GETTING THE WORD OUT "To help answer people's questions I've begun sending out a little foqr-page newsletter every month. It's typed on my computer, printed out and mailed though I recently invested in a desktop publishing package, so that should improve its [the newsletter's] boks a little! We tried a newsletter a couple years ago that was real glossy, real nice - but it was $ 50,000 a month and we didn't have the resources to do it."
LOCAL SUPPORT NETWORKS "After-sale support is crucial, and yet I could not hire enough people to support end-user questions all the time. As exciting as the automated phone system is, it's still better if people with questions can get answers locally. Dealers are close by and accessible; it's a lot easier going to them in person than trying to explain a problem over the telephone.
Besides dealer support, there are a lot of things I want to do for the user groups. I want the user's groups on my side - for more than one reason. Right now, I'm putting a lot of time into user group support, so that when a guy calls me in West Chester and says, "I'm having a problem," I can say "go to Sacramento," or wherever he's calling from, and know I have somebody there someone who I have a direct line to, who is knowedgeable or knows where to get the answers. We want to use the user groups and the dealers as a network of support around the country, so people don't have to call back
to the east coast for answers. There's a lot I'm trying to do, but in many ways, it's just a one-man show."
• AC* By John Foust Even if you are not an official Amiga
developer, you can still purchase Amiga technical
documentation. Full IFF specification is available, along with
full Amiga schematics and the Amiga expansion port
specification. If you own an older version of a C compiler, you
can order the AmigaDOS V1,2 upgrade so that you can create and
compile programs that work under V1,2 of the operating system.
According to Carolyn Scheppner of Amiga Technical Support at Commodore West Chester, in a message posted to several networks, "These materials are provided as is. In the past we have provided free upgrades; however, this is not a policy. Given the scale of the upgrades, generally it is not financially feasible to send the materials out free of charge.” In other words, both official developers and ordinary Amiga owners will pay for these documents and disks.
The following developer support items are currently available: IFF documentation and disk $ 20.00 This includes the full IFF documentation and source listings, printed and spiral bound, and electronic copies of the source code, object files, executable programs and documentation on an Amiga disk.
Amiga 1000 Schematics and Expansion specs $ 20.00 This encompasses full Amiga schematics, timing diagrams, and PAL equations. The documentation for the autoconfiguration process is included.
AmigaDOS V1.2 Native Developer Update $ 20.00 This update is for programming under AmigaDOS 1.2, using the V1.1 Amiga C and Assembler. ,lt includes the V1.2 'include' files for both C and assembler, the 'Alink' linker, and assembler '.fd' files, Also included are the comment-stripped versions of the 'include' files, the V1.2 'autodocs’, in both text and Infominder demo format, the V1.2 'readme' files, the V1.2 function offset lists, and the V1,2 'astartup.asm' and Twstartup.asm'files. To orderthese kits, make your check payable to Commodore Business Machines, and send it to: Kim Montgomery
Software Tech Support Commodore Business Machines 1200 Wilson Drive West Chester, PA 19380 Be sure to specify the name of the item you are ordering and include your name and address._ At the end of March, the Commodore Amiga offices in Los Gatos closed. By that time, fewer than a half-dozen employees were left working at the site. To mark the end of the Amiga in Los Gatos, former employees organized an afternoon party known as "the Amiga wake." More than one hundred people attended the wake, held at Glenn Keller's ranch in the hills of Los Gatos. Keller is best known for development of the
Paula custom chip.
At the end of March, the Commodore Amiga offices in Los Gatos were dosed.
By John Foust The invitation asked guests to wear black attire suitable for a wake; Some mourners came in black tuxes, while others sported black armbands. By day's end, the guest book included names like Trip Hawkins, head of Electronic Arts, along with many names from the source code listings familiar to Amiga programmers.
Amiga co-founder Jay Miner was given a prototype plastic shell of an early Amiga design. Many onlookers found the old shell more eye-appealing than the current case design.
Originally, Commodore claimed the original design to be unmanufacturable and presented the current case design as an alternative.
A fake casket, chock full of Amiga memorabilia, was the highlight of the afternoon. Photo albums with pictures of the first showing of the Amiga computer by Amiga Corp. at the Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago, the Commodore Amiga launch in New York, and the first pallets of Amiga machines were all included.
To raise cash and increase their profile in the microcomputer community, Amiga Corp. marketed several products while creating the Amiga-- mostly joystick-related controllers for computers and video games, including an Amiga joystick and the Joyboard, a joystick you could stand on. In its advertising, the Joyboard featured Olympic skier Suzy Chaffee. Amiga had game cartridges oriented to the Joyboard, such as Mogul Madness and a surfing game. All this extra Amiga stuff was also in the coffin.
Continued... Deep in the coffin was also an original "black box" Amiga prototype machine and the EPROM programmer used to make ROMs for the Amiga. Alongside the coffin sat the original carousel versions of the custom chips. These hand- built circuit board assemblies mimicked the custom chips, before chip design moved to silicon. Notes still taped in place on the board warned that if bands appear in the video display, a wire must be connected from this spot to the ground.
The manuals for the Indris and Sage operating systems, used in program development and prototype design for the Amiga were waked, along with a" Crashin' tosh" sign, formerly placed near an Atari ST on display in the office.
When the Atari ST first arrived, it earned the nickname "Jackintosh," after Jack Tramiel of Atari.
Also being laid to rest was a hand-written letter from the child who acted in an Amiga commercial, thanking the Amigans for a tour of the facility and the issue of Computer Currents that featured an interview cover story with Jay Miner. (Computer Currents is a free computer industry newspaper,distributed in Silicon Valley) A white dry marker drawing board from the Amiga offices, formerly behind Bob Pariseau's desk, rested against one wall. The board showed an outline of the Amiga system architecture's three custom chips. This design was shown to prospective employees as they were interviewed.
The design was still labelled "Lorraine," the name of the machine in Amiga Corp. days. The name "Amiga" was supposedly chosen for two reasons - one, it means "friendly;" two, Amiga comes before Apple in the dictionary.
Guests took turns swinging at a Boing pinata, filled with Amiga pens, Boing ping-pong balls, candy and California lottery tickets. Amiga notebooks, Amiga pens and developer's conference posters were also available as party favors. Several people made video tapes of the event to be shown at future Amiga events.
The Los Gatos team first designed and developed Amiga as an independent company. Later, Commodore bought the company, saved the struggling Amiga Corporation from the jaws of bankruptcy, added Commodore marketing power and brought the Amiga to market.
If Commodore had not bought the Amiga, it would have become an Atari product. This is not speculation. At the time Commodore stepped in, Atari was waiting to call in a research and development loan that would have put Amiga Corp. on the rocks. Commodore’s move prompted legal action by Atari, a suit that was dismissed on "mutually satisfactory terms" several days before the Amiga wake party.
Amiga Corp. could not have survived on its own; it had to be become part ofa larger company. Without outside help, the Amiga could never have come to market. Commodore's respiration came in the form of Sun development work stations for software people and new equipment for hardware people.
In this way, the death of Amiga Corp. was slowed by a long illness. The sickness that felled Amiga in Los Gatos started many years ago, when the large investments from Atari and Commodore served as artificial respiration, keeping Amiga Corp alive.
• AC* The latest word says the Amiga 2000 will be shipping in mid
July, and that the Amiga 500 will be available in late August
or early September. At press time, Commodore reps were sent a
fax message saying the planned June 1 rollout of the new
machines was postponed until July 1, and others were told the
list price of the Amiga 2000 was raised to $ 1695, and to $ 400
for the hard disk controller.
Amiga trade-in, Zorro transputers By The Bandito Key developers were sold (not given) Amiga 2000 machines in April, but the PC compatibility bridge board was not available at that time. Amiga 500s were becoming available to developers in Europe about the same time, because there is no Federal Communications Commission to stall shipment of new products.
In New York, the Commodore PC-10 clone machine is selling for less than $ 500. Commodore ads for the PC-10 have also appeared in the New York Times.
Aside from being yet another example of premature announcements and slipped deadlines, the later ship dates might be smart marketing. The summer is a traditionally slow period for computer sales, and they might be hoping for a back-to-school sales surge.
Word has come of a possible trade-in policy for current Amiga 1000 owners. This is not yet official, so DO NOT try it!
It works like this: Bring your Amiga 1000 to the local dealer with a thousand dollars, and you will be given a new Amiga
2000. You get to keep your monitor. Based on street prices for
Amiga 1000 base machines at this time, this is not much of
a deal. With the list price of the Amiga 2000 at $ 1495, you
are selling your Amiga 1000 for only $ 500. The street price
for the 2000 might be less than $ 1200. You will still need
to buy a bridge card, if you want PC compatibility.
Speaking of back-to-school, what will Commodore do with all those Amiga 1000s from the trade-in policy? Word has it that they will be reconditioned and become part of a "buy four, get one free" offer designed to boost sales of Amigas to schools.
Another rumor said Commodore might keep the machines on ice, to prevent grey market Amiga 1000 sales from affecting Amiga 500 sales. In reality, Commodore reps recently offered dealers quantities of bundled Amiga systems for $ 875.
Sales will be boosted by the arrival of the Amiga version of the Word Perfect word processor, version 4.2, now being readied for a June release. Working versions have been demonstrated at many shows. In fact, Word Perfect programmers are working on the general 68000 C code using the Amiga, and then moving the code to the Macintosh and Atari ST. All versions of Word Perfect on mainframes, the Mac, Atari, Amiga and IBM PC are file compatible, so you can move a file from system to system without losing formatting information. Rumors also spread of the plans for Word Perfect version 5.0, which
will include support for color and custom fonts.
There is an interesting rumor about the Juggler demo. If you press the 'j' key ten times in slow succession, the robot juggler does a somersault! The trick is, you must wait the correct amount of time between keypresses. Apparently, a few people have the knack for making the robot roll over.
The Juggler program by Eric Graham will be released late this summer from Byte-by-Byte Corp. It is in beta testing now.
Video rumors Video-heads also await the arrival of Videoscape 3D from Aegis, a shaded polygon animation system; as well as an upgrade to Aegis Animator, which should include a much improved manual; and the upgrade to Deluxe Video.
Deluxe Paint creator Dan Silva is always working on the next version of his program, according to reports from user groups where he speaks. Some say Silva might be making versions of Deluxe Paint for other computers, such as the PC Targa board, and for other companies than Electronic Arts. Who holds the copyright for the product name 'DPaint'?
Even some CD-I newsletters are losing their golden glow.
Beyond the hype of press releases, the Compact Disk Interactive standard is having trouble getting off the ground.
First of all, no one has ever seen it in action. All the hype is just hype, generated by the massive electronics conglomerates behind the CD-I standard. CD-I players do not exist, and it has not been implemented on any system so far. Instead, latest rumors pass the golden laurel to another laser disk standard called DVI, developed by RCA. This is a compression system for video images in different resolutions, giving television quality with small storage requirements.
Continued... LIGHT UP YOUR AMIGA GRAPHICS!
Send us a disk with your IFF format graphics files and we'll convert them into high-quality 35mm slides. Use them for business presentations or anytime you want to really show what your Amiga can do. Your local photo lab can also convert the slides into color prints for excellent hardcopy.
We will ship your slides via overnight delivery within 2-4 days after receipt of your disk. A duplicate set of slides is included at no charge.
Price is $ 8.50 per slide with a minimum order of 5 slides. Orders must be prepaid so include a check or money order with your disk. (Texas residents add state sales tax and MTA tax where applicable) CKO IMAGES
P. O. Box 40426 Houston, Tx 77240-0426
(713) 937-6922 Amiga is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc.
Amiga Basic compilers The AbSoft Amiga Basic compiler is in
final stages of beta testing. One example program is a
communications program that can handle speeds of 2400 baud.
The run-time interpreter overhead is about 40K, according
to one beta tester, and an example program compiled to an
object file smaller than the source code. (Hey, C hackers,
quit laughing, this is impressive stuff to Basic lovers!)
The retail price is said to be $ 195.00, as opposed to the
originally advertised $ 295, and AbSoft will not charge a
run-time license fee if you use it to compile programs for
Another company called SoftWorks is working on an cheaper Amiga Basic compiler. It is not quite Amiga Basic compatible, and so far, it is not faster or smaller than AbSoft.
Official rumors According to the user group newsletter from Pete Baczor at Commodore West Chester, the Sidecar is scheduled to be shipping by late May, and should be available in quantity by mid June.
The official stance on TextCraft-Plus is that Commodore is waiting for final code from the programmers, and that shipment will start in late May. Unofficial rumors from within say Textcraft Plus has been stuck in CBM quality assurance for months, and might not ever be released. It has been through several name changes, as well. It is confirmed that the Enable word processor project is dead.
The newsletter continues by claiming that the Transformer
1. 2 is being worked on at this time, and should be available in
early summer. Unofficial sources say it has been held up in
quality assurance as well. Pirates have had copies for months
The newsletter also confirms that reports of a Commodore 64 emulator have been all smoke. It says Commodore has known of several people working on one, but none have demonstrated a working product.
If your user group is interested in this newsletter, write to Baczor in care of Commodore West Chester, 1200 Wilson Drive, West Chester, PA 19380.
EA buy s Bl Electronic Arts bought Batteries Included, of Toronto Canada. This presents an uncertain fate for their planned Amiga products, including the port of Paperclip Elite.
Preliminary rumors say Electronic Arts will continue work on planned Batteries Included products. The Elite port on the Atari ST has taken two years, and rumors say the authors are getting very tired of the code, and aren't excited about the Amiga port.
Then again, it might mean that Electronic Arts is willing to support the Amiga even more, but some insiders say their affection forthe Amiga is waning. Electronic Arts is planning a public offering of stock, which would be a very lucrative happening for employees.
The story behind the buy-out goes like this, according to one insider. Batteries Included approached Electronic Arts president Trip Hawkins and asked to be bought at a given price. They agreed, and then someone within Electronic Arts reevaluated the offer, and reduced the price. Batteries Included reluctantly accepted, and accepted payment in stock and cash. Batteries Included sales last year were slightly more than $ 3 million, as compared to Electronic Arts estimated $ 35 million sales for the same period.
Speaking of Electronic Arts, news has filtered out about the upgrade to Deluxe Music Construction Set. As of mid April, the new version is finished, and shipping is to start in a few weeks. There are no new features in this version 1.01, only bug fixes, which should please everyone who has lost hours of hand-transcribed scores because of bugs. Call Electronic Arts for update information.
Amiga Stargllder The Amiga version of the popular Atari ST game called Starglider has finally shipped to the duplicators, after more than a year of hype and rumors, mostly promulgated by the program's author, Jez San, who squeezes in plugs for his game in technical messages on every computer network from here to London.
According to a talkative source, the Amiga Starglider is 20 percent faster than the Atari ST version, meaning it generates twenty to twenty-five frames of wire-frame animation per second. The game takes over the machine and throws out AmigaDOS. At the last minute, the publisher declared the game must save high scores to the disk.
Panicked programmers worked forthree weeks to write their own disk input-output routines, with their own disk format. All in assembler, all in the name of speed.
There will be an Amiga Live! Zorro board, someday. Live!
Creator A Squared hopes to make an agreement with an Amiga hardware manufacturer to produce the boards. Where is the expansion port Amiga Live!? According to one source, it is in production now, and should be shipping in August. A Squared should also have more announcements coming.
One Amiga person With the closing of the Commodore Amiga offices in Los Gatos, what is a rumor-monger to do? Times used to be, you could get a juicy rumor from West Chester, and attribute it to Los Gatos, and vice-versa, just to protect people who want to sing. With all these new products, and the reduction of singers, it looks like I'll have to brush up on my German. The trouble is, few of the secretaries in the Braunschweig offices speak English.
One person, graphics wizard Bart Whitebrook, is the sole remnant employee of the Los Gatos office. Whitebrook "reenlisted" for another year. His office will be centered on Sun minicomputers that were moved to the MOS Technology sales offices in Saratoga, California. Dale Luck has a three- month term as a contractor. Caryn Havis Mical might stay on as the third party developer liason, but meanwhile she remains on maternity leave after having a boy in the third week of April.
Zorro transputer According to a loose-lipped West Chester insider, Commodore is funding the development of a Zorro card based on a transputer chip set. A transputer is a monsterously fast CPU that is designed for parallel processing, so that several transputers can work together to solve problems at incredible speeds. The card will operate as a coprocessor, running the Tripos operating system.
(Tripos is the basis of the AmigaDOS operating system.)
The card will include a network controller, again based on a version of a transputer chip. The network card will link Amigas to Amigas, as well as Amigas to hard disks on the network. It will be released for the Amiga 2000. According to a source on the West coast, another very similar Amiga network card has been developed by a third party, but has not been released for unknown reasons.
However, fast transputer chips are turning into coprocessors for other computers, as well. A company called Kuma in England has one for the Atari ST called K-Max. It is a 7.5 MIP RISC machine, also based on the Inmos T414 transputer chip.
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Amazing Preview... Tk(B Mm§m Run Macintosh programs on your Amiga by John Foust The Magic Sac is a small box that fits into the Atari ST cartridge slot. The peripheral contains Macintosh read-only memories with the original executable code of the Macintosh operating system.
The Magic Sac does not come with the Macintosh ROMs.
These ROMs must be ordered from any Apple dealer and installed by the user.
Along with the Amiga and the Atari ST, the Macintosh also uses the 68000 microprocessor chip. At the simplest level, all these computers understand the same simple machine language for the 68000. Ultimately, all programs are composed of machine language and simple 68000 machine language programs will run on any computer that uses the 68000. However, the three computers' operating systems differ. As soon as the program needs to interface with the real world, the compatibility ends. Macintosh programs cannot fun on an unmodified Amiga or Atari ST because of the difference in operating systems.
Magic Sac takes advantage of the fact that all Macintosh programs request services from the operating system ROMs in the same standard way. By intercepting machine language program calls (such as a request for disk information or printing a character to the screen), the Magic Sac software can perform the request in a manner suited to the particular host computer. The Macintosh program thinks it is inside a Macintosh because the operating system returns the information it requested.
In this interview, Small explains why the Amiga version of the Magic Sac should run more software than the Atari versbn.
Some Atari owners are unhappy with the Magic Sac because so many programs crash or do not work at all. The Magic Sac requires a megabyte of RAM on the Atari ST. Another plus for the Amiga version is that it just might be able to read Macintosh disks directly, something the Atari ST cannot do.
I spoke with David Small at the West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco in March 1987. Data Pacific had a booth at the show, demonstrating their product on the Atari ST. Data Pacific hopes to release the Amiga Magic Sac by mid - summer. Data Pacifb can be reached at: 609 East Spencer Street, Denver, Colorado 80203, phone (303) 733-8158.
JF: What has to be done to port the Magic Sac from the Atari ST to the Amiga?
DS: "The Macintosh has a number of BIOS routines - the keyboard, the disk drive, the mouse, the serial port [and the] parallel port. These [routines] have to be recoded from how the Macintosh coded them to [how] the Amiga [codes them].
For instance, if the Macintosh operating system says "I need a disk sector," some sort of glue code has to go get an Amiga disk sector, bring it in and give it to the back to the Macintosh operating system."" JF: So, by implementing those BIOS calls, most Macintosh software will run?
DS: "Yes, about eighty percent. The big problem we've had on the Atari ST is that [memory] location zero is in ROM, which by accident, makes a great deal of difference. When Macintosh programs make a mistake and do something called passing a NIL handle, they end up writing to location zero and crash.
In the Macintosh, it is RAM and it does nothing. On the Amiga, it is RAM and it does nothing. The other possibility we are looking into is that the Amiga drives may be able to read Macintosh disks or we may be able to do a very inexpensive modification to let them [Amiga drives] read Macintosh disks directly. On the Atari, we haven't been able to read Macintosh disks. The disk drive that we're releasing in April will be able to [read Mac disks], but up until now, we haven't been able to. That [inability to read] has held the product back.
The other thing we have to do is get two Macintosh chips into the Amiga, onto the bus... either with a pass-through card, someone else's card, sockets inside the machine, somewhere."
JF: What do you need to place in the Amiga memory? Will you map the ROM chips directly into the Amiga memory?
DS: "The Macintosh chips are 64 Kbytes long. Big, extensive sections of them [Mac chips] need to be disabled.
I disable them in the line A trap code, a set of jumps down in low memory. A line A opcode is a 68000 opcode. All Mac software does things through line A that vector off to various portions of the ROM. What I have to do is rewrite the necessary sections of the ROM down in RAM and then vector the line A to my interrrupts. For instance, I steal away all the disk driver, all the keyboard driver, the interrupt coming in for the mouse, the serial input and so forth.
The operating system will almost certainly have to be completely shut down. I'll blow away whatever the Amiga has in there because the Macintosh takes over all of memory from zero to up to 512 K, or whatever is installed.
There is no room for a kernal, no room for some memory locations used by the Amiga.
I am not hopeful for multitasking with the Amiga. It is possible, but it would be very hard. Commodore-Amiga refused to get involved with us officially. We asked [about multitasking] and they said they didn't want to take any chance at all of being sued. Generally, once we've explained what we're doing, most Amiga people are very positive towards it."
JF: You initially had some legal problems with the Magic Sac. What were they and how were they alleviated?
DS: "We showed the Magic Sac at the Computer Faire here last year. Apple showed up five seconds into the show, came charging up to the booth and wanted to know if we were selling it. We weren't. Then, they relaxed a little bit from the immediate panic.
In July, Apple read an Infoworld article dated from March and sent us a letter that said "We don't want you using the name 'Mac' in your product name," which was Mac Cartridge... which is something that they are doing right now to other people that use "Mac.” It is interesting that they choose to do that with us.
The second thing was they didn't want us selling their ROMs.
There were a couple [of] technical points that we felt didn't have any validity at all. So, we hired a very good and very talented Palo Alto attorney. He wrote a letter back to Apple, so we werenl just two guys in a garage somewhere. We said we were going to sell it anyway and "We'll do what you say, we'll change it to Magic Sac."
I think Apple has very mixed feelings about the Magic Sac.
On the one hand, it is making Macintosh the standard. It gives Macintosh developers a wider software base to sell into, to keep them in business, because a lot of them have folded up. The major Macintosh software manufacturer would sell more products. They've had a tow return on their Macintosh investment, as compared to what they got out of their PC investment. So, we believe it [Magic Sac] is a good thing for everyone involved."
JF: I think I can understand why Apple might be upset about this.
DS: "Certainly. I understand, too. We feel that because we only use Apple parts - EPROMs don't work and disk copies don't work - Apple is getting some money out of the chain somewhere selling these parts. If someone sells you a ROM, they haven't got the right to tell you what to do with it, use it as a doorstop or plug it into this machine.
The designers of the Macintosh have come by the booth and they say what's important to them is to spread their philosophy through the world because it was their vision and continued.
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best definition of a hacker.
When I showed Andy Hertzfeld the Switcher (a popular Macintosh program that allows several programs to reside in memory) running on the ST, he thought it was neat. He said it was great because it gets the ideas that the Macintosh was trying to get across to more people. The Macintosh is too expensive to sell to many people that Jack Tramiel and Amiga, frankly, are selling to. Why not spread the word to them, as well?” JF: Will it necessarily go on the expansion port of the Amiga?
DS: ”No. I have a contractor working on the project now.
He is the one who is coming up with the design on this one [the Amiga version Magic Sac]; it's his baby. I'll just help him all I can and give him my source code.
I wanted to come to the Computer Faire this year and sell copies of the [Magic Sac] source code for $ 5 a disk and spread the word."
JF: Why didn't you?
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DS: "My partner overruled me. He doesn't think it’s time yet
to do that [sell the source code]. We are doing a disk drive
that we're putting a great deal of capital [into] and we need
to get that out. I'm not into this to get rich, honest. I have
enough money to live on and do what I want. I'm swinging
towards the Andy Hertzfeld philosophy of "This is something
the world should have." I'm not sure it is good that Apple is
keeping it so proprietary, not letting out their look and
There is something that bothers me about it being kept proprietary to the extent that Apple is doing now."
JF: What was the purpose behind distributing the source code? Would it be a curiosity piece to most people, without the hardware, or do you think they would spread it to other machines?
DS: "I'd like to see it on other machines. It would certainly go on the Amiga, the AT&T 7300, the HP 9000 and the new machine that Lee Felsenstein is proposing. All my source code is how one adapts Mac ROMs to different machines. I feel Apple has a gold mine in those ROMs and that they are not necessarily using it.
Also, I believe people ought to have source code because it helps them learn. I have a friend who says "Programming is an art best learned by apprenticing to a master." I'm not a master, but I have apprenticed to a lot of people. If I put that source code into the user community and let other people see how I've done it, first thing that will happen is that I'll find every bug in it.
People will go play with it, test it and improve it. I imagine I'll end up with twenty or thirty people who are hardcore Magic Sac hackers who will help me go fix it; I'm stretched a little thin now. I think that would be a fun thing to do. Andy Hertzfeld did Switcher by distributing it on CompuServe and getting suggestions and feedback [from] the user community. Because of that [feedback], it [Switcher] is a dynamite product."
JF: Apple didn't want you to put the ROM image on a disk?
DS: "They didn't want the product to be anything but the original Apple parts. So we did that. We put a hundred checks in our software, so that if it detects that it's loaded from disk--- if it's a RAM image, then it doesn't work.
A user group in Germany defeated about ninety of them [checks] with a product known as the Mac Bongo. We're still trying to track down the people who did it and just tell them, "This is not a good thing. You are screwing it up for everybody." With their product, the disk writes sometimes turn off randomly [and] the serial port fails.
These are some of the protections I put in. I didn't make them all drop dead immediately, if a disk image [is detected], I put some very subtle viruses in there. I thought it was necessary to show good faith to Apple. If you plug EPROMs into the cartridge, it doesn't work either. We want people to use the original Apple parts."
JF: What parts of the hardware will work and which wont work?
DS: "Sound is questionable; I dont know enough about the Amiga chips. The serial and parallel ports almost certainly will work, keyboard will work as usual, but we'll have to map the two funny Apple keys to somewhere else. Probably only one button will operate the mouse, ft will be in interlace mode, at 640 by 400 pixels, with whatever color gives the least flicker; we'll probably let the user set that [color] (The Macintosh screen resolution is 512 by 342 pixels.)
Generally, I'm hoping for disk compatibility. Other than that [compatibility], we'll go for an external disk drive that is fully compatible."
JF: You are also working on an IBM product to read and write Macintosh disks?
DS: "Yes. It will enable IBM users to read Macintosh disks and interchange data without going to a network, ft would connect through a card slot on the IBM. If you have a Lotus 1 -2-3 file, you can bring it into Excel's format and crunch it directly."
• AC* The West Coast Computer Faire was held March 26 to 29 at
San Francisco's Moscone Center.
West Coast Computer Faire By John Foust This show, first held eleven years ago, is the granddad of all computer shows. The original was organized by Jim Warren, who is known for travelling the show floor on roller skates.
The Amiga was actually lightly repesented at this year's show, but was on the tip of many tongues and the hot topic in many discussions at the Faire.
One group session, hosted by computer columnist John Dvorak, focused on "Small Computers and Shifting Visions of Utopia." The panel included Jim Warren, Apple computer cofounder Steve Wozniak, Osborne computer creator Lee Felsenstein, Gary Kildall, creator of the CP M operating system and hardware guru Don Lancaster.
Lancaster chirped some kind words on the Amiga's behalf, particularly its graphics and multiple processors. Lancaster also mused about the future importance of genlocking a television image with computer graphics. For an unspecified reason, Lancaster denied the importance of what he called "multiprocessing" which he confused with "multitasking" (the ability to run more than one program at a time).
A computer music session, led by Utopia bandleader Todd Rundgren, showed off the latest music software. An Amiga was nestled between the newest Macintosh II and an old Macintosh. Rundgren admitted his limited Amiga experience: "I don't have an Amiga, so I'm not familiar with its capabilities. I know that it can produce fairly good sound on its own, without any additional hardware, and that it's not too big a deal to add a MIDI controller to it."
Rundgren planned to demonstrate the Amiga version of Texture, a music program formerly on the IBM PC. The program was written by fellow Utopian Roger Powell.
Rundgren also planned to show something called Music Mouse, by Laurie Spiegel.
Murphy's Law struck not once, but twice... and the Amiga was never shown. Unfortunately, Rundgren's Amiga helper never showed up, so neither did the Amiga portion of his demo. A post-program look at the Amiga system uncovered a defective monitor, as well.
Rundgren did show several programs on the Mac and the new Macintosh II was demonstrated by an Apple employee. An interactive video program called "Video Works" instantly reminded me of Deluxe Video. A semi-animated color digitized image of a woman carrying balloons on a city street appeared on the screen. Clicks on different parts of the image generated various sounds.
Rundgren is obviously familar with the territorial nature of Amiga owners. When asked about the Amiga's silence, he explained the mishaps: "It was no reflection on the machine.
Nice machine," as he petted the Amiga.
At another computer music session, artist Freff of Voyetra and Keyboard magazine explained how MIDI and computres saved him more than half a million dollars on his last album.
Freff hopes to raise a generation of computer composers, instead of a generation of technicians. Computer music magazines such as Keyboard have been promoting the new 68000-based machines like the Amiga and the Atari ST. Amiga hardware Xebec and Supra showed their lines of Amiga hard disks.
Supra showed twenty, forty and sixty megabyte models. For more info, see the hard disk review in this issue.
Spirit Technologies revealed an internal memory expansion card forthe Amiga for another one to one and a half megabytes. Although they had populated boards on hand, none were actually plugged into an Amiga, leaving some onlookers a little perplexed.
According to David Small of Data Pacific, the Magic Sac will be ported to the Amiga. This product, currently available only on the Atari ST, allows you to run Macintosh software.
Just imagine a Sidecar that brings Macintosh compatibility instead. For more information, I'll have an interview with Small soon to come.
FAUG and NewTek Undoubtedly, the most popular Amiga display at the show was by the First Amiga User Group, a.k.a. FAUG. FAUG demonstrated an Amiga 2000, as well as the latest incarnation of the Digi-View video digitizer and the yet- unreleased Digi-Paint HAM editor.
The new Digi-View software can load any IFF picture and manipulate it as if it was freshly digitized, using television- style color slider controls to increase the redness, the contrast. The picture can be reduced to a given number of colors. By tweaking the controls, you can produce a black- and-white image from a color picture. The color to black-and- white capability is much better than the algorithm found in the PageSetter program. The next Amazing Computing (V2.7) will concentrate on video, including a review of the new Digi-View software.
Digi-Paint is a flashy program, effectively manipulating formerly static HAM images. Not only the crowds were impressed with Digi-Paint. Science fiction author and Byte columnist Jerry Pournelle took Polaroids of the Amiga 2000 while his wife took plenty of notes. I even got a picture of Pournelle smiling at an Amiga, an undeniably rare pose.
(Hey, if Pournelle doesn't tell the truth about the Amiga in his columns, can we call that sci fi, too?)
Pournelle corralled Byte cover artist Robert Tinney to demonstrate Digi-Paint. Tinney remarked that Digi-Paint had the capabilities he dreamed of for his AT-based Targa graphics system. Tinney used the Targa system to draw the cover of the Byte that carried the story of the Amiga 2000.
The Augment user group was also on hand, demonstrating a Genlock and some Amiga software.
Juggler confusion At the Manx Software booth, the Juggler demo ran continuously on an Amiga with a PAL Jr. Hard disk drive system. Besides the regular Juggler demo, Manx also showed a new version of the Juggler. Because Juggler author Eric Graham is developing a commercial version of the program for Byte-by Byte, the new version shows the robot standing in front of a large Byte-by-Byte name and logo billboard.
As usual, this demo drew many stares and gasps from IBM PC users. As I stood before the demo, someone asked which machine produced these graphics. I said, "The Amiga" My inquisitive friend probed further, "Which graphics card does it have?" I said, "None, it is just an Amiga." He was insistent and asked again; he was sure that a computer needed a graphics card to do such things.
Things are going to get pretty confusing when the Amiga 2000 arrives. Owners will have to explain that, yes, the machine will accept an IBM-style EGA card, but no, the EGA can't do graphics like this... and yes, it can run IBM software and use IBM cards, but no, machines other than the Amiga cannot make this kind of picture.
Amiga netwotks Byte magazine's computer network, BIX, had a booth at the Faire. SYSOP Joanne Dow was there with a full-blown customized Amiga system, demonstrating the Amiga area of BIX.
George Bond of BIX marvelled at the popularity of the Amiga.
According to Bond, "The Amiga area is the largest hardware conference we have on BIX. BIX and Amiga came out about the same time.. Of course, the Byte audience is made up of a lot of people doing software development. They were just ravenous for any information they could get about the machine. There was very little available from Amiga yet."
Next month, I will explore BIX more deeply and describe their official Commodore Amiga technical support area.
CompuServe had a booth and Amiga Forum SYSOP Steve Ahlstrom was present. CompuServe has printed a guide to the files in the file library. By buying the guide, you can save money. By choosing files beforehand, no money is spent on viewing the directory of available public domain files.
The Genie network was also present. Genie's Amiga area is also very popular and is sure to grow more popular with the release of a new interactive online game for the Amiga. Air Warrior is a flight simulator, shoot-em-up in which as many as fifty people fly at once. All the other players are visible as you fly around in the simulator.
The Sausalito-based Well network was also at the Faire.
Well's Amiga area is a very comfortable place. A core of very competent Amiga regulars leads lively discussions of Amiga issues. The signal-to-noise ratio is very good on the Well. On many networks, ninety percent of the messages are not worth recording to disk. On the Well, this is not the case.
New AMICUS disks I am pleased to announce the arrival of new AMICUS disks 18,19 and 20. These new disks contain many of the programs printed in Amazing Computing. In the future, I hope to produce an AMICUS disk each month that contains the programs printed in that issue, as well as the latest public domain programs from the networks and the submissions sent to our offices. If you have a program you would like published on an AMICUS disk, send it to: PIM Publications AMICUS PDS Submissions
P. O. Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 Also, Fred Fish has added
disks 59 to 68 to his collection.
The condensed catalog is printed in this issue. A detailed discussion may follow in a future column.
Disk 18 AMICUS Disk 18 contains a version of Logo by Gerald Owens, modeled on Apple II Logo. Logo is a simple, but powerful language often used to teach children about computers. Several example Logo programs are included.
A demo version of the TV*Text character generator software from the Zuma Group is also included. Tv'Text makes screens for use in slide show titling or (with a Genlock) television titling.
This disk also has freely distributable versions of the updated PagePrint and PagelFF programs for the PageSetter desktop publishing package. If you own a PageSetter, these programs have worked out several of the original bugs. Even if you don't own PageSetter, these programs can be useful for viewing and printing PageSetter layouts. For example, your local user group may produce a newsletter with PageSetter. You could now view the newsletter on disk, instead of a printed copy. Newsletters in PageSetter format are often posted on bulletin boards for this same reason.
FullWindow, by Andry Rachmat, resizes any CLI window using only CLI commands. Rachmat also wrote 'Show', a very nice and very fast IFF viewer program that is now included on any AMICUS disk that displays IFF pictures.
Show, written in assembly language, is only 6600 bytes long.
Rachmat is very conscious of working in the Workbench environment. The close gadget or the space bar can be used to make the picture disappear.
Show accepts an extended selection of icons and displays all the selected pictures. (This is the official Workbench technique, using the shift key to select more than one bon at a time.) Show works just as well from the CLI. I wish more programmers would make Workbench compatible programs.
Compatibly makes the Amiga so much more flexible and friendly to users at all levels of expertise.
I* £ Life3d by Bob Benedict is a three-dimensional version of Conway's LIFE program. This program lets you to redefine the rules of life for simple organisms represented as cubes in this 32- cube universe. The viewing origin of the universe can be set as well. Life3d is a shareware program and the source and example universes are available from the author at a small price.
Defdisk is a CLI utility to re-assign a new Workbench. If you want to switch Workbenches, just enter 'defdisk df 1:' and the external drive will become the new Workbench disk... if it contains the files and directories necessary for Workbench- ness. C source is included.
0 £ Q O £ Calendar.WKS is a Lotus-compatible worksheet that makes calendars. You need a Lotus compatible spreadsheet to use this template.
SetKey is a demo versbn of a program that reprograms keys to be other characters and strings. One keymapping example changes the arrow keys to give the N, E, S, W directions used in text-based adventure games like Zork. An IFF template pbture is included for printing labelled strips to place in the tray above the function keys.
VPG is a video pattern generator which makes colored lines, rectangles, crosshairs, dots and color bars for aligning color monitors.
HP-10C is a Hewlett-Packard-like calculator, written in Modula2.
SetPrefs is a program that will change Preferences settings on the fly. Although it does not switch between interlace and non-interlaced video modes, SetPrefs will swap all other settings, including the mouse pointer, Workbench colors and screen position. This program should popularize the exchange of Preferences settings through the public domain (so you can see that strange pointer your neighbor created!).
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O) h Yornr Ticket to r StarProbe, by Mike Purcell, is a
sophisticated program for studying stellar evolution. C source
for both the Amiga and MS-DOS versions is included.
ROT is a C version of the AmigaBasic ROT program presented in a past issue of Amazing Computing, written by Colin French. ROT edits and displays polygons to create three dimensional objects. Up to 24 frames of animation can be created and displayed.
The entertainment software on AMICUS 18 includes Scat, by Amazing Computing author Steve Pietrowicz. Scat is based on Ing, Leo Schwab's bouncing window program. The windows in Scat run away from the mouse when the mouse approaches each window from the Workbench. Thomas Handel's DK is another Workbench hack; it "decays" the CLI window bit by bit and the colored flecks that made up the window fall to rest at the bottom of the window. Source in Modula-2 is included. DropShadow2, by former Amiga programmer Jim Mackraz, adds shadows to Workbench windows. The shadows are layered so that the
startling illusion of depth is preserved with multiple windows. The depth and darkness of the shadows can be adjusted.
Disk 19 This disk contains several programs straight from Amazing Computing. The 'solve' equation solver by Allen Barnet, written in assembly language, solves linear equation systems. Bryan Catley's tutorial on making gadgets in AmigaBasic is here, along with Catley's household inventory program.
Jim Shields' Waveform Workshop program is included with several example sounds. The disk librarian program by John Kennan and the AmigaBasic subscript examples by Ivan Smith are also included on AMICUS 19. The C programs on this disk include both the string and Boolean gadget example programs from Harriet Maybeck Tolly's Intuition tutorials (in both C and executable forms), the "skinny C" examples by Bob Riemersma, the 'comal.h' header file by Randy Finch and the Emacs key maker by Greg Douglas.
AmigaMon version 1.1 by J.S. Voris lets you snoop around in system's multitasking internals and dynAMIGAlly display resource use.
BTE is a character editor for the game Bard's Tale. The program allows you to cheat as never before. You can create super-characters by setting all attributes to maximum values.
Size is a simple CLI program to display the size of a given set of files.
WinSize is a window- sizing utility. Given the size, in pixels, of a window, it will resize the current window. C source code is included.
• AC- Disk 19 has IFF pictures, too. One picture is a digitized
view of the T-shirt from the Amiga Wake party, showing the
Commodore 'C=' chicken logo smashing the Boing ball. A
sixteen-color hkes image shows Andy Griffith giving a
testimonial to cheese. The picture is a better testimonial to
the new Digi-View 2.0 software; the new dithering techniques
make the picture look more like HAM than sixteen colors.
Five pictures from the episode of Amazing Stories that featured the Amiga, digitized from video tape (using an Amiga Liveh digitizer) are also on 19.
Another interesting aspect of these pictures is their icons. I used a beta version of Digi-Paint to create icons for each.
The icons are drawn in the four Workbench colors, but the icon looks like a miniature of the IFF picture itself. This feature is very handy for people with large IFF collections.
You are not forced to rely on descriptive filenames; you have icons that look just like the picture! I hope New Tek creates a stand-alone version of this aspect of Digi-Paint; this feature alone would be a popular product.
Disk 20 AMICUS 20 contains several submissions mailed to Amazing Computing. One group of programs printed in this issue, Steve Michel's AmigaBasic Compactor and Decoder programs, are on the disk in source form.
One submission is BobEd by Peter Phillip. As an object editor, BobEd can create BOBs, sprites and gadgets up to 48 by 45 bits in size in sixteen colors. Nine objects can be edited at once. Objects can be saved in binary (not IFF) and C data format. C source is included SpriteMaster II by Brad Kiefer is a sprite editor which can also animate groups of sprites. Palettes and sprites can be saved to disk. Kiefer is expanding the program to include the ability to link groups of sprites.
BlitLab is a blitter exploration program by Tomas Rokicki.
The wise user can draw a bitmap, set up blitter actions to be performed on it and then view the results. Full C source is included.
Fpic is an interesting image processing program by Bob Bush. Fpic will load, change and save IFF images using several standard image- processing techniques for increasing sharpness and contrast. Amiga-specific ways of modifying bit-maps, such as specifying minterms for the ClipBlit() function, can also be used. Fpic excites me for several reasons. First, it adds many tricks to the bag of tricks available to Amiga artists. Combine this program with Deluxe Paint II, the Digi-View software and a HAM editor (such as Digi-Paint or Prism) and much can be done with a standard Amiga. The flexibility
of the IFF standard is speeding up Amiga graphics development and these programs are pulling ahead.
AMICUS Dl«k1 Abislo programs: Graphic* 30Soids 3d sotids modeling program wfeample Bocks date tiles draws blocks Cubes draws cubes Durar draws pictures in toe style of Durer Fscape draws fractal landscapes Hidden 3D drawing program, wfhidden line Jpad removal simple paint program Optical draw several optical elusions PaintBox simple paint program Shutte draws foe Shutte in 3d wreframe SpeoeArt graphics demo sjreaker speech utility Sphere draws spheres Spiral draws odor spirals ThreeOee 3d function plots Topography artificial topography Wheels draws ride graphics Xenos draws fractal planet
landscapes Abasle programs: Tools AddressBook simpledatebaae program for addresses Cardfile ample card tile database program Demo multiwindow demo Key Codes shows keycodesfor a key you press Menu run many Abesic programs from a MoreCdors menu way to gstmore colors on the screen at shapes once, using aliasing simple color shape designer Speakti speech and narrator demo Abasle programs: Gamsa BrickOut ctesdc computer brick wal game Othello also known as tgo' Saucer simple ahoot-em-up game Speling simple talking speling game ToyBox selectable graphics demo Abnlc programs: Sounds EntBrtainar plays
that tone HALS 000 pretends Kb a real computer Police simple poSoes'ren sound SugarPlum plays "The Dance of the Sugarplum C programs: Aterm FacrimT ample terminal program, &€ cc aid to compiing with Lattice C decvnt opposite of CONVERT for cross Dotty developers source code to tee dotty window demo echox unbt-etyie Rename expansion, partial fssterfp
8. CM) explainsuseof fast-fioaflng pdntmafo RxDate fixes future
dates on all tiies on a freed raw disk, S-E simple Workbench
dravwng program,S-E GfxMem graphic memory usage indicator, S-E
Grep searches for a given sfring in a fie, wite ham
documentation shows off the hold-and-modify method BM2Amiga of
color generation fast parallel cable transfers beteeen an
Mandel IBM and an Amiga Mandelbrot set program, S-E moire
patterned graphic demo, S-E objfix makes Lattice C object file
symbols quick visible to Week, &E quick rort strings routine
raw example sample window 10 selaoe turns on interlace mode,
S-E sparks qix-lypegraphic demo, S-E Other exacu table program
a: SpeechToy speech demonstration WhichFont displays all aval
able fonts Texts: 68020 describes 66020 speedup board from
Aliases CSA explains uses of foe ASSIGN command Bugs known bug
fst in Lattice C 3.02 CLICard reference card for Am igaDOS CLI
CLICommands guideto using foe CLI Commands shorter guide to
AmigaDOS EdCommands CLIcommands guide to toe ED edtor Rlenames
AmigaDOS tilenamewidcard HaHBright conventions explains rare
graphics chip6 teat can do ModemPins mowcotora description of
tee aerial port pinout RAMdisks tips on aetfng up your
RAM:disk ROMWack fpe on using ROMWack Sounds otplsnaf on of
the hsfrumentdemo sound file format Speed refutation of the
Amiga's CPU and custom chip speed WackCmds tips on using Wack
AMICUS Disk 2 C program*: atib AmigaDOS object library manager
¦ S-E ar textfile archive program, S-E fixobj auto-chops
executable files shell simple Cll shell, S€ eq,usq lie
compression programs; S-E YachtC afamltorgame.SE Mato a simple
Vnake* programming utility, S- E Emacs an early version of tie
Amiga text editor, S€-D Assembler programs: bsearchesm binary
search code q sort asm UnixcompafbieqsortO function, source
and C test program sefmpasn aetjmp() code for Lattice 3.02
Svprintf Unix system V compatible printf0 tree ao
UnixcompaiblebeeO function, 0-0 (This dsk formerly had FF
specification Res and examples.
Since ties spec is constantly updated, the FF spec files have been moved to their own disk in the AMICUS coiecbon. They are not here.)
John Draper Amiga Tutorials: ‘ describes animation algorithms tetorial on gadgets Menus team about Intuition menus AMICUS Disk 3 C programs: Xref aCcrosfrfe’ferencegea.S-E 6bitco!or extre-halt-brightdiip gfxdemo,S€ Chop furcate (chop) lies down to sin, S-E Cleanup removes sfrange characters from text lies CR2LF converts carriage returns to ine feed 8 in Amiga Res, S-E Error adds compfe errors to a C tile, S Halo windowex from toe RKM, S Kermit generic Kermit implementation, fiakey, no terminal mode, S-E Scales sound demo plays scales, S-E SkewB Rubik cube demo in hi-res colors, S-E
AmlgiBstecProgs(dr) Automate cellular automata simulation CrazyBghts card game Graph function graphing programs WithingHour a game AbasIC programs: Casino games of poker, blackjack, dice, and crape Gomoku also known as'othello' Sabotage eortof an adventure game Executable programs: Dsassem a 68000 disassembler, E-D DpSSde choweagivenatoflFFpictures;E-D Arrange a text formatting program, E-D Assembler programs: Argotarm a terminal program wite speech and Xmodem, &E AMICUS Dl*k4 Filee from the original Amiga Taehn teal BBS Note teat some of Ihese lies are old, and refer to older versions of the
operating system. These files came from the Sun system that served as Amiga technical support HO for most of 1985. These files do not carry a warranty, and arefor educational purposes only. Of course, that's not to say they donTwork.
Complete and nearly up-to-date C source to Image rf, an early version of tee foon Edtor. This is a litHe flaky, but compiles and rum An tatoif on demo, in full C source, inducting files: demomenuc, demomenu2.c, demoieq.e, getesdi.c. idemo.c, kterno.guide, idemoxnake, idemoaILh, nodose, and bcwritejc addmem.c add external memory to tee system bobtostc example of BOB use consoteKXc console D example craaportc create and delete ports create standard IO requests creating task examples diskio.c example of tack read and write source to the tdotty windowf demo dual playfeld example flood fill example
old version of freemap* tools for Vsprites and B06s graphic memory usage incticator window example from RKM adding an input handler to tee input stream reacting the joystick direct keyboard reading layers examples tote mouse port dotty.c dualplay.c 1ood.c freemap.c gfitmemc hello.c inputdev.c joystikc toybd.c layerte&c mousportc ownltox; ownlfomm with perabstc example of making your own library tests parallel port commands testa serial port commands serisampc example of serial port use prininfrjo sample printer interface code prtbeseh printer dwioe definitions reginte&c region test program
setiac&c source to interlace onfoff program sstperallel£ setthe attributes oftheparaflel port SetSerialjc setthe attributes (parity, data bite) of tee serial port singplay.c single playfeld example speechtoy.c source to narrator and phonetics demo fimedely.c ample timer demo tmer.c exec support timer functions fmrstufjc moreexecsupportfmer functions WfvchFontc loads and ctisplays el available system fonts processj and prtbas&i assmeblar indude files: autcxqsfr.txt warnings ofdeactioctowite copy of the RKM console 10 chapter waning of disk font loading bug list of titieines, macros, functions
preliminary copy of the inputdevice consoleD.trt ctiskfonltxt fu!lfune.txt 'mputdev.trt License information on Workbench disfribuf on license printer pre-release copy of the chapter on printer drivers, from RKM 1.1 vl 1f±txt foifP of .fd Re changes from version
1. 0 to 1.1 v28v1. fff ttff of include file changes from version
2Bto 1.0 AMCUSDtahS Rlsafrom tee AMIGAUnk Amiga Information
Natimrk Note that some of these Res are old, and refer to
older versions of the operating system. These files are from
Amiga Link. For a time; Commodore supported Amiga Link, aka
AIN, for online developer technical support It was only up and
running for several weeks; These files do not carry a
warranty, and are for educational purposes only. Of course,
thafs not to say teey don't work.
A damo of Intuition menus aMled 'menudamo'.ln C source whereisx find a file searching all subdirectories BOB programming example sound synthesis example Assam War flits: mydev.asm sample device driver mytitxasm sample ibrary example mytibJ mydevj asmsuppti macro&i assembler indude Res Texts: amigsticks tips on Cucommands extttisk external dsk specification gameport gameportspec parallel parallel port spec serial serial port spec v1.1updato list of new tisetores in version 1.1 v1.1h.td W of include file changes from version 1.0 to 1.1 Rles for building your own printer drivers; including
dospetiaLc; epsondat&c; initasm, printer.c; printer.link, printertag.asm, render.c, and waitasm. This disk does contain a number of files describing tee FF specification. These are not tee tatiBst and greatest files, but remain here for historical purposes. They indude text files and C source examples. The latest FF spec is elsewhere in teis Ibrary.
AMCUS Disk 6 FF Pictures This disk includes tee DPSIide program, which can view a given series of FF pictures, and tee ’showpic' program, which can view each file at tee dick of an icon, and tee tsaveibm' program, to turn any screen into an FF picture. The pictures include a screen from ArticFox, a Degas dancer, the guys at Electronic Arte, a gorilla, horses; King Tut a lightoouse, a screen from Marble Madness, the Bugs Bunny Marfan, a still from an old movie, the Dire Straits moving company, a screen from Rnbell Contraction Set a TV newcaster, tee PaintCan, a world map a Porsche, a shuttle
mission patch, a tyrannosaurus rex, a planet view, a VISA card, and a ten- speed.
AMICU8DI»k7 DiglVJew HAM dtmo picture disk This disk has pictures from tee DigiVtew hoW-and-modfy video digitizer. It indudes tee lades with pends and Idlypopa; tee young girl, tee bulldozer, tee horse and buggy, tee Byte cover, the dictionary page, the robot and Robert This includes a program to view each picture separately,.
And all togeteer as separate, slidable screens.
AifliSJMI C programs: Browse viewtextflesona Ssk,uring menus S4E-0 Crunch removes comments and white spaoe from C files, S-E loonExee EXECUTE a series of commands from Workbench S-E PDScreenDump dumps Rastportof highest screen to printer sets a second image for an icon, when ricked once S-E makes windows for a CLI program to run under Workbench S-E SmailClock a small dgital dock that site in a .
Window menu bar Scrim per tee screen printer in tee fourti Amazing Computing, S-E Amiga Basic Programs: (Note: Many of these programs are present on AMICUS Bsk1. Several of teen were converted to Amiga Bade, andareinduded here) AddressBook a simple address book database Bell drewsebafl . .
Cload program to convert CompuServe textiles to binary, S-D Clue the game, tuition driven CdorArt art drawing program DduxeDraw the drawing program in foe 3rd issue of Amazing Computing, S-D Eliza conversational computer Othello the game, as known as feo' Sdratnazegame boggling graphics demo draws 3D pictures of tee space shuttie ROR Shutte Spelling simple spelling program YoYo wierd rero-gravity yo-yo demo, tracks yo o tothemoun Executable programs: 30cube Modula-2 demo of a rotating cube Alteon sets a second icon image, displayed when the icon is dicked AmigaSpefl a dowbutsimple spell
checker, E-D arc the ARC Re compression program, must-have for tiBiecom.E-D Bertrand graphcsdemo ditkselvage prog, to rescue trashed disks, E-D KwikCopy a quick but nasty cfekcopy program: ignores errors; E-D LibDir lists hunks in an object fie E-D SeveLBM saves any screen as FF pi&E-D ??
ScreenDump shareware screen dump prog, E only StarTerm version 2.0, term program. Xmodem E-0 Texts: LatticeMan tips on tixing_manx in Lattice fflSskDrive makeyourown$ 1 4drive GuruMed explains the Gura numbers LaftOObugs bug list of Lattice C version 103 Nforgefiev uoerbviewofteeMcroForgeHD RirttSpooter EXECUTE-based print spool prog.
• BMAPfllas: These are tee necessary links between Amiga Basic
and the system Itoraries. To take advantage of the Amiga's
capacities in Base; you need these files; BMAPs are induded for
Idisf, Iconsoto', tiiskfonf, 'exec', Icon', Intuition',
layers', ‘mstoffp', mateieeedoubes', ‘mateieeesing ties’,
VnatetranV, otgo', Timer' and w---- vansiaor.
AMICUS Disk 9 Amiga Basle ftegrams: RightSm simple fight simulator program HuePaletto explains Hue, Saturation, and ex of doing requesters from Amiga Basic The AMICUS & Fred Fish Public Domain Software Library This software is collected from user groups and electronic bulletin boards around the nation. Each Amicus disk is nearly full, and is fully accessible from the Workbench. If source code is provided for any program, then the executable version is also present. This means that you don't need the C compiler to run these programs. An exception is granted for those programs only of use to
people who own a C compiler.
The Fred Fish disk are collected by Mr. Fred Fish, a good and active friend of the Amiga.
Note: Each description line below may include something like 'S-0-E-D which stands for 'source, object file, executable and documentation'. Any combination of these letters indicates what forms of the program are present Basic programs are presented entirely in source code format SaollDemo demons* otes scrolling cspabiiites quick quick disk-to-disk nibble copier, E-b Texts: Amazing Computing. ROT edits Syntieazer sound program quickEA copies Elecfronic Arts disks, removes fons.tict' explains escape sequences the CON: and displays polygons to create WorldMap draws a map of tie world
protection, E-D device responds to.
Three dimensional objects. Upto Executable programs: txed 1.3 demo of text editor from Microsmiths, Pkey' indudes template tor making paper to 24 frames of animation can be Boingl latest Boingl demo,witi selectable E-D sit to tie fray atthe top of the Amiga created and displayed. E-D speed,E C programs keyboard.
Scat Like tog, windows on screen run Brush2C converts an FF brush to C data spin3 rotating blocks graphics demo, S-E-D 'Spawn' programmer's document from away from tie mouse, E-0 instructions, iiifalizafoncode, E popdi start a new CLI at the press of a Commodore Amiga describs ways to use the DK Decays' tie CLI window into dust.
Brush2bon converts FF brush to an icon, E button, like Sidekick, S-E-D Amiga's multitasking capacities in your own in Module 2, S-E-D Dazzle graphics demo, tracks to mouse, E vsprte Vsprite example code from programa DropShadow2 Adds layered shadows to DeoGEL assembler program for stopping Commodore, S-E-0 Workbench windows, E-D 68010 errors, S-E-0 AmigaBBS Amiga Basic bulletn board prog., SO AmlgaBule programs: Disk 19 Nock menu-ber dock and date display, E Assembler programs 'Grids' draw sound waveforms, and hear tiem This disk carries several programs from Amazing life the game of life, E
starlO makes star f elds like Star Trek played.
Computing. The FF pictures on this tfsk include the Amiga TimeSet Intuition-based way to set tie f me intro, S-EO light a version of fie Tronlight-cycb video Wake part T-shirt logo, a sixteen-color hi-res image of and date, Pictures game.
Andy Griffith, and five Amiga Uvel pictures from the EMEmaca another Emacs, more oriented to Mount Mandelbrot 3D view of Mandelbrot set VigaSoP a game of solitaire.
Amazing Stories episode tiatfeatured the Amiga.
Word processing, S-E-0 Star Destroyer hi-res Star Wars starship 'Stats' program to calculate batting averages Solve Linear equation solver in assembly MyCll a Oil she!, works without the Robot robot arm grabbing a cylinder Money'
* 1ry to grab all the begs of money that language, S-E-D
Workbench, S-E-0 Texts you can.'
Gadgets Bryan Catteyfo AmigaBasic tutorial, Texts: vendors Amiga vendors, names, addresses AMICUS 15 a!60 includes too beautiful FF pictures, of the S-0 FnctoKeys explains howto read function keys cardco f xes to early Cardco memory boards enemy walkers from the ice planet in Star Wars, and a picture Household Bryan Catteyfo AmigaBasic from Amiga Basic cindude cross-referenoe to C indude ties, who of a cheetah.
Household inventory program, SO HackerSIn explains how to win tie game includes what AMICUS 16 Wawform Jim Shields' Waveform Workshop in tracker1 mindwalker dues to playing tie game well fcW* demo by Eric Graham, a robot juggler AmigaBasic, S-D tstsaoio guide to installing a 66010 in your Amiga slideshow make your owi slideshows from the Kateidoscopedisk boundng fvee mirrored balls; with sound effects. Twenty-four frames of DitkUb John Kerman's AmigaBasic disk librarian program, SO PrintBfTlp tips on sendng escape sequences to your printer AMICUS Disk 13 Amiga Basic programs HAM animation are
flipped quickly to produce this image. You control the Subscripts Ivan Smittifo AmigaBasic subscript example, SO StartupTip tipson setting up your startup- Roufnes from Carolyn Scheppner of CBM Tech Support, to
- speed of the juggling. The author String, Boolean C programs
and executables for sequence tie reed and display IFF pictures
from Amiga Basic With documentation hints that tvs program
Harriet Maybeck Tolly's Intuition XfrmrReview list of programs
fiat work wth the documentation. Also included is a program to
do screen prints might someday be avatiable as a tutorials; SOD
Transformer in Amiga Basic, and tie newest BMAP files, with a
corrected product Skinny C Bob Riemersmafo example for Printer
Drivers: ConvertFD program. With example pictures, and the
SaveHBM FF pictures making smati C programa S-EO Printsr
drivers for tie Canon PJ-1080A, fra C Itoh screen capture
Parades of the covers of Amiga World end Amazing OOMAL.fi Make C look like COMAL header file, Prowriter, an improved Epson driver that eliminates Computing magaztoea SO streaking, tie Epson LQ-800, the Gemini Star-10, the NEC Roufnes to load and play FutureSound and FF sound ties from C programs: EmacsKey Makes Emacs function key 6025A, the Okidata ML-92, tie Panasonic KX-P10xx family, Amiga Basic, by John Foust for Applied Visions. With Tiputiandler' example of making an input hander.
Deflations by Greg Douglas, S-D and the Smith-Corona D300, with a document describing documentation and C and assembler source for writing your own PheZap3' binary Be editing program Amon 1.1 Snoop on system resource use, E-D tie installation prooesa libraries, and interfacing C to assembler in libraries. With ¦ShowPrinf dsplays FF picture, and prims it BTE Bard's Tale character editor, EO AMICUS Disk 10 Instrument sound demos example sound.
¦Gan' program indexes and refrieves C Size CLI program shows tie size of a This is an icon-driven demo, diculated to many dealera It structures end variables declared to given set of BeaE-D includes the sounds of an acoustic guitar, an alarm, a banjo, a Executable programs the Amiga include Be system.
WinSize CLI window utility resizes current bassguitar, a boink, a calliope, acar horn, claves, water drip, gravity Sd Amer Jan 66 gravitation graphic Executable Programs: window, S-E-D electric guitar, a tula, a harp arpegio, a kickdrum, a simulation, S-E-D PtxHunk2* repairs an executable program tile for Disk 20 marimba, a organ minor chord, people talking, pigs, a pipe Texts expanded memory Compactor, Decoder Steve Michel AmigaBasic tools, S-D organ, a Rhodes piano, a saxophone, a Bitar, a snare drum, a MIDI make your own MDI instrument lms2snius’ converts Music Studio Bes to FF BobEd BOB
and Eprite editor written in C, steel drum, bells, a vibrophone, a violin, a wailing guitar, a interfaoe, wth documentation and a hi-res standard’SMUS'format (haveheard S-E-D horse whinny, and a whiste.
Tvs program mighthave a few bugs, SpriteMasterll Sprite editor and animator by Brad AmSJHiUl AMICUS Dilk 14 especially in regards to very long Kiefer, E-D C programs Several programs from Amazing Computing issues: songs, but it works to most cases.
BlitLab Blitter chip exploration C program dirutl Intuition-based, CLI replacement Tools Missfle' Amiga version of tie Missile Command' by Tomas Rokicki, S-EO tie manager, S-E DanKaryfo C structore index program, S-E-D videogame, Fpic Image processing program by Bob cpri shows and adjusts priority of CLI Amiga Basic programs Bush loads and saves FF imagea processes; S€ BMAP Reader by Tim Jones This disk also contains several files of scenarios for Amiga changes them with several ps shows info on CLI processes, S-E IFFBrush2B06 by Mike Swinger Right Simulator IL By putting one of these seven
files on a techniques, E-D vidtex displays CompuServe RLE pics, S-E AutoRequester example ¦ blank disk, end inserting it in the drive after performing a Benkn Complete home banking program, AmigaBasic programs DOS Helper Windowed help system for CLI special command in this game, a number of interesting locations balance your checkbook! E-D poimered pointer and sprite editor program commands, S-E-0 are preset into tie Right Simulator program. For example, one cons Console devioe demo program with optima optimizati on ex ample from AC PETrans fransiates PET ASCIIflesto ASCII scenario places your
plane on Alcatraz, while another puis you in supporting macro routines article tiles, S-E-D Central Park freemap Creates a visual diagram of free calendar targe, animated calendar, diary and C Squared Graphics program from Scientific AMICUS 17 memory date book program American, Sept 66, S-E-D Telcommunicafonsdskvfouch contains six terminal programs.
Inputdev sample input hander, fr aps key or amortize loan amorlzatjorts crtf adds or removes carriage returns from ’Comm* V1.33 term prog, wifi Xmodem, Wxmodem, mouse evente brushtoBOB converts small FF brushes to ties, S-E-D
• ATerm* V7.2 term prog, includes Super Kermit joystick Shows how
to set up the gameport AmigaBasc BOB OBJECTS dpdecode decrypts
Deluxe Paint, removes copy VM00*V2.6 DeveWeckerfo VT-100
emulatorwiti devioe asajoystick.
Grids draw and play waveforms protection, E-D Xmodem,Kermit and scripfng keyboard demonstrates direct communicafilbert draws Hubert curves queryWB asks Yes or No from the user, returns ‘Amiga Kermit* V4D(060) port of tie Unix C-Kermit tions with the keyboard.
Maeflib mad Itb story generator exit code, S-E
* VTek'V2.ai Tekfronix graphics terminal emulator layers Shows
use of the layers library mailtalk talking mailing list program
vc VsiCalc type spreaddieet, no mouse based on the VT-100 prog.
V2.3 end mandelbrot FF Mandelbrot program meedews3D 30 graphics
program, from control, E-D contains latest'ard file compression
mouse hooks up mouse to right joystick Amazing Computing111
artde view views text tiles wifi window and slider ‘AmigaHost*
V0.9 for CompuServe, todudes RLE port mousetrack mouse tracking
example in hires gadget E-D graphics abilities &CIS8 Be
oneAundow console window demo mode Oing, Sproing, yaBoing,
Zoing are sprite-based Boingl style transfer protocol.
Parallel Demonstrates access to tie parallel slot slot machine game demos, S-E-D TixHunk* expansion memory necessity port tctactoe the game Cldock,8Clock,wClock are window border docks; SE-D TixObj* removes garbage characters from printer opening and using the printer, does switch pachinko kegame Texts modem received tiles a screen dump, notworking weird makes sfrange sounds An artide on long-persistanoe phospor monitor tips on making
* Txf Bibts text tiles from otier systems print support Printer
support routines, not Executable programs brushes of odd shapes
in Deluxe Paint, and recommendations on to be read by tie Amiga
CP urvx-lke copy command, E icon interfaces from Commodore-Amiga.
'addmem' executeable version for use wti mem proctest sample process creation code, not ds screen dear, S-E AMICUS 13 expansion article to Acv2.3 working diff u nix-like stream etitor uses fliff Ths C programs Include: ¦are' Be documentation and a basic tutorial region demos split dramng regions oufeuttofixtles V a fife prinfng utiity, which can print on un forcing ties sampiefont sampiefont with info on creating pm chart recorder performances tiles in the background, and wifi line numbers and control forcre* for makeing‘arc* files E.C. your own indicator character titering.
1m' AMCUSD»«k16 serial Demos the serial port Assembler programs dsplays a chart of tie blocks allocated Logo Amiga version of fie popular singlePlayfield Creates 320 x 200 playfield ds screen clear and CLI argument onadisk.
Computer language, witi example speech toy latest version of cute speech demo example
• Ask* questions an foxecute' tile, retoms si programa E-0
speech.demo simpiifed version of speechtoy, Modula-2 error code
to confrol the execution in T Text Demo version of the TVText
with D requests tails movingwwrm graphics demo trat batch fie
character generator textdemo displays available fonts
casecorarert converts Modula-2 keywords to
• Staf an enhanced version of AmigaDOS Page Setter Freely
distributable versons of tie timer demos fmer.devioe use
Updated PagePrtot and PageFF trackdiGk demos frakcdisk driver Forti Breshehan circle algoriftm example Dissolve' random-dot dissolve demo displays IFF programsfor tie PageSetter Fred Fish Public Domain Software Analyze 12 templates for the spreadsheet picture slowly, dotby dot, to a random desktop publishing package.
Fashioa Ful Window Resizes any CLI window using only Fred Rsh Disk 1: There are four programs here fiat read Commodore 64 PopO-P invoke new CLI window at tie press of CLI commends, E-D amigademo Graphical benchmark for comparing picture flea They can fanslate Koala Pad, Doodle, Print a key.
Ljfe3d 3-D version of Conwayfo LIFE amigas.
Shop and News Room graphics to FF format Of course, .
The executable programs Indues: Defoisk program, E-D amigatarm simple communications program gating fra ites from your G-64 to your Amiga is tie hard Form' tile formating program through tie CLI utility to reassign a new witi Xmodem part printer driver to select print styles Cafendar.WKS Workbench disk, S-E-D betis simulation of tie 'kinetic tiingy* mmmu DiskCaf catalogs disks; maintains, sorts,merges Lotos-compatible worksheet that with balls on strings Executable programs fists of disk files SetKsy makes calendars colorfo!
Shows off use of hold-and-modify dink fetink'competibte Inker, but faster, Psound' SunRize hdustrios1 sampled sound Demo of keyboard key re-' mode.
E-D editor & recorder programmer.witi FF picture to dirystone Dhrystone benchmark program.
Dean spins the disk for use wifi disk ’Icon maker' makes icons for most programs make function key labels, E-D dotty Source to the 'dotty window' demo cleaners, E-0 Fractals' draws great fractal seascapes and VPG Video pattern generator for on the Workbench dick.
Epsonset sends Epson settings to PAR: from mounta'necapes.
Aligning monitors, E-D freed raw A small 'pdnf type program with tinea menu, E-0 ¦3D Breakout 3D glasses; create breakout to a new HP-10C Hewlett-Packard-like calculator, E- boxes, ete.
Showbig view hi-res pictures in low-res dtoiension D gad John Draper's Gadget tutorial program 6uperbitnap,E-D 'AmigaMonitor' displays lists of open files; memory use, SetPrefs Change tie Preferences settings gfxmem Graphical memory usage display prog.
Speaktime tell the time, E-D tasks, devices and ports in use.
Ontiety,toC,S€-D halfbrite demonstrates ¦Exfra-Haff-Brite* undelete undeletes a tie, E-D Dosmorddaf verso not'aster olds’for tie Amiga StarProbe Program etudes stellar evolution.
Mode, if you have it cnvapWhm converts Apple J low, medium and Szztersf high resolution graphics demo written C source included for Amiga and hello ample window demo high res pictures to FF, E-D toModu!a2.
ROT MS-DOS. SE-D latffo accessing tie Motorola Fast Boating menued menu editor produces C code for menus; E-D C version of Colin French's AmigaBasc ROT program from palette Point library from C Sample prog, to design color palettea frackdisk Demonstrates use of the trackdsk " '"treK73" ... Star Trek game &rifiiUM29; Shar Unix-compatible shell archiver, for requesters driver.
Yachts Dice game.
AmigaToAtari converts Amiga object code to Atari packing files for towel.
John Draper's requester tutorial end FrriFMiDltkll; slide show program for displaying FF format SuperfiitMap Example of using a ScrolILayer, syncing example program.
Dpsfide DisKSelv ' program to recoveries from a SuperBitMape for printing, and speech Sample speech demo program.
FredR LP!.k12; images with miscellaneous pictures freshed AmigaDOS disk.
Creating dummy RaaPorts.
Stripped down ‘Speechtoy*.
Shows a rotating 3 dimensional solid Hash example of the AmigaDOS disk hashing Fred Rah Nek 20 Bpeechtoy Another speech demo program.
Amiga3d fonction AegisDrawDemo Demo program witiwut save and no FrriEltlJMi ArgoTerm
• Amiga sign*.
Hd Hex dump uti ity ala Computer docs.
Alib Object module ibrarian.
A terminal emulator program, written Language magazine, Apri 66 Animator Demo Rayerfor tie Aegis Animator fifes oc Unix-like Iron tend for Lattice C to assembler MandelBrots Mandelbrot contest winners Cc Unix-ike front-end for Manx C dbug compter.
Arrow3d Shows a rotating 3 dmensiona! Wre MuftTasking Tutorial and examples for Exsc level Enough Tests for existenoe of system Macro based C debugging package.
Mutt tasking resources; files; and devices make Machine independent Id4 dredory listing program Pack strips whitespace from C source Rubik Animated Rubik's cube program Subset of Unix make command.
KxmExec too programs for launching programs PortHandler sample Port-Handier program that 8trlngUb Public domain Unix string library make2 Another make subset command.
Se Window performs Shows BCPL environment functions microemacs Small version of emacs editor, with from Workbench that presentiy only dues.
WOO VT-100 terminal emulator with Kermit macros, no extensions work under CLL Random Random number generator in assembly, and Xmodem protocols portar Portable tie arefwer.
SetAltemate Makes an icon show a second image for Cor assembler.
Fred Rah Disk 30 xrf DECUS C cross reference utility.
SterTerm when cEcked once SelMouse2 eeb the mouse portto right or left Several shareware programs The authors request a donation FredRth Disk 3: Gothic font banner printer.
Terminal emulator, with ASCII Xmodem, SpeechTerm terminal Emulator with speech If you find tiieir program useful so tirey can write more gothic Fred Fish D(sk13: (taler, more.
Capacities; Xmodem software.
Roff A 'roff* type text formatter.
TxEd Demo editor from Mcrosmithfe Charlie BBS an Amiga Basic BBS by Ewan If A very fast text formatter A Bundle of Basic programs. Including: Heetii Grantham cforth A highly portable forth implementation.
Jpad toybox ezspeak Fred Rsh Bek 21 RneArt Amiga art xlisp Lots of goodies.
Mandlebrot xmodem Sdsolids Tws is a copy of Thomas Wtox* Mandelbrot Set Explorer Fon (Editor edit fonts; by Tim Robinson Xlisp 1.4, not working cor reefy.
Addbook algebra ror disk. Very good I MenuEdito Create menus; save them as C source, Fred Rsh Dltk 4: Prints horizontal banner amgseql amiga-copy bend FredRth Disk 22 by David Rehrson banner bounce box brickout This disk contains two new'strains’ of microemacs; SterTermao Ifery rtoe tolecommunieations by Jim bgrep A Boyer-Mooregrep-Eke utility canvas cardf dicte Lamacs version 3.6 by Dame! Lawrence. For Nanoano bison CNU Unix replacement Yooc1, not cofortandes Copy cubesl Unix V7, BSD 4.2, Amiga, MS-DOS, (Fred Fish Dsk 30 is free when ordered witii at least tree bm working.
Cutpaste date dag star VMS. Uses Amiga function keys, other disks from the coSecticn.)
Another Boyer-Mooregrep-ike utility dragon draw dynamicfriangle status line, execute, sterfop tiles, Fred Rah Dltk 31 grep DECUS grep Eliza ezterm fifibuster mare.
Ufo Life game, uses bitter to do 196 kermit simple portable Kermit with no conned fractal fecape gomoku Fsmacs By Andy Poggio. Newfeaforestocfode generations a second.
Dart haiku halffOOO ALT keys as Mete keys; mouse Mandelbrot Version 3i0 of Robert Frenchfe Replacement CLI for the Amiga. V. 1.0 halley hauntedM hidden support, higher priority, backup tiles, program.
Mandel A Mandelbrot set program, by Robert join loz mandel word wrap, fonction toys.
MxExample Mufoal exclusion gadgetexample.
French and RJ Mical menu mNpeint mouse FredRth Dltk 23 Ram Speed Measure relative RAM speed, chip and Console device demo program with OrfrveCo patch pena Disk of sou roe for Micro Em acs, several versions to most fast cons pinwheel gbox random-a ides popular operating systems on micros and mainframes. For Set Replacement for tire Manx *aet* freemap supporting macro routines.
Readme rgb rgbtest people who want to port Micro Em acs to their favorite machine.
Command tor environment variables, Creates a visual dagram of free memory Roid sabotage salestalk Fred Rah Disk 24: wifi improvements inputdev sample input handler, traps key or mouse shades shapes shuttle Conques interstaller adventure simulation game Tree Draws a recursive tree, green leafy joystick events sketchpad spaceart speckspeach Csh update to shefl on Disk 14, with built in type, not ties.
Shows howto set up the gameport speedieasy spell sphere commands,named variables TxEd Crippled demo verson of Microsmitiifc device as ajoysbek.
Spiral sfriper superpad substitution.
Text editor, TxEd.
Keyboard demonstratesdirect communications suprshr talk terminal Modula-2 A pre-release version of the single Vdraw Ful-featured drawing program by layers wth the keyboard.
Shows use of toe layers library temntest triangle ton topography wheels xenos pass Modula-2 compiler originally developed for Mactotosh otETHZ.
Xicon Stephen Vermeu Sen.
Invokes CLI scripts from icon mandebret FF Mandelbrot program xmostriper Thscode was transmitted to the Tfeon D splays textiles from an icoa mouse hooks up mouse to right joysfck port (note: some programs are Aba sic, most are Amigebasic, and AMIGA and is executed on the AMIGA FredR«hDlik32 one.windaw parallel console window demo Demonsfrates acoess to the parallel some programs are presented in botii languages) FrrfFMPtekU; FredRth Disk 25 using a 6pedal loader. Binary only.
Address Extended address book written in AmigaBasc printer port opening and using tie printer, does a amiga3d update of ff 12; includes C source to a foil hidden surface removal and 3D Graphic Hack A graphic version of the game on disks 7 and 8 This is the graphics-oriented Calendar CalendarWory program vwitton in AmigaBasia printsupport screen dump, networking graphics Hack game by John Toebea. Only the DosPfosI Frstvolume of CU oriented toolsfor Printer support routines, notworkrig.
Beep Sourcefor a function that generates a executable is present developers; proctBSt sample process creation code, nd beep sound FredRth Disk 26 DosPfos2 Second volume of CU oriented tools region working dex extracts text from within C source UnHunk Prooesses tire Amiga *hunk* toadfJes; for devefopera.
Demos spStdrawing regions files Co! Led code, date, and bes hunks together, allows individual Executables only: samplefont sample fontwifi info on creating your dmensions demonsfrates N dimensional graphics apecificafio ofcode, data, and bss origins, and generates binary MacView Views MacPaint pictures in Amiga low own filezap update of disk 10, a file patch utility tilewithformatremini8C0ntoflWx*a.out*format The output or high res; no sample picfores, by serial Demos frte send port gfxmem update of disk 1, graphic memory tile can be easily processed by a separate program to produce
ScottEvemden singlePlayfield speechtoy Creates 320 x 200 playfiekJ latest version of cute speech demo usage 9 indicator converts FF brush tiles to Image Motorola *S-records‘ suitable for downloacting to PROM pro crammer. Bv Eric Black.
Puzzle Smulation of puzzle with moving square ties.
Speech.demo simpfited version of speechtoy, with D struct inC text ShowHAM View HAM picfores from at textdemo timer tackdisk requeste displays avail stole fonts demostimerdeviceuse demos frakedsk driver pdterm shell termcap sanpfe ANSI VT100 terminal emulator.
To60x2S6creen simple Unix tsh'style shell mostly Unix compatible Termcap' Gkermit PS Arehx Port oithe Kermit tile fransfer program and server.
Display and set process priorities Yet anotier program for bunding up Solitaire Spin3 AbasiCgsmesof Cenfeld and Wondfce, from David Addison.
Graphics demo of spinning cubes, double-buffered example.
FredRth Disk 6: EtriiifftRiim implementation.
Toxtfte8and mailng or posting tirem 9m)fO deord of Fallen Angel text adventure compress lkeUrixcompress,alie squeezer graphics demo, Eke Unix Worms’ as a single fie unrt game written in Amiga Basic.
Dadc analog dock impersonator Blobs FredRth Disk 27 Trofls Leaves a fral behind mouse, in microemacs upgraded version of microemacs Clock simple digital dock program for toe Abdemos Amiga Basicdemosfrom Carolyn Modula-2 from disk 2 Dazzle fie bar Scheppner.
Fred Hah Dttet 33 mult removes mulf pie oocuring lines in An eight-fold symmefrydazzfer NewConwrFD creates.bmaps from tdfies 3dstara 3d verson of the ‘Stars’ program ties Rsh program. Redly pretty!
BtPlanes finds addresses of and writes to below.
Scales demos using sound end audio double buffered sequence cyde bitpianes of the screen's bitmap.
Bgmap Lowfeve! Graphics example scrolls fundi ons animation ofafsh AboulBmaps A tutorial on creation and use of bitmap vritii ScrotiVPort setparallel Allows changing parallel port Monopoly A really nioe monopoly game written in bmap& Dbutgels Doubfebultered animation example parameters OkktoteDump AbesiC.
Load IBM loads and displays IFF IBM pros.
FerBOBsandVSprito& setserial Allows changing serial port Okidata ML92 driver and WorkBench LoadACBM loads and displays AC8M pica DiakMapper Dsplays sector allocation of loppy parameters.
Polydraw screen dump program.
ScroenPrint creates a demo screen and dumps it to disks; sort quicksort based sort program, in C Adrawtog program written to AbesiC.
A graphic printer.
Mem View View memory in real time, move witii stripe Strips comments and extra Polyfractals A fractal program written in AbesiC.
Dtsassem Simple 66000 disassembler. Reads joystick.
Whitespace from C source standard Amiga object files and Oing Bouncing bells demo fiortfliUMZ; « compete copy ot me lares oevewper rr aw disassembles tire code sections. Data Sprang Ong, wifi sound effects.
This disk contains tiie executables of the game Hack V 1.0.1. rrwfim hmm; sections are dumped in hex. The actual Screen Dump Dumpshlghest screen or window to the Firi.Flfh.DlfiK.fi; i ne new i ok uigi-vtew vneo agnzer nAM oemo oisk dlsassember routines are setup to be printer.
This disk contains the C source to Hack on disk 7.
Fred Rsh Disk 9: FreapisnraskiB: AmigaDisplay dumb terminal program with bell, callable from a user program so instructions in memory can be Sdb Simple database program from a DECUS tape.
Moire Draws moire patterns in block and Ash selectable fonts disassembled dynAMIGAlly.
Stars Star feid demo, like Star Trek.
White I I i 1 Td «§ 1 By Bdl Rogers.
TermRus Terminal program witii capture, MVP-FORTH Mountain View Press Forth, version Browser nswy.ioope.ett IxwakKeymap Example of a keymap structure for the library, fonction keys; Xmodem,
1. 00.03A. A shareware verson of wanders a fle free, tisplays
tiles, ail Ixorak keyboard layout Untested CS-B protocols;
FORTH from Fantasia Systems.
MC68010 vrith the mouse but included because assembly Vt100 Version Z0 of Dave Weekerfe VT- profl a more powerful text formatting docs on upgrading your Amiga to use a examples are few and far between. By 100 emulator, with scripts and program Multidm MC6B010 Robert Bums of C-A.
Fonction setjaoe Program to toggle interlace mode rotate an N dmensional cube with a Hypocydotds Spirograph, from Feb. 64 Byte.
Fred Rah Dfak 34 on and oft PfgLatfn joystick UnesDemo Example of proportional gadgets to Altot Support tiles for GhnpeMM skewb a rubids cube type damo SAY command fiattalks in Pig Latin scroll a SuperBhMap.
Syntax checker sparks moving snake Graphics demo Scrimper Screen image printer Mem Expansion Schematics and directions to buikfing Btok PD 'slink'compatible linker, faster, FrrinihDlfiKlff; Xispl.6 source, docs; and executable for a Lisp your o*m homebrew 1 Mb memory belter.
Conquest An intarstefar adventure simulation Fred Fteh Disk 19: liter pretar.
Expansion, by Michael Fetitoger.
Browser Updated to FF 18 browser*, in game taxforiented blackjack game SafeMaloc Program to debug biallocfl'cals Manx, with toolbars, bug fixes.
Dehex convert a hex fie to binary Blackjack SdenoeOemos Convert Jutian to solar and sidereal Btree Mree date strucfore examples filezap Path program for any type of file.
JayMinerSEdes Sides by Jay Mner, Amgagraphfca time, stellar positions and redial Btree2 Another version of btree' fixobj Strip garbage off Xmodem chip designer, showing tiowchart of the velocity ep xh calculations and Galieen Calendar Appointment calendar with alarm.
Amiga internals, in 640x400.
SatielEte plotter. By David Eagle.
Loss Fle viewer, searching, position by iff Routines to reed and write iff Keymapjest test program to test tie keymapping FredRth Dltk 26 percent, line number.
Routines Abasicgames by David Addison: Backgammon, Cribbage, NawFonte Setof 28 new Amiga fonts from Id simple directory program LockMon Rnd undosed lie locks; for programs Mlestone.and Othello Bil Fischer Is Minimal UNIX Is, whh Unix-styfe wikfeardng, in C tiretdonTdeanup.
CPP DECUS Tcpp* C preprocessor, and a modtied be’that knows about the Pr Background printutifty, style options, wildcards; sq,usq tie squeeze and unsqueeze tcpp', for Manx C. Requester Deluxe Paint-type tile requestor, ...Wth.sampte.... „ Fred Fish Fred Rsh Disk 35 Dg2l0 Data General D-210 Terminal libraries searching tor multiply Palette rhmoA MfllhAF nfAflfOfflV errfifln AsendPacket C example of making asynchronous VO emulator MyUpdate defined symbols aiviw f« |rujTi 9 suwn coiora by Carolyn Schepper calls to a DOS handler, written by C-A DirUtil Windowed DOS interface program, Dsk update
utiKty with options for PipeDevice Allows the standard oulputofone ConsoleWindow C example of getting toe Intuition version 1.4 stripping commentsfrom C header process to be fed to the standard pointer a CON: or RAW: window, for DOS Helper Windowed AmigaDOS CLI help files, and interactive verification of toe input of another, by Matt Dion ktyfcyCA program Plot updating process ScreenSave Savea normal or HAM mode screen as DrUti Walk toe directory tree, do CU PagePrint Pints textiles wito headers; page Computes and displays 3dimensional an IFF fie. By Carolyn Schepper operations from menus
breaks; line numbers Polygon functions in hires ShanghaiDemo Dsmo version of toe Activision game DrtJtJ2 Another variant of DhdiL PopCU Starts a new CLI with a single Moire type pattern generator with Shanghai.
RleRequester Lattice C lie requester module, wito keystroke, from any program, Wth a color cycfing SoundExample A double buffered sound example lor demo driver, from Charie Heato.
Screen-asverfBatore. Verson 2, with ?Mouse Queries vtoetoer a mouse button is ManxC.byJimGoodnow MacView Views MacPaint pictures in Amiga low source.
Pressed. Tnscan give aretorn code VspritBS A working vsprite example, by Eric or high res, with sample pictures, by SpriteEd Sprite Editor edits two sprites at a that can customize a startup-sequence Cotton Scott Evernden.
Fme based on vtoetoer a mouse button was vtioo V2.6 of Dave's Vt100 terminal Plop Simple FF reader program X-Spell Spelling checker allows edits to ties Touch pressed.
Emulator wito kermit and xmodem. By Popai Sidekick-style program invokes a new FF 41 Example of setting toe datestamp on a DaveWecker CLI veto automatic screen Nanking.
AmigaVenture Create your own text adventure Be,using a new technique from EEM OuichCopy Devenportdisk copiefsdupiicate copyprograms in AMIGABesic.
Trees Commodore-Amiga QipBoard Clipboard device interface routines, to protected disks.
Csh Version 2.03 of Dion's Ceh-like shell.
More extensive version of toe frees provide a standard interfaoe. By Andy ScrolPf Dual plsyfiefd example, from C-A, Executable only EEM program on Disk 31 Finkle shows 400 x 388x2 bit pione Dbug Macro based C debugging package.
Version 1.1 of a shareware 68000 Con Packets Dem os the use of DOS Packets, ptayteld on a 320x200x2 plane deep update to FF 2 Asm ConUnit ete by Carolyn Schepper playfeld.
DuaFlayReld example from CBM, update to macro assembler, compatible with the GetDisks Program to find ail available dsk SendPacket Genera! Purpose subroutine to send htuiton manual Metacomco assembler. This indudes an device names and return toem as an AmigaDos packets.
GeFiie Heath's file requestor, wito source example startup module and more exec fist by PhiEp Lindsay SpriteMaker Sprite editor, can save work as C data LatXref Cross reference of Lattice 3.10 BreakOut Motorola mneumonba.
GetVolume Program to get volume name of toe structure. Shareware by Ray Larson.
Header files A brick breakout game, uses 30 volume that a given file resides on.
Tracker Converts any dsk into fies, for Lines Line drawing demo program DiskZap glasses by Chuck McMaris electronic transmission. Preserves SeFont Changes font used in a CU window Version 1.1 of a program to edtdisks lcon2C Reads an icon file and writes out a entire fie sbuctorei Shareware by vtioo Version 2.3 of the VT-100 terminal RrstSfiicon .
And binary fies fragment of Ccode wito toe icon data Trtdops3-D Brad W3 son.
Space invasion game, formerly FF42 program.
A smart CLI replacement wito fol editing and recall of previous Mor oMofn sfructures. By Carolyn Schepper Program to merge toe MemList entries commercial, now public domain. From This dsk contains an Amiga version cfMrcroGNUEmaca commands of sequentially configured RAM Geodesic RABcations; FF43 Missile A Missile Command-type game, wito boards, by Carolyn Schepper Tsize Print total 8s» of allies in subdirectories.
BesicBoing AmigaBesc program demos page tipping of a 3D cube PerfectSound sound, in assembler Sound editor for a lowcost sound mCAD An object oriented drawing program, V1.1 by Tim Mooney UnWef Cpreprocessor to removeghren Bbm Demo copy of B.E.S.T. Business digitizer EEM ifdefd sections of a tile, leaving toe Management System.
Sizzfers Graphics demos CutAndPaste Implementaions of Unix cut and paste rest alone. By Dave Yost BbsList A 1st of Amiga Bulefn Board UnixArc Version of'arc1 for Unix System V commanda by John Weald Vttost VT-100 emulation test program.
Systems machines; in C Graph it Progran to plot simple functions to 2 Requires a Unix system.
Cc CcompJer frontends for Manx and Wombat Version 3.01 of Dam Warkerfc or 3 dimensions, by Rynn Fishman EttttilUMM Lattice C FF51 terminal emulator Juggler V1.2 of robotjuggter animation. Uses Acp Unix-like bp'copy program Copper A hardware copper list disassembler GNU for Unix yaod, working update to HAM mode and ray taring, by Eric Oock Updated version of dock on disk 15.
InstFF Converts hstiumente demo sounds to Bison Graham Ceh Manx bah'-f ke CU, history, variables, FF sampled sounds Compress dsk 4 version MouseReader Shareware program to read text lies ete.
PopColours Adjust RGB colore of any screen Update to toe tile compression and via* FF files using only toe mouse.
DietAxf Diet planning aid organizes recipes, SpritoClock Simple dock is displayed on a sprite Cos program on Dsk 6 by William Betz calories above all screens
• Wheel of Fortene’-type game in Ogre Game of tactical ground
combat to toe Echo hi proved tacho' command wth color, ST
Emulator Non-serious Atari ST emulator DifSeod AmigaBasic year
2086. By Michael Caplinger; cursor addressing Wbrun Lata
Workbench programs be run from Unix-tike Wand’teed'forfindngthe
differences between too tiles; and then recreating the other,
given one Be, and the 1st of difference!
Portable versons of the CRM squeeze and unsqueeze Amiga port by Hobie Orris RxHunk Rxs programsto letthem run in toe CLI Splines Program to demonstrate curve fitting external memory.
Wild Two Unix shall style wBdcard matohing and rendering techniques, by Fm KckBench Maps toe sectors a f la uses on toe dsk.
Docs, program to make a single risk FF 44 Icons roufnes Miscellaneous icons Sq,Usq EES Assign EEM ASOG-rrd Helene (Lee) Taran Exfremaiy useful shareware that works iks a Kckstart and ur i.i----l. V?DfKD0nCfl lto*rF New IFF material from C8Mfor sampled voice and music ties Replacement for AmigaDOS 'assign' recoverable ram dsk. By fterry Kivolowitz Lex Computes Fog, Reach, and Kincaid RayTracePfcs The famous rey-fradng pictures; Fractal command in C Makes random fractal terrains Workbench-type demos for making BgVSew D splays any FF picture, independent Tunnel Vision reedabiity of text lies.
David Addson Abesic 3D maze HAM format from FFI39, now converted to FF for‘much* faster viewing.
Poly.HAMPdy of toe physical display size, using hardware scroll by John Hodgson Vc vtioo perspecfvegame.
Visicate-iie spreodsheetcakulator program.
Version 22 of Dave Weckerb telecom program ViewHBM FF45 Clue Make Pictures Displays normal and HAM LBM ties Clue board game Another bfiake', wito more features Miscellaneous pictures MxGads Tek4010 Vdraw polygons in lores and HAM Example of mutual exclusion gadgets wito GadgefText Tekfrerix 4010 terminal emulator Versions 1.16 and 1.19 of a Deluxe Egraph HyperBese Reads pars of x and y value from a fist of fies and daws a formatted graph, by Laurenece Turner Shareware data management system.
V1J YaBoing Oingl style game program shows Update Updates an older disk with newer flea EES Animafons Paint-lke drasMng program MemCleer Waks to rough toe free memory lists, Fred Ffih Ditk 37 sprite colirion defects Wherels from anotoerdisk Searches adsk forties of given name Demo animations wito player program for Aegis Animator Creates rename scripts for files wito zeroing free memory along toe way. By John Hodgson This disk is a pwl of Timothy Budtfs Utte Smalltalk system.
EEM ARCre NawZAP A toird-generalon multi-purpose tile done by Bill Kinnersiey at Washington State University.
Asm Shareware 68010 macro assembler, sector edting utility. V3.0 by John Eud£lltl.DilU& ROM Kernel Manual compatible long names, so they can be easty Hodgeson Csquared Sep 86 Sd American, Circle Squared aigoritom CheckModem taecuto' file program detects presence of modem ARP tarcfed and un'arcfed.
Preliminary AmigaDOS replacements for break', W, Vtomod'. Techo', ’Benoto'andbtakedr' Not fufiy ported to the Amiga, this is a RainBow A Maurauder-Style rainbow generator, by John Hodgson RxObj Strips garbage off Xmodem Egad Gadget edter from the Programmers SMUSPIayers Two SMUS plays, to play SMUS FF Harder fransfared object files AmigaDOS harrier (device) example Jive Transforms a fie from English to Jva Compitor music formatted flesL by IaUh Uflifineixi jonn rtooQSon from C-A My Jib A binary only copy of Math alternate 68000 C compiler. Itwil produce simple assembly language output, but
needsatotofworic Update with source of the W View A tiny LBM viewer by John Hodgson Hp-10c Mimics a HP-10C calculator, written runtimefibrary. Auto or: Matt Df bn Wbdump JX-60 optimized workbench printer IFFEncode in Modula-2 Saves the screen as an FF tie RrofMacros Subset Berkeley W and W macros toryroff Spreadsheet that does not use DumpRFort by John Hodgson fflXxnp Dumps info about an FF tie ValSpeek Transforms a Be from English to TarSpIt spread sheet on dsk 36 id Fish Disk 59 Jsh BOS C-titoCU shell FF47 3D-Arm Valley Speak.
Port of program to spft Unix Tar* archivos Browser Update to browser program on dsks NewStat STATUS-lke program, shows priority, processes Simulatbn of a robofc arm, very goad Uuencode Ubtileato encode and decode binary 16 and 34. S€ Browser2 Anottw different browser prog ram.
He vers Game of Reversi, version 6.1 graphics, teaching tool, including C Besfor ASCII transmission, expanding E Uudecode Translate binary ties to text Unix- source.
EEM Hanoi them by 35 percent Dock Clock program wito fonts, colora E Vdraw ike programs Drawing program, version 1.14 Juggler Eric Grahamb stunning HAM animation of a robot juggler Solves Towers of Hanoi Problem in rfs own Workbench window, by AliQzer Port of a Unix screen oriented, Dme programmers. E-D Dllon text edtorV1.22 for VoiceRter DX MKX synthesizer voice tier program VT-100 Vsrsbn 2.4of Dave Weckerb terminal emulator, wilh Xmodem and Kermitfle Bpel DopQoto backdrop. E-D Puts a pattern on toe Workbench ue.j___ WlnQOW Example ofcreatng a DOS window on acustom screen EEM fransfer
protocols interactive spellng checker.
(Expansion RAM required) by Paoe DopShadow E-D Puts shadows on Workbench windows.
EfDd Fltti.Dith.3ft Bru Alpha version of a hard disk file *0 Waiieson A Screen of lots of boundng litfie RxWB Similar to DropCioto, butdoesntwoik AnsiEcho tacho', touch', Isf, Ws* written in archiver yet SO assembler.
Comm Version 1.30 of a terminal emulator Lav windows by Lao Bols Ewhac? Schwab mCAD Object-oriented drawra orooram.
Display Displays HAM images from a ray- with phone directories Dsplays number of tasks in run queue, averaged over last 1,5, and 15 minute periods, by Wllaim Rucklidge Programs to piay record through the MO l F. By Fred Cassirer Program to make toe WorkBench larger than normal, by Neil Katin and JmMackraz version 1.22 Much improved over dsk 56.
Facing program, wilh example Ceh Version 2.04 of Matt Difonb Unix Robofroff Demo of animated pointers on Driver pictores.
Example device driver source, acto tcsh'-lke CU replacement, indudng Latfce and Manx C source MdfTools Workbench. S-E-D Supermort General compountingfamorfzationloan Xlisp Fred Flth DltkAfl Ike RAM: disk Xlisp 1.7, executable only Dtkperf Du Disk benchmark program for Unix and Amiga Computes disk storage of a file or MoreRows Screen calculator. E-D Fred Rah Dsk 60 Various shareware and freeware programs Ahost Terminal emulator wito Xmodem, directory Tit Blitz Memory resident tile viewer. Very Kermitand C6 B protocols; MemWath Program to watch for programs toat Program to make your Amiga look
lire fast E-D tendon keys, scripts, RLE graphics tosh tow memory. It attempts to It ddnT pass vibration testing, by Leo Bols Ewhatf Schwab BlitzFonts Makes tiBxtoufeutfastsr. E-D and conference mode.
Repair toe damage, and puts up a EEM Csh HandShake Terminal emulator wito AmigaMontor DynAMIGAly displays the machine requester to inform you of toe V2.0S of Matt Dionb csh tike shell (Modified for Manx q. by Matt Dion, Modfied by Stove Drew New Cstetup modules: VT52 VT10Q VT102support E-D stetia, such as open fies; active tasks, damage. From toe Software Disttlery.
Med Mouse-driven text editor version 21, resources, devioe states, interrupts, Profler A realtime execution prof tor for Manx E-D ibraries, ports, ete C programs, todudesC source.
NewStartups PrtDrvGen Generates prtotiBr drivers, version 1.1. Arc Popular tiecompresaon system, the EEM Source aval able from auto or. E-D standard for frarrsitfngfies Cydoids Update of efecfronic spirograph from Astartup.asm wito 1.2 fixes and bettor quote hiniiin i Show Sfideshowlika FF viewer, V2.1. E-D AresCode Program toatdecodes area codes dsk 27 TWStartup.asm Uedit Customizable taxt edtor V2.0. E-D Blink into state and local V- ¦dnk'replacement linker, version 6.5 DrUfl Enhanoad version of DfUS from dsk 36 opens a stdo window, using user specs, tty Commodore, posted to BIX by Ueturbo
Example Uerfiteetop macros. S-E-0 Cosmo Anbsteriodal’done.
MultiDaf Scans a set of object modules and Carolyn Schapper Fred Rah Dltlt 61 ATPatch Patohes Transformer to vrotk under AmigaDOS 12. S-E-D ROM Writes zeroes to free Nocks on a dsk tor security. S-E-D Lpatch Patch tor programsthat abort when loading under AmigaDOS 1.2. S-E-D MicroEmacs Conroy Mcro6macsV3Bb, newer than disk 22. S-E-D FearlFont Like Topaz, but rounded edges Terrain Generates fractal soenery. S-E-D Vsprtes Makes 28 Vsprites, from Rack book.
S-E-D EmlFlibffliKH This is a port of the Unix game Hack', by toe Software DisfiBery, version 1.0.3D. Erad.Riti.PHHH This is a port of the Unix game Lam', by toe Software DistiBery, version 12.0B. FnriFlthPliHM This is an office FF specification disk from Commodore, an update to disk 16.
FredflihDlikfiS Bewk Unix text processor, like taMt*.
Doesn't work, but source is included.
S-E-a MWB Example of rerouting Workbench window open calls to anotoer custom screen. Version 1.01, S-E-0 Example for closing a custom Workbench screen. S-E-D Generates one-f ne forte ne-cookie aphorisms. S-E-D BuikJ-your-owi mouse port clock.
Creates C source ffles tor menus, based on text description s. S-E-O.
CBM tutorial on new packeto and structures in AmlgaDos 1.2. PaacalToC Pascal to C translator, not 80 great S-E-D Prep Vatfa'-fike FORTRAN preprocessor. S-E-D RunBack Starts programs from CLI, elowng aiWndowtodoss.E-0 SunMouse This program automakaly clicks in windows when toe mouse is mowd over them. Version 1.0, E-D Amazing Computing™ has been offering for the Commodore-Amiga™ since our f CtoseWB Cookie Jtime MenuBuKder Fred Hih Dlak 66 AmScsi Asm68k Prefiminary plans for a SCSI disk controller board.
Macro a seem bier, version 1.0.1. E-D Example tor avoiding DOS insert- disk requester, by scanning the Set of'assigned names. S-E-D Pretends to eat away at CLI window. S-E-D Rips whole screen as a joke. S€-D Foogol cross-compter generates VAX assembly code. &E-D Prints amount of free spaoe on eS drives. S-E-0 matlocffree memo7 test program.
S-E-0 Pretends to melt toe screen. S€-D Graphic flying string demo. &E-D Easy way to set printer atfrtoutos from Workbench. E-D Simple ray tracing program. E-D Updated CBM examples of packet roufnesondfek35.S-E-D Memory resident screen dump. E-D Shareware BBS system, version
1. 02. Shareware dek cataloging program.
E-D Shareware bituHlon apeling checker, V2.0. E-D 3-D bouncing baS written in MulfiForto, S-E-D Terminal program version 1.33, E Anotoer version of DirUII. S-E-0 Hex, octal, & decimal calculator. E-0 Various big and alternate Image icons.
Mandate graphics and 60und. E Demo shareware personal file manager.
Menu bar dock verson 1.3. E-D Graphics demo of 3Dcubes. E-D "Wheel of Fortene*-type game, in Flip Foogol Free MaSocTest Public Domain Software: $ 6.00 each for subscribers (yes, even new ones I) $ 7.00 each for non subscribers.
Purty RayTraoer AMICUS: A1 A11 Fred Fish: FF1 FF2 FF3 FF11 FF12 FF13 FF21 FF22 FF23 FF31 FF32 FF33 FF41 FF42 FF43 FF51 FF52 FF53 FF61 FF62 FF63 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17A18 A19 A20 A2 A12 st FF4 FF5 FF14 FF15 FF24 FF25 FF34 FF35 FF44 FF45 FF54 FF55 FF64 FF65 FF6 FF7 FF16 FF17 FF26 FF27 FF36 FF37 FF46 FF47 FF56 FF57 FF66 FF67 FF8 FF9 FF18 FF19 FF28 FF29 FF38 FF39 FF48 FF49 FF58 FF59 FF68 FF10 FF20 FF30 FF40 FF50 FF60 Snapshot AmCat AmigaSpell Comm DuxS HexCalc Icons Mandala PersMait RSLOock RTCubes Need!
TM Fred Rah Disk 68 This is version MG IboftheMicroGNUEmacs. Sou roe and execute Neareinciuded, as well as source for otoer computers besides toe Amiga To Be Continued._____ Tfiry H'lJu® To the best of our knowledge, toe materials in this library are freely distributable. This means they were either publicly posted and placed in toe Public Domain by their Author, or toey have restrictions published in their files to uWch we have adhered. you become aware of any violation of toe author's wishes, please contact us by mai.
¦AO Amazing Computing™ has vowed, from our beginning, to amass the largest: selection of Public Domain Software in the Amiga Community, and with the help of John Foust and Fred Fish, we see a great selection of software for both beginner; and advanced users.
These Public Domain software pieces are presented by a world of authors who discovered something fun or interesting on the Amiga and then placed their discoveries in the Public Domain for all to enjoy. You are encouraged to copy and share these disks and programs with your friends, customers and fellow user group members!
We were the first magazine to document CLI We were the first to snow Sidecar™ from COMDEX™ in full detail.
We were the first to document a 5 1 4 drive connector We were the first with a 1 Meg Amiga upgrade hardware project!
We were the first magazine to offer serious programming examples and help.
We were the fust magazine to offer Public Domain Software at reasonable prices.
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However, Amazing Computing™ will not rest on past achievements. The Commodore-Amiga™ has more surprises for you and we are ready to cover them. We even have a few tricks that will "Amaze" you.
To subscribe to Amazing Computing™ or to purchase Public Domain Software, please fill out the form below and send with a Check or money order to: PiM Publications Inc.
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• View functions as 3-D wire frames or as beautiful color
• Analyze function outputs the actual numerical values of x,y,z
coordinates for any point
• Control color values viewpoint, scale and sampling rate.
47-50 57 Cll 80 20 86 CIV 41 54 83 17 82 58 15 29 85 33 83 71 68 5 74 40 2 13 26 7 77 cm 54 67,89,95 96 18 55 61 96 38 43 2 53 Someday the Math Aquarium will be a familiar category for computer programs. Put an equation into your Math Aquarium and watch it grow into a dazzling art-like image.
A spectacular introduction to the world of mathematics DMA is also an amazing window thru which to observe the secrets of "deep- fringe" recursive phenomena $ 79.95 at your dealer or order direct SEVEN SEAS SOFTWARE
P. O. Box 41 1 Port Townsend, WA 98368 AMIGA T-SHIRTS AND
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Math Aquarium Ami Expo Aminetics Applied Visions ASDG Associated Computer Services BCD Byte by Byte Cardinal Software Central Coast Software Comp-U-Save Computer Arts CKO Images Creative Solutions Era Ware Expansion Technologies Felsina Software Hilton Android Corporation Jefferson Enterprises Kent Engineering & Design KJ Computers Lattice Magic Circle Software Memory Location, The Metadigm, Inc. Michigan Software Micro Systems Software Microbotics Mimetics NewTek Phase Four Software Distributers PiM Publications, Inc. Seven Seas Software Software Factory, The Speech Systems Spirit Technology
T's Me The Other Guys TDI Software Inc. True-lmage Westcom Industries Index of Advertisers Sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X-Large Prices: T-shirts: $ 12.00 Sweatshirts: $ 18.50 Also available: Amiga Stickers $ 1.50 (Great for car bumper, window, notebook, etc. Black & White) All prices include shipping and handling. In CA, add 6% tax.
SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: T’s Me, RO. Box 11746, Santa Ana, CA 92711 2525 Shadow Lake, Santa Ana, CA 92701 Allow 3-6 Dealer Inquiries Invited: Call (714) 639-6545 weeks for Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. delivery.
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A££ afenz The 4096 Color Paint Program for the Amiga From the creators of Digi-View comes Digi-Paint, the first paint program to take full advantage of the Amiga’s exclusive “ho!d-and-modify” mode. No longer are you limited to 32 colors. With Digi-Paint, you can use all 4096 colors on screen simultaneously. Features include brushes, smooth shading, magnify, cut & paste, output to printer, and full IFF load and save. Digi-Paint was programmed completely in assembly language for the fastest possible response. Give your Amiga the graphics power of systems costing thousands of dollars more. See
your Amiga dealer today or call toll-free for Digi-Paint, the 4096 color paint program.
$ 59.95 Only Orders Only (800) 358-3079 ext. 342 Customer Service (913) 354-9332 N=wT=k INCORPORATED 701 Jackson • Suite B3 * Topeka, KS • 66603 Amiga is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Digi-Paint and Digi-View are trademarks of NeWTek, Inc. DeluxePaint is a trademark of Electronic Arts. Inc. © 1986 NewTek, Inc. There's a slim difference between the ordinary and the extraordinary... PAL JR.
True DMA controller with SCSI option . 1 Mbyte FAST RAM at COOOOO User expandable to 9MBytes fast RAM No wait state memory Battery backed clock calendar Open ZORRO expansion slot Entire system auto-configures Quiet fan for cooling 20 Mbyte PAL JR. SI,495 40 Mbyte PAL JR. S 1,995 80 Mbyte PAL JR. CALL 2 8 Mbyte Garganturam board S 835 "The PAL JR, is clearly the highest performance Amiga hard disk."
John Foust Amazing Computing "Designed for the power user... A solid well built piece of hardware."
Bruce Webster Byte Magazine "The PAL System is extremely well built and is the fastest hard disk system available for the Amiga. It's also remarkably easy to install."
Louis Wallace AmigaWorld Contributing Editor Create your own universe with SCULPT 3-D Brings the power of RAY TRACING to the Amiga • • Supports overscan display for full screen video Powerful as packages costing thousands of dollars more Written by Eric Graham a la "Robot Juggler" Full Intuition interface Five IFF modes including HAM Create images in TRUE 3-D Suggested Retail only S99.95 Watch for ANIMATE 3-D later this summer V BYTE BYTE.
Arboretum Plaza II ° 9442 Capital of Texas Highway North Suite 150 Austin, TX 78759  343-4357