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how you, our readers. are using the Amiga. There are two ways in which we can discover how Amiga users utilize the Amiga. First, you can write us and tell us what you are doing. If you have discovered something wonderful on the Amiga or have used the Amiga in an interesting way, please write us. We spend most of our rime searching for the unusual or important ways in which the Amiga is being used today. The best wayto develop better users on the Amiga is to let them know how far the Amiga has come, and where it is headed next. Our second option is to ask you questions. If you subscribe to AC, you may be one of r:he randomly selected readers who will soon receive a few questions from us on how you use your Amiga. Please answer. Your answers will be combined with those of hundreds of ocher Amiga users co gain an insight into the Amiga market and its needs.

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Document sans nom WOA: Pulsar's Power PC BOARD FOR THE A500 Your Original AMIGA* Monthly Resource Volume 5 No. 6 June 1990 US $ 3.95 Canada $ 4.95 Programming: Object-Oriented Programming in C++ * Amiga Turtle Graphics APL: Primitive Functions Convergence: Part Five In The Fractals Series Productivity: WordPerfect Macros .
Reviews: DigiMate ill ™ PageStream 1.8 Hardware Project: 1 RAM Expansion For Your A500 PLUS!
CBM'S Multimedia Launch Of The A3000 Workbench 2.0‘s Display Modes CONT ENTS Cherryware 39 by Julie Petersen Extend your vocabulary with computerisms that define products and describe characterstics associated with their use.
World of Amiga, New York 47 Commodore, over 40 other Amiga vendors, and more than 15,000 Amiga users gather for a special two-day event.
Commodore's Launch 81 CBM defines multimedia as it presents the Amiga 3000.
Workbench 2.0 87 Display a la mode.
Convergence 41 by Paul Castonguay Part Five of the Fractal series.
C++ 51 by Scott B. Steinman, O.D., Ph.D. An introduction to object-oriented Amiga programming.
HARDWARE Pulsar's POWER PC BOARD makes your Amiga 500 PC-compatible.
Read about this and other newly released Amiga products in our article, World of Amiga, New York show coverage, page 47.
Amiga Turtle Graphics 57 by Dylan McNamee Computer graphics and programming with a LOGO-like graphics system.
Rapid Fire Joystick 21 APL and the Amiga 69 by Henry T. Upper!, EdD Primitive functions and their execution.
By John lovine Build a rapid fire joystick circuit for game playing on the Amiga.
The AM 512 35 ALL LISTINGS ON DISK jjP by James Bentley Upgrade your A500 to a 1 megabyte machine.
TUTORIALS AND REVIEWS PageStream 1.8 14 by John Steiner Putting SofRogik's desktop publishing package to work 18 ; WordPerfect Macros fyp by Mike Hubbartt Create time-saving macros in WordPerfect.
Mail Order Macros 20 by Armando Cardenas Address envelopes using WordPerfect macros.
Snapshot 23 by Brad Andrews A look at Broderbund's Typhoon Thompson, Accolade's Day of the Viper, and more.
Snapshot- Virgin Mastertronic takes on another Parker Brothers game, Risk.
Commodore President Harry Copperman speaks at World of Amiga, New York.
DigiMate III 31 by Frank Me Mahon Animation comes to DigiPaint.
Pipe Dream 88 by Miguel Mulet As a plumber, your job is to control the excess "flooz" being produced by the Acme Chemicals Co.
Battle Squadron 88 by Tony Preston Your mission is to eliminate all Barraxian life forms and rescue your comrades.
COLUMNS New Products 8 The game of Harmony, T.F.M.X. Soundtool, and the Amiga TouchDriver system.
BugBytes 29 by John Steiner A new VirusX upgrade, some bugs with WordPerfect, and still no answer from Intuitive Technologies.
PD Serendipity 74 by Aimee B. Abren Highlights include virus checkers, an encoder program, and a 200-page C Manual.
Roomers 76 by The Bandito The rumors are getting hotter as the days get longer.
The Command Line 78 by Rich Falconburg Another look at a public domain shell program.
C Notes by the C Group 82 by Stephen Kemp Linked lists & doubly linked lists in C. DEPARTMENTS Editorial 4 Letters 6 Index of Advertisers 80 Public Domain Software 93 COVER PHOTO by Ernest P. Viveiros. Sr.
Amazing Computing For The Commodore AMIGA'' ADMINISTRATION Joyce Hicks Publisher: Assistant Publisher: Circulation Manager: Asst. Circulation: Corporate Trainer: Traffic Manager: Robert J. Hicks Doris Gamble Traci Desmarais Virginia Terry Hicks Robert Gamble international Coordinator: Donna Viveiros Marketing Manager: Ernest P. Viveiros Sr.
Programming Artist: E. Paul EDITORIAL Managing Editor: Associate Editor: Hardware Editor: Technical Editor: Video Consultant: Copy Editor: Don Hicks Elizabeth Fedorzyn Ernest P. Viveiros Sr.
J. Michael Morrison Frank Me Mahon Aimee B. Abren Derek J. Perry
Greg Young William Fries Paul Michael Brian Fox Marilyn Gagne
Meiissa-Mae Viveiros Copy Editor: Copy Editor: Art Director:
Photographer: illustrator: Research & Editorial Support:
Production Assistant: ADVERTISING SALES Advertising Manager:
Donna Marie 1-508-678-4200 1-800-345-3300 FAX 1-508-675-6002
SPECIAL THANKS TO: Buddy Terrell & Byrd Press Bob at Riverside
Art, Ltd.
Swansea One Hour Photo Pride Oflset, Warwick, Rl Mach 1 Photo Amazing Computing™ (ISSN 0886-9480) is published monthly by PiM Publications, Inc., Currant Road, P.O. Bos 869, Fall River, MA 02722-0869, Subscriptions in the U.S., 12 issues (or $ 28.00; in Canadas Mexico surface. S36.0Q: foreign surface lor $ 44.00. Second-Class Postage paid at Fall River, MA 02722 and additional mailing offices POSTMASTER: Send address changes to PIM Publications Inc,.
P. O. Box 869, Fall River, MA 02722-0869. Printed in the U.S.A.
Copyright© May 1990 by PiM Publications, Inc. All rights
reserved.
First Class or Air Mail rates available upon request. PiM Publications, inc. maintains the right to reluse any advertising.
Pirn Publications Inc. is not obligated to return unsolicited materials.
Ail requested returns must be received with a Sell Addressed Stamped Mailer.
Send article submissions in both manuscript and disk format with ycur name, address, telephone, and Social Security Number on each to the Associate Editor. Requests for Author's Guides should be directed to the address listed above.
AMIGA™ is a registered trademark o1 Commodore-Atniga, Inc. KNOWLEDGE MACHINE Discover the power of the Amiga with Resource™ Intelligent Interactive Disassembler for the Amiga Programmer Resource will enable you to explore the Amiga.
Find out how your favorite program works. Change annoying features. Examine your own compiled code.
Load save any file, read disk tracks, or disassemble directly from memory.
Automated symbol creation: JSR -$ 1E(A6) becomes JSR _LVOOpen(A6) MOVE! $ 3EE,D0 becomes MOVE! MODE_NEWFILE,D0 Virtually all Amiga symbol bases supported.
Now supports user defined symbol bases!
Single-key torward and backward referencing makes following subroutines easy!
? Special support for base-relative addressing.
Many files may be successfully reassembled directly from Resource output. In a trial disassembly, "Preferences" was disassembled, and the resulting source code assembled into a working program, all in under 15 minutes.
? If you’re serious about disassembling code, look no further!
"Resource is fully-featured and flexible... Everything is fast. The program is astonishing in many ways.
The massive size of its internal tables boggles the mind. I admire the remarkable accuracy with which it makes intuitive guesses at the nature of certain bytes."
Jim Butterfield, Transactor Vol. 2 5 Now shipping Resource V4.00 - Order yours now!
VISA, MasterCard, cheek or money order accepted - no CODs. Not available in relail stores.
Circle 168 on Reader Service card.
$ 95 The Puzzle Factory, Inc.
P. O. Box 986 Veneta, OR 97487 Orders: (800) 828-9952 Customer
Service: (503) 935-3709 VISA Power Users, Jets In The Sky ON A
CLEAR AFTERNOON, IF YOU look up at the sky, you can see the
vapor trails of a passing jet. You may not see the jet
clearly, sometimes you never see tire jet at all, but you do
see tire disturbance it leaves in the upper atmosphere. You
know the jet is there by the change it has made.
In much tire same way, we sense tire growing number of Amiga power users by their level of interest in software and hardware. Power users show their activity by purchasing accelerator cards, hard disks, and advanced versions of the latest software. We know they exist because they create elegant graphics and great programs that appear on public domain bulletin board systems. Yet, very few Amiga users would say they are power users. Why are these users so elusive?
One answer is diat often the really busy Amiga user has little time to fill out reader response cards, or write letters to a magazine. These people are busy creating on their Amigas. They pursue a challenge on the Amiga and rarely take the time to let anyone know what they have already accomplished. The other answer is that all of us are power users.
Being A Power User Each of us exploits the Amiga in one way or another. Each of us pushes the Amiga a little further in a particular field, direction, or use than our fellow Amiga owners. Some ofus enjoy word processing on the Amiga and take our favorite word processor to the limit. Some users cannot distinguish CI.I from BASIC, but are superb artists and create excellent graphics. Other users program, bur do so out of an intellectual curiosity rather than a way to make millions of dollars creating tire Great American .'Arcade Game. Some Amiga owners push themselves and their Amigas in many
different directions.
The Amiga is a tool. We chose this tool to achieve our own goals. We purchased our Amiga through a conscious choice. There was no one standing on the sidelines directing us to buy this computer because it was what everyone else was using. We weighed die factors for and against the Amiga and decided the Amiga wou id do what we requ ired better than any other computer.
Diversity Is Tjje Issue ofTftis Issue We termed this issue a “power user" issue because of the nature and diversity of the articles we have included. For the programmer, there are three separate program listings in addition to our regular columns. For the technically inclined, there are two hardware projects. We have included tutorials and reviews on productivity software and graphics. And there is coverage of World Of Amiga, the launch of the Amiga 3000, insight into the still incomplete Workbench 2.0, and more.
In fact, we have made this issue as diverse as possible to once again underscore our level of commitment to Amiga power users worldwide. Now', we must request information from you.
Amiga Census '90 The major problem we have as a publication is discovering all the tilings our readers have done with dreir Amigas. We are continually searching for the stories and experiences that make computing on the Amiga different from that done on any other machine.
Amazing Computing has always maintained that a computer magazine should be both an information source and a source of inspiration. This inspiration is presented not by saying how great the Amiga is, but by demonstrating the Amiga’s greatness. We have never had a better opportunity' to do this than now. With the advanced Amiga 3000, the Amiga 2000 widi specialized hardware, and the Amiga 500 currendy equipped widi everything from hard drives to FC-emuIation hardware (see the “World Of Amiga” article on page 47 for Pulsar’s new announcement), die Amiga needs no frantic flag waving. It needs
reporting. This is w'hat AC was created to do and it is what we have always done.
However, we must determine how' you, our readers, are using the Amiga. There are two ways in which we can discover how' Amiga users utilize die Amiga.
First, you can write us and tell us what you are doing. If you have discovered somediing w'onderful on the Amiga or have used the Amiga in an interesting way, please write us. We spend most of our time searching for die unusual or important ways in which die Amiga is being used today. The best way to develop better users on the Amiga is to let diem know how far the Amiga has come, and where it is headed next.
Our second option is to ask you questions. If you subscribe to AC, you may be one of the randomly selected readers who will soon receive a few' questions from us on how you use your .Amiga. Please answer. Your answers will be combined widi those of hundreds of other Amiga users to gain an insight into the Amiga market and its needs.
Although you may be tired of supplying similar information to the Census Bureau, diis information is also important. AC needs your responses to consistendy provide a publication useful to you. Your answers will help Amiga vendors design and supply the type of Amiga products you need most. And you wifi show us how' you, our Amiga power users, are extending the Amiga’s capabilities.
People often ask you how you are or what kind of day you had and never stop to listen to your answers. Now you have an opportunity to speak with someone who is not only interested in your views, but reliant upon diem.
Sincerely, Don Hicks Managing Editor Now You A Profcssiojifil 3D Animation Rendering System for tfie Amiga For More Information Cali &£ $ & 612*566*022 M nc.
Circle 115 on Reader Service card.
Dear AC: In response to Karl D. Belsom’s article “Bridging the 3.5" Chasm” in April 1990's issue, there is an easier way of using ‘AREAD” to transfer files in mass from an Amiga storage device to a Bridgeboard storage device.
First you place all die files you wish to have transferred in one directory’. Next you use either PKAZIP or LHARC for die Amiga to compress them into one file. Then use die MS-DOS command “AHEAD” widi the b option (to keep the files full binary structure) to copy the file to the .MS-DOS storage area of choice. Then use the MS- DOS version of eidier PKUNZIP or LHARC (depending on which one you used to compress with) to decompress the file into its original files.
PKAZIP or LHARC for the Amiga are compatible with their MS-DOS counterparts LHARC or PKAZIP PKUNZIP (the latter is two files in MS-DOS). With this process it is simpler to run mass files across the Bridgeboard than it is by scripting. It is also just as easy to transfer files from the Bridgeboard to die Amiga in this manner using “AWRITE”. An additional version of the file is that it would be considerably easier to send the information to anodier computer by modem or networking.
Sincerely, Brian E. Cucksee Huntsville, AL Dear AC: Your latest issue (April ’90) was outstanding! It’s not often that I see a hardware project in a magazine outside of Popular Electronics, and dais issue had TWO, to boot!
Which brings me to the “Biofeedback” project bvjohn Iovine. First, I would like a clarification on die type of Op-amp used in the project, such as “741" or whatever. Also, you might point out to your readers that the US dime diat is found in pocket change is not made of silver.
About the only dimes made of silver diese days are found in collecdons, or high-grade solder. However, diey are made of a copper-ni ckel alloy that might do the job. If silver is needed, one can get silver dimes (well-worn, but just fine for our purposes) for a couple of bucks at one’s local coin dealer.
One last thing: for those of you who aren’t programmers, here are die answers to Stephen Kemp's questions in April's “C Notes”:
1. Yes.
2. African or European?
3. Who’s asking ?
4. One, but Who’s counting.
5. Yes, and the Vulcan Death Grip, too.
6. I told you once.
7. What ever you evant it to.
S. Male or Female?
9- No, but I read the books,
10. None. Programmers aren’t afraid of the dark.
See you in the funny7 papers!
Jeff Grimmett San Diego, CA John Iovine used a single-ended 5 volt Op-amp (by Images Corp.) for his project. You cannot use an Op-amp that requires a bipole poiver-sttpply such as the “741”. According to John, any dime or penny can be used, but the dime works best because of its silver content. (Although their silver content is quite small US dimes do indeed contain silver.) While nickels and quarters do contain some silver, dimes fit in the hand more comfortably. -ED.
Dear AC: You are truly Amazing! While I generally7 do not write to magazines, 1 was going to force myself to just to ask if you wouldn’t devote an issue to comparing music sequencing programs. 1 am in die market to purchase one but couldn’t afford to buy all of them.
Well what do I get in the mail but your March issue comparing ail die sequencers. Thank you, Thank you, Thank you!
A couple of questions remain. Will diere be an upgrade for MusieX? Master Tracks Pro sounds great especially7 if Passport will eventually port Encore to die Amiga. Is this in die works?
Keep up the good work.
Sandy Thompson Safety Harbor. FL Regarding any planned upgrades to MusieX. Microittusions stated, “If you send in the warranty card you ivillbe informed of the upgrade” plannedfor this summer. We also called PassPort (continued on page 13 ) With CanDoYou Can Do Just About Anything!
You can make CanDo your own personal programmer. Just as you no longer hove to be a professional artist to create "Art)' well now, you don't have to be a programmer to create professional level applications! All you need is CanDo. Because creating a program with CanDo is as easy as drawing a picture with a paint package.
Just Puint...Clidc...Use. With ConDo, programming is incredibly easy. Programs can be created by simply pointing and clicking. CanDa's graphic interface guides you easily, step-by-step, through the motion of your own applications.
CanDo is a multimedia synchronizer.
CanDo can choreograph digitized souncL.music... graphic 01 video images in reoftime, by interaction or time.
CanDo is an animator.
CanDo lets you use any number at Deluxe Point III brash animations and display them onscreen simultaneously.
CanDo has expandable power.
Whelheryou're a beginner 01 advanced user, ConDo's powerful scnpling language allows you to create the applications you want.
Lotions., .from presentations to education to personal productivity, complete with buttons, means, windows and much, much more.
CanDo Is compatible.
ConDo utilizes the files generated by a host of popular software packages. It woib with all Aiaigoresolutions,digitized sounds...and even supports Arexx.
With tools like these, you really can do just obout anyltiing. The only limitation is your imagination.
Ivwcr Sut'tiitji HtrThr AmitJB Now too Con Win
o ftfff TripTo the '.
Rtm go '90 show Pi Cologne,West Cermny.
See Year Part impaling Dealer far Details.
CanDo is a product of Irovatronlis, Int.
8499 Greervile Avenue Suite 2098 Dalles, Texas 75231 214-340-4991 Dealers and Distributors should contoct Southern Technologies, 800-647-7741 OCLLfXE MWT II is: todmrt of Bectonia ta. Kxa is apyrghmf by Wlcm S. Hum.
Circle 110 on Reader Service card.
Compiled by E.G. Fedorzyn SOUND ADVICE Now being distributed by Imtronics is the T.F.M.X. Soundtool, ;i new music editor from Demonware of West Germany, Consisting basically of two parts the editor (to input the music data), and the music routine (to play back the music data) die program is designed to provide users with die ability' to prepare complex musical pieces and sound effects and to integrate them into their own programs.
Among its many features, die
T. F.M.X. Soundtool program provides an intelligent note and
control panel, as •well as special effects such as
vibrato, portamento, and echo.
The Imtronics package includes 2 samples disk in addition to the program disk. The T.FMJC. Soundtool runs on the A500, 1000, and 2000, with a minimum 512K memory required. List Price: $ 79-95. Imtronics. 12301 South West 132 Court, Miami, FL 33186; (305) 255-9302. Inquiry
* 261.
SAFETY IN NUMBERS HelpKey Development, a new entry' in die Amiga market, recently released Tjje Buddy System For DeluxePaint III, a two-disk set containing over 90 lessons that take die user through the many features of Electronic Arts' DeluxePaint III.
By taking advantage of the Amiga's multitasking capabilities, The Buddy System can be run at the same time as Dpaint III, allowing the user to switch back and forth between the tutorial interface and Dpaint
III. To find information, simply select the appropriate icon or
menu item. Each selection reveals a complete lesson that
can include text information, a descriptive picture,
and ora guided demonstration. Tloe Buddy System also takes
advantage of die Amiga’s built-in speech capabilities,
with spoken narration accompanying each lesson.
All areas of die Dpaint III program are covered, from the basic functions of the drawing tools to the advanced techniques of animation. Demonstrations of many practical techniques, such as use of textures, are also included.
The Buddy System For DeluxePaint III runs on the A500, 1000, or 2000, w'ith 1 megabyte minimum memory and KickStart
vl. 3 required. List Price: $ 4995.
HelpKey Development. 6671 West Indianatown Road, Suite56360, Jupiter, FL 33458, (407) 694-
1756. Inquiry 262.
PRESENTING WORLD OF AMIGA IN CHICAGO ? Starring ?
THE AMAZING AMIGA ? Featuring ?
Amiga Hardware • Amiga Software Amiga Accessories • Seminars • Bargains Rosemont O’Hare Expo Center, Rosemont, Illinois October 5-7, 1990 Friday, Saturday & Sunday lOam-Spm Pre-registration: $ 8 per day or $ 20 for 3 days Deadline for pre-registration Sept. 18 Registration at show: $ 10 for 1 day $ 25 for 3 days Registration includes exhibits and seminars.
WORLD OF AMIGA IN CHICAGO Produced by World oi Commodore Shows, The Hunter Group For more information call (416) 595-5906 or fax (416) 595-5093.
INSTANTKARMA Earth Day, dolphin-free tuna, and now this a game the object of which is not to annihilate objects, but to keep them from destruction. Such is the premise of Accolade's The Game of Harmony, a game where players combine strategy and concentration in an effort to maneuver like- colored orbs together before they explode with tension.
The game contains fifty progressively challenging levels randomly arranged with orbs which glide around the screen while you attempt to gain points, and eventually Harmonizing with Accolade achieve ultimate harmony, by gently pushing pairs towards each other with a pointer, or "the seeker". Add to this nonviolent image a Mew Age musical score determined by the random touch and actions of objects on a given level. If you listen very closely, you can hear Rambo dying a slow death.
Ihe Game of Harmony will run on the A500, 1000, or 2000, with a minimum 512K memory required. List Price: $ 44.95- Accolade, 550 South Winchester Boulevard, Suite 200, San Jose, CA 95128, (408) 985-1700. Inquiry 265.
GOLDEN BEAR ABROAD Accolade has released the third entry in die ir series of golf simulations created in association with Jack Nicklaus Productions. Jack Nicklaus Presents the International Course Disk, designed exclusively for use with Jack Nicklaus’ Greatest 18Holes of Major Championship Golf, takes the computer golfer abroad to tee off on precise simulations of three championship courses designed by- Jack Nicklaus including the Australian Golf Club in Kensington, Australia, the Saint Creek Golf Club in Nagoya, japan, and the St. Mellion Golf & Country Club in Cornwall, England.
- in iiimiiiHiiiiniiimiNHiiiiniiiiiiiii 11 The International
Course Disk will run on the A500, 1000, or 2000, with a mini
mum 512K memory required.
Jack Nicklaus' Greatest 18 Holes is also required. List Price: $ 21.95- Accolade, 550 South Winchester Boulevard, Suite200, San Jose, CA95128,
(408) 985-1700. Inquiry 264.
REACH OUT AND TOUCH AN AMIGA MicroTouch Systems, Inc. has become the first touch screen manufacturer to announce a fully integrated touch screen system for the Amiga. The Amiga ToucbDriver system consists of the MicroTouch Screen (the company’s high resolution, analog capacitive touch screen), driver software and optional monitor. The driver enables all mouse- driven software to work with touch input.
The Amiga Touch Driver is the first to provide a two- button mouse emulation touch screen for the Amiga.
With the Amiga ToucbDriver users can, for the first time, use a touch screen for any Amiga application. Users can select from menus, create drawings, and manipulate SOMETIMES YOU GOTTA FOLLOW THE RULES For C programmers out there looking to push Blue Ribbon Bakery's Bars&Pipes to the outer limits of music composition, RulesforTooIs may prove key. This comprehensive guide to tire ins and outs of Bars&Pipes is designed to help users create their own Bars&Pipes tools from scratch.
Rules for Tools, which is part of the Bars&Pipes Add-on Series, includes over 100 pages of documentation along with numerous source code examples.
To order Rules for Tools, send a check or money order for S49-00 ($ 44.00 plus $ 5.00 shipping and handling) to Blue Ribbon Bakery, Inc., 1248 Clairmont Road, Suite 3d, Decatur, GA 30030.
Inquiry 265.
Windows simply by touching the screen without reaching, orienting, or clicking a mouse.
Fully compatible with tire Amiga mouse, the driver also offers users an expanded Preferences menu for greater button and cursor control definition.
The all-glass MicroTouch Screen has a high resolution of 1,024 x 1,024 touch points, allowing the user to easily point to any size icon or menu item and to locate the cursor down to the pixel level.
The Amiga ToucbDriver site license lists for $ 395, and the complete MicroTouch Screen with controller sells for as little as $ 350.00 in Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) quantities. MicroTouch Systems, Inc., 55JonspinRoad, Wilmington, MA 01887, (508) 694-9900. Inquiry 266.
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KmODUII HARD DRIVES GVP Hardcard O 159.95 GVP A2000-2 0 179.95 GVPA2000-8 0 199.95 HardFrame 219.95 Hardcard 40MB 499.95 Hardcard 80MB 699.95 Hardcard 105MB 799.95 Quantum Pro 40 379.95 Quantum Pro SO 649.95 Qunatum Pro 105 699.95 Supra 105 1000 1099.95 Supra 105 500 999.95 Supra 40 1000 683.95 Supra 40 500 599.95 FDATA-10 FDATA-20 HP PAINTJET
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Circle 116 on Reader Service card.
Supra 80 1000 949.95 Supra 80 500 875.95 Supra Wordsync 169.95 InterComputing, Inc. 1-800-622-9177 2100 N Hwy 360. Suite 2101. Dallas, TX 75050-1015 VIDEO Flicker Fixer Framebuffer with I MB Magni 4004S
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214-988-3500 SOFTWARE Deluxe Paint III 89.95 Digi Paint
64.95 Digi View 4.0 129.95 Digi Works 3D 79.95 Diskmanager
MAC 79.95 Homebuilder’s CAD 119.95 Lattice ++ 249.95
Pagestrcam 2.0 179.95 Prowrite 3.0 99.95 Saxon Publisher
249.95 Soundscape Pro MIDI 109.95 Turbo Silver 109.95 CALL
FOR UNLISTED TITLES InterComputing Deutschland Inc.
Schonbecker Str. 55-57 Telefon: 0202 89155 5600 Wuppertal-2
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(1)42806649 As always nr rave the most 'customer friendly'
terms; Sill $ 4,95 in com. USA: S50.00 min. order :
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VISA ¦ AMIGA CHIPS, PARTS & UPGRADES •
• Fatter (Super) AGNL S 8372 -S99.50wi[hsifnple 10 minute step by
step instructions, FREE Chip Extractor valued at $ 15.95 at no
charge,
• A-500 H D Power Supply $ 73,50
• A-2000 Power Supply 5149.00
• Amiga Diagnostician f*7 Si 1.95 $ 12.50 $ 10.40
549. 95
• 255 * 4 100 ' 1 MEG X 1 100
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• A501-512 RAM 589.50 ¦ I.3KicJcstanROM $ 27.95
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• AMIGA 1000 RI'.JUVENATOR PACKAGE • New Product - The Amiga 1000
Expansion Board is now available with the following
feacureslUtilizes the Fatter Agnus Chip, 1.3 1.4 Kickstart ROM
and New Denise • One Meg of Chip RAM* Clock-Battery Backup
• Simple Solderless Installation • 100% Compatibility with ail
Products Software • Various Packages Available • S479.00
complete.
The Grapevine Group. Inc. 35 Charlotte Drive Wesley Hills, NY 10977 1-800-292-7445 Circle 147 on Reader Service card.
TRAVELIN’ MAN New' from Interplay Productions comes Future Wars: Adventures in Time, a graphic time travel adventure game in which the main character has been hurled back into die Middle Ages. After claiming his luggage, he discovers an intergalnctic plot the horror of which threatens to transcend centuries. Your future (not to mention mankind’s) depends on your ability to crisscross through time, solve an assortment of puzzles, and battle the various mutant monsters and alien storm troopers that one tends to befall during extended periods of time travel.
Future Wars: Adventures to Time is the first release in the new “Cinema- tique” system of graphic adventures, whereby the interface utilizes a series of pop-up text and command windows, thus eliminating the need for a parser and making die game ultra user- friendly.
Future Wars: Adventures In Time runs on the the A500, 1000, 2000, and 2500, with a minimum 512K memory and Kickstart vl.2-
1. 3 required. List Price: $ 49-95- Interplay Productions,
1575Corporate Drive, Costa Mesa, CA 92626,
(714) 545-9001, Inquiry
* 267.
Send lor complete catalog
- (9M)35t-H4S FAX (914) 354-5696 PAWNING OFF Eagle Tree Software
has brought Chinese Chess to the Amiga. Chinese Chess, Tl)e
Science Of War features the ancient cousin of Western chess in
multiple 2D and 3D views, complete with sinuous river that
divides the game board.
The game includes several levels of difficulty, clocks, on-line descriptions of rules, pieces, notation and strategy, the ability' to print, save or load games, as well as the ability to create custom positions. Pieces can be controlled with either die mouse or die keyboard. Chinese Chess will run on the A500, 1000, or 2000, with a minimum 512K memory' required. List Price.- $ 32.95. Eagle Tree Software, P.O. Box 164, Hopewell, VA 23860, (804) 452-0623- Inquiry *268.
TOSS THE TELEPROMPTER Would-be talking beads rejoice! Now available from Australia-based DigiSoft isAutoPrompt, a scrolling script prompter and text editor program designed for television script prompting and information display's.
The DigiSoft program is comprised of two interleaved components, Edit mode and Prompt mode, with the ability to swap between the two modes at will provided. Using the Edit mode, text can be typed, imported, edited, saved to disk, loaded, and re-edited as required. Scripts from otiler word processors or text editors can also be imported. In the Prompt mode, the text is display'ed.
The Prompt mode features user-selectable fonts, and either the cursor keys, mouse, or joystick can be used to control the speed and direction of scrolling, AutoPrompt supports PAL and NTSC in both interlaced and non-interlaced modes, and high or low resolution screens. The program also features a full intuition interface complete with menus and keyboard shortcuts.
AutoPrompt runs on the A500, 1000, 2000, or 2500, with a minimum 512K memory and Kickstart vl.2 or later required.
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(continuedfrom page 6) Design, Inc. in regards to your inquiry about Encore. East Coast Regional Sales manager Joel Heppting said Passport is now developing Encorefor the IBM and Atari ST. The next development will probably be for the Amiga. ED. Dear AC: In the April, 1990 issue of Amazing Computing, a review by Cletus Baker of the telecommunications program Baud Bandit contains the following quote: “To date, only Online! (and its brethren Platinum and The Works versions), and the shareware JRComm feature Zmodem."
The quote is not simply inaccurate but blatantly false, and just a little more research on the part of your reviewer would have easily discovered the full facts.
The telecommunications program A-Talk III, produced by our company, Felsina Software, published by OXXI, Inc., has included the Zmodem protocol since its initial release in September of 1988. The mistake is even more surprising considering that A-Talk 111 has received numerous awards including innovations '89 at Summer CES in Chicago and Expert Choice Award '89 from both AmigaWorld and Amiga Plus magazines. Interestingly enough, while Amazing Computing reviewed A-Talk Pius back in 1988, no review of A-Talk III has ever appeared since, while you seem to be able to review' every possible update
of Online! Fm sure niy publisher will be able to furnish you with a complimentary copy of A-Talk III, so you can check your facts firsthand. Thank you very much for your time.
Sincerely.
Marco Papa Felsina Software Dear AC: Imagine our surprise to read in Cletus Baker's review1 in your April 1990 issue that only Online and Baud Bandit commercial terminal programs and the shareware JRComm have the ability to do file transfers with the Zmodem protocol. This will come as a shock to thousands of A-Ta!k III users who have long been transferring files with Zmodem. Zmodem Resume and Zmodem Remote, and doing Zmodem batch transfers of binary files with a simple, menu-supported command.
I assume that in Baker’s search for the terminal program, by examining mostly freely-disiributable software and “the more expensive commercial versions”, he simply overlooked A-Talk III. In fact, every feature he praises in Baud Bandit is matched or surpassed by A-Talk III.
For users who have been mislead by this inaccuracy in Baker’s article, I suggest they look instead for a full-featured telecomm program which offers them not only Zmodem, but a complete range of standard, XPR and shared-mode protocols, more than one or two terminal emulations, support for all the common modem types (including the new super-high-speed modems), remote hosting abilities, multiserial port compatibility, and a complete library of ready-made scripts, including one for running a BBS. When they find all that in one package for less than 5100.00, their search for the perfect terminal
program will be over.
Sincerely, Patricia Cummings Director of Technical Support OXXI, Inc. We contacted Cletus Baker and here is his response: “As Ms. Cummings suggests, I simply overlooked A-Talk III in my search for ‘The Perfect Terminal Program’. My experience encompassed the most-often-discussed programs among my friends and associates, and in our conversations A-Talk III never came up. I must apologize to Ms. Cummings and Mr. Papa for my lack of awareness.” Cletus Baker Dear AC: I am having fun with Robert D'Asto’s Ham Bones, the Ham_Toy program on page 73 of the April 1990 issue of Amazing Computing. As
he states, there is no provision for saving a picture that you have drawn. 1 am using GRABBIT, Discovery Software, [to] print or save any screen, from any program anytime. I can save a screen drawn with Ham_Toy and save it with GRABBIT, then I load the screen into DIGI PAINT, New Tek incorporated. Once loaded into DIGI PAINT, I can manipulate the picture whichever way pleases me.
I dislike using a program where one spends a lot of time drawing a picture and then cannot keep it or work on it at another time. [M]y suggestions above make the Ham_Toy program more worthwhile.
Sincerely, Herbert H. Starkey Salem, OR We have tried to contact Discovery Sofhvare since late last year, but the phone has been disconnected. Since we are unsure if GRABBIT is Still available (or if Discovery Software itself is viable) we decided not to suggest using the program to save HamJToy pictures. ED. Dear AC: In your April issue [...] there is a Bio- Feedback Lie Detector Device article which says that there is an included program that I cannot locate. I would appreciate a reply in this matter. Thank you.
Sincerely yours, Michael E. Davis St. Paul, MN The Listing was inadvertently omitted in April We did publish it in the May issue of AC, on page 91. ED. AM letters are subject to editing.
Questions or comments should be sent to: Amazing Computing
P. O. Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722-0869 Attn: Feedback Readers
whose letters are published will receive five public domain
disks FREE.
To begin, the feature that permits adjustment of paragraph indents and “outdents" (i.e., hanging indents) is intelligently designed, and very easy to use. A graphic display shows exactly where the new setting is before you have to commit to it. After all, nobody likes to try a setting and dick OK, then realize it is not right when the page is redrawn. The PageStream requester lets you see that it’s right before you close the requester.
PageStream 1.8 PUTTING SOFT-LOGIK'S DESKTOP PUBLISHING PACKAGE TO WORK Full adjustment of character tracking, kerning and line leading are provided for.
Text height and width is measured in points, and can be set anywhere from 1 50 of a point to 1310 points! I had some problems when working with text over 750 points tall, but how often does a desktop pubi isher work with text so large that each letter cannot fit on an 8.5-inch by 11-inch page? The claim that you can work with text as large as 1310 points may be accurate, but you must have large enough paper.
You can even set the point size different for horizontal and vertical pixels. I printed a sign with characters 200 points wide and 450 points tall.
Paragraph tagging is implemented in a very workable fashion. Tags can be applied to paragraphs, making the layout of large documents fast and easy. There does appear to be one bug related to tagging of text objects. During one test. I had a problem wiLh disappearing text. Changing the tag seemed impossible. Other boxes 1 chose did not exhibit the problem. I also found that once Lext is tagged, you apparently cannot change text attributes without either changing or removing the tag. Which is as it should be (although there wasn't any- warning that this was happening). Some confusion ensued
when I tried to change a block of previously-tagged text without changing the tag itself, and the text wouldn't change. Initially-1 thought I had encountered some kind of bug, and it would have been nice had a warning popped up to remind me chat the text I was trying to modify was tagged.
Ed. Note: At World of Amiga in New York, Soft-Logik Publishing Corp. announced PageStream 2.0. For details on this future release, please see our show report on page 47.
BY JOHN STEINER Manual and batch hyphenation is allowed, and a spelling checker is built-in.
Hyphenation can be applied to or removed from text selectively, but you may need to spend a few extra moments with the manual to master the selection buttons for dais feaaire. The spell checking is nice, but 1 would rather see the program code used to do something else. Spell checking can be more effectively done within tire word processor, as the text is being created.
Editorial changes made within PageStream would then not be subject to spell checking by the computer but we all know that editors are perfect spellers anyway'!
Any desktop publishing software worthy' of merit has to be able to wrap text around graphics. PageStream does, with four modes of text runaround. You can wrap text around the left, the right, or both sides of structured graphics. Text cannot wrap around irregular-shaped objects in bitmap graphic images, but you can outline the bitmapped image with a structured graphic line that has no color. Then, simply set the text runaround mode to wrap around the invisible structured graphic element.
NEARLY ALL OF THE FEATURES THAT SHOULD BE IN A TRULY PROFESSIONAL desktop publishing package are in Soft-Logik's PageStream 1.8. If you are like me and do a Sot of desktop publishing, vou will no doubt appreciate its many advanced features.
The best way to test software is to actually put it to work. With that in mind, several different kinds of documents were created similar to those I normally work with, to see how quickly and intuitively PageStream operates. The major features discussed herein are drose I had an opportunity' to work with using these test documents. Tests were done on an Amiga 2000 with 3 MB of RAM and a hard disk and 2090A controller card installed.
Programs that are the most powerful also have some capability to automate repetitive tasks. PageStream is equipped with a powerful macro capability that allows you to do complex operations with a single macro entry. Once the macro is designed, you can call it up at any time to perform its complex function. 1 did not have the opportunity' to test this feature except to try a couple of the macros that were demonstrated in the tutorials.
The stereotypical image of the professional desktop publisher includes that of an expensive laser printer connected directly- to the computer. The reality is that many' desktop publishers look with envy' upon laser printer owners, and must print lT.cir own documents on a dot matrix | printer. PageStream can print on dot matrix printers as well as Postscript laser printers (Postscript is the standard language of high-quality printing devices for desktop publishers). PageStream documents can print at 2500 dots-per-inch, on a Postscript- based typesetting machine for a magazine- quality print
output. The dot matrix output in earlier versions of the program was not very smooth, but that has been corrected.
Even nine-pin output is acceptable for club newsletters and for proofing of documents destined to be typeset or laser printed. You can even dot matrix print in landscape mode (wide rather than tall page orientation, i.e., a page printed sideways) on a dot matrix printer. Once you have proofread a document, you can generate a Postscript file on disk which can be taken to a service bureau for final printout on a laser printer or typesetting machine.
Let’s now- look at a few of the shortcomings I discovered.
My biggest complaint is that, for the most part, the fonts you get with PageStream 1.8 are ugly there is simply no nicer word for them. With dre exception of Tynre and Helv (versions of dre venerable Times Roman and Helvetica), dre fonts generally look amateurish and really give a document a look drat screams “This page has been desktop published!" A powerful desktop publishing program should naturally create documents that do not call attention to themselves. Since standard Amiga fonts cannot be used in PageStream documents, and most Amiga fonts aren’t meant for publishing applications
anyway, a source of good-looldng fonts is necessary'. Fortunately, Soft-Logik provides many optional font sets (the quality of which I w'as not able to verify). The font sets are available to drive eidrer Postscript or dot-matrix printers. Third-party compa- Color selection (above) and font selection (below) in Soft-Logik's PageStream 1.8. A i a h ' ?
!_ o 0; 0 1 0 b ?q
- i- ¦ TieTarltt* PAGESTHLAM WCItKlMC MCDES Tfcae iir rrvfn *ulni
rvcric in Pi ttSnaa. Ttev ce i* J iLi I .... •r„.-i.L«,l _
ru-iMi se*»ain| Cytasn Iiifuss Rt'topt Uuadl dnvi&r line.dtt
potyl' fdnt Point 1 Point :jl2 pt font (otanbi* (r*»|iw Hot*
L I rfiol h Or t*n|•( S j ' ii tonHud Tvn* UriivRnn ~°i~i
?r-rAd nm Ttxt tautin note c ictsve *Vn sukm? Panw u»
Buritonnc t*. Iruuied«tailstsnftoncoLar, lotskiu.
Cirnw At* - the mde hi a* *, icon PageStream also permits the composition of pages that are actually larger than your printer can handle in a single pass through a feature called "tiling". This option automatically divides each single oversized page into several overlapping areas which are printed onto smaller sheets, cut apart, and pasted together to form one large master page. The person who does your print job can use the large master when put ting together final camera- ready copy. The tiling option works for pages that are as large as IS by IB inches.
Professional desktop publishing programs should probably be able to handle pages up Ur full newspaper size; however, and this is not possible with PageStream 1.8. There also doesn't appear to be any way to change the size of a page once it is created. Here, just create a page of the correct size, and move information over from the former page.
Though there are several filters for importing different bitmap graphic images, Amiga owners will be most interested in importing IFF ILBM graphics. IFF bitmap graphics of any resolution (including HAM images) import easily into PageStream, either as complete images or as picture windows which can then be cropped.
Depressing the shift key while drawing the box that holds such an image maintains the correct height width ratio for tire picture.
PageStream also does color separations, both mechanical and four color, i printed some four-color separations and they looked fine out of the laser printer, but I d id not have the opportunity to view' them as a color printed page. PageStream also prints negative and mirror images if die person at your print shop requests them. I did not test diese features.
PageStream excels in its layout and page view' capabilities. Each page is displayed in a fully-sizeable window', the view can be changed from 200% of actual size to full page, and the variable zoom feature lets you look closely at any' part of a page. The Show' Full Width feature diat displays the entire w'idth of a page is useful. A set of left and right Master Pages allows yrou to put together a template of items such as headers, foolers and page numbers, as well as graphic elements, that will automatically appear on every page. Page numbers can be placed on die master pages, and they
w'iil appear on every page in either Arabic or Roman numerals. Page numbers can be set to start from any' number desired.
Columns for text can appear in any order on any' page. Columns containing text can be linked so die text will automatically flow from column to column, even across page boundaries. A background grid and page guides can be used to help place critically-posidoned columns and graphics. Pages are easily inserted, deleted, and moved.
The structured graphic capabilities of the program can be used to create special effects and limited structured drawings.
Lots of fill patterns are available, and you can even create your own pattern if you want. Up to 256 colors can be selected for creating graphics in a given document. I had a little trouble selecting graphic elements that 1 had purposely sized to be too large to fit on a page. If you accidentally specify' a size drat is too large, be sure to change it back to fit on tire page before y'ou try to select something else. It may take a while to selecL dre object again.
The ability to rotate text and graphics is beautifully implemented. The requester that allows rotation of any object (or group of objects) demonstrates with a rotating rectangle how dre final position selected will make tire object appear. This feature makes for easy placement of text at any angle.
There is a bug in the rotate function, however. If a text object is rotated, then changed in size, the object is redrawn as a mirror image. Recall the rotate requester, ancl you find that tire rotate coordinates have changed. Simply change them back, and the text returns to where it was originally. To avoid this, be sure to size the text or graphic object before you rotate it.
The program is not without problems, but they do seem to be relatively minor in nature, and often related to the philosophical implementation of a desktop publishing interface, rather than problems caused bv bugs. This is as it should be. Problems w'ith software implementation should not mean features drat doni work, but radrer, features that are either missing or that could be implemented in a more intuitive manner. PageStream certainly has no sirortage of features, and wheir vou measure the quantity and quality' of them against tire program's relatively' low- cost, the program is
really a bargain. With this in mind,
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Nies are also producing font sets for Page- Stream. There are several public domain PageStream-compatible fonts available on information services such as People Link and Genie. If you have access to a Postscript printer, I recommend Font Disk A from Soft-Logik, as it contains screen versions and font metrics for the family of fonts built into the majority of Postscript printers being sold today. These fonts are attractive and contain enough variety to give your documents a professional look. If you don’t have access to a Postscript printer, and you want to duplicate the fonts that come
with font disk A. you will find that (unfortunately) they have been spread across several disks. PageStream font disks sold directly from Soft-Logik all sell for a suggested retail price of $ 39-95- I also had some installation problems when I went to put the program on my hand drive. The instructions were clear and easy to understand and I followed them exactly, yet when I was finished, the program did not work properly, it took much effort to get the program to recognize where the fonts and drivers were when the program started up. Each time 1 ran the program, I had to manually tell
the software where to find all the default PageStream system drawers, and it could never find the import filters or dictionaries because the Global Set Save Paths option would not work properly. I had put all the PageStream related files and drawers in an FH1 rPageStream directory I had created on my hard disk. I found that in order to make PageStream work properly on my system, I had to use die assign command to assign PAGESTREAMFONTS: and PAGESTREAM DRIVERS: to FhLPageStream before executing the program. Once that was done, the program started and worked as it was supposed to. This
problem also occurred when 1 tried to install the software on a stock 1 MB 2000HD. I visited with both a PageStream beta tester and Soft-Logik technical support about this problem, thinking they had inadvertently left the information about making the assignments out of their manual. Both people told me that no assigns are required, and neither could explain why I was having tire problem described here. I even went through the Global Set Save Paths requester with the person from Tech Support to make sure 1 had set my paths correctly. He simply didn't have an answer, other than to say that
since it works with the assigns they should be left in, even though they are not supposed to be needed.
The program does not use the busy pointer enough to suit me. Normally, when PageStream is busy, it replaces the usual arrow pointer with an hourglass shape to indicate the program is busy. The problem is that there are times when the program is busy, but the arrow pointer is still active.
This usually happens shortly after sel ecting a menu item, and gives the false indication that either die menu selection didn't work, or the program has locked up.
There is also a problem with the HP LaserJet driver that is included with PageStream, It will not drive my QMS PS 810 Plus printer properly when the printer is in LaserJet emulation mode. The QMS printer is a Postscript printer, and PageStream works just fine with it in die Postscript mode. “When I use the LaserJet driver and put the printer into LaserJet mode, I get about l l6th of a good page, then it ejects and several pages of garbage text follow.
There is possibly an incompatibility with die LIP emulation in the printer; however, we have used diat emulation mode on a regular basis while driving IBM software, and have never before found a program that didn't drive the printer properly. The Amiga Preferences LaserJet driver works fine with die printer also. PageStream does drive other HP LaserJet-compatible printers properly, and 1 know of several PageStream users who are printing on their LaserJet without problems.
(continued on page 28) Taking steps to avoid steps: WordPerfect WORDPERFECT CORP. PRODUCES WordPerfect, long considered to be one of the computer world's premier word processors. Recently, WP released an update to the .Amiga version which includes many long-awaited enhancements. These changes include the addition of a typical Amiga file requester (instead of the IBM-like file requester standard with other versions ol WP) and better utilization of the Amiga’s multitasking abilities, offering improved editing speed when more than one window is open simultaneously. Priorto this update, WP was
not the most highly-regarded Amiga word processor, but these enhancements should go a long way toward finally and emphatically changing that.
In addition to this update to WP itself, WordPerfect Corp. has released a File Conversion program and a Macro Editor, uploading both to their BBS for registered users to freely download; or, users may send $ 10 to WordPerfect Corp. for a disk containing both programs. The File Conversion program converts text Files between WP vl.9, WP v2.0, WP Secondary, Scribble!, and Scribble! Merge formats. The Macro Editor shows tire text representation for macros in what resembles a file requester for a favorite text editor of mine (TxEd+), and permits die addition or deletion of any steps (plus
changes to scrolling or window size) without the need to rerecord the entire thing. This disk is a godsend to heavy WP users with bodr Amigas and IBMs, since it enables easy transfer of text Files between different word processor formats, and helps to easily modify7 macros created with the powerful macro feature of WordPerfect.
An aspect of WP sadly overlooked in most Amiga magazine articles is tire utilization of WP’s macros. Macros are a recorded series of mouse movements or keystrokes used to perform tasks while keeping the latter to a minimum, named in one of die following ways: with an Amiga key + another key, a typed-in file name for the macro, or by pressing the ‘RETURN1 key instead of entering a name at die prompt (which creates a temporary macro that disappears after exiting WP). Not all keys are used in conjunction with the Amiga keys. The supported keys for macros are Amiga +: A, D, E, F, G, H, M, N,
R, T, V, W, Y, and Z. WordPerfect normally utilizes the function keys FI F10 in conjunction with the SHIFT, .ALT, and CTRL keys for die word processor’s operadons, preventing their use as macros.
Chaining macros togedier (where one macro calls another) is a useful feature of WordPerfect. I chained two macros togedier to 1) save a file after checking spelling widiin the document, and 2) clear the screen for a new document. Sometimes there is a need to clear a screen without saving a File, and sometimes I save a file widiout checking die spelling (especially on the First draft!).
The procedure used to generate diese handy macros is quite simple to learn, and the tutorial aspect of WP covers it in detail sufficient for most new users. Here is a summary:
1) press CTRL + F10 keys;
2) press eidier left or right Amiga keys, plus anodier keyboard
letter; at that point, AT1 records all mouse or function key
selections including mistakes so plan ahead as to exactly
what the macro should accomplish; Macros by Mike Hubbartt
3) make the selections the macro will perform (for example. 1
pressed SHIFT + F10 at this step to record a retrieve macro);
4) when all macro movements selections are made, press CTRL + F10
to stop recording the macro; now press either Amiga bey plus
the letter that defines the macro, to activate the macro.
I use macros to customize the WP interface to personal preferences as well to generate shortcuts, although standard commands like Right„Amiga-LJ for enabling disabling underlining, and Right_Amiga-B for enabling disabling bold type are already supported by VP, and do not need a macro defined. Use either die Project menu or CTRL + FI to open a new CL1 window, or use a macro such as Amiga (either Amiga key) + n. Use the Project menu or SHIFT + F10 to retrieve or open a file for editing, or use another macro like Amiga + r. Most shortcuts I choose utilize an Amiga key + another letter
because they save me time as a touch typist, and they are easier to remember dian those chosen by WordPerfect.
Since macros named with Amiga key + a letter are accessed by selecting the key combination, how do you use macros with file names?
To access a macro with a filename, press ALT + F10, and then type in the macro’s name. Macros with file names are stored in locations other than die default directory, so they are accessed by die full padi name (i.e., dflrmacros instext) whenever desired. To access a temporary macro, press ALT + F10 and then ‘RETURN’. Macros can be eidier visible or invisible. Invisible is die default mode, which does not display the menus where selections were made in the macro definition are not shown in this mode. In the visible macro mode, enter a delay in a macro when defining it and you can see each
menu accessed by that macro as it executes.
The lack of a quick word count feature (a lifesaver for any writer) in WP is worked around via macros. The usual WP procedure to generate a word count is as follows: select die Spelling checker widi either CTRL + F 2 or use select SPELL from the Special menu then select the word count option from the new window in the center of the screen. After setting up a macro, ! Now just need to use Amiga key + w to get the same information without performing extra steps and spending extra time. I chose Amiga key + w since die “?” sign (used in Transcript from Gold Disk) Ls not selectable as a macro
identifier in WordPerfect.
Since die spelling of my documents is sometimes (read; often) called into question, I also have a macro (Amiga + h) to bring up die Spelling Checker widi all eight options still unselected. Another favorite macro deletes text from a window, so 1 can start a new document (Amiga + E) instead of using F7 and answering yes or no to bodi exiting requesters that appear. And finally, there is a print current document macro. The normal procedure for printing out a document is: select the Full Page menu item from the Print menu, or use the SHIFT + F7 key combination and then select Full Text from
the menu items, or record a macro (like Amiga + d) to save steps when sending output to the printer, My .Amiga + d macro loads the printer driver information from the WP Print disk, and prints die current document without further menu selections.
Chaining macros together (where one macro calls another) is a useful feature of WordPerfect... Here are some more helpful hints on generating macros: Execute the sequence first, without recording the sequence, writing down all steps if the macro is quite large. In naming macros, stick with familiar labels used in past word processing applications when possible, and name newer combinations with letters fitting tire description of the macro’s purpose.
Macros are among the best features offered in WP, and I hope all Amiga word processors eventually come to use them (at present, only one or two companies beside WordPerfect Corp. use macros in their word processors). Owners of WP definitely need to contact WordPerfect Corp. for both die WP update and the File Conversion Macro Editor disk, both welcome additions over the original version when writing anything from a letter to a complete book. If you still have some questions about generating macros from tire method I have described here, try the examples in the WP tutorial it’s that easy to
develop your own!
WordPerfect 5.1, WordPerfect Corf., 1555 N. Technology' Way, Orem, in'84057; Piice: $ 250.00; Inquiry’ 213 . C* IF YOU HAVE EVER WANTED TO USE YOUR printer to address envelopes, and you have a printer with capabilities to print 1" or 1 2" from the tear-off (short tear-off), or you are willing to use printer envelopes (Memorex or equivalent) read on.
WordPerfect and at least two other word processors include macros, which are very simple to create, and real timesavers. We can devise a macro in WordPerfect (applicable to other word processors, after doing some homework) that addresses envelopes with no extra typing required.
That is, this macro takes the page head (or your name and address) from a letter, moves it to the left, moves the name and address of the "addressee" to the center, and erases the content of the letter itself, thus eliminating the need for additional typing.
There are two requirements for this macro to be effective. The location of each line in the head of the letter (or the area from which your name and address are being taken) must be consistent, as should line format. The diree or four lines containing the name and address of the addressee must always be located in the same line from the top of the form. ! Have a macro that types my name, address and date and ends by placing the cursor on line 10, which is the place where I always start my letters.
Devise a macro to address envelopes, and no extra typing required!
Xame and address usually occupies 3 or 4 lines.
To cover both cases, let's make the macro a 4-line macro. Type any letter using your preferred format, but place the addressee information starting at line
10. In order to make the macro work with long or short addresses,
make each line about 30 characters long. These could be
anything xxxx’s will do [to create the macro].
In the letter head you can include any printer commands (like double height, italics, etc.) to embellish the hard copy. These commands will transfer to the macro unless you do not want them, in which case they can be deleted during the creation of the macro.
To start the macro, place the cursor in line 1 position 1 and define the macro as follows: Press CTRL + F10 and at the prompt, give the Macro a simple name like AC. Press RETURN to accept tire name. If you do not date your letters, skip the next step; if you do, place the cursor at the end of the line preceding the date and press RETURN 3 times. Place the cursor at tire end of the last line of tire address and press RETURN 3 dr 4 times. This isolates the date and information to be transferred to the envelope and moves the first line of dre address to line 13, the appropriate location for
business envelopes.
Move the cursor to the date line and use your mouse to pull down the EDIT menu and select "Delete To End of Line". Then, move the cursor to line 1 position 1. Enter the BLOCK ON mode by depressing ALT + F4. Use the down arrow key to "BLOCK" the contents of lines 1 to 17. Enter the Move Block mode by pressing CTRL - F4 anti select Cut Block 1.
Now Exit by Pressing F7, but do not save dre file and do not exit WordPerfect. This erases all pages, but not tire blocked rectangle. At this point the cursor is in the upper left-hand corner, which is where you want it. Press MOVE TEXT CTRL + 1’4 and select Retrieve Text 5.
Since printing must start at tire very top of the envelope, we have to set the top and left margins; press ALT + F8, PAGE FORMAT, and select Top Margin (5), enter 0 (yes, zero top margin) and press 0 (zero) to exit. Press SHIFT + F8. LINE FORMAT, and select Margins (3), enter 2 (or whatever works best with your printer) and press 0 (zero) to exit.
To move tire header to the left, press ALT + F3 to "Reveal Codes”, Using the BACKSPACE key, delete the Center [C] or fA] from every litre of the header. Delete the top margin normally used itr your letters. Exit the “Revel Code" mode. Place the cursor at the beginning of line 13. Which should be the first line of the address. Using the TAB key, move all four lines to Pos 35. Finish and save the Macro by pressing CTRL + F10 again.
To Invoke the Macro just created, load any letter, making sure the name and address starts in line 10. It can be 3 or 4 lines long. Place tire cursor in line 1. Press .ALT + F10 and enter the name of the Macro. If you are using an Epsoir LQ-850 move the paper release lever back, place an envelope, and print it. If you do not have a printer with envelope- loading features, Memorex makes printer envelopes that work very nicely. •AC1 THIS MONTH, WE’LL TAKE A LITTLE EXCURSION away from the parallel port, Our project this time is a rapid-fire joystick circuit for game playing on the Amiga,
(although die circuit should also work equally well on the Atari. Vic-20, C-64 and C-128 computers). The circuit is placed in-between the computer and the joystick, and becomes activated via depression of the fire button on the joystick. This causes die circuit to flip-flop the voltage or.
Pin 6 from 5 to 0 volts at approximately 17 Hz (Hz is an abbreviation for hertz which stands for “cycles per second"). This is equivalent to pressing the fire button 17 times a second. The circuit saves your trigger finger from overexerdon playing those rapid fire asteroid-type games.
WHAT KIND OP GAME?
How well the circuit works depends upon how die particular game is programmed. If the game in question performs multiple firing when the fire button is depressed constantly, chances are die circuit will not improve your game score. In fact, in some cases the circuit may slow down an existing multiple-firing feature. This happens because even though the circuit oscillates pin 6 at 17 Hz, it still spends half its time with the line high (not. Firing).
The other half of the time the line is low (firing). Depending upon the moment the computer polls die game port, it might not recognize the fire button as being de- Games that require discrete (individual) fire button presses are die type of games the circuit is best suited for. The circuit flip-flops diat fire pin faster than is humanly possible.
COMPUTER GAME PORTS The joystick connector ports labeled Joy 1 andJoy2 on the computer are standard DB-9 connectors. The DB- 9 connector built into the computer is a male pin DB-9.
The mating connector on the joystick is a female socket DB-9- Since we are placing our circuit in between the joystick and computer, we need bodi a male and female DB-9 connector on the circuit board to interface it. The female DB-9 on the circuit plugs into the game port on the computer and the joystick plugs into the male DB-9 connector on the circuit. DB-9 connecLors are available from Radio Shack and most odier electronic distributors.
The game ports on the Amiga are not just for joysticks, riiey are also used for other peripherals. In each application the designation of die pin assignment changes in respect Lo the peripheral in use at the time joystick, mouse or light pen. Since diis particular circuit is designed for use with a joystick, die pin assignment for die DB-9 pins is as follows: Pin Name Description 1 Forward Controller forward 2 Bock Controller back 3 Left Controller left 4 Right Controller right 5 PofX Horizontal Potentiometer (Paddle) 6 Fire Controller fire 7 + 5V + 5V power (100 ma) 6 GND Ground 9 PotY
Vertical Potentiometer (Paddle) Only three lines are utilized to interface this circuit, the +5V, GND and fire button. All of the other wires are passed through, meaning you just solder wires pin-to-pin between die male and female connectors on the circuit.
See schematic Figure One.
By John lovine HOWJOYSTICKS WORK The joystick is a simple device centered on 5 switches (see Figure Two), Four of the switches detect the movements olt he joystick. One of the four is activated each time tire joystick is moved in a specific horizontal or vertical direction. Diagonal movement is read when two adjacent switches are activated at the same time. For instance, when die joystick is pushed diagonally right, both die forward and right switches are activated.The fire button is the fifth switch on the joystick.
The lines to the joystick are active low lines. What this means is that the computer holds all dre joystick lines at +5
V. When a switch is activated it connects that particularline to
ground (zero volts), 4011 QUAD NANDIC The heart of die circuit
is a 4011 quad NAND integrated circuit (see Figure Three). The
operation of a single NAND gate is illustrated in the truth
table.
The IC (integrated circuit) in the circuit as stated is a 4011 quad NAND gate. This chip has four (quad) NAND gates. Two NAND gates can be made to oscillate using a simple RC (resistor capacitor) network (see simple oscillator Figure Three).
In our circuit the gates are made to oscillate when pin 6 (fire pin) from the joystick is brought low. The output from the IC is fed into the NPN transistor. The function of the transistor is to invert the signal output from the 4011 IC.
The inverted output from die transistor is brought to pin 6 (fire pin) on the computer side of the circuit.
CONSTRUCTION If you have been following this series and doing the projects, you should construct diis circuit on the soiderless bread board we have been using. Test out die circuit on the bread board before you hardwire (solder) it. This makes it easy to correct any wiring errors.
After testing, the circuit can be wired on a small piece of PC board. 1 used half of the PC board listed in the parts list. If you haven’t done much soldering (even if you have!), it’s a good idea to solder a 14 pin IC socket into the circuit instead of die actual IC. By soldering a socket into die circuit you don’t have to worry about overheating and possibly burning out the IC with your soldering iron (which NAND Gato A | s’ O'-d 4011 Quad NAND Trulh Table PQ cr P ; r; A 3 1 Oul LL 1 H LH H p c HL H Gnd l_ 7__1-j_ HH L Ncie: Simple Oscillator L (Low) - Binary 0 or 0 V cr GtrO n vo H
(High) - Bmary 1 or + V ' jiooir7 1 Khz Output would surely put you in a real frustrating position). After the circuit is finished with the socket in place, simply install the 4011 IC. This also makes it simpler to replace the IC in the future, should it become necessary.
Figure Three Figure One: Rapid Fire Joystick Controller It isn't necessary to remove the circuit from the computer when you are through with it. The circuit can be left on the game port. The amount of current the circuit draws from the port is minimal and should not affect normal computer operations. For most of the games the mouse can remain in Joystick port 1 for use with the workbench. Gaines usually utilize Joystick port 2, so there is not a conflict. But if you are using two joysticks (and circuits) fora particular game you may have to remove the circuit from Joystick port 1 when you are
finished, since pin 6, when in use with a mouse, is mouse button 1. Pressing the mouse button with the circuit on will perform a rapid fire on the line, equal to 17 mouse clicks per second.
If you don’t plan to use a paddle with die circuit vou can simplify- the circuit by eliminadng the wires between pins 5 & 9.
• AC* LOTS OF NEW STUFF IS COMING OUT FOR THE AMIGA right now,
and tilings look promising for future support. Hopefully, all
the good titles will do very well in stores, so more companies
will devote their full support to this fine machine, and we can
have more of the hottest games out.
By R. Bradley Andrews TYPHOON THOMPSON Typhoon Thompson, a recent release fromBroderbund, gets this month’s award for original theme. While the far future is the setting for many games, this universe is a bit different. A tragic crash has destroyed all but one occupant of a luxury cruise ship. The remaining occupant, a small child, has landed on a water planet and has been adopted by a race of sea sprites, who do not want to relinquish their new charge.
You have been selected to redeem yourself from past mistakes by defeating several of die sprites' cities and freeing the child. Two representatives of an ancient civilization that used to occupy the planet will aid you in your quest.
The first step is to gather the four magical items needed for your final showdown with the sprites. Each magical item is held in a different sprite city. Of course, die residents will not give up their magical items without a fight. First, you must deal with each of die inhabitants of die seven islands surrounding each city by drawing them out, shooting dieir ships, and then scooping diem out of the water into your sprite bag. Once you have gadiered up all die sprites on die islands, a big sprite will trade you the magical item you seek for his captured subjects.
Battling die first city turns out to be fairly easy, as just one sprite per ship and one sprite ship per island is sent against you. But diese values increase on later levels until on the final level, there are three sprites per ship and three ships per island. The top levels can get very “hairy,” since die sprites must be grabbed quickly before they turn into dolphins, swkn back to their island, and bring out more friends.
In addition to your jet sled and sprite-bag you have some weapons at your disposal one added for each of the first four levels. A laser cannon is your primary weapon and is used to blast sprite ships out of die sky. The scatter bomb serves to repel all die flyers in a certain area for a while, clearing a path for your sled. The sprite magnet attracts downed sprites, very helpful when you are gadiering up lots of the guys you have just shot down. Finally, if the sprite ships are oil range, die freeze bomb will stop them dead in their tracks for a short time.
Sprite ships come in several varieties. Some are simply obnoxious, such as the Bumper, who diinks he is on a bumper car ride. Others may either attract or repel your ship, making for some deadly possibilities. Still others fire a variety' of nasty projectiles at you, but the worst of all - die Zapper is deadly with any contact.
The graphics in the game are done well, and very' sharp. The sound is simple, but completely adequate and also well done. The game's high point is its cartoon-like animated sequences. These begin with the intro sequence where you are knocked out and tossed into your jet sled. The sprites themselves are interesting to watch as they jump from destroyed vehicles and flounder in the water. Each possible way you can die is cleverly animated widi a sequence that almost makes up for the fact that you have lost a life.
Also, the sequences in which the owner of each city turns over one of the items you seek are very cute.
The mouse is used for control of the game, and this is die game’s greatest shortcoming. It can be very difficult to maneuver in diree dimensions. While it may be nice to have two different buttons and more firing options available right on the mouse, I sdll would have preferred some sort of joystick interface augmented with some key presses. It is too bad someone doesn’t come out with a good two-button mouse. The Atari-compatable joystick is just too entrenched.
There is another problem related to the interface. While you are supposed to be able to easily move near a downed sprite and stuff it into your bag, doing so takes a lot of practice, and it can be very difficult to actually fly the right pattern to grab the critter. You must also move at least a bit between each sprite grab. 1 often found myself in the midst of a whole bunch of sprites, able to grab only one or two before 1 had to defend against an incoming ship. This problem is compounded at the higher levels, given that there are more sprites per ship. It is vital to grab all the sprites
from each ship, or they will go back and form another ship hill of pesky sprites to harass you.
In spite of this, I actually had a good time with the game. I did manage to hang the game with a “too many objects" message trying to rescue the child at the fifth and final level, because I found it very difficult to identify, let alone grab the three sprites that belonged to any one ship. But, I do think that with a little practice.
I could even manage to beat that level. At one point on the next- to-last level, sprites were multiplying like rabbits, but I learned to take out one ship at a time, and everything was OK.
While it may not be worth a lot due to the limited number of levels and tile frustrating interface, I did enjoy Typhoon Thompson, and recommend you check it out at the store.
DAY OF THE VIPER Day of the Viper from Accolade is also set far in die future, but lLiis time it is a rogue machine that threatens mankind. Several sentient androids were created to aid man in the hazardous tasks that normally accompany space exploration. Unfortunately, something caused them to go crazy after only a short time. Now, led by the devious GAR, they are headed back to earth with destruction in mind.
The only tiling that can stop them is the sole operational Viper remote-controlled combat vehicle. Because of its size, it can sneak into their main base undetected. From diere it can gather data programs needed to activate the auto-destruct sequence on the base's computer, thereby destroying the menace.
The base consists of five different complexes with five levels each. Your adventure will take you through these levels as you look for die keys to GAR’s destruction. Scattered about die complex are useful items, such as keycards that open colored doors to your vehicle, energy crystals that can be used to refill your internal batteries, repair modules to fix damage to your craft, and more.
While you may slip in undetected, the base remains hostile to your presence. Enemy robots patrol the halls, dancing gingerly in front of you until you destroy them. Mines and other traps also block key passageways and must be either bypassed or detonated.
The real key to your mission lies in die 25 data diskettes that contain die destruct code. One is somewhere on each level, and only by inputting diese into die base computer can you complete your task; everything else is really just a step along the way.
The center-right portion of the screen features a three- dimensional view common to many dungeon exploration games, while the center-left portion is used as a modifiable display, the primary functions of which are to show a map of die current level and die list of messages you have stored on your electronic notepad. Your current inventory' of items is displayed at the top of the screen, and the bottom of the screen holds various action buttons that come into use during die game.
The graphics look nice and add to the feel of an underground complex. And the enemy robots almost literally dance about the screen in front of you, often a frustrating occurrence. The sound is simple, but complements play. The mouse is used for all control during the game and works fairly well, though having keyboard equivalents would have been nice.
One diing I should note: this game is VERY similar to die game Slaygon, released a while back by Michtron. The graphics are a little better, and die explotable map is much larger (Slaygon only had one level as I recall), but most of the other elements are virtually identical. I wonder if Michtron knows about the earlier game?
Tliis game is very frustrating. Enemy robots are a little too fast, and it is very easy to die quickly, as they blast at you before you can use properly placed shots to destroy diem. The setup of the base in each level is random. While die rooms and walls are always in the same location, the objects (good and bad) are often scattered in different locations. While this makes for some variety, it can be frustrating if a needed repair module is hidden behind a door your keycard cannot open Yes, the game is a challenge. There is enough depdi to allow for a lot of playing time. Unfortunately,
aftera litde while, play just becomes maddening. But I did manage to do a little better each time I played, though I finally gave it up after only getting through most of die first building. 1 just could not find any new keycards or sufficient repair modules, so death was pretty rapid at the deeper levels. The game is worth considering if you like exploring and are good at quick reaction using die mouse.
WEIRD DREAMS Weird Dreams also wins an award for being bizarre, as you take a journey into the mind of a hospital patient undergoing Order Toll Free ornput hbilitu Order Toll Free 800-558-0003 'C.on.hu.me.x.juUcttonic* 800-558*0003 Quantum *oi VIDEO PACKAGE PANASONIC 1410 CAMERA CALL FOR ALL YOUR MASTER 3A Disk Drive »2 25 FREE DEUVEBV 1 40 Meg SCSI Pro DRIVE 369 80 Meg scsr Pro Drive 599 100 Meg SCSI Pro Drive ...679 FREE DEUVERY to lb*48 COPYSTAND WITH LIGHTS DIGIVIEW GOLD 4.0 Seagate SI-I26N 20Mog ...- 439Dol ST-I38N
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2_____ 67.95 Voice Recognition ...109.95 37,95 Project D+
Backup 30.95 ..82.95 Prospector Mart* of Zor ..24.95 Deluxe
Productions ____ 128.95 Hlbfar___________ Deluxe Video
III____________94.95 Hound ot Shadow Dcslgnasaurus Dig Imite
3______________ Dlglpalnt3.0 __________64.95
Imperlum__________________25.95 Musk: X DigMew Gold
......124,95 Indiana Jones-Actton Qame25,95 Neuromancer
Dinosaur Discovery Kit Dbk Master____________ Distant Sun
....41.95 IrtroCad Dos 2 Dos ------- 30.95
Irmvlslon*____________ . 174.95 Nuclear War- Double Dragon
II 24.95 Iron
Lord .25.95 Omega..,- - Double
OrlbWe 20.95 Island of Lost Hope 23.95 Omrfptay Basebal;5on5
30.95 Rick Dangerous ... 21.95 Dragon Force
______.....31.95 II Came From The Desert.. 31.95 Omnlptiy
Hsrse Facing .... 30,95 Rick Dads Soccer 1 Meg ..30 95
31. 95 Mighl and Magic
25. 95 Modeler 3D____
30. 95 Hsyles Book of Games 21.95 Monopoly-. ....24.95
Puffy‘s Saga ,25.95
24. 95 If II Moves Shod III 18.95 Movie Setter _____59.95
Purzle Storybook _____25.95 169,95 Quarter Back
28. 95 Ramboll)
25. 95 Indiana Jones-Graphic AdY.30.95 New York Warriors-1 Meg
30.95 Rampago _______ 24.95
28. 95 InfestaBon___________________24.95 Night
Forca____________28.95 Raw Copy___________34.95
48. 95 Night Hunter_________25.95 Red Storm Rising 34.95
42. 95
22. 95 .....24 95 Suporbfke Simulator 30.95 War InMkJdte Earth
30.95 Super plan 87.95 War ot I tie Lance _________25.95
Superbase Pro 3.0________189.95 Voile* .. 8words of Aragon
25.95 Swords of Twilight
T. V. Show V2.0
T. V, Spods Basketball 31.95
T. V. Spods Footbal_____31.95 Targtun Waterloo_____________37.95
31. 95 Wayne Gretzky Hockey 30.95
64. 95 Weird Dreams -...24.95 Wiliam Tell 25.95 Wind Wafcei 25.95
24. 95 Wings____________31.95 ...48 95 Wings of
Fury__________24.95
167. 95 „ 30.95 Renegade „ 30,95 Rhyming Notebook.. ..22.95
..25.95 .,,.30.95 On Line Platinum_________58.95 Rings of
Medusa 28.95 .... 28.95 Owr Run_______ 37.95
Rbk_____________24 95 Dragon's Lata..... Dragon's Lair 8
.33.95 Jack Nteklaus Golf ..... .. 43.95 Joan of Arc_______
Tax Break 2.0.. Teenage Muntart Turtles ..28.95 Works
Pktbiun. Ttw Dragons cf Fume 25.95 Kampfgmppe ...37.95
Opera&on Wo I----.22.95 Robocop------------------28.95
Drakkhen _______36.95 Karafonts Headtnesl or2 44.95 Page
tenderer 3-D _______84 95 Rocket Ranger 31.95
Tetris__________20 95 World Atlas_______3S.95 Test Drtw
2-The Duel _..,30 95 Wo rkj Class Leader Bd 28.95 Cal
Chalenge_______15.95 Xenptobe ___25.95 Euorpean Chaknge
....-15.95 Zak McKracten _____23.95 Mmdeor Super Cars ... 15
95 ZorkZem________38.95 Thetr Rw!lk)te 37 95
D. UD.E._______ Duigeon Master __ EartWeawtr Basrtal .. Comm
orMLBPA- Elan Performer _________
- 74.95 Romance Three Kingdoms 44.95 _119.B5 Scene
Generator____24.95 „ 87.95 Scrabbb_____________24.95 ....29,95
Scrfcbte Plitkium___87.95 ....29.95 Keybd. Control
8eqL3....2l2.9S Page Setter 2- __24.95 Khg's Quest 1 Zor3 _
30.95 Page Stream_____ .... 31.95 King's Quesl 4___________
37.95 Pagefiipper Phaf X .
„ 14.95 Knights of legend __30.95 Panzer Strike.. ..31,95 PenPal______ 84.W SexVbrens-Ouler Soaoe 22 95 ..35 95 Krtatal.Tho. HOURS INFORMATION NO CREDIT CARD SURCHARGE VISA MON-FRI 9am-9pm 414-367 181 FAX414-367-7814 SAT llam-Spm P.O. BOX 17882 MlHwnka*. Wl 63Z17 ORDERING INFORMATION I Spacfy inbn. Fov lalt O+lrvy wrdaiNti'i cb«c* or rrr* dar. Fcionil ird oompdrfy ch«chl alow 14 bulJftMl 4t llo Umf. School P.O.'l mtor . C.O.D. fhntjM or* KOO. In CoW'd'lll UAAInclJlN 34.00 'v nhwi onWf* 6% ihijphg lor hi Awt, mlnfnj*i JS.OO Un!«Ci"8in4 YW cdfi plow inckio* wcj I. • 9i7hYi tin!* i"4 LQ-aLFi W
mldW.i Yvc'-jOO S V u «i Lll HI, AK. FCO, AFO.f'Drt) rSao vifj C4nU* wWi. M w *Od «h p pi . Minimum KXO.AMc*h*r ForWgn ordum add 13% •hipping, minimum S13JJ0. AhC"d*m iHppm o.au* r*Co- UJ1 S- «-» h-_! Fnn **d U-G.i* *». Ii’ .mi-- ch*'9** tuMd t* minimum Amount you wtl ch*T »d •dJttor*! Umewn; A* pood* ¦rm rm andlrtcUda kttoy rTanty. W« da fwt g-jJirWa nr'MS'SHV I nnbi II Ouu hoc- low p-cat al um if rVva!. All MkIM rvlirm mwtl '«*? * mluf* Pvim ca-S (414) 357 N181 to otW" v RA. • Of jwr mtym *9 nd ba ¦epppwd. RtrYit ;o wmoui rnisu. Shipping p.ra rjnd 'vg m* mnYprunaibW W» »Wip thp latiii
vaob-i i«Uia to uc. UpOiWi mviiai h*ndmd&s *nd .m d'pcty wth It* manuTtturm._ Circle 117 on Reader Service card.
Free Spirit’s Dragon Scape surgery, and obviously under the influence of some pretty serious anesdiesia!
The subconscious, appropriately enough, is a weird place.
Giant bees just want to sting you for tire fun of it, two-legged gargoyles want to stomp you, and nasty flowers want to eat you for lunch. Not a nice place at all... maybe it was that pizza you had last night for dinner?
Fortunately, there are many items in this realm you can use to defeat the obstacles set before you. A stick can beat die flowers into the ground and a fly swatter can scare the bee back. The other obstacles can also be overcome, but it does take a bit of creative thinking to do so.
The graphics in the game are very sharp and clear. They obviously took some time here. The backgrounds are frill of rich detail and the characters move very smoothly across the screen. Hopefully, Microprose will realize how good dais looks, and make their other games just as sharp.
Control is via the joystick, which generally works w'eli, but can also prove to be a major sticking point. While die puzzles do take a while to figure out, implementing the solutions often causes problems, mosdy due to delays by your onscreen alter ego in executing your commands. Because there is no save option, each game involves working through the same basic and repetitive puzzles as you seek to make it to the later ones with sufficient strength to confront your adversaries.
In spite of this, a complete play-through of the game is rather short, once you get all the tricks down. Perhaps this is why they don’t offer a save feature, with drat the shortness would have really been apparent.
Weird Dreams is a bit too bizarre for my tastes and the control is too difficult for me. But those who really enjoy solving puzzles and who are moderately good with a joystick may have a good time.
DRAGON SCAPE Dragon Scape is a recent arcade release from Free Spirit Software. As usual, dre kingdom is lost and it is up to you to restore it. Only by gathering each of the magical relics and restoring them to dieir proper place can you save your planet.
Each level in Dragon Scape has eight different pairs of relics that must be matched up. While you are riding a dragon, tire objects themselves are mosdy contemporary in nature: a drill bit must be dropped on a drill, a cassette tape must be reunited with its portable player, and so on. I am not sure how many levels the game has in total since the rules are a bit sparse and I was only able to get into tire second level after several hours of playing.
Virgin Masterironic’s Risk As your energy drains from flying around and making contact with aliens, your dragon loses its skin and becomes just a skeleton.
If the skin vanishes completely, you explode and the game is over.
A red power pill is present in most levels and can be used to recharge your dragon to full strength by direct contact. It doesn't really want to be used, though, so you must trick it into letting you touch it.
The graphics are once again very nice and up to arcade quality. The background scrolls very smoothly and many objects can be on the screen at once without noticeable slowdown. The sounds are digitized, producing a smooth “You got it“ and “Yeah!'- when you grab and place an artifact correctly.
The problem with this game is mostly one of control. The dragon is slow to respond to your commands, and often takes a while to actually go in direction you aim him. And the re-power dot seems to hang out right in the middle of a bunch of enemies. For the most part they can be ignored, but diey do drain some strength.
And shooting them seems rather worthless since they just seem to quickly regenerate, while you tend to take damage as you fly into your own flames. Generally I just avoided firing and making contact.
While the game has fabulous graphics and nice sound I cannot recommend it because of the extreme difficulty of successful play. Now if they use what they have learned here and put a good interface on top of it, we should have a product people will line up to grab, DOUBLE DRAGON II Double Dragon H follows the themes begun in the original Double Dragon. One sole survivor of tire original enemy gang has somehow revived the gang leader and his cronies. Naturally, his first act was to kidnap and torture your girlfriend. Once again, iL is off through waves of bad guys with only your fast wits and
powerful body to aid you.
The bad guys come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes.
Some are relative pushovers and others vail take quite a beating before they go dowm for good. Some even fight with deadly' weapons that you can capture and use for the remainder of the current level once you defeat them.
Not one game discussed here has bad graphics, and Double Dragon II is no exception. The backgrounds are detailed and scroll smoothly while the characters move easily as well. The sounds are nice and the joystick control is very easy to use.
The only' major control problem I had was when I got knocked down and then had to get up in the midst of a group of bad guys. Usually they would get a shot in and I would be down on my back repeatedly until I finally lost my present life.
Other than that I didn’t have too much trouble doing in my opponents. But that is the other problem. The game seemed really pointless, It was just a series of successful jump kicks and marches along the way, until I got caught in the midst of a group of bad guys, Then I would rend to die quickly, but restart with a new life and mow them down from Lhe outside. My game finally ended when I met up with a sword-swinging samurai who was almost untouchable, After a few minutes I was out of lives (he was barely scathed) and the game was over. This man serves as a guard over the rest of the game,
preventing any future progress.
The game is actually OK as far as arcade action goes. Perhaps I am just getting jaded with the genre and want more thinking involved. While 1 like some mindless entertainment, this seemed a bit too mindless for me. Aid then hitting that brick (or sword) wall was frustrating to no end. Still, the game is sure to please the true action fan.
RISK Adding to their line of Parker Brother's licenses, Virgin Mas- tertronic has made Risk available to Amiga owners everywhere.
While most people have not heard of some of die odier wargames discussed in this column, nearly everyone has heard of Risk. With its intelligent mix ot a little bit of strategy and a lot of luck, die game has become a favorite of many game players, young and old.
For those who have lived in a cave for most of dieir life, the basic goal in Risk is to conquer the world. The map shows the entire earth from an overhead perspective, divided up into 42 different territories. The person who winds up occupying all of them wins.
No navy orair force here armies hold sway, and are the sole implement of foreign policy. Each turn, a player gets a number of new armies based on how many territories he controls, plus bonus armies in the event he controls any of the five major continents. The player adds diese new forces to existing ones, and dien attacks any adjacent territory' he chooses. To end his turn, the player takes one “free” troop movement to consolidate or solidify' his global forces, and draws a risk card, only if he was successful in capturing at least one enemy' territory, The risk cards are a focal point of
play, since they can be turned in for increasing numbers of bonus armies as die game progresses, encouraging broader invasions and expansion attempts.
The dice are the sole determiner of combat. The attacker rolls up to three, one per attacking army (he can attack with more than diree armies, but can only roll a maximum of three dice), while the defender is limited to a maximum of two (again, one per defending army).
The dice are ranked in order and matched to see who loses armies, with the defender winning all ties. Sheer odds often work, but it is not surprising to have a sole army in Alaska fight off a massive invasion from Asia, thus saving the Americas from domination, Two to six players can compete in the Amiga version of Risk, with the computer filling in for any or all positions. Four different variants are covered: The U.S. Full Game, the U.S. Short Game, the
U. K. Full Game, and the U.K. Short Game.
The mouse is used for all control during play and works fairly well, though it can be a bit tedious for some actions. Keyboard equivalents are available for some functions, helping out here.
The graphics are nice but not spectacular and the sound for the game is limited to simple beeps when actions are carried out.
The map scrolls around and only' about a sixth of the world is visible at a time.
The game is a bit slow with computer players. They can take forever to make up their minds, and then their moves are often pretty poor. Even when they get on a roll, they tend to make the mistake of overextending themselves and become open to easy conquest, because their forces are spread too thin.
While die game is enjoyable, Risk for die Amiga falls short of utilizing the computer’s full potential. Other more detailed conflict games are out, or are coming out soon. 1 would recommend skipping this one, unless you just love die board game.
Remember to take a break to see the sunshine during all y'our gaming this summer!
• AC- r N THIS MONTH'S GAMES Typhoon Thompson, Search for the Sea
Child Broderbund Software Inc, 17 Paul Drive San Rafael. CA
94903
(800) 521-6263 Price: 544.95 Inquire A207 Day of the Viper
Accolade 550 South Winchester Boulevard, Suite 200 San
Jose, CA 95128 Price: $ 19.95 Inquiry 208 Weird Dreams
Microplay Software 180 Lakefront Drive Hunt Valley, MD
21030
(301) 771-1151 Price: $ 39.95 Inquiry 209 Dragon Scope Free
Spirit Software
P. O. Box 128 58 Noble Street Kutztown, PA 19530
(215) 683-5609 Price: $ 39.95 Inquiry 210 Double Dragon II
Virgin Masterfronic 18001 Cowan. Suites A&B Irvine, CA
92714
(714) 833-8710 Price: $ 39.99 Inquiry 211 Risk Virgin
Mastertronic 18001 Cowan, Suites A & B Irvine, CA 92714
(714) 833-8710 Price: $ 39.99 Inquiry 212
K) 0} R) A) FjlJ S Become a power user with KeyCraft, the
keyboard and mouse macro-maker for the Amiga.
Customize applications to work the way you want them to... Double your productivity... Triple your typing speed... Create realtime animations with any paint program! Act now to receive KeyCraft at this low introductory price (don’t forget to ask for your free “PD-Power") version 1.3 V Pro regularly $ 39.95 now only $ 29.95 Programmer's' POD Online Database Stop searching through those RKMs!
ProPOD provides instant access to all system structures and function-call H templates at the touch of a key! You’ll save valuable programming time when r you let ProPOD “look it up" for you!
Guaranteed to increase your coding productivity, or your money hack!
StraiahtLine &Software Inc. v' irm vwrtos Deicnca oerwwon IwO 3818 North Kimball Avenue • Chicago, IL 60618 Wail orders to: SS! • Box 59800 ¦ Chicago, IL 60859 Wnen ordering by mail, include $ 2 s 8 h. Illinois residents, olease add 7% sales tax.
To order, calll -800-458-2995 IL & overseas call 1-312-539-5506 Visa, MasterCard, and CQDs accepted.
Be sure to ask for your free 'PD-Power' disk.
Introductory prices valid until 2 15 90.
Bs one of the first 100 people to purchase KeyCraft or ProPOD from this ad and we'll include "PD-Povver”, our exclusive collection of power utilities for the Amiga. FREE!
Circle 106 on Reader Service card.
Free Software!
Win $ 2000 in Fish!
Were giving away the entire Fred Fish Collection (estimated $ 2000 value) to one lucky member of the Amiga community. To enter, send a self-addressed, stamped envelope to: SSI Free Fish Contest PO Box 59800 Chicago, IL 60659 One entry per person. No purchase necessary-.
Void where prohibited. Winner's name will be published in the June, 1990 Amazing Computing.
Contest ends 4 15 90, and entries must be received by then. Rules will be sent to all contestants (that’s why the SASE). Good Luck!
FPageStream, continuedfrom page 17) Since Postscript is available in the QMS PS-810 plus, there is no need for me to run it in HP emulation mode anyway.
1 bring it up only’ because there might be other LaserJet-compatible printers that won’t work properly with the program. If you own PageStream and have decided to rake the plunge and buy a laser printer, be sure you have the option to return it if PageStream doesn't drive it properly.
As is the case with most productivity software, the PageStream manual itself is not very user-friendly, in that the index is entirely inadequate. Every' time I tried to find a specific entry it was not in die index, and I ended up paging through tire manual looking for what I wanted. For example, there were several items I wanted to find out about while working with Page values. The only entry in die index that starts with Page is Page Numbering, How about Page Creation, Page Deledon, Page Moving, or any number of permutations involving the page? Indeed, the entire index for this
sophisticated desktop publishing package manual is less than two 5 1 2 x 8 1 2 inch pages.
There is also no entry in the index for Technical Support or Customer Support.
Appendix A is titled Customer Support and contains wo pages of technical support information such as phone numbers and other pertinent information about Soft-Logik's support policies. I could not find a technical support telephone number and spent much time trying to reach their sales office to get the number. In fact, none of the appendices are listed in the Table of Contents.
I did find a "Quick Contents" page in the manual (immediately following the cover page) drat does list: the Appendix contents, but it is located ahead of dre front matter, not where I would normally expect to find it.
My last major complaint is with regard to the list of supported import filters. PageStream is lacking in structured drawing import filters. The only two formats supported are Aegis Draw and MetaFile formats. I don't know of any other program that supports the MetaFile format, though Aegis Draw is a rather popular structured drawing format on the Amiga. There should also be an HPGL format import as many drawing programs have drivers that can generate plots on die Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language plotters. The import filter diat is really missed by this desktop publisher is one written
to import files created from Professional Draw. Professional Draw is currently the only professional grade illustrator program available for the Amiga its lack of support in Page-Stream is almost inexcusable.
Soft-Logik’s answer to diis is that Gold Disk, the publisher of Professional Draw, won't release details of the file format, and is keeping the format information a proprietary secret.
PageStream does import Encapsulated Postscript files, and Professional Draw does create the EPS format, so theoretically there is an. Option to work with both programs. Practically, however, EPS files are not displayable on screen, so sizing and cropping of the EPS images are impossible. Also, EPS images will only print on Postscript devices, so if you don’t have access to a Postscript printer, you are still out of luck for making die two programs work together.
The few problems notwithstanding, PageStream is one powerful and capable desktop publishing program.
Soft-Logik has demonstrated a commitment to die program that has seen it through three major and much-needed upgrades in a relatively short period of time. With that track record, I expect diat work will continue to squash the few remaining bugs and to improve an already' powerful program. I would not lie afraid to use diis program on a regular basis anymore to do production desktop publishing. With its use of master pages and paragraph tagging functions, it has already become my desktop publisher of choice for large document production.
¦AC* PageStream 1.8 Soft-Logik Publishing Corp. 11131 S. Towne Square, Suite F St. Louis, Ml 63123 Inquiry ~ 204 STEVE TIBBETT, AUTHOR OF VirusX, one of the most useful virus detection programs available for Amiga owners, announced via electronic media that a bogus version ofVirusX recently appeared.
The phony program is found under the name "'VirusX 4.4". According to a posting on PeopleLink left by Mr. Tibbett, VirusX
4. 4 appears to be a slightly modified VirusX
4. 0 archive. The 4.4 archive contains a new "Virus" entry
appended to the docs and has a longer description of this
virus appended to the source file. Also, some punctuation in
the source file was altered, and the 4.00 version number was
patched to 4.40. Miniates By the time you read this, there
maybe another genuine release ofVirusX available that includes
a few new features and the ability to detect some new viruses.
It will not be numbered Version 4.4, so there shouldn't be any
confusion. If you have Version 4.4 VirusX, don’t give it to
anyone else. Destroy it. VirusX is a public domain utility,
and can be found on most BBS systems and information sendees
that have Amiga software, or you can pick it up from a friend
at your next Amiga Users Group meeting.
WORDPERFECT HAS A COUPLE OF bugs that can cause loss of data if you are not careful. As an avid user of WordPerfect, 1 have run across a couple of bugs that are related to the List Files requester. I have also learned to use the automatically timed backup which can be activated when you first set up and install the program.
The automatic backup has saved my work for me on several occasions. If you use tire search option (number 9) of the List Files requester, it works just fine to highlight the names of the files that contain the target search. However, the program seems to stop searching at the first space in the search text. In other words, the function appears to find only the first word in die search string requester. Once the files are highlighted and you try to search these files for additional words to narrow tire search criteria, tire program crashes.
.Another less dangerous bug and a workaround for it was posted on PeopleLink. If you want to use the List Files requester to print multiple files and highlight several files to print, and the files are in a subdirectory instead of tire root director,', the program cannot find the files.
It notifies you of this fact for each file you have highlighted.
To work around tills problem, simply copy (choice 8 on the List Files requester) tire marked files to RAM:, then batch print from there. According to the person who left the posting (thanks Destiny), tliis problem and its solufion were acknowledged by WordPerfect's technical support.
THE SAGA OF MAXIPLAN III AND Intuitive Technologies continues. In this month's mailbag, 1 received more bug reports from readers regarding MaxiPlan
III. William Statler ot Richland, WA sent a copy of a very
detailed 6-page letter, complete with screen dumps,
delineating several major problems in MaxiPlan III, Version
3-5. Bugs reported include problems with the graphics
routines and a major bug that can actually result in the
spreadsheet generating incorrect data an unforgivable fault
in a spreadsheet program. The problem with die generation of
incorrect data occurs in minimum recalculation mode, when
some cells fail to update. When cell names are used in
formulas and the formulas link cells in a certain way, not
all cells are updated properly. If you use minimum
recalculation mode, Ire sure to test any data thoroughly.
Another MaxiPlan III bug reported involves the saving of a spreadsheet when more than one sheet is active. Occasionally during the save, die title bar of the spreadsheet being saved will contain the file name of the other active spreadsheet. According to the letter, “The spreadsheet is actually saved to the correct file, and immediately after the save, die fide bar is corrected.
Nevertheless, diis bug can cause substantial terror as one sees one's file apparendy being overwritten.” Mr. Stader goes on to say that he has paid nearly S250.00 for the original program and updates, and every version he has used has had numerous bugs. Many of die bugs have continued to exist in several versions, even though he and others have reported them.
Other correspondence has referenced additional problems found when using the latest MaxiPlan III upgrade. These people also complained of die non-responsive- ness of the people at Intuidve Technologies. In early April I again placed a call to their customer support number, and left a message on die answering machine. I have now left two messages and have yet to receive a reply, even though Intuitive Technologies’ recorded message assures users diat their calls will be returned.
I RECEIVED A LETTER VIA CompuServe Email from Tom Gist regarding a flaw in all versions of M2Sprint.
Quoting from his letter: "There is a problem widi die M2Sprint Modula II compiler’s handling of real and iongreal numbers. For instance, the code fragment x := 0.05; WriteStringCx := '); WriteReaI(x,15); WriteLn; produces Turn your Amiga into a powerful newinstrument with Hyperchord™, the dynamic riff sequencer.
Create themes, from simple scale runs to complex "Riff Waves," using original Hg functions such as Smear, Rotate, Weave, Reverse, and Mix. Change pitch, speed, rhythm, harmoniesandorchestration. For intense riffing, switch between 60 user-defined scale modes and 40 rhythms, or employ unique cyber-musical tools such as Holistic Play and Vector Play. Store for real-time playback or record performance.
Disk includes three Hyperchord utilities: Mode Maker, Rhythm Maker, and Holistic Window.
Hologramophone's a fXOUft P THE MUSICAL GRAPHICS PLAYER Listen to a Lichtenstein!
Pixound™ is new kind of musical instrument as well as a powerful MIDI controller (uses Amiga graphic screen i n st ruth en play with the mouse. Create II shimmering 11 bursts of notes or slow, lyrical harmonies with the touch of a flay LkhTonililn 11 Woman Sitiing On S Chuli" key. 5 JV€ yOUf work either as a musical sequence or a screen- or both. Great fun for the beginner; endless challenge for the virtuoso.
Circle 103 on Reader Service card.
(mm (||§!!
Hologramophone pf| ] Research
W) j 6225 S.W. 145th Street rtnr:j- OO-ICQ Miami, i lonoa Jj loo
x := 0.5 instead of X := 0.05 I’ve been trying since mid-Jan
90 to get Preferred Technologies to fix it and get me a
corrected copy. After extreme pressure...Leon Frenkel sent me
version
1. 12. Unfortunately, his technical people knew in January that
1.12 did not fix the problem. Furthermore, he stated, "You
originally purchased M2Sprint from a company called M2S, Inc.
We subsequently acquired die M2Sprint product from M2S, but we
did not assume any obligations or libalities [sic] of M2S.
Also please note, almost all software published today has a
disclaimer specifying that it is sold "as is” and is not
guranteed [sic] in any way. Even though we are not legally
obligaLed we will always try to help a customer who is having
a problem with any of our products.’ ’’ FjpjnJfti lfin*pw r
f|7lii)Vl|lu|»H(Mtilll|ll Ml[Ml|NlHl[|l ||H|lil|lll|l ]lu|lll|.»l|lll|jlll« lNl| M|lll||
SufHrttiH Mr. Gist goes on to say chat further assistance was
not forthcoming, and that lie would ‘‘hate to see someone
spend a sizable amount of money to get M2Sprint, thinking
they could use it to perform real number calculations (as I
did), and then discover that il doesn't work, and Preferred
Technologies is not fixing it,” I placed a call to Preferred
Technologies and talked to Mr. Frenkel. He commented that
he sent die 1.12 upgrade to Mr. Gist and waived the nonnal
upgrade fee.
He said that lie was not aware of the reason for the upgrade, but sent the upgrade as a customer courtesy. He said iie was not aware of any problems with the program incorrectly handling real numbers, but if Mr. Gistwould write with the details of the problem, he would look into the matter.
QUARTERBACK, FROM CENTRAL Coast Software, was one of the first hard disk backup utilities for the Amiga. The company has sent notices to registered users of Quarterback that Version 4.0 is now available. Several months ago, you may recall a bogus version of Quarterback was posted to several electronic bulletin boards. This program was a pirated, modified copy of Version 2, and was not a valid release from Central Coast Software.
So end users will not confuse die legitimate update with this bogus version, CCS has skipped over Version 3.0, and gone direcdy to Version 4.0. The company announced that there is no support for any version of Quarterback between 2.3 and
4. 0. The latest official version contains several new features
including: available hard disk volumes displayed for easy
selection, visual progress bar (fuel gauge) added to volume
status boxes, Print Catalog added to menu, volume device name
of hard disk appended to archive restoration report filenames,
Restore Full Subdirectory Structure option improved, volume
number added to archive restoration reports, volume number
added to QB backup volume disk ID, included excluded status
of directory shown on catalog, wrong volume error messages
expanded during restoration, backup volume "test” mode
added, file count display increased to 5 digits (99,999), and
volume count increased to 3 digits (999).
Several minor bugs were also repaired in this release. It no longer leaves read locks on subdirectories, no longer causes the Amiga to crash after Quarterback exits, and no longer crashes upon loading tire second disk when the alternate catalog is split across two disks. Tire upgrade is only $ 10.00 including postage, and you must send them your original serial-numbered Quarterback diskette. Contact: Betty Chamberlain, Central Coast Software, 424 Vista Avenue. Golden. CO 80401. (303) 526-1030, Inquiry *200.
GOLD DISK IS EXPECTED TO HAVE released Professional Draw version 2.0 by the time you read this. Information posted to PeopleLink indicates that the upgrade price is set at S60.00 and can be ordered immediately- Major improvements to Professional Draw include the ability to create text that follows a curved line, and much faster operation, Contact: Gold Disk, Inc., Box 7S9, Streetsville, Mississauga ON Canada L5M 2C2, (800) 387-8192, Inquiry 201.
MICROBOTICS ANNOUNCED AN upgrade to their HardFrame disk installation utility, RDPrep. The major advantage of the upgrade is an entirely “point-and-click” graphic interface that is much easier to use than previous versions.
You may receive die upgraded version by either downloading it from the MicroBotics user support conference on BIX, or by sending $ 7.00 to Microbotics and requesting the new HardFrame Installation disk. Contact:MicroBotics, Inc., 811 Alpha Drive, Ste. 335 Richardson, TX 75081,
(214) 437-5330, Inquiry *202.
That’s all for this month. If you have any workarounds or bugs to report, or if you know of any upgrades to commercial software, you may notify me by writing to: John Steiner c o Amazing Computing Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 ... or leave Email to Publisher on PeopleLink or 73075,1735 on CompuServe
• AC- Animation Comes T o D i g i P a i n t DIGLMATE 3 IS A NEW
ANIMATION UTILITY PROGRAM WHICH, AMONG OTHER tilings, lets you
animate using DigiPaint 3. Before we get into the features,
there are a few requirements that you must have in order to
make full use of this program: DIGIPAINT 3 While there are
powerful animation processing utilities included, the main part
of die program is creating ANIM files using DigiPaint3. While
most utilities can work with DeluxePaint III animations, die
center of the program is controlling DigiPaint 3 “frames”.
AREXX You may have heard of this program and not known what it was, but when Workbench 2.0 comes out, it will be as familiar as “IFF”. Arexx is becoming a standard programming language, one that will be incorporated into the new version of Workbench. If a program such as DigLMate 3 or DigiPaint 3 supports Arexx, it means the program has a “port” ora “backdoor" which allows users and programmers to actually control the program! DigiPaint has the “port” in this case and DigiMate is the “controller", which is how DigLMate animates DigiPaint graphics.
What does all this mean to you? Arexx is a “transparent” program in this case, and while you do need a copy of the Arexx program in order to run DigLMate, you do not need to have any programming skills you need only to look up how to install the Arexx program. It is very easily done, I might add. - - 2 DISK DRIVES This program accesses your Workbench, Arexx disk, DigiPaint disk, DigiMate disk. AND whatever disk you save your animations on! I deleted several fiies on a backup of my Workbench disk and squeezed Arexx on it. This helps, but does not eliminate disk-swapping. If all concerned
programs are on a hard drive or in RAM at once, the system runs like a champ, but with disks at least 2 drives are highly recommended. You might possibly get by with one drive but loose your sanity in the process!
1 MEG CHIP RAM 1 MEG FA ST RAM We are working with HAM animations and pics running between two programs, and that eats up chip memory fast.
If you want to do interlace HAM animations, you need the 1 meg Agnus chip and as much RAM as possible (at least 1 meg).
If you lack either, a smaller version called “Tiny DigiMate” is included which mns from the Workbench screen and omits some of the program's features.
Now that we know what the program needs to mn, let's get into what it actually does.
The program is a collection of several utilities that provide animation cell creation, HAM transitions, image and ANIM processing, and even a tool kit to work on disk files. You noticed I mentioned “cell creation" and you probably thought of Disney, or perhaps the process of drawing cartoon frames on a peg board. This is the concept of animating with DigiMate and it is important to note that the program does not “move” graphics around the screen for you. It does provide you with stacks of blank frames on which to draw the motion, frame by frame. It's not as tedious as it sounds at first, and
tire program helps with different features such as automatic copying to next frame. So all you do is add the animating part and click on “Add Frame”.
Once you have started the DigiMate program running your next step is to start up DigiPaint. Both programs will be running during the animating, and you will switch between then via “front to back” gadgets. It is tire first time I have seen built- in multitasking in an animation program!
WJ ffisEWS W0®8 ON-LINE HELP The main DigiMate screen contains various buttons which only require a mouse click to activate. One excellent feature is that if you position the mouse over any button and hit the “Help” key, context- sensitive on-line help appears (which can even he edited by the user). The help screens are part of the T.A.S.S. system DigiMate runs under. T.A.S.S. stands for “Thut Application Suppon System”, an application development architecture framework which is incorporated into this (and other) Mindware products. T.A.S.S. creates an environment different from standard
Workbench routines (such as vertical- scrolling windows and pop-up menus). I have found this framework much faster and easier to use than Workbench (pull-down menus, etc.) and that difference adds up to more productivity. Like Arexx, T.A.S.S. is an up-and-coming system you will be hearing more about.
CREATING A DIGIPAINT ANIMATION Once both programs are running, to switch between the two you need only hit the “screen back” button, which brings either program to the front. DigiMate can be positioned automatically at one-third height so even though it is in front you can still see your DigiPaint graphic.
After you create your first frame (which can be a stamped-down bmsh, a HAM graphic, etc.) click on “Open Anim”.
The previewing of your animation will be played directly off your device through the use of an included feature called “DiskAnim”. This plays a frame at a time as soon as the frame loads. As you might expect, it’s pretty slow from a floppy but somewhat faster off a hard drive. The best choice is saving to RAM disk.
Once your ANIM is opened, tire first frame is automatically saved and you tire returned to the DigiMate screen. Clicking on the “screen back” gadget brings the DigiPaint screen up front. Now you create the second frame. You may either pick up your brush and move it slightly (DigiPaint’s coordinates should be on during this procedure), or draw in your next graphic or “cell”. Traditional cell animation can be tough because there is no tracing or "auto- bluing” like in “Zeotrope" for example.
This would provide an outline of tire previous frame to go by. I recommend using DigiMate with a genlock and tracing cells that way, or better yet, digitize them and load them into the program. All DigiMate shows is the last frame created, which can be drawn over or altered.
Once you have created your second frame, switch to DigiMate and click on the “Add Frame” button. Repeat this as many times as needed and choose “Close Anim" when you are done with your animation. It is that easy. Preview your ANIM at any time by clicking on the “Play Anim" button. This allows you to check details such as speed and smoothness. There is also a “Play Loop” button for continuous play, A “ShowAnim" button with speed control is on the main screen. To use it, however, you must first obtain a copy of the Sparta Inc. public domain program and copy it to your “C” directory.
HAM TRANSITIONS DigiMate also provides tools to create transitions from one HAM graphic to another. Both graphics must be of the same resolution, and both DigiMate and DigiPaint provide tools to convert graphics to tire correct size. With the “DIM” gadget in DigLMate you can even enter in the exact screen width and height, which helps in bringing in overscan graphics of various sizes. I have found overscan graphics work with no problem.
Transitions include circles, wipes, blinds, rub throughs, reveals, facies, rectangles, and ellipses. Some require two graphics, while others such as fade only require one. Additional transitions can be created using “Ed” on your Workbench to alter the Arexx macros. There are 6 additional Arexx macros to get you started. You can even alter your DigiMate screen to include your new transitions by loading die screen into Deluxe Paint III and changing die text on a gadget!
After you load your two graphics into DigiPaint, select the transition, and tell the program die correct resolution (diere are buttons for regular-sized graphics, and “DIM" can be used for inputting overscan dimensions), you type in a filename. When you hit return the program begins to generate the transition. With HAM graphics it can take a while to render frames, but short 10 frame transitions take around 5-10 minutes. After die process is completed you have a standard ANIM of the transition that can be loaded in and played, or altered.
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Phone: 1-800-444-4309 708-916-1600 FAX: 708-916-1190 Telex: 532253 IMAGE AND ANIM PROCESSING Until now, we have been saving ANIMs to disk or RAM and playing them from there. Through the “DigiPics" window' we can load graphics or animations into RAM and process them. Many options are available, including: ANIM SPLITTER Takes an existing animation (which, through “Delta compression”, is only the “changes” from frame to frame) and .splits it into separate IFF graphics. It even adds numbers to the root name automatically.
RESOLUTION BIT PLANE CONVERSION Changes images and animations from HAM to Halfbrite, HAM to LoRes, Convert to Black and White (Bit-Plane selectable), Toggle HiresBit and Videoscape to DeluxePaint.
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SPECIAL TRANSITIONS More transitions applied to an existing animation include: Half-height Mirror, FlipXAxis, and Half-Width Mirror.
EDGE DETECTION Allows you to reduce an image to its component boundaries between parts of the image.
ANIIM CONSTRUCTING As it implies, this process takes a series of IFF graphics or an animation you have split into separate frames, and combines them into an animation.
CHOP LISTERAME This is for handling DeluxePaint III animations, which adds copies of the first Courtroom
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Two frames on to the end of an Anim.
These frames must be removed before you add any frames on using DigiMate.
Lastly, the T.A.S.S. system features an extensive program called “DirTooi". It makes heavy-duty file work very, very easy, allowing direct access to AmigaDOS commands such as "path", "assign", and others. Since dais is an added feature and not really an animation utility, I won’t get too much into it except to say it is a fantastic program that allows you to bypass the CLL CONCLUSIONS DigiMate III claims to provide animation to DigiPaint III and that's exactly what it does. TradiUonal ‘‘cell’1 animation but not automatic “moving” like DeluxePaint III. The edge dais package has over
DeluxePaint is the few diousand extra colors, which can be used to create some dazzling effects. The package is not widiout iLs few problems, titough.
I would like to be able to turn off die huge “busy" icon when an animation is playing front disk. It doesn’t seem to support Animbrushes (and doesn’t claim to). The DigiMate screen is on the lower third of die screen, and if you get a system request, that also appears on the lower third. Of course, you can’t hit “cancel" or “retry” if you need to, because drey are bodi off the bottom of the screen. And you can't raise the screen until the request is completed! The built-in HAM transitions are fine for home use, but not sntoodt enough for professional use.
Altering them through Arexx macros would cure this, but that should not be necessary. Image processing on HAM animations can take a while, especially on longer ones, and dtere is no abort key.
Also the “DiskAnim” feature promises to play animations from hard drives and “break die RAM barrier!’’ Well it does, but don’t get too excited.
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It plays at a constant but slow pace, maybe 1 or 2 frames per second, and could only be used for previewing and never for dumping a real-time 10 meg animation to video tape. Double-buffering and preloading several frames could eventually make real-time hard drive animations a reality, but “DiskAnim” is only a preview tool. It does play much faster from RAM, as you might expect.
On the plus side, the whole system of creating frames is easy to use and die T.A.S.S. control system is far superior to most animation control panels. You can relax and have fun animating and not get bogged down in menu commands. The system is very natural and not too busy or clunky.
HAM transitions have no fringing, and combining different palette images is okay, too. If you want to get into text editing, create hundreds of your own custom transition effects and add them to your main screen as buttons. While converting images to different resolutions and bit planes is nothing new, using those tools on animations is and DigiMate does this effortlessly.
Customer support is excellent. I called just to discuss the program and possible additions, and found Mind- ware to be extremely helpful and very willing to listen. Their automatic update program gets high marks as well.
If you have DigiPaint 3 and Arexx and want to do HAM animations, diis is an excellent low-cost choice.
If you don’t have Arexx, the cost of this package doubles because you must purchase Arexx separately, at least until Workbench 2.0 comes out.
The DigiMate box includes a discount offer for the latest version of Arexx, A small plug must go to William S. Hawes, whose Arexx language is allowing programs like these to talk and be controlled by one anotfrer. As die first wave of tirese type programs begin, DigiMate III adds a powerful feature to an already powerful program Animation!
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* Am512 512K Memory Real Time Expansion Board For tke, Amiya 500
Computer INTRODUCTION THE AMIGA REQUIRES LARGE AMOUNTS OF
MEMORY BECAUSE OF ITS superior graphics and multitasking
abilities, and the basicAmiga 500 comes with 512K bytes of
dynamic memory. This memory is shared between the custom
graphics chips and the MC68000 microprocessor. It is also
called the “chip memory", since the custom chips have access to
it. This project will allow you to double your memory to 1
megabyte and add a real time clock to your Amiga 500 computer.
The serious user soon learns that the basic 512K isn't enough. Some of the advanced games on the Amiga require at least 1 megabyte of memory and you will be seeing more of them in the future. The new “Super Fat Agnus” chip will also open the door for more development of software that requires at least 1 megabyte of memory.
Upgrading the Amiga 500 to a 1 megabyte machine is quite easy, since Commodore provides a built-in interface. The 512K memory expansion has been called the “trap door memory”, since the expansion memory installs inside the small door located at the bottom of the A500 computer. The memory expansion also supports a real time clock this allows the A500 to automatically load the date and time when it boots up. This expansion memory is located at address COOOOOh to C7FFFFh in the memory map. This memory is called “fast RAM” since the custom chips don't have access to it. And therefore can’t cause
contention when the MC68000 microprocessor uses it.
The new “Super Fat Agnus" custom chip allows this memory to be used by the custom graphics and sound chips. This doubles die amount of memory used forscreen graphics and sound applications. It also turns this “fast RAM" into “chip RAM”, since the custom chips have direct access to it. Those with the “Super Fat Agnus” custom chip that want “fast RAM”, need expansion memory located in the 8 meg space starting at address 200000h to 9FFFFFh.
Tire memory board described in this article, the Am512, is functionally equivalent to the A501 memory real time board built by Commodore with one exception: the by James Bentley VCC VCC VCC 0 1 0 0 n 1 2 3 GT.1 HDA7AG 5 M0A7A1 7 5 £ ! !
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512K KEM0HY R£A1 TIME CLOCX EX? AN 51 ON Sue |DOCu»er.t Nusr&er IC PCWER GROPHP COWKECCIOKS Am512 memory real time expansion board powers the real time clock with a lithium battery instead of a NICAD battery. This is important for two reasons: First, the lithium battery will last for 10 years, while the life cycle of the NICAD battery varies between 3-5 years. You therefore double your battery' life with lithium batteries. The battery on the Am512 is socketed for easy replacement and can be purchased for about $ 5.00 at any fine photography shop.
Second, there is no power drain on the +12 volt power supply. The lithium battery doesn't need to be recharged. Commodore uses tire +12 voit supply to recharge tire NICAD battery' pack, while die main power is on the A500. The NICAD's don’t require much current for recharging, but the power supply' on tire A500 is rather limited and when you start adding extra peripherals like floppy drives and expansion memory', all the pow'er counts.
The Commodore A501 memory real time expansion also includes an EMI shield that totally encases dre circuit board. This makes battery replacement very difficult and probably shouldn't be attempted by the average hobbyist. I recently asked an employ'ee of an authorized Commodore dealer service store how to replace the battery on the A501. He stated that "the battery' never needs replacement” i guess he thinks a NICAD battery lasts forever!
Regardless, tire EMI shield is soldered to the circuit board and battery replacement should Ire left to an authorized service center which is guaranteed to cost you more than the cost of tire NICAD battery alone.
The Am512 memory real time expansion described in this article doesn't include an EMI shield, and it isn’t FCC approved, Initial tests show that it doesn't cause any EMI problems, but construction and use of the Anr512 board is the responsibility of the end user. Now let's get to the details.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The Anr512 interfaces with the A500 computer through the memory expansion port located at the bottom of tire A500 computer. This expansion port is a 56 pin connector built-in by Commodore. Refer to Table One for the signal names. In general, the signals required for the 512K dynamic memory array' are numbered 5-20, MDATA(15:0), I O data lines, numbers 23-31, MADR(0:8) DRAM address lines and the control lines numbered 35- 39, 'WE, *CAS0, *CAS1, and *RAS. Those familiar with dynamic memory' know that it requires refresh cycles about every 15 microseconds, so the data is
retained inside the chip. Tire address multiplexing and refresh is controlled by the "Fat Agnus" custom chip inside the Amiga. This is the main reason why building this memory expansion is so easy. Tire 512K dynamic RAM array consists of (16) 256K x 1, 150 nanosecond memory chips. These memory' chips come in a 16-pin DIP package and have recently- dropped in price to die S2.00 level.
The signals required for the real time clock are numbered 41 - 44, CKDATAC0-3), I O data lines, numbers 45-48. CKADR(0-3), address lines and the control lines, numbers 49 and 50, CKRD, read and CKWR, write signals. The custom chip "Fat Agnus" controls the read write signals. The realtime clock chip is theMSM6242 built by OKI Semiconductor. This is the same one used on the A501 board.
This chip features a 4-bit data bus and 4-bit address bus, an auto leap year adjustment, 32.678k hertz crystal-controlled time base and CMOS construction that requires +5 volt only. The real lime chip provides seconds, minutes, hours, day of week, day, month and year to the Amiga operating system for time date keeping. The MSM6242 allows standby operation down to 2.0 volts and draws less than 15 microampers in standby mode.Thts allows the lithium battery to power this chip for 10 years or more in standby mode.
Figures One and Two are the schematics of the Am512 memory real time expansion board. The 512K memory array consists of (16) dynamic memory chips, U2 U17, along with a bypass capacitor for each memory chip. Resistor packs R4 and R5 provide under voltage damping for the address lines to the memory array. Address multiplexing and all control for the dynamic RAMs is controlled by “Fat Agnus" on the A500 mother board and therefore will not be discussed here. U1 is the real time dock chip, notice Yl, 32.768k hertz crystal, along with C3 and C4 provide doe tank circuit for the crystal time base. C3
is adjustable and can be used to fine tune the accuracy of the time base. Diodes D1 and D2 are Schottky barrier diodes ihat feature very low forward voltage drops and very high reverse leakage currents. The diode circuits allow the real time dock chip to be powered from the Amiga when the main power is on and then automatically switch to the lithium battery backup when the main power is turned off. Battery B1 is the lithium batterj' bn ill by Sanyo, part number CR17335SE. This is a 2 3A size, rated at 3.0 volts, 1.3 ampere hour and can be substituted with an equivalent battery. Connecter J1
is the 56-pin dual row connecter for interfacing with the A500 computer. Jumper JP1 allows you to disable the 512K memory array when using the real time dock function of the board only. The rest of the components are capacitors used for filtering the power supply.
CONSTRUCTION It is recommended that a printed circuit board be used for construction of this project, but it also could be wire-wrapped (a silk screen for a printed circuit board, supplied by the manufacturer, is listed in the parts list). If it is wire-nTapped, make sure you use a board with a solid power and ground plane, and use short wires to connect the power and ground to the memory chips to reduce noise and ground bounce switching, (The primed circuit board supplied with the kit, has all the parts olacements marked with the silk screen.)
.AH components can be soldered directly to the printed circuit board, or the memory array could be socketed for easy replacement of a defective memory chip. Notice pin 1 by the square pad for all IC’s. Connector J1 must be mounted so pins can be inserted from the board edge side. Diodes D1 and D2 have polarity and are marked by the dark band at one end of the diode. Capacitor C3 should be mounted with the flat side toward the closest edge of the board. The battery socket has no polarity, but when inserting tire battery please notice the large plus sign on the board and match it with the plus
sign on tire battery. All the electrolytic capacitors have polarity and the printed circuit board is marked. The rest of tire components and bypass capacitors have no polarity and can be mounted either way.
After construction, please double-check all components on the Am 512 board before proceeding to the installation of the Am512 board.
Tabic One Amiga Built-In Expansion Memory Interface Signals Pin 1 - *5 voli pin 29 - MADR 6 2 - +5 volt 30 - MADR 7 3 - Grid 31 - MADR 8 4 - Grid 32 - ?Exp (enable memory I 5 - MDATA 0 33 - Gr.d 6 - MDATA 1 34 - Gnd 1 - MDATA 2 35 -
* CAS 0 S - MDATA 3 36 -
* CAS 1 9 - MDATA 4 37 -
* RAS0 10 - MDATA 5 38 - ¦ AAS1 11 - MDATA 6 39 - ?WE (write
enable) 12 - MDATA 7 40 - ?CCK clock (3.56Mhz) 13 - MDATA 6 41
- CKDATA 0 14 - MDATA 9 42 - CKDATA 1 15 - MDATA 10 43 - CKDATA
2 16 - MDATA 11 44 - CKDATA 3 17 - MDATA 12 45 - CKADR 0 :e -
MDATA 13 46 - CKADR 1 19 - MDATA 14 47 - CKADR 2 20 - MDATA 15
4d - CKADR 3 2: - Gr.d 49 -
* CKRD (read) 22 - Gr.d 50 - ¦CKWR (write) 23 - MADR 0 51 -
* 5 volt 24 - MADR 1 52 -
* 5 volt 25 - MADR 2 53 - Gnd 26 - MADR 3 54 - Gnd 27 - MADR 4 55
-
• *¦12 volt 26 - MADR 5 56 - not connected Note * Active low
signal INSTALLATION The Ant512 memory real time clock board
includes a jumper strap to enable disable the entire 512K
memory array. This allows the Am512 board to be used as a real
time clock only. Locate the jumper strap JP1 marked on the
printed circuit board (upper left comer). With the strap in the
top position, the 512K memory array is enabled. With the strap
in the bottom position the 512K memory' array is disabled.
The Am512 installs in the bottom of your A500 computer.
Make sure the power is off before installing the Am512 board.
Carefully remove the plastic door located at the bottom of your computer, using a flat screw driver or coin to pry the door open.
Install the Am512 board with the components facing the computer. Carefully align the connector at the end of the Am512 board with the pins inside the computer. Slide the Am512 board into place but don't force it, because you may damage the computer or the Am512 board. The Am512 should seat firmly into place.
Check the alignment and replace the plastic door before supplying power to your computer.
The A5G0 computer will automatically recognize the additional memory and begin lo use it at boot up time. To set the real time clock for the first time, use the DATE command to set the date and time, then use the SETCLOCK RESET and SETCLOCK SAVE commands of AmigaDOS. YourSTARTUP-SEQUENCE file in the s directory should include the SETCLOCK LO.'VD command, so the Am512 real time clock will be loadeci each time you boot the A500 Item Quantity Am512 Parts List Reference Part i l Btl Lithium Battery Sanyo CR17335SE Duacell DL2 3A
3. 0 volt, 1.3 A K 2 i Cl
4. 7 uf, 35 volt Radial Cap 3 17 02,07,09,010 CllfC12,C13
C14,CIS,Cl 6 C17,C18,C19 C20,C21.C22 .1 uf, 12 volt Ceramic
Caps 4 * C3 variable Capacitor ERIE TZ03Z50Q 5-50 pf. NPO 5 *
C4 20 pf., 50 volt Ceramic Cap 6 3 C5,06,C23 47 uf, 35v,
Radial Capacitors n : D1, D2 1N5817 Sehotzky Diodes 8 55 ?in
dual row connector Method 9006-226-302 Cannon U5S4A056A1DL
Elco £251-056-000-326 9 * J? 1 Jumper block Santee
TSW-102-14-LD Jumper 5N7-100-BKG 10 I R3 10k ohm, 1 4 watt
Carbon Comp resistor 11 R4, R5 33 ohm, 14 pin dip parallel
resistor paks CTS 7SQ-3-H33 12 1 U1 MSM62423RS GS real time
clock chip, OKI Semiconductor, Inc. 13 16 U2, U3,U4,U5
U6,U7,U8,U9 U10,U11,U12 U13,U!4,UI5 U16,U17 256k x 1, 16 pin
dynamic memory chips 150 nSec, 41256 (generic) * y i
32. 7SSk hertz clock crystal 15 11 - 2 3A size battery holder
Keystone 131 Miscellaneous: Printed drcuit board, 16 pin dip
IC sockets.
Computer. See your DOS manual for additional information on how to use the DATE and SETCLOCK commands.
Good luck, and have fun with the Am512 512K memory real time clock board.
Note: Thefotlowing items are availablefrom Am Tek Computers: A kit of all parts, including double-sided, solder-masked, silk-screened PC board and memoryfor $ 69.95, same without memoryfor S39-95. PC board alonefor S15-00. Lithium battery and holder for S6.00. MSM6242 chip, 5-50 pF variable capacitor and 32.768 kHz cnstal for S8.75. 56-pin dual row connector for $ 6.50. Add $ 3-00 shipping and handling, Utah residetits must include sales tax. A m Tek Computers. P. O. Box 575713, 5136 Clover Meadow Drive, Salt Lake City, UT84123. Phone: (801) 261-1115. Inquin'
- 273.
• AC* 40Wl CHERRYWARE , by Julie Petersen I Freeware,
trojanware, wolfware... Extend your vocabulary with
computerisms that define products, and describe characteristics
associated with their use.
If terms are too vague, misunderstandings can result. An example of this is the catch-all ‘vaporware’. It fails to make a distinction between companies struggling to put the finishing touches on a product and those who are using deceitful practices to extract money from unwary buyers.
WITH NEWTECHNOLOGIE5 COME NEW VOCABULARIES. IN FACT, COM- puter words are evolving so quickly, that publishers are creating separate volumes to describe them, radier Lhan trying to add them into regular dictionaries. One example is Webster's New World Dictionary of Computer Terns. In paperback form, this reference is over400 pages long, yet even that doesn't seem to be enough space to include many common phrases or nuances of meaning.
So, for your edification and enjoyment, here are some phrases which may not be listed in Webster, or die pages of IEEE journals, but which help describe some of the characteristics and legalities associated with computer-related products.
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Commercialware is appropriately flagged with a price tag. There is a common myth that commerical software is cheap toproduce. I've watched messages fly back and forth on bulletin boards, arguing that software companies are making a killing, based on the assumption that ‘diskettes and a bit of photocopying only cost a couple of bucks'. In reality, publishers only receive about 40% of the listprice, and this has to pay for small details like rent, wages, advertising, packaging, shipping, development, research, customer service, long distance calls, storage,
upgrades, and capital for future projects.
NONCOMMERCIAL PRODUCTS "Public domain ’ is sometimes incorrectly used as a catch-all term for products which are distributed noncommerdally.
But since PD has a more specific legal connotation involving the author’s rights, I’d like to suggest everyware as a blanket term for noncommercial software distributed hand-to-hand, through bulletin boards, user groups, or as "cost of media plus shipping’ pivducts. Then public domain software fits more correctly as a subcategory of everyware:
• Public Domain. The author relinquishes all rights and control
over the software and makes it available to anyone to modify,
extend, sell, or give away. Since the recent revision of US
copyright laws and compliance with the Berne Convention,
software remains die property' of the audior unless explicit)'
stated otherwise.
Personally, I feel diat even if a program is donated to the public domain, professional ethics, and respect for individuals suggests diat they should be credited for dieir ideas and work. The situadon gets ticklish; however, when someone takes public domain code, modifies it and dien claims copyright over the new version. In court this becomes a complicated issue, usually influenced by the degree to which die code has been changed or extended.
• Shareware. Shareware is really commercialware diat ends up
being every- w'are. That is, die users of shareware often don't
pay. Shareware is based on the Try before you buy’ philosophy.
It also gives small developers the opportunity to get into the
software business, since they bypass some of the advertising
and packaging costs. Shareware is a superb concepr intended
to benefit everyone. However, it has only partially succeeded
due to inertia, or reluctance to pay. A few shareware authors
have received compensation for dieir work, but an informal
survey indicates diat most audiors can count on two hands the
number of people w'ho voluntarily contribute. Recendy,
European and North American user groups have begun to
coordinate collection of shareware donations, and forward
diem to deserving authors. This may help to keep the share
ware concept alive.
• Freeware. Freeware differs from public domain software in diat
die author or publisher retains rights to the software, and
distributes it on the understanding that it will not be altered
or sold for profit.
• Canclyware. A product which has some key features disabled.
Candyware is distributed to give a ‘taste’ of die complete
product, which is usually commercial- ware. It’s based on the
belief that the users are motivated to inquire further or pur
chase the product if they’ve become familiar with its
features and use. Incentive software.
GENERAL TERMS This section encompasses both commercialware and everyware, describing products according to their quailty or utility: - - ¦Barleywarc. This is a product which works, just barely. During the depression years, barley wratcr was cooked up as a substitute for hot coffee. It was thin, dull, and lackluster.
Barleyware, like barley water, is generally bug-free, and gels ihe job done in the most minimal way, without any bells or whistles, but quickly fades away if a better product comes along.
• Dismalware. This software should never have left die computer
that spawned it. It usually has a complicated or
brain-damaged interface, poor to nonexistent documentation, and
bugs so numerous, it needs fumigating. Dismalware is
sometimes excusably distributed as PD by novice programmers
hoping someone will take die idea and improve the im
plementation. This theory of evolution sometimes results in
useful software. If it is distributed commercially; however,
people tend to lean towards a creationist viewpoint, expecting
the product to be in finished form at time of release. The best
response to commercial dismalware is to boycott the product.
• Funware. Computer games and other software written and
distributed for entertainment. Jollyware is a subset of
funware including screen hacks, suprise endings, etc. VAPORWARE
Vaporware refers to products which are discussed, demonstrated,
or promoted publicly, but which are not generally available:
• Beeware. The worst category of vaporware. It is promoted as a
commercial product simply to see if there is enough interest
to justify development. The idea is still on the drawing
board and money collected from orders may or may not be
returned to owners if the project is never initiated.
When purchasers try to contact the company for information, they are often put off with excuses, and refunds can be slow or absent. If you order beeware, you usually get stung.
• Ventureware. A nearly finished product being developed by an
individual or company with insufficient funds to finish the
job. Collection of money from orders sometimes succeeds in
bankrolling the final stages and packaging of a product, thus
bringing it to market. Ventureware is illegal unless purchasers
are explicity informed that the product is not complete.
Although illegal ventureware shouldn’t be tolerated, it's also
true that a lot of companies got started this way.
• Nearlyware. A product which is ‘essentially’ complete. It
works in most circumstances and would be useful to many people,
but is not bullet-proof enough to release to a general market.
Unfortunately, the agony and time involved in making nearlyware bulletproof pushes up die development costs and compromises the ‘business window' during which a product can be competitively released. Assuming no release date announcement, we should probably be tolerant of nearlyware, the frantic developers are usually guzzling caffeine and working 120-hour weeks to complete tire project.
• Buggyware. This is almost the opposite of barleyware. Whereas
barley- ware is an average concept reasonably well executed,
buggyware is a good product which just isn’t finished. Bug
gyware has so many bugs, it is virtually unusable. Companies
releasing buggyware have usually had their judgement
clouded by contract deadlines, diminishing funds, or
competiton.
Buggyware sometimes results from misplaced faith in in-house testers. It’s clear that people who are technically- oriented or intimately acquainted with the product do not ferret out die same quantities and types of bugs as the general public. In die long run, buggyware engenders more anger from users than odier ‘vaporware'. When people invest time, money, and trust in their purchase, they should receive a working product.
• Neverware. A good idea that died.
Money, time, unforeseen problems, boredom with a project, frustration, compeduon, and even theft are all reasons why neverware never makes it there. It’s unfortunate when someone steals an idea and implements it first, particularly if die implementation is bad. It's difficult too, if die competition gets to die finish line sooner. But a bigger share of neverware results from authors not truly appreciating the complexity of creating a complete product, or the amount of time involved.
NO WARE This is software that has no business being distributed in any form.
Includes pirate software (also called ‘warez’), viruses, or any programs which promote destruction or negative discrimination:
• Volfware. Predatory software, Software that directly damages
or devours data, especially on hard drives.
• Wormware. Invasive software. Insinuates itself into programs
and or drives. Damages memory and data indirectly by munching
away at the available space,
• Trojanware. Trojan horse software.
Programs that masquerade as others, or which lie in wait, ready to capture passwords, or other information which could be used to gain unauthorized access to a system or account.
• Bunnyware. Innocuous programs whidi display a cute message or
picture and then sometimes go away, without compromising
program exe- cudon or data. .Although bunnyware seems harmless,
it’s in the noware category because the person who encounters
it doesn’t know if it’s bunnyware orwolfware, and thus is
inconvenienced by having to treat it as wolfware.
So what do we call exemplary products? Well, how about CHERRYWARE as a term reserved for computer wares diat surprise and benefit us in many ways. Chenyware is bug-free, polished, intuitive, and loaded with features.
Although diis article is lighthearted, there’s always a serious side.
There are atleast dtree .Amiga developers working on video, animation, and vector drawing products that are, well, nearly there. .And, if we’re a litde bit patient, maybe we can look forward to some new chenyware. *AC* An active developer, consultant and writer, Julie Petersen has been an Amiga advocate tight from the beginning.
In September 1985. She formed PaNorAmA, the Pacific Northwest Amiga Association, one of the first Amiga groups, and served as its President for 2 years. Ms. Petersen has a long bistoiy oft latioi tat and international recognition for her work in computer graphics and fine arts. In one of her more recent accomplishments, an iiiteractive videodiscforwb ich she created the graphics received a Canadian National Award of Excellence in 1989- Send questions orcomments to Julie Petersen, c o Amazing Computing. P.O. Box 869, Fall River, MA 02722-0869, or she may be contacted on Usenet at
portal.'cup.portal, com HadyHawke.
Convergence Port Five of the Fractal Series Now, don't let the title 'Convergence' scare you, it is not a new religion or political action committee.
UNTIL NOW WE HAVE BEEN DEVEL- oping basic skills which could he applied to many different graphic programs. It is now time to start with the first of a series of mathematical concepts that will give us an understanding of the Mandelbrot set itself.
Now, don't let the title “Convergence” scare you, it is not a new religion or political action committee. However, before defining it, let's talk a bit about equations.
SOLUTIONS OF EQUATIONS So far whenever I have presented an equation. I have asked only that you perform a single calculation based on some given values of its variables. Let’s do that one more time for the following equation: y = v * y. I might ask you to solve the equation for some value of x, let’s say x = 3- In that case, y = 9 is tire answer. We say that y = 9 is the solution of tire equation when x = 3 because that value makes the equation a true statement. Whenever x equals 3, y must equal 9, otherwise the equation would represent a false statement.
But who says that x must equal 3? Nobody, really. X could equal something else, like 5 for instance, in which case the solution of die equation would be v = 25. We say that y = 9, and y = 25 are particular solutions of the equation when x - 3 and x = 5. Each one is a solution for a particular value of x. it turns out that x could equal any number whatsoever, and for every value of x, there would be one particular solution or value of y for which the equation was true. So the equation really has an endless number of solutions.
A SOLUTION SET We call all the possible solutions of an equation collectively a solution set. It is the set of all possible values of each variable which form solutions of die equation. In our example die solution set would be a very long list of numbers: y = 1 when x = 1 y = 4 when x = 2 y = 9 when x = 3 y " 16 when x = 4 y = 25 when x a 5 y » 36 when = 6 The list is infinite!
Similarly, the Mandelbrot set is a whole bunch of solutions, but for a different equation, of course.
The above equation involves only two variables, x and v. I gave you a value for one and asked you to solve for the other. Other equations could involve more variables. You could for instance be given values for two variables, x and y, and asked to solve for a third, z. You could also be asked to find die solution set for a particular value of z, all values of x and y which represent a true statement for a particular value of z. In last month's equadon: J? + y1 25 by Paul Castonguay all points falling within the circle represented a particular solution set of the equation: ? + y-' z1
where z = 5- That was the solution set of x and y for a circle of radius 5. Larger circles have larger solution sets.
CALCULATION MACHINE, INPUT AND OUTPUT I want you now to turn your imagination up to full volume.
When you see an equation I want you to think of it as a little miniature calculating machine living inside your computer program. If you give the machine some numbers (which we will call INPUT), it responds by performing calculations and returning an answer (which we will call OUTPUT).
SELF-FEEDING EQUA TIONS Let’s beat this same example to death: y » x * x ] will give you a value for x and ask you to calculate the corresponding value of y. Ready? Let x = 3, calculate y. The answer is y = 9, right? The INPUT was 3, tire OUTPUT is 9. Ok, now let x = 9, and calculate y again. The answer is y = 81.
What did we do here? We took the OUTPUT from the first calculation and used it as INPUT to the second. OK, now let x = 81. Go get your hand calculator and confirm that die answer is y = 6561. Are you getting die idea? Lam repetitively feeding numbers into die calculation machine, and each time I do, 1 use die OUTPUT from the previous calculation. The OUTPUT of one calculation is being fed back to the calculating machine as INPUT to the next. The calculating machine is sort of feeding itself. We’ve created a monster!
A SMALL MONSTER Let’s write a small test program: x = 2 count = 0 Loop: y = : " x count = count + 1 print "The answer is"; y; print "after"; count; " loops" x *= y GOTC Loop Run the program. My Amiga reports that the answer is
1. 844674E+19 after 6 loops. The screen flashes orange and a
message appears at die top, reporting that an ‘overflow’ has
occurred, i told you it was a monster! To regain control I had
to first select STOP from the pull down menu and then click on
the OK box in die overflow message. Don’t worry, I did not
damage my .Amiga, and neither will you. But what is really
going on here?
This program does exactly what we were doing above, feeding the calculation machine with die OUTPUT from the previous calculation. Only it does it much faster. After performing each calculation, it makes die INPUT variable equal to die OUTPUT variable. The important line is: x = y That is equivalent to assigning the OUTPUT of the last calculation to die INPUT of die next.
Next input = last output Then the program loops around to perform anodier calculation.
It turns out that we did not even have to use the variable y at all. We could have used the line: That way both the calculation and the assignment of the OUTPUT to die INPUT get done in the same line. In fact, there is even a special notation used for writing what we are doing here. I will tell you about it, because it will help you read diose Scientific American articles called ‘Computer Recreations’, which you may be trying to understand. The notation uses a little arrow: x(nl - x(n-l) * x(n-l) or x (n) - ( x(n-l) )* The term x(n) represents the nth calculation out of a long series of
unspecified length. The term x(n-l) represents the previous one.
Thus, if n = 5, we are talking about the fifth calculation, and it is using the result from the fourth as INPUT. We say chat x gets die square of x from the previous calculation.
Incidentally, the magazine column ‘Computer Recreations’ appears in Scientific American every month, and it often covers ideas about fractals. Note however, diat it is written at a higher technical level than these articles.
WHA T ABOUT THE ERROR?
But die Amiga did not like all this! It complained: overflow error Our calculating machine blew up! The numbers got bigger and bigger until die Amiga could not take it any more. What good is that? You’ll see.
Now, activate the LIST window and change die first line of die program to: = 0.9 Run the program again. Hmmm.... It doesn’t blow up this time. But it doesn’t stop either. It simply goes and goes until the OUTPUT of each calculation equals zero. Over and over again, zero is fed back to die calculating machine, and over and over again, die answer is zero. How boring! Stop die program, (pulldown menu or [CTRL-C]) You have just witnessed convergence.
CONVERGENCE Convergence occurs when a series of calculations, repeated a large number of times, produces a single answer. In die above example, die answer became zero after only a few loops. After diat, it remained zero, no matter how many times die loop was allowed to execute. The equation converged to zero!
The opposite of convergence is blowing up, "which is what happens when the initial value of x is 1.5. You can call blowing up - convergence to infinity.
A FACT OF LIFE But wait a minute. How is it possible that die same equation can either blow up or converge to zero? Well, it all depends on die initial value of x and in this example it is easy to understand just by looking at the numbers. You see, any number which is greater than the number 1 will get larger when you square it. It is as sure as the earth lias gravity. Put the number 2 into a scientific calculator and hit the ‘square’ key. It doubles in size, right? After all, diat is what multiplication by 2 means. Put 1.5 into a scientific calculator and it also gets larger, 2.25.
Conversely, any number which is less dian the number 1 will get smaller when you square it. Put 0.5 into a hand calculator and press the ‘square’ key you get 0.25, exacdy half the previous value. That is what decimal 0.5 means, it is die decimal equivalent of 1 2. You’ll find diat for any number which is less than 1. Pressing die 'square' key will make it smaller.
Remember the joke about the chicken crossing the road?
Well..., never mind.
So, the same equation can either blow up or converge to zero depending on its initial value of x. WHY DO WE NEED THIS?
Guess what! The property' diat we test for when we want to produce a graphic image of die Mandelbrot set is the equation's convergence. Coincidentally, it also either converges to some low value (although not zero), or it blows up!
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To demonstrate this I will write a program which uses the simple equation from last month’s article, except diat this month I will write it, so that it uses convergence. If you have accepted, without complaint, that the equation y = x * x converges to zero when x is less than 1, then you should have no trouble following this. By using die simple equation from last month, you will be able to concentrate on exactly how we perform the convergence test, without being distracted by any unfamiliar mathematics. You can run the program and confirm that a bunch of concentric circles are produced. Then
I will do something exciting. I will replace die circle equation in the ’Calculate’ subroutine widi the Mandelbrot equation, without changing anydiing else. The program will operate exacdy the same way, testing for convergence, but die pattern produced will change from simple circles to the much more complex Mandelbrot island. Like magic!
Our purpose this mondi is not to understand why the Mandelbrot set converges. One step at a time. Here we learn that to draw the Mandelbrot set we must test for convergence. And, we must feel comfortable programming die Amiga to do so.
START WITH A TEST FOR BLOWING UP Let's go back to our example, y = x * x, which I now write like this: x(n) x(n-l) * K(n-1] This shows diat we are going to be repetitively feeding die OUTPUT of the equation back to its INPUT. Let’s pretend diat we did not Ruto(Prompt TV SCRIPT PROMPTER FOR THE AMIGA AuluFroinpl is a sophisticated scrolling prompter ami text edit program designed for TV script prompting und informmion displays, It has been developed in consultation with TV industry professionals, with flexibility, simplicity and speed us the primary design considerations.
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Already know diat this equation blew up for values of x greater than 1, and let's devise a method to test it.
It is easy to test if an equation blows up, just test if the equation ever exceeds some very' high value. Lei's choose the value 1000 and run the equation in a loop which tests it each time to see if it ever exceeds 1000. AmigaBASIC's 'WHILE-WEND' construction is very' powerful for doing this.
WHILE 10DO PRINT "X *"; x SEND PRINT "The equation blew up!"
The WHILE-WEND construction will repetitively execute everything between the WHILE anci the WEND as long as the logic statement following the WHILE is tine. The first lime through the loop x equals 1,5. The logic statement x 1000 is obviously true, so die calculation line widiiti the loop gets executed. The result,
2. 25, gets printed. Then die WEND statement sends the computer
back up to die WHILE statement and again the logic statement x
1000 is tested and found to be uue. So, again the
calculation line is executed, but this time with an INPUT ofx
= 2.25. The OUTPUT is 5.0625. It is growing. Well, we know
from our previous discussionthatthevaluewill grow each time
through the loop, and it will eventually exceed 1000. At that
point die loop will terminate and the program will print “The
equation blew up!"
There was nodiing magic about choosing die value 3000 in my example. 1 could have picked any large value. If the equation is really going to blow up, then it will eventually exceed any number that I pick, no matter how large. I must however be careful to pick a value which is high enough so that the program does not incorrectly think that an equation is blowing up when it really is not.
In this example, of course, we could have tested using a lower value like 5 or 10, but not a value less than 1.
TEST FOR CONVERGENCE What happens in cases when the equation does not blow up?
Like for input values less than the number 1 in our above example.
In that case, the output of each iteration gets smaller and smaller and the expression x 1000 is always true. The loop will continue to execute forever. The program will never end. We do not want that. We must therefore include a second test in our loop.
Note diat although die above equation conveniently converges to zero, not all equations do dais. Some converge to other values, like 1, or 5, or just about anything, and we want a test which will work for all these situations. Try this: test to see if the equation is not blowing up. Sound silly? Well... if it is not blowing up, then it must be either converging to or remaining less than some low value, right? An easy way to do this is to count die number of iterations in the same loop diat we calculated before. We then decide that if after a certain number of iterations, say 500, the
equation is still less than 1000, then it has probably converged to some lower value. The program below tests for both blowing up and converging, using the above idea.
For i = 1 TC 5 INPUT "Enter a number"; x k = 0 WHILE (X 1000 AND k 500) x ” x * x k = k + 1 WEND ir k - 500 THEN PRINT "The equarior. Converged" PRINT ELSE PRINT "The equation blew up after k; " loops 1" PRINT END IF NEXT i Note that the variable k counts the number of times that die loop is executed. Two tilings must be true for the loop to continue executing. First die value of x must be less than 1000, and second, the number of times that the loop is executed, k, must be less dian
500. If either of these conditions ever become false, the loop
terminates and the computer continues with whatever line
follows die WEND statement.
WHA TS HA PPENING?
To find out whether the equation blew up or converged to some value less dian 1000, we test the value of k, the number of times that die loop was executed. If k = 500, that means diat the value of the equation never exceeded 1000. We conclude dien that die equation has converged to some lower value. If, on the odier hand, k is less than 500, we conclude that the equation must have exceeded 1000; it blew up.
I have included some logic statements in the above program which demonstrate this. Run it several times using different initial values for x. You will find, quite properly, that whenever the initial value of x is less than 1, the equation executes 500 times and the program repons that convergence Iras occurred. Otherwise, die program reports that the equation has blown up after some number of iterations.
SPEED OF THE EQUATION What about the OTHER half of MultiMedia?
QmlTcch Computer;, present;,... Oh no! Not another concept! Relax! This one is easy. Let’s talk about initial values which are greater than 1. You may have noticed that for initial values which are close to the number 1, like;
1. 2 or 1.15. die value of k reported by die above program is
greater than for initial values which are larger, like 10 or
25. When die initial value of x is very close to 1, it takes
more iterations through die loop to determine that the
equation is blowing up. We say in this case that it blows up
slowly. On the other hand, a larger initial value requires
only a few' iterations to make that determination, and is said
to blow up fast. Get the idea? The value of k is an indicator
oi the speed at which the equation is blowing up. The less the
value of k, the faster the equation is blowing up. This
concept will prove to be very valuable when creating different
artistic effects with the Mandelbrot equation. But let’s not
get ahead of ourselves.
DRA WING THE CIRCLE Remember how' last month we used the horizontal and vertical coordinates of a pixel in an equation to produce a circle?
We calculated die equation: aesulr = i * i + j * j Tiien we tested to see if 'Result' was less than 25. Perhaps you did not know it, but the right side of that equation represented die square of the radial distance of each pixel from die center of die screen. That fact comes to us drrough the centuries from a man called Pythagoras, a Greek w'ho lived in about 550 BC. Let’s go over this slowly.
We know' that the coordinates of a point on a Cartesian plane, or any drawing surface, are a measure of its distance, bodi horizontally and vertically, from a zero reference point called the origin. A horizontal coordinate of-10 means ten units to the left of the origin. Similarly, a vertical coordinate of +7 means seven units above die origin. So, in last month’s example the upper left hand comer of the screen was 10 units to the left and seven unit above die origin. That's sort oflike saying diat your mother-in-law lives ten miles west and seven miles north of where you live. So, how far
away is your mother-in-law, really? Well, it all depends on how you go. If you travel ten miles west, then pull a right on Misery Lane and go north for seven miles, you will arrive at your mother-in-law’s place with seventeen miles wear and tear on your car. But what if you could travel in a straight line, directly in a north-west direction?
Years of geometric experience guarantee that die exact distance can be calculated by using the square root of the sum of the squares.
Distance “ SQR( west*west + north*north ) ( SQE means square root ) This can be proved, but I wail not do diat here. Instead, I will simply trust Pythagoras, It is the old right angle triangle trick.
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Similarly, the direct distance between any pLxel and the center of the screen is: Radios = SQR( i - i + j * j ) Hence, last month we produced a circle of radius SQR(25), or simply 5, by testing if'Result' was less than 25. This month I also want to draw the same circle, but this time using the concept of convergence. Here’s what I will do. First, I will calculate the square of the distance of each pixel from the origin, just like last month: r ** i*i + I used the letter r because it is the first letter in die word radius. The actual radius is the square root of r, but that does not really
matter here. We can use the r value directly and still get the same pattern on the screen. Then, I will feed that number to the equation that we have been talking about in this article, y = x*x. I will simply replace the x’s with r’s.
R(n) - r(r.-l) * r(n-l) Our experience tells us diat if the initial value of ‘r’ is less dian the number 1, the equation will converge to zero. On die odier hand, when T is greater than 1, the equation will blow up.
UNDERSTAND THE PLAN The square of the distance of even' pixel from the origin is first calculated and then sent as INPUT to our calculation machine.
C lcmMlga Hardware Software 'Amax Mac Emulator $ 128 Boing Mouse $ 99 Ami Alignment $ 33 ’ Arexx $ 32 Bars & Pipes $ 192 Baud Bandil $ 32 DataStorm $ 26 Deluxe Paint III $ 105 Dlgi-Paint 3 $ 65 Distant Suns $ 44 Falcon $ 33 GFA Basic $ 90 Lattice C v5.04 $ 193 Lords Rising Sun $ 33 MuslcX $ 175 PagaStream vl.B $ 129 Pen Pal $ 88 ProWrite 2.5 $ 80 Sculpl Animate 4D Jr. $ 99 Shadow Of The Beast $ 30 Space Ace $ 35 V Superback_$ 53 CA-880 Floppy Drive $ 135 Internal Floppy $ 94 Deluxe MIDI $ 66 Digi-View Gold 4.0 $ 135 Duel Serial Port Board $ 234 GVP A3001 Accel. $ 2,500 Kronos 500 2000 $ 252 $ 214 Magni Genlock System
$ 1,684 Microbotics Hardframe $ 250 Microbotics 8-up Ram $ 151 Trump Card 500 2000 $ 246 $ 152 Quantum Prod rive 40s $ 497 ScanLab $ 815 Seagate Hard Drives $ CALL Sharp Scanners $ CALL Star NX-1000 MuttiFont$ 193 SupraModem 2400 $ 119 . Supra RAM 500 (A501) $ 99 1-800-733-AMIGA FAX 619670-9732 0 PO Box 2104 La Mesa. CA 92044 0 BBS 619-670-1095 At MicroMiga our customar and their Amiga are Number On®. We carry over 1300 Amiga products, WAY too many to list ham. Detective itams rapaimd or mpiacad within 10 days of delivery. Mon defects subject to 20% rsstocking tae. Shipping charges are S4.00 first item
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Circle 182 on Reader Service card.
All die pixels that cause the equation to converge to zero will be colored black. All other pixels will cause die equation to blow up, and we will give them some odier color depending on the above mentioned speed of expansion of die equation, die number of times through the loop, the k value. The complete program appears in Listing One.
Notice the use of die variable ‘Crunch’ to represent the maximum number of times I allow the WHELE-WEND loop to execute. It is initialized to 500 at the beginning of the program.
Notice also the use of the variable ‘M’ to represent die maximum value that 1 allow the equation to grow. It is initialized at the beginning of the program to equal 4, We know by now diat there is no need to allow the equation to grow as high as 1000 to determine if it is blowing up, 4 is sufficient. The ‘calculate’ subroutine ends with the number of iterations stored in the variable k. CHOOSING THE COLORS The actual color selecdon is done in the subroutine ‘Select.Color’ which is called immediately after completing the ‘Calculate’ subroutine. At this point the variable k is tested in order
to make color decisions. If k ¦= Crunch, i choose color register 2, which is black. Whereas, if k is some other value, a different color register is chosen - more about this aspect of designing fractals next mondi. Nodce that in this program I did not use the usual ‘Choose.Color.Numbers’ and 'Use.New.Colors' subroutines like I did in previous months. I’m trying to keep things as simple as possible, so you can see and learn how to test for convergence.
The result of all this is that you will see a bunch of concentric circles of different colors. The one in the center will be black, and it represents all pixels which caused the equation to converge to zero. It is the solution set of the equation. The other circles will be of various colors, each one representing pixels which have caused die equation to blow up at different speeds. The larger circles represent the faster pixels, die smaller ones die slower pixels.
If all we wanted to do was draw a bunch of circles, the above method would be pretty inefficient. It is very slow. AmigaBASIC has some graphic commands diat can do the job about ten billion times faster! Bui what we really want to do is draw fractals, and AmigaBASIC has no direct commands to do diat.
NOW THE MANDELBROT SET Replace the ‘Calculate’ subroutine with die one in Listing Two, keeping everything else the same. Although you cannot be expected at this point to understand die actual calculations involved witiiin this subroutine, you can at least understand that an equation is being repetitively calculated and tested for convergence. The principle is the same as in our circle program. The WHILE-WEND loop executes until either k equals 500, the value of Crunch, or r exceeds 4, the value of M. For each pixel, die ‘Calculate’ subroutine ends widi die number of iterations stored in die
variable k. We then test the value of k to see what happened.
If k - 500, we conclude that the equation lias converged to some value less tiian the number 4. It would probably loop forever if we did not stop it at 500. We color it black. On the other hand, if the value of k is less than 500, we conclude diat die equation has exceeded M, it blew up. We color it some other color depending on how fast it blew up. Almost like magic, the circles of your previous program are replaced by die more complex looking pattern of the Mandelbrot set.
OTHER POSSIBILITIES Remember how I told you, in die first article, that with a little knowledge of the mathematics you could draw fractals that perhaps no one else has ever seen before? Listing Three presents a 'Calculate' subroutine which draws a solution set that looks like a distorted Mandelbrot set. Replace the ‘Calculate’ subroutine in Listing One widi this modified one and see what happens.
Wow! A whole new world to explore. That's right, and anybody with a home computer can explore it. In fact, Figure One & Two show two fractals which were generated using diis modified subroutine. Now you are probably drinking that you have to understand what the calculations of the Mandelbrot set mean, before you can make modifications like diis yourself. It certainly would help. But in fact, even if you do not completely understand die math, there is nothing stopping you from introducing a few random modifications (mutations) and testing their results. You may accidentally stumble into a
completely new world, A PREVIEW OF WELiTS TO COME Next month we will go through the full design of a fractal, step by step. I will explain how you can create different artistic effects by making various color decisions.
Please refer to pages 91 & 92 for the fractal listingsJ World Of Amiga New York '90 On April 27 and 28, The World Of Amiga, New York exposition attracted 15,233 attendees and over 40 companies.
New York's Pier 92 was the setting for both new products and new companies to “set sail" on the Amiga market. Companies either attended WOA themselves or provided support for others- Great Valley Products was a major factor with a discrete 68030 50 Mhz accelerated Amiga in the booth of New York Dealer Amugination.
Commodore Front and Center Attendees were greeted by Commodore Business Machine new booth which sported a host of Amigas and activities. Commodore used WOA to demonstrate the Amiga 3000 and their new, still unreleased authoring system, AmigaVision.
AmigaVision is a new software package to be bundled with all new A2GOO and A3000 systems. Driven by an icon interface, .AmigaVision permits users to create complicated presentations in a flowchart format without resorting to a scripting language. Users can manipulate text, graphics, Amiga IFF pictures, animations, digitized sound, speech synthesis, Videodisc control of Sony & Pioneer players, and more. While the package allows preloading of audio and graphics to increase speed, it also manipulates external programs dirough Arexx™. For Amiga owners who did not purchase their machine within
ninety days of die AmigaVision announcement, CBM will be offering AmigaVision for $ 149.
CBM’s apparent aim is to entice every Amiga owner to create presentations quickly and effortlessly on the Amiga.
Everyone wanted a firsthand look at the new Amiga 3000. With its advanced technology, superior speed, great looks, and low price tag, the A3000 provides dramatic competition to Apple's Mac. (For a complete description of die new Amiga 3000, please see the coverage in AC’s May issue.)
CBM backed up its “New Commodore11 commitment with open speeches and forums provided by Commodore top executives. Both Lloyd Mahaffey, Director of Marketing, and Harold Copperman, President and CEO of CBM, spoke before large audiences.
During Gold Disk's presentation of Sbowmaker, Mr. Mahaffey delivered the message diat Commodore is aiming directly at the multimedia market. He stressed the need for products such as Showmaker and AmigaVision to create advanced multimedia presentations with the .Amiga presentations which cannot currently be produced on any other computer platform.
Mr. Copperman announced that Commodore would now warranty all Amigas for one full year from the date of purchase, This announcement covers all Amigas currently under their ninety-day warranty. Mr. Copperman also announced a free pick-up and repair service through Federal Express for Amiga 500 computers under warranty. Mr. Copperman was enthusiastic about the recent press Commodore has received and die new products and management teams now in place at CBM.
Gold Disk’s Shoiumaker Takes A Boiv Gold Disk started festivities at 10 AM on Friday with the first live presentation of their new multimedia presentation and designer package, Showmaker. Gold Disk President, Kailash Ambwani, stated: “Showmaker fills a critical need in multimedia and desktop video. Much as a conductor of an orchestra is die person who is responsible for bringing in all the different components of an orchestra, making sure they all work together in harmony, making sure they are all synced and meet their marks at the right time, that is exactly what Showmaker does.
Showmaker integrates all the different mediums sound, graphics, animation, live video, music, tiding and takes all of these components and integrates them together into a multimedia presentation or a video.” Gold Disk presented Showmaker as the first program with intelligent autoloading of animations and graphics, animation playback synchronized to music in frames-per-beat, background music looping for easy creation of sampled soundtracks, complete software control of genlock functions, video titling over Amiga animation and graphics, production looping, and MIDI sound effect support for
professional effects.
Showmaker’s graphic interface allows anyone to modify their presentation by simply dragging out the time bar for that sequence. The bar can refer to music, animation, sound effects, text, video disk input, or genlock activity. Showmaker permits external clock input from MIDI or MTC. Utilizing the Amiga’s multitasking capability, Showmaker will load files for future needs while the present animation is in progress. This allows the animation, presentation, or video editing process to continue undisturbed.
One of the main advantages of using a system like Showmakerlies in your ability to create a fully integrated video or multimedia presentation, edit it repeatedly, and then take the entire collection of components to a video lab to produce a master tape in one take. Showmaker presentations are only limited by the size of your hard drive and the other external sources such as laserdisks and CD players.
Gold Disk also announced Professional Draw 2.0 would be available this month. The $ 295 package is five times faster than previous versions and contains an auto-tracing feature which will generate objects by automatically tracing over bitmapped images. Professional Draw now will write text along curves, permit color dithering (for an effect of over 1000 apparent colors on the screen at once), and “blend” any two lines, colors, or objects.
Gold Disk noted their new Go Id Disk Type series will consist of packages of three compugraphic fonts per pack ($ 59.95). The Outline Fonts is a collection of over 35 Compugraphic outline fonts ($ 199.95). All of these resizeable fonts can be used in any program that accepts Amiga fonts. They are best known for their use in desktop publishing, but are just as handy in video titling, word processing, and graphics.
Pre’spect Technics Inc. Thomas Bothe and Horst Bothe were extremely busy as they demonstrated several new products they had just brought in from Canada. Long known for their A.L.F. (Amiga Loads Faster) controllers for the A500, 1000, 2000, MFM RLL ST506 or SCSI.
Pre’spect introduced six new additions.
These included a Non-Flicker Cable, an Amiga VGA Switch Cable, a TIT Monitor Cable, a backup program for hard disks and changeable disks, the FileRunner Streamer, and a new feature in their ALF2 software which allows the use of Amax with anv hard disk.
In the cable area, Pre’spect now offers inexpensive solutions for expensive situations. Their Non-Flicker Cable is a $ 38.50 cable that attaches an Amiga to a TTL Hercules monitor for flicker-free performance. The TTL monitor cable is designed to attach a full-page monitor to an Amiga. The Amiga VGA Switch Cable was created for people who use a bridgeboard, a multisync monitor, and a VGA card. They can switch between the Amiga display and tire PC display at the flick of a switch.
Free Spirit Software Plays Doctor Recently, Free Spirit Software has received recognition for their educational game, Barney Bear Goes To School, and the arcade-style fantasy, Dragonscape.
Yet they also publish a program to calibrate and correct Amiga floppy drives, Ami Alignment System. In this tradition, they have just released a new Amiga program called Doctor Ami. Consisting of two programs (Drive Doctor and Memory Doctor), Doctor Ami is a memory1 and hard drive diagnostic program designed to test memory and hard drive sectors. Memory' Doctor scans all system and expansion memory' for any bad sectors and then maps diem out. Drive Doctor reads all disk sectors, automatically mapping out any bad sectors. Doctor Ami retails for $ 49-95- Pulsar Creates A PC-Compatible A500 Pulsar
is the creation of long-time .Amiga enthusiast Eric Miller. Most Amiga users know Eric and his alter ego, Dr. Oxide, from the Amiga retailer CompuSave. Eric dropped his Dr. Oxide attire for a suit on Friday in order to present Pulsar to the public. Besides incorporating current products from companies such as joe’s First Company and Micro- Momcntum, Inc., Pulsar wowed A500 users with a new expansion card for the .Amiga that makes the .Amiga PC- compatible.
The POWER PC BOARD fits in the expansion slot beneath tine A500 and is both an expansion card for the A500 and a PC-XT computer. With the addition of this card, it is possible for A500 users to run MS- DOS software directly from their internal
3. 51' drive, or it will support external 3-5" and 5.25" drives.
POWER PC BO.ARD is designed to support Hercules CGA and
Monochrome video displays. The hardware includes Phoenix Bios,
Clock ' Calendar, 704K RAM plus 64K EMS and a NEC V30 8MHZ.
Software includes Microsoft 4.01, MS DOS Shell, GW Basic, and,
on the Amiga, CrossDOS. Pulsar also supplies a spreadsheet,
database, and word processor for the PC with each unit.
POWER PC BO.ARD supplies the Amiga with an additional 512KR.AM as well as a 512K RAM Disk. According to tire demonstration, the POWER PC BOARD runs faster than a comparable PC or XT, and even faster than Commodore’s bridgeboard for the A2000. The POWER PC BOARD also takes advantage of the serial port, parallel port, joystick port, and mouse. Pulsar was offering the entire POWER PC BOARD package at an introductory' price of $ 550.00. Soft-Logik, PageStream 2.0 and More!
Soft-Logik Publishing Corp., the St. Louis, Missouri developer of PageStream, used World Of Amiga to announce PageStream 2.0. This is an upgrade to tire ir PageStream 1.8 released in January' 1990 (please see the review on page 14 of this issue), Soft-Logik’s President, Deron Kazmaier, and company have been extremely busy. Along with the release of PageStream 2,0 scheduled for this month, their press package distributed at WOA included announcements on licensing agreements with AGFA-Compugraphic and Image Club Graphics, Inc.. a new cooperative relationship with LaserUp!
Software in San Francisco, a special user group promotion for PageSLream 2.0, as well as a new addition to their line, Business Forms.
Business Forms is a collection of 40 customizable forms for day-to-day use in accounting, invoices, office memos, and purchase orders.
Licensing AGFA-Compugraphic’s Bullet outline font technology allows Soft- Logik to incorporate new fonts into PageStream 2.0. Some of the new fonts available under this agreement are CS Times in Roman, Bold, Italic, and Bold Italic as well as CS-Triumvirate and CS- Triumvirate-Bold. These hinted outline fonts allows PageStream to produce quality fonts on the screen and output to dotmatrix printers.
The additional licensing of Image Club Graphics, Inc.’s Image Club collection will allow Soft-Logik to develop and incorporate this large variety of dip art now available for the Macintosh into the Amiga market. The current library contains over 2000 Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) images. These images can be reduced, enlarged, or distorted without a loss in reduction. The type library, Adobe Type 1 compatible, contains over 600 licensed typefaces.
PageStream 2.0 appears to have all the features of V1.8 plus additional capabilities provided by the new agreements mentioned above. 1l utilizes the AGFA-Compugraphic hinted outline fonts as well as the Adobe Type 1 IBM format (without hints). In addition, PageStream 2.0 allows users the precision of 1 100 degree increments in rotation of objects and the ending angles of arcs. Font sizes can be specified in l 100th point increments and the position or size of an object can be set to l 100th point increments as well. Registered owners of previous versions of PageStream will be able to upgrade
to 2.0 for $ 75.00. User groups can, by written request, receive two copies of PageStream as well as a demo copy for their library. It is hoped that one copy will be used for newsletter reviews and production, while die second is used as a prize by the group. Usergroups are aiso eligible for group discounts through their dealers.
NeivTek’s Toaster Meets The Amiga Community NewTek demonstrated its full working Video Toaster before packed audiences throughout WOA. If Amiga enthusiasts were not standing in awe of the special effects and graphic capabilities displayed on the large overhead monitors, they were watching the continuous showing of NewTek's Penn & Teller demonstration tape for the Video Toaster.
The Toaster's brochure promises a multitude of features including a character generator, digital video effects, color processing, dual frame buffers, production switcher, preview output, linear keyer, digital still store, a real-time (l 50th of a second) frame grabber, integrated design and more. All of these features are available through an intuitive interface. Each process of the Toaster is accessible with the Amiga's mouse.
The heart and soul of the Toaster is its ability to control four video inputs and produce hundreds of digital video effects. All of the hundreds of different digital effects can either be manipulated with the dear graphic interface or by using the keyboard. The color processing engine can create color negatives, monochrome, solarization, posterization, color vignettes, and photographic filter effects.
The Toaster generates 35 ns text in
16. 8 million colors with variable shadows and other effects
through its built-in character generator. The character
generator comes with 25 standard fonts, plus it permits
unlimited user-definable fonts. With 100 pages of on-line
storage, graphic separators, full spectrum background color
graduations, the Toaster even offers a variable speed smooth
crawl and scroll at 60 fps.
The Video Toaster's highly professional output device was praised by graphic artists for its two 24-bit, broadcast- quality frame buffers. Not only does this allow the Toaster to hold two separate digital images, but, with the correct software, it enables 24-bit graphic rendering and painting in these two areas.
Although NewTek has adhered to the 24- hit graphic IFF standard from Commodore, none of the major 3D, painting, or ray- tracing products currently available will render to these requirements without using a conversion program. (Several such programs are currently available in the public domain, according to a NewTek executive.)
NewTek is now promising early shipments of die Toaster in late June with full quantities available for dealers in July.
Citing FCC requirements and testing as the reason for the delay, a NewTek spokesperson was very confident that NewTek will be able to supply the entire Amiga market quickly. Company executives have stated that the demand for die Toaster has skyrocketed following its demonstration and success at The Nadonal Association of Broadcasters convention in April. (Please see the related article in the May issue of Amazing Computing).
Notwithstanding the stir created in professional markets, NewTek remains confident that the Toaster will be used effectively by a great many nonprofessional Amiga users. While commercial equipment currendy does not give die casual videophile access to tools which provide completely professional results, a spokesperson for NewTek was very excited by the use of the Toaster in live video work.
With luminance keying, frame grabbing, two 24-bit cards, character generation, and coundess digital effects all manipulated by mouse or keyboard on a graphic interface, NewTek has aimed for a wide market anyone who wants to do more with video. The Toaster's price has remained a very attractive $ 1595, designed to appeal to the home user, graphic artist, and television producer alike.
ProWrite 3-0 New Horizons Software, Inc. distributed their first copies of ProWrite 3-0 ($ 175). .Among die many features of the AudioLink 1 A Sounc i 6-bit Lin udio Pro Sampii Ui!1 ) jra ear SI cessc ng Cc ¦m, ereo r with apabilities 1 l i iii,, ¦ -rr 87 Sl 1' 1 ®i Beta Ui immit St 11 * nlimit Broc 231 ed aklyn, NY Circle 126 on Reader Service card.
New ProWrite is a modified page layout technique that, when added to its graphics capabilities, is a boon to video scripting.
With the addition of ProScript ($ 49-95), Pro Write will print to any Postscript printer.
New Horizons has provided a page of system features from better print utilities to tine best feature of all a Bug Free Guarantee. New Horizons has been applauded enthusiastically for marketing a product that they guarantee will be trouble- free, They have established a new level of professional quality for Amiga products.
Migraph Hand Scanner and Touch * Up™ Migraph demonstrated their new entry into tire Amiga market, the Migraph Hand Scanner and Touch*Up™ software. The hand scanner is over 4 inches wide and allows the user to scan images by hand into a black-and-white format. Amiga owners with 1MB of memory (and no other applications) can scan in a 4" by 8” image in 300 dpi, while Amiga users with 2MB of memory can scan an area up to 14" tail at 400 dpi.
The Touch*Up™ software allows users to manipulate their scanned images or other images imported from other formats including: IFF, IMG, PCX, TIFF, MacPaint™, and GIF. The Scanner was sold with a .9 pre-release version of [lie software at die show, but finished versions will be sent to all users when the product ships this month. The scanner with software wall retail for $ 399.
(continued on page 95) World Of Amiga, New York '90 Exhibitors Abacus Software Commodore Business Free Spirit Software Inc, MicnTron MlcroDeal Psygnosls Limited 5370 52nd St. S£ Machines PO Box 128 3285 Lapeer Rd W Port of Liverpool Grand Rapid. Ml 49512 1200 Wilson Dr. 58 Noble St. Aubum Hills, Ml 48057 1st Floor, Pier Head (6:6) 698-0330 West Chester, PA 19380 Kutzton, PA 19530
(313) 377-8898 Liverpool, England L3 1 BY FAX (616) 698-0325
(215) 431-9100
(215) 683-5609 Inquiry 241 Oil 44 51709 6466 Inquiry 214 FAX
(215) 431-9156 FAX (215) 683-8567 Inquiry 250 Inquiry 224
Inquiry 232 MlcroProse Accolade 180 Lakefront Dr, Saxon
Industries 550 S. Winchester Blvd. 200 Comp-U-Save Gold
Disk Inc. Hunt Valley, MD 21030 14 Rockcress Gardens San
Jose. CA 95128 414 Maple Ave, 2175 Dunwin Dr 6
(301) 771-1151 Nepean. Ont
(408) 985-1700 Westbury. NY 11590 Mississauga, Ont, FAX (301)
771-1174 Canada K2G 5A8 FAX (408) 246-0885
(516) 997-6707 Canada, L5L 1X2 Inquiry 242
(613) 228-8043 inquiry 215 FAX (516) 334-3091
(416) 828-0913 FAX (613) 563-9596 Inquiry 225 FAX (416) 828-7754
Migraph Inc. 200S. 333rd., Suite 220 Inquiry 251
Amagination Inquiry 233 130 W. 26th St. Data East USA
Federal Way, Wa 98003 Semltech Inc. New York, NY 10001 1850
Little Orchard Dr. Great Valley Products
(206) 838-4677 146 S. Lakeview Dr.
(212) 727-3290 San Jose, CA 95125 225 Plank Ave FAX (206)
338-4702 Gibbsboro, NJ 08026 FAX (212) 727-3293
(408) 286-7080 Paoli, PA 19301 Inquiry 243
(609) 346-9814 Inquiry 216 FAX (408) 286-2071
(215) 889-9411 Inquiry 252 Inquiry 226 FAX (215) 889-9416 New
Horizons Software Amiga Video Magazine BBS (215) 889-4994
P. O. Box 43167 Sierra On-Une Inc. 200 W. 72th ST. Suite 53
Disks & Labels to Go Inquiry 234 Austin, TX 78745
P. O. Box 485 New York, NY 10023 Rt. East Hampton Business
(512) 328-6650 Coarsegold, CA 93614
(212) 724-0288 Park Hillside Hard & Soft FAX (512) 328-1925
(209) 683-3472 Inquiry 218 Mount Holly. NJ 08060 Mi. Laurel Rd.
inquiry 245 FAX (209) 683-3633
(609) 265-1500 RD3, Box 3420A Inquiry 253 Beta Unlimited FAX
(609) 265-0818 Fleetwood, PA 19522 NewTek, inc. 87 Summit
St Inquiry 227
(215) 929-9695 115 W, Crane St. Soft-Logik Publishing Corp.
Brooklyn, NY 11231 Inquiry 235 Topeka, KS 66603 11131 F
South Towne Sq.
(718) 852-8646 Dr. T's Music Software Inc.
(913) 354-1146 St. Louis, MO 63123 FAX (718) 624-5738 220
Boylston Sf Suite 206 Hologramophone Research FAX (913)
354-1584
(314) 894-8608 Inquiry 219 Chestnut Hill. MA 02167 6225 SW 145
St. Inquiry 246 FAX (314) 894-3280
(617) 244-6954 Miami, FL 33158 inquiry 254 Britannica Software
FAX (617) 244-5243
(305) 252-2661 Octree Software 345 Fourth St Inquiry 228 Inquiry
236 311 W. 43rd St. 904 Software Link Inc. San Francisco,
CA 94107 New York. NY 10036 197 E. Post Rd.
(415) 597-5553 Electronic Arts Lucasfilm innerprise Software
Inc.
(212) 262-3116 White Plains, NY 10601 FAX 415) 546-0153 M ies
Computing 128 Cockeysville Rd. FAX (212) 581-7703
(914) 683-2512 Inquiry 220 1820 Gateway Dr. Hunt Valley. MD
21030 Inquiry 247 FAX (914) 683-5158 San Mateo, Ca 94404
(301) 785-2266 Inquiry 255 Briwall
(415) 571-7171 FAX (301 785-2268 Precision Inc.
P. O. Box 129 FAX (415) 571-7995 Inquiry 237 8404 Sterling St A
Spectrum HoloByte 58 Nobie St. Inquiry 229 Irving, TX 75063
2061 Challenger Dr. Kutzfown, PA 19530 iNOVAtranlcs. Inc.
(214) 929-4888 Alameda, CA 94501
(215) 683-5433 Electronic Zoo 6499 Greenville Ave, FAX (214)
929-1655
(415) 522-3584 Inquiry 221 3431-A Benson Ave Suife 209B Inquiry
248 Inquiry 256 Baltimore. MD 21227 Dallas, TX 75231
Broderbund Software
(301) 646-5031
(214) 340-4991 Pre'spect Technics Inc. Spirit Technology 2886
Bluff 546 FAX (301) 646-7753 Inquiry 238 1085 St
Alexander.
220 W. 2950 S Boulder, CO 80301 Inquiry 230 Suite 500 Salt Lake City. Ut 84115
(303) 499-3266 Media Tech Bethesda Montreal, Que
(801) 485-4233 inquiry 222 Expert Services Softworks Canada, H2Z
1P4 FAX (801) 485-6957 5912 Centenial Circle 15235 Shady
Grove Rd,
(514) 954-1483 Inquiry 257 California Freeware Florence. KY
41042 100 FAX (514) 876-2869 1747 E. Avenue Q. C-l
(606) 371-9690 Rockville, MD 20850 Inquiry 249 Zuma Group Inc,
Palmdale , CA 93550 Inquiry 231
(301) 963-2000 6733 N. Black Canyon Hwy.
(605) 273-0300 FAX (301)926-8010 Phoenix, AZ 85015 FAX (805)
273-0672 inquiry 240
(602) 246-4238 Inquiry 223 FAX (602) 246-6708 Inquiry 260 c An
Introduction to Object-Oriented Amiga Programming by Scotl
B. Steinman, O.D.. Ph.D. INTRODUCTION Look at just about
any computer journal these days and you will see screaming
from its pages “OOPs"! Is this a warning from software
developers? In a sense, yes. But it doesn’t mean that your
software may break - just the opposite. OOP is the
abbreviation for Object-Oriented Programming, and what
object-oriented programming promises is the construction of
large programs that are easier to debug, maintain and
modify. Rather than treating programs as a series of
procedures executed one after another, object-oriented
programs focus upon objects, which are groupings of data
and allowed actions that act as descriptions of
real-world entities and how they behave . Programmers
learn to think in terms of the data itself and the problems
they are solving rather than a particular process of
modifying the data. These descriptions are reusable, and
once created, they can be “plugged into" other programs
and adapted to new applications.
Several object-oriented languages have sprung up suddenly. Some adhere strictly to object-oriented concepts, such as SmallTalk, but these are also interpreted languages (like BASIC) and so are slow. Others are “hybrid" languages - object-oriented but built upon existing fast compiled languages. C++ is one of these hybrid languages. It is an extension of the C programming language that supports all the features of C, plus a lot more. C++ was designed by Bjarne Stroustrop of AT&T to be the successor to the C programming language - what he calls “a better C”. Let’s look first at what makes
C++ better than C. “C++ offers more than enough new features to justify learning it.” “Object- oriented programming is a new way to break down programs into small, easy to understand, reusable and adaptable modules.'7 WHYBOTHER?
Learning a new programming language always requires effort. That learning effort must be justified by a later increase in programming ease once ihe new language is grasped. C++ offers more than enough new features to justify learning it. The strength of C++ is that you may start by using just a few of its features, and gradually add more and more as you learn, until you are truly producing elegant reusable object-oriented programs. We’ll start by summarizing some of the features of C++.
NON OOP FEA TURES OF C++ Not every feature of C++ was added with object-oriented programming in mind. Some were added just to make C programs easier to write, more bug-free and more understandable.
Let’s look at a few of diem.
C++ supports strong data type checking, which helps prevent you from using the wrong data type by mistake. We've seen this in C when we specify die argument types and return type of a function. However, in C, if you pass the wrong data type to a function, the program will continue to ran, but run incorrectly. In C++, you write a function prototype that contains the argument types and return type before you use the function. The compiler will then generate an error message, if you supply the wrong data types when calling a function, giving you the opportunity to find your error before it finds
you!
C++ allows you to create new data types.
While C allowed you to do something like this with typedef, these “new" data types were simply dre same old data types with new names, just like aliased command names. New data types in C++ really are new data types and are subject to type checking when drey are used as function arguments or return values.
The new keyword is ‘const’. It provides a way to define constants without using the preprocessor command define. It avoids dre errors that stem from preprocessor text substitution and allows strong type checking on constants as well. If a function makes one of its arguments a constant, dre passed value is immune to changes. This allows us to pass pointers to functions without worrying about accidentally altering the data values pointed to.
Another newT keyword is 'inline’. When we declare a small function to be inline, its code is substituted directly when the function is called, much like a macro definition, avoiding the overhead of calling a function. However, inline functions are subject to argument type checking, unlike macros.
References, accessed with the& operator, permit dre passing of function arguments by reference widrout the need to use pointer notation within the function, Tor example, if a function argument is int& x, we may access x without the *x notation even though we have passed it by reference rather than by value. This makes our code easier to read and understand.
C++ has additional memory allocation operators. Rather dran call mallocO and freeO as in C, we use dre operators new and delete in a simpler notation. For example, to allocate a character string array str of 20 characters, we write sir = new chart 20 j, aird to free it we write delete str.
Function arguments may now be supplied with default values. If dre user fails to provide a value for an argument when calling the function, dre default values are used.
Function overloading is a means of allowing several related functions with die same nanre to be called with different argument data types. Let's say we’d like to have a function called printO drat we wish to call with either a character or a double argument. In C, we'd need to have two distinct functions, cprintO and dprintO- In C++, we’d need only to call a function with tire single name printO widr either a char or a double argument!
The input output functions have been changed in C++. If we choose, we can avoid using the formatted I O functions scanfQ and printfO- It's too easy to accidentally try to print a double variable with %d, resulting in bizarre output. The new stream class permits you to do stream I O in a more natural way that avoids errors. The stream class can also automatically recognize die data type of the variables you wish to print!
There are numerous other fine points of C++ that make programming easier. However, space prevents me from listing all of them here.
Rather dian fill up this article with a list of non- object-oriented C++ features, let’s look at tire more revolutionary world of object-oriented programming.
A GENTLE LOOK AT OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN Before we examine how C++ supports object-oriented programming, let’s talk a bit more about what object-oriented design is and what makes it so beneficial.
The key concepts of object-oriented programming are data abstraction, data encapsulation. Data hiding, the class interface, inheritance and polymorphism. These are big words, but they really mean simple things. Simple but powerful things!
As computer programs get larger and larger, they also get harder to maintain. It’s one thing to write a big program, but that takes only a small fraction of your programming effort.
Let's face it what really takes up the most time is debugging and modifying programs! Object- oriented programming Is a new way to break down programs into small, easy to understand, reusable and adaptable modules. These modules are not C functions, but a unique combination of data and functions called a class. A class is simply a way to represent a real-world concept. Let's look at a trivial example: Let’s say you need to write a program that simulates different models of cars. First, you would think about what parts make up a car an engine, tires, a transmission, etc. - and what a
car does - steer, drive and stop. All cars arc built from common parts that make all cars perform similarly. I Iere's our object - the car. A car is characterized by both its parts and the actions it can perform, and our class car is similarly composed of car parts (data) and a set of car actions (functions or methods).
An object is a particular instance of a class.
Each object shares the class' common data and functions, but may differ in the exact values of each data variable. In our example, a Ferrari object and a Porsche object are both instances of the car class, and so share die common features and behavior of all cars (that is, they both have engines and they both drive). However, the parts they are built from may differ slightly (such as different types of engines, different transmissions, etc.), even though they are still both cars. Similarly, objects created from the same class share common data variables and allowed actions, but may differ in
their data's values.
Classes and objects provide us with data abstraction the creation of new data types that represent real-world entities. The new data type (class car) can be used as if it were a built-in data type like an int or float. Data encapsulation is Lire term for the packaging of data and functions into classes. This packaging allows us to locate bugs more easily as well. If a program using a car doesn't work correctly because the data within a car objectncts strangely, we know that the bug must be within the car class’ code only and not elsewhere in the program. Data encapsulation also allows us a
new degree of control over our data. Control that helps prevent unwanted changes to the data. We may allow users of the class (yourself or other programmers using the class) access to certain class data and actions and not to others (data hiding). For example, we may allow a user of class car to drive it or park it, but not to directly control the engine timing or to remodel its parts! The subset of actions that risers are allowed to do forms the class interface, the way that die programmer must use the class. It prevents the user’s access to sensitive data or functions that we don’t want them
to use in ways we did nor plan, if we don't specifically allow diem this access, diey don't have it! This helps ensure the proper use of the class - that is. Diat the user makes a car do only what we think a car should do.
The user interface and data encapsulation have a more important side effect - the ability to change our class' implementation details without affecting die program that uses die class! As an example, suppose you need to use sorted data. In C. changing how the sorted data is stored and the particular sorting function would require changes in all code that accesses the sorted data - quite a task in large programs.
In C++, so long as the user of our sorted-data class accesses that data via die class interface, we can change the class’ data representation and function algorithms as much as we want without the user's code being affected. All diey must do is recompile and relink with our new' class - no reprogramming is required !
Although classes may be used like built- in data types, they are far more useful. Classes that are written once may, if written correctly, be used over and over again in other programs without rewriting the same source code by placing them in class libraries. More importantly, drey may be built upon and enhanced to adapt to new uses. This feature is called inheritance. We create nerv subclasses from our original class and have the option of adding new data and actions to it that extend its usefulness. The subclass shares all die properties of its parent class by inheriting them, and we
may choose what properties we need to change for a given application. Returning to our car example, we can create different subtypes of cars, racing cars and street cars. Each shares the features of car, such as an engine and the ability to drive, but racing cars also have roll CANVAS For the Amiga This is a three disk collection of 13 animation demos and 5 pictures that you can load into your favorite animation editor, such as Deluxe Paint
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Inheritance allows us to create general-purpose classes whose uses may lie extended or adapted by creating more specific subclasses. .As a more realistic example, we could make a general window class, a rectangular portion of the screen, and tliis may be carried further to make the subclasses textwindow for the presentation of text and picture window' for the presentation of graphics. The time-saving benefit of inheritance is that you don’t have to start from scratch to write programs with textwindows or picturewindows. Once the general dara and algorithms of parent class window' are
debugged, they may be reused or modified by its subclasses textwindow-' and piccurewindow, and only the changed features coded.
The last advance of OOP is polymorphism. This is the ability to have the system recognize at run-time w'hich function to call! This makes programs more flexible.
Rather than having to hard-code the specific function you’re going to call before compiling a program, you may request a general action, and die system W'ill know as the program runs w'hich function to call. For example, let's say we have a class point with derived classes rectangle and circle, w'ith functions called draw'O in each. We may then make a list of graphics objects to draw. When we drawO each object in the list in turn, the system knows whether to draw a point, rectangle or circle.
OBJECT-ORIENTED FEATURE OF C++ C++ supports all die key concepts of object-oriented programming, and does so with little sacrifice of program speed.
Due to the limited space for this article, we cannot look at all the ways that C++ supports object-oriented programming. However, just to whet your appetite, let me show you how easy it is to create and use a simple class, and in the process demonstrate a few other powerful features of C++ classes. Here’s die definition of a class box in die header file box.h: class box t private: int x; double y; char 'name; public: boxf int a = 6, double b = 1.2, char "boxnamc
- boxO; void fillxf int a ) [x = a I void displayO; 1; The
keyword class tells the C++ compiler that a class definition is
to follow. Notice that a class looks a lot like a struct with
functions in it as well as data. This class has two regions - a
private region and a public region.
The private region may not be directly accessed by users of the class. Tt may only be accessed by public functions.
In the class box, users cannot set die double y. since there's no fill v 0 function in the public region that could access v. We have protected our y variable from being altered by the user. The public region therefore forms our class interface - the actions w'e allow die user to perform. Our class interface contains die functions fill x 0 and displayO. As an aside, note that the functions are defined as in ANSI C (function prototypes) and allow the setting of default arguments diat are used if the user does not call the function w'ith specific values for the arguments. In addition, die
member function fill x 0 has been supplied as an inline function (die keyword inline isn’t necessary inside a class if the function code is written inside the class definition).
What is that oddball function boxO in the class box? Why doesn't it have a return type? Why does this function's name match the class’ name? This is a special function called a constructor. It's used for initializing the class, if we want to do so. In other w'ords, w'e could have die data in objects of the class box initialized automatically when the objects are declared! This can include Twilight Games Introduces NEW Corporate Raiders 52 years ago, the Orvo first explored what is now known as the Onait Quadrant. The area iro.t forgotten because the natural dangers outweighed any usefulness
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Storage memory allocation for data arrays as well. The even stranger function starting with a Lilcie (~) is a destructor. It does the opposite of a constructor. When a class is no longer being used, the destructor provides automatic cleanup, so you don't need to remember to free up memory yourself.
How do we use the class? This is simple also. We create a file box.cp that contains the member function code: include stream.h include “box.h” box: :box( int a, double b, char ‘boxname 1 1 x - a; y “ b; name = new char[ 30 ]; strcpy( name, boxname ); 1 box;:~boxO ( delete name; void boxudisplavO 1 cout « "Box: n" « « “Name: “ « name « " n” « “Contents: “ « “x= “ « x « “y= “ « v; 1 We include the file box.h containing the class definition at the top of the box.cp file. The first member function we write is tire constructor boxO. It sets the values of box’s data members using the memory
allocation operator new to create storage for the character string name. Note that member functions can access data members directly. The next function that we write is the destructor boxO. It frees the memory allocated in the constructor for name by using the delete operator, The final member function simply prints out the contents of the box. It takes advantage of the stream class for simple output to the standard output stream cout. The data types for x (int), y (double) and name (pointer to char) are automatically recognized by cout.
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Now we only need to compile file box.cp to box.o (which we could place in a library for later reuse). When the box class is used in a program, we never need to look at its source code. All we need is the header file box.h and the object file box.o. Here's a short program that uses class box: “include ''box.h" mainO I box myBox( 5, 7.8, “Empty Box" ); nivBox.fillx( 3 ): mvBox.dispIavO: ) We compile this file and link it with box.o to produce an executable program that takes advantage of class box. What's striking about this program is its simplicity. First we create an object myBox of type box,
the same way that you’d declare a typedef d variable in C. Tire constructor boxO is called automatically when object myBox is created. We call member function fillxO with a structure-like dot notation and then call displayO. Finally, when box goes out of scope at the end of mainO, its destructor -boxO is called automatically and box’s mem- 013' is freed up. All the user must know is what actions must be done with the object - iiow it's done is unimportant to the user. A program becomes a series of controlled actions performed by “asking" the object to clo so. If we wish to change how die
member functions work, the program will still do what it should-create an object from class box, fill it. Display it, and destroy it when it’s no longer in use.
Of course, C++ programs offer a lot more than the class box, or C++ would not be worth using! C++ has features that support all the advantages of object-oriented programming, However, we'd need a lot more space to demonstrate a program that includes all die.se features. So let's change gears and discuss how C++ is implemented on die Amiga.
C++ ON THE AMIGA At present, the sole implementation of C++ on the Amiga is Lattice C++, version 1.0. Lattice C++ is a language translator diat converts the C++ code we write into standard C code which is compiled and linked as in any C program. Although it is an implementation of an old version of C++, it does contain some .Amiga-specific features not found in standard AT&T C++, such as class interfaces for the entire operating system. Lattice is also working on a true C++ compiler that bypasses intermediate C code as well as a new version of C++ that conforms to the AT&T C++ version 2.0
standard that has been implemented on MS-DOS and UNIX computers.
FEE DBA CK NEEDED This introduction to C++ barely scratches the surface of what you may do with C++. Both object-oriented programming concepts and C-+ features are easy to list but require time to teach in detail. Consider diis article to be a fast, simple “evangelical" description. If you want more in-depth “sermons", you must tell die editors of Amazing Computing that you’re interested in C++! If your interest is great enough, maybe we can make this article the first of a series. .pQ. REFERENCES Cox B.J. (1987) Object-oriented Programming: An Evolutionary Approach. Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company.
Lippman S.B. (1989) C++ Primer. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Stroustrup B. (1986) The C++ Programming Language.
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Wiener R.S. and Pinson L.J. (1988) An Introduction To Object-oriented Programming And C++. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Lattice C++ Compiler Manual, Version 1.00, Lattice. Incorporated.
ABOUT THE A UTHOR Dr. Scott Steinnian isaPh.D. in physiological optics who is currently conducting scientific research on the human visual system at the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Fou ndation in San Francisco, Lie has developed software for the Amiga since 1986.
4 TURTLE GRAPHICS Computer graphics and programming with a LOGO-like system by Dylan McNamee A GREAT WAY TO INTRODUCE computer graphics and programming to beginners is to teach them turtle graphics.
Turtle graphics are also a great tool for both beginners and experts for playing around with fractals and odier geometric constructions. Unfortunately, there are not any public domain turtle graphics packages for the Amiga. This article presents a package that implements turde graphics on the Amiga. There are two parts to the article.
The first section presents a programming project that implements a turde graphics package. The second part is a tutorial on using die package with some examples of creating fractals with die turtle.
Tunie graphics are a simple way of drawing on a screen, using commands given to an imaginary "turtle." The turtle sits on the screen in a particular posidon, facing in a particular direction. Commands (such as forward 10, or right 45) given to the turde are relative to its current posidon and direction. Turtle graphics are traditionally implemented as a part of die Logo language, and rarely in any odier way, even diough Logo and turtle graphics are not inextricably related.
PARTI: LISP TURTLE GRAPHICS PROJECT This programming project implements turtles using LISP instead of Logo.
LISP is similar to Logo in many ways; LISP is actually die parent language of Logo. A turtle graphics system implemented under LISP would be part of an inherently more powerful language, useful beyond the learning years. Scheme is an implementation of LISP widi some changes to make it more consistent and easier to learn. Scheme is widely used in education, ofcen in places where Logo once was. Best of all, there is an excellent public domain version of Scheme for die Amiga, available in the Fish Disk collection disk number 149.
The project has two components - the Scheme half and the turtle half. The Scheme half is just a set of routines, written in Scheme, which set up die turtle environment, providing some interface routines for the turtle half. The turtle half is really two parts as well. There is a drawing half, called the turtle server, and a command interpreter
- the turtle client, bodi written in C. The client sends command
requests to the server, then the server interprets and exe
cutes diem.
The turde server is just a graphics window and a set of routines which draw on die window according to die commands which arrive at its message port. The commands are plain turtle commands, such as left X, forward N, penup, pendown, etc., It 3EE (had ‘float,sen") la !; (init) [shell 41 It :) (float 28!)
It 0 (shift-left 25!)
It : (shift-dosn 168) ft :) (icui-in) It 1:) ;: (icoriii) It !: tioorin) It (shift-left 35) it := I Figure Three: Tree figure produced by Listing Twelve plus a few special display commands like zoomin, zoomout, etc. The turtle client is a simple program which is run from the CLI and takes commands (or a file of commands) and sends them, one at a time, to the turtle sewer.
When a Scheme program that uses these turtles is running, a few things are really happening before a Scheme command like (forward 10) actually draws a line: in Scheme, (forward 10) calls the forward routine with the argument 10.
The forward command executes an AmigaDOS system call “parse forward 10". AmigaDOS gets the “parse forward 10" command and runs the parse program with the two arguments forward and 10. Parse (die turde client) runs and sees the command forward 10, packages up a message for die server, and sends it. The server wakes up when it receives a message, sees the forward 10 command, and using the current coordinate and angle, draws die line on die screen and updates the current coordinate.
All of this sounds like a computer version of a Rube Goldberg machine; however, there were not many otherways of doing die same diing. I could have changed Scheme itself, making the turtle client built in, but modifying the Scheme source code would be messy, and no one wants lots of special mutated Scheme's running around. Writing die commands to a PIPE: device and starting up the client like “parse PlP£:tmp': will not work either, because AmigaDOS buffers files and the commands are not executed until a lot of them have been written, or the pipe file is closed.
One final way to do it, which was implemented as an option, is to have Scheme write its commands to a file instead of calling die turde client each step. When you want to draw the picture, call die client (which is called parse), redirecting in the file Scheme wrote. For example, if the file was called “turde.cmd", you would see the picture by typing “parse turde.cmd”, and the picture would be drawn as fast as the file could be read.
THE PROGRAM The main server module is presented in Listing One. The server keeps track of the turtle's current (x,y) coordinate with die global variables turtleX and turtleY. The server accepts commands through its message port and executes them one at a time until it receives an EXIT_TURTLE command.
Each of die actions die turde can do is represented by a procedure in the server. Some of the commands just change a state variable: die commands right and left just modify the turdeAngle variable. Forward and Backward use the tur- deAngle, turtlePenDown and die distance argument to draw die turtle's path.
The turtle server provides a few other functions as well.
The refresh procedure clears the image and redraws the turtle's figure on the window. The clear screen operation resets the turde to its original position and direction, and erases the image. The shift operations shift the whole image on die screen. Shifting is useful in conjunction with zoom in revealing parts of die image that are off the screen. As die turtle moves on the screen, each line is stored in die RefreshArray for the refresh procedure to use when it redraws the image. To zoom in or out, all that needs to be done is change die scale and call refresh.
The drawing code is in Listing Two. The main procedure in the drawing code is DrawLine. It takes the line that die turtle server told it to draw, and actually does the drawing. First it transforms the coordinates according Lo die current scale and horizontal and vertical offsets. Then it ''clips” these coordinates to the screen. Clipping means taking a line which may extend beyond the screen’s boundaries (which are stored in maxx and maxy) and drawing only the part of the line that is visible.
Finally, DrawLine adds the line to the refresliArray, which is die series of lines diat get drawn when die screen is refreshed.
Listing Three contains the Intuition message passing code. It provides the procedure GetCommand to the turtle server. The corresponding Put command for the client is a direct call to Inlu idon's PutMsg call. Listing Four is the header file for die message code. It defines Intuition’s names for the server and client, and die definido.n of the message object structure, Obj.Vlsg. Intuition expects the Message structure at the top of any messages it passes, but it will also carry around data you tack onto it. In this case, die command type and its argument have been tacked on.
Listing Five is the code diat handles the turtle window.
It also provides the internal drawing routines MoveTo, DrawLineTo, and clearScreen used by the draw routines. If we wanted the turtle graphics to be drawn to a custom screen rather than a workbench window, diis is the file to modify; we would change InitGraphics to open a screen instead of a window, and modify the drawing routines to use die screen's RastPon instead of the window’s RastPort. Listing Slx is a collection of header files for the window and drawing functions.
Listing Seven defines each of the turtle commands, and the Command structure the server gets from GetCommand.
These definitions are shared between the sewer and the client.
Listing Eight is the client program, parse. This program has two modes of input. If there are command line arguments, they are taken to be die command, otherwise, it accepts a stream of commands from standard input (the keyboard or a file redirected in from die CLI, as in “parse command.file".) A case statement parses the current command, and packages up a command message for the sewer. If the command takes an argument, it reads it into the argument field of the message structure. After die message is all packaged up, it sends it to the sewer with Intuition’s PutMsg function.
The client program is very simple because all of the code diat actually deals with die turde, die window, and drawing is all in die server. It would be fairly easy to write other turtle clients. A control panel with buttons for die turtle commands and sliders for the zooming and shifting functions would be fairly easy to write and integrate widi die sewer.
All dial is left is the Scheme support file for the turtle graphics. This is Listing Nine. I put this file in the S: directory and called it scheme-init.scm, so it gets loaded each dme I run Scheme. To start using the turtles, just type (turde-Init) and a new' turtle sewer show's up, and now'you are ready to start programming the turdes in Scheme.
PARI II. USING LISP TURTLES AN INTRODUCTION TO RECURSION USING FRACTALS One of die best ways to learn about the technique of recursion is to try it, watch die program w'ork, and then figure out what is going on to make it w'ork. Learning recursion by watching the turdes execute a recursive routine is much easier than studying a trace of a non-graphical recursive program.
Turtle graphics provide a natural way to express recursive drawings. The most famous recursive drawings are fractals like the Mandelbrot Set, which have been presented in Amazing Computing in die past. These fractals rely on some amazingly chaotic properties of simple functions. One drawback of these fractals is that they produce a fixed design; you cannot design your owti shapes. With turtles, designing your own recursive fractals is amazingly easy.
My sister’s 7th grade computer class had been learning Logo and turtle graphics for almost a year when I visited. After seeing all dieir iterative turde graphic images, I asked if dtey had learned recursion. The instructor said no; it was hard enough to teach to college students. I went home and designed a simple fractal in Logo using recursion, and explained it to my sister. She said “it’s so simple!” The next day she presented the program, and taught recursion to the class. The fractal 1 designed diat night is in Listing Ten, which produces Figure One.
Making fractals using turtles is really easy. First, you draw' a shape, using the size passed in as an argument. Then have die routine call itself with a smaller size one or more times somewhere where you want it. Finally you return the turtle to the same place it started, and point it in the same direction. Usually, as 1 have done, you should check to see if the size is above a certain threshold, before drawing, preventing the presence of an infinite loop.
Fractals do not have to be connected shapes, they can have floating elements, like Listing Eleven, which made the fractal in Figure Two. There is no reason the fractals have to be geometric shapes. Listing Tsvelve is the program that drew' the tree in Figure Three.
EXTRA FEA TURES OF AMIGA TURTLES If the drawing in the turtle window- is too small or too large, use the zoomin or zoomout commands (you can abbreviate diem to zi and zo). If w'hat you want to look at is off the bottom of the screen, you can shift it up with su. Shifting dowrn, left and right are also implemented, with sd, si and sr respectively. For reference, these functions are all defined in the scheme-init.scm file in Listing Nine.
1 hope diis article inspires you to creaLe some turtle fractals of your owrn. Turtle graphics for the Amiga should help a new generation of Amiga programmers learn that LISP and recursion are easy and fun, FURTHER REFERENCES There are many excellent books on programming with Turtles. Most of them, even though they are based on Logo, will apply directly to Amiga Turtles as well. An excellent book on learning Scheme is oiled die Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs by Abelson, Sussman and Sussman, from MIT Press.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I’d like to thank Ted Griggs for helping me w'idi Intuition messages. Thanks also to everyone w'ho has submitted programs to the Amiga public domain.
- Listing One - * Listing i; turtle.c main module for turtle
graphics Server
* include math.h tinclude "cmds.a" * pi 180. For
converting degrees to radians * define PID180 0.0174532925199
" direction (in degrees turtle is facing * float
turtleAngle; * turtle position * float turtleX, turtleY; *
boolean. True == pen is down (drawing) * short turtlePenDown;
* from draw.c * extern float scale extern int xoff, yoff;
extern int resetScreen () , refPtr; void mainlac,av) int ac;
char *av[]; ( Command command; turtleAngle = 180.0; turtleX =
0.0; turtle = 0,0; penDown(); InirGraphics(I; InicKessagePort
0 ; * loop, process commands unci! Che exit command * do ( *
process command * GeoCommand(Scommand); switch(command.type)
case FORWARD: forward(command.argument) ; break; case BACKWARD:
backward(command.argument); break; case LEFT: left
(command.argument); break; case RIGHT: right(command.argument)
; break; case PENUP: penUp O ; break; case RUNDOWN: penDown();
break: case ZCGMIN: scale = scale'1.5; refresh(); break; case
ZCOMOUT: scale = scale 1.5; refresh!); break; case REFRESH;
refresh() ; break; case CLEARSCREEK: turtleAngle = 180.0;
turtieX = 0.0; turtle! = 0.0; resetScreer. ( ; break; case
Ksnlr": xoff - xoff t command.argument; refresh!) ; break; case
VSHIFT: yoff = yoff + command.argument; refresh(); break;
default: printf("Turtle Server Exitingln"); comaand.type =
exitjturtle; break; ) ) while (command.type != EXI?_TURTLE);
KillMessagePort[); UnTn.it () ; ; * Turtle command
implementation follows: penUp() *[ turtlePenDown = 0; :
penDown(1 !
TurtlePenDown ** 1; ) right(angle] int angle; !
TurtleAngle = turtleAngle - angle; * negative angles get converted equivalent posit while(turtleAngle 0) ( turtleAr.cle += 36 0. 0; ) 1 left(angle) int angle; ( turtleAngle = turtleAngle + angle; * if angle exceeds 360, wrap around to while (turtleAngle 360) turtleAngle -= 360.0; ) 0 degrees * ) forward(dist) ir.c dist; I float angle; float dx, dy; int x,y,nx,ny; angle “ turtleAngle . .
* convert polar coordinates to cartesian * dx = (dist * sin(angle)); dy - (disc * cos(angle)); * only draw if the pen is down ' if (turtlePenDown) ( = (int) (turtleX + 0.5); y = (int) (turtle’ + 0.3); nx = (int)(turtleX + dx * 0.5); ny « (int) (turtle + dy + 0.5); DrawLine(x,y,nx,ny); i turtleX ex dx; turtle +- dy; !
* backing up is implemented as turning around, moving forward, and turning around again to save code.
* backward(dist) int dist; right(ISO); forward(dist);
left(130); ) . Listing Two I* Listing 2: draw.c graphics
drawing, clipping, scaling and refreshing routines, * * Out
of bounds defines. Can be logically OR'd together *i define
TO? 8 aefine BOTTOM 4 define RIGHT 2 define LEFT 1 * number
of lines to save in refresh array * define MAXREFRESH 2000 *
aspect ratio of workbench screen. This way, squares are square
and circles are not ellipses *
• ¦define ASPECT 2 * screen bounds. These are variables, ana get
updated when the window is resized * int minx = 0; int miny =
0; int maxx = 640; int maxy = 200; extern int clearScreen ();
* from window.c ’ typedef struct Lir.eElt ( ior.r ir.t xl,yl,
x2, y2; JO, We take a « *out of the price!
} LineElt; LineElt refreshArray(MAXREFRESH ; * for redrawing screen » int refFcr - 0; * index into refresh array " float scale = 0.2i; * center and offsets for window * int xc = 320; int yc = 100; int xoff = 0; int yoff " 0; * draws a line, and adds to the refresh array * DrawLine(xl,yl,x2,y2) int xl,yl,x2,y2; ( int nxl,nyl,nx2,ny2; nxl = (xl - xoff) - scale * ASPECT + xc; nyl = (yl - yoff) * scale - yc; nx2 = (;-:2 + xoff) * scale * ASPECT + ny2 = (y2 t yoff) ' scale + yc; clip(nxl,nyl,nx2,ny2) ; addRefresh (xl, yl, :-:2, y2); I * resetScreen resets 3cale, offset and the refresh
array, and clears the screen *1 reset Screen. () !
RefFtr = 0; scale = 0.25; xoff = 0; yoff = 0; clearScreen () ; :¦ * clip(xl,yl,x2,y2) - internal routine clip elites a line segment and draws the portion which lies within the window * clip (xl,yl,x2,y2) int xl,yl,x2,y2; t int cl,c2,c,x,y; cl = code(xl,yl); c2 = code(x2,y2); while((cl := l) I; (c2 != 0) I if ((cl a c2} ! = 0) return; ' don't even draw line ¦ c = cl; if (c = 0) c = c2; if (c a LEFT)• * out of bounds to the left * y = yl + (v2 - yl)*(minx - xiJI(x2-xl ; = minx; !
Rf (c u RIGHT) * out of bounds to the right * y = yl - (y2 - yljMmaxx - xl) (x2-xl); x - max:-:; !
If (c & BOTTOM)( * out of bounds to the bottom * x = xl + (x.2 - xl)*(miny - yl) (y2 - yl); y “ miny; !
If (c S TOP) * out of bounds to the top * V- ~ xl + (x2 - xlt'tmaxy - yl) '(y2 - yl); y - • : :¦ if (c == cl)( t* (xl,yl) was out of bounds * yl - y; cl = code(x,y); ’ recheck bounds * : else ; « (x2,y2) was out of bounds ¦ x2 = x; y2 - y; :2 = code(x,y); ¦ recheck bounds * ONE BYTE
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Int c; c = 0; if (x minx) c = LEFT; else if (x maxx) c = RIGHT; if (y miny) c = c - BOTTOM; else if (y maxy) c = c t TOP; return (c) ; 1 * clears and redraws the screen's lines, according to the current scale and offset * void refresh!)
¦:
r. ut i, xi, yl, x2, y2; clearScreen(); ford = 0; i refptr;
i-») ( xl = (int) (refreshArray[i].xl + xoff) * scale -
ASPECT+ xc; x2 = lint) (refreshArray[i] .x2 - xoff) ’ scale '
A.SPECT+ xc; yl = (int)(refreshArray[i].yl - yoff) - scale +
yc;
• j2 = (int) (refreshArray[i] .y2 - yoff) ' scale - yc;
clip(xl,yl,x2,y2); * note: don't want to add to refresh
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* adaRefresh (xl, yi, x2r y2) - internal routine adds a line to the refresh array, clears the array on overflow * addRefresh (xl,yl, x2, y2) int 1, y 1, x2, y2; refreshArrayfrefPtr].xl = xl; refreshArrayirefFtrl.x2 - ;-:2; refreshArrayfrefPtr].yl = yl; refreshArray[re£Ptr++j.y2 = y2; if (ref?tr 20C0) refPzr = 0; * start at zero again *
- Listing Three - x Listing 3: nsgs.c Intuition message handling
code V fir.clude "rr.sgs.h" include "cmds.h" include
"window.h" struct MsaPort ''sport?
ULONG ipcbit,intuibit?
Extern struct Window *wdw; extern, struct Screen *scrr extern int minx,maxx,miny,maxy,xe, yc; extern float scale; InitMessagePort() if((sport=Create?ort(SERVEPORT,0))==NULL) printf("Cannot Create Server! n"); exit (1) ; ) ipcoit= (lL«sport- mp_SigEit) ?
Intuibit= (lL wdw- User?ort- mp_SigBit); KiliMessagePort() RemPort (sport) ; FreeMem(sport,sizeof(struct MsgPort)); ) GetCommand(message) Command "message; ObjMsg "msg; struct IntuiMessage "intuiMsg; ULONG bits; * intuition returns status bits * bits»wait(ipcbit I sigbreakf_ctrl_c | intuibit); if(bits £ intuibit) * we got a message from intuition * while(intuiMsg = GetMsg(wdw- UserPort)) ( if (intuiMsc- Class == NEWSIZE) * User has resized window * " new scale is determined by window's smallest dimension x or y * if (wdw- Widt‘n wdw- Height) scale = (scale * wdw- Width)
maxx?
Else scale = (scale * wdw- Heicht) maxy; maxx - wdw- Width; * update our maxx and maxy maxy = wdw- Heighz; xc = maxx 2; * update center coordinate yc = maxy 2; message- type = REFRESH; ¦ ask server to refresh window * } ReplyMsg(intuiMsg); return £1); ; * handle a user command * if((msg=(ObjMsg *)GetMsg(sport))==NULL) return(0); messages type = msg- type; message- argument = msg- argument; ReplyMsg (msg) ; return(1); }
- Listing Four -- * Listing 4: msgs.h defines turtle message,
which starts with en EXEC message, Chen contains the stuff I
r.eec for passing turtle messages * ?include libraries dos.h
?include e:-:ec ports.h *
* Name of object to object communication server * “define
SERVEPORT "TurtleServer" ?define CLIENXPOKT "TurtleClient" '
* This structure is passed by FutMsg to the server.
* typedef struct ObjMsg struct Message Msg; int type; int
argument; } ObjMs g;
- Listing Five - * Listing 5; window.c sets up a graphics
window, provides DrawLine, MoveTo and elearScreen ¦ ?include
"window.h" extern struct IntuitionBase ‘Ir.tuitionBase; struct
GfxEase *GfxBase; ?define INTUITION_rev 29 ?define GRA?HICS_REV
29 ?define STRLEN 30 * String length V ?define EP 4 * Number
of bit-planes * define SWIDTH 320 * Screen width * 4define
SHEIGHT 200 ¦ Screen height * struct TextAttr MyFont =
"topaz.font", TOPAZ EIGHTY, F3_N0RKAL, FPF RCMFON?, }; struct
NewWindow NewWindow - f 0,0, * initial position * 640,200, *
bit-a? Size * 3, 1, * pen numbers * NEKSIZE, * intuition
message flags * SMART_REFRESH [ ACTIVATE I KINDCKDEPTK I
WINDCWDRAG | WINDOWSIZING , NULL, MULL, "Turtle Server", NULL,
NULL, 46,25, * minimum size * 640, 400, * max size *
WBENCHSCRESN * screen tvue * I; struct Window 'wdw;
InitGraphics () irtuitionBase =• (struct IntuitionBase*(
Oper.Library ("intuition, library", INTUITION REV) ; Gfx3a$ e =
(struct Gf.xBase*) OpenLibrary (''graphics . Library",
C-RAPHICS_REV) ; if((wdw = (struct
Window*IOpenWindow(iNewKindow))==NULL) exit(1); SetCoior(1); )
SetCoior(color) int color; •: SetAFer. (wdw- RPort, color) ; }
Uninit() ( ClcseWindow(wdw); ) * Graphics drawing functions;
* DrawLineTo(x,y) int x,y; ( Draw(wdw- RPort,x,y); )
MqveTo(x,y) int x,y; ( Move(wdw- RPort,x,y) * P include stdio
*h include libraries dos *h include exec ports.h
* include exec types.h ?include exec exec.h Pinclude
intuition intuition.h ?include intuition screens.h ?include
intuition intuitionbase ?include chardware dmabits ,h
?include hardware custcm.h ?include hardware blit *h
clearScreer. () Move |wdv- RPort, 0, 0); ClearScreer.
(wdw- R?ort) RefreshWindowFrame(wdw); I
- - Listing Six * Listing 6: window.h Header files 396
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Come see whats Hot for the AMIGA at The Memory Location & * ?define FORWARD 1 ?define BACKWARD 2 define RIGHT 3 ?define LEFT 4 ?define PENUP 5 ?define PENDOWN 6 ?define ZOOMIN 7 ?define ZOOMOUT 8 ?define HSHIFT 9 ?define VSHIFT 10 ?define REFRESH 11 ?define CLEARSCREEN 12 ?define EXITJTURTLE 127 typedef struct Command int type; * right, left, forward, et int argument; * argument for command } Command; * Listing 7; cmds.h Commands definition file* Defines turtle commands for server and client.
Defines Command structure.
The Memory Location Circle 107 on Reader Service card.
¦ listing Seven -
- Listing Eight ?include graphics gfx.’n include
graphics g£xmacros.h include graphics rastport.h include
graphics view.h include proto exec,h ?include
proto intuition.h ?Include fcntl.h include math.h *
Listing 8: parse.c Turtle client orocram.
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Parses input stream, ana senas to turtle server.
Essage fintlude stdio,h include string.h include "msgs.h" include "cmds.h" ULONG ipebit; short command_line; main(argc,argv) int argc; char **argv; i ObjMsg *msg; int args; struct MsgPort *sport, *cport; char token[50]; * initialise port stuff * msg®(ObjMsg *)AllocMem(sizeof(ObjMsg) , 0) ; if (cport-CreatePort(CLIENTPORT,0)) == NULL)( printf("Cannot Create Client Portl n"); exit(1); if( sport=Find?ort(SERVEPORT))==NULL) printf("Cannot Locate Server ?ortl n"); exit (!); ) * bits to wait on for Intuition messages * ipebit = (1L cport- mp_3igBit) ; token[0] = 42; command line =
NULL; if(argc l) * we've got a command line command * command_line = 1; ; ANOTHER TIP FROM DR. CHIP * loop until gettoken returns with nothing * while (token[0] 1= NULL) msg- Msg.nm_Length=sizeof (ObjMsg); msg- Msg.mn_Reply?ort = cport; args =1; * default number of arguments * gettoken(token,argv); switch(token[0]) case lf': msg- type = FORWARD; break; case 'b': msg- type = BACKWARD; break; case 'r': msg- type = RIGHT; break; case '1'; msg- type = LEFT; break; case ’z': args =0; msg- type = ZOOMIN; break; case : args ® 0; msg- type = ZOOMOUT; break; case 'c': args = 0; msg- type -
CLEAR5CREEN; break; case '6' ; msg- type = HSHIFT; break; case '4': msg- type = HSHIFT; args = 0; gettoken(token,argv); msg- argument = -1 * atoi(token); break; case '2': msg- type = VSKIFT; break; case '3': msg- type = VSHIFT; args - 0; gettoken(token,argv); msg- argument = -1 * atoi(token); break; case 'p': args = 0; msg- argument = -1; if (token[3] == 'u') msg- type - PENUP; else msg- type = PENDOWN; break; case 'e': case 'q': msg- type = sxit_turtle; PutMsg(sport,msg); exit(0); default: continue; } if (args == 1) * if there's an argument to get, get it, * gettoken(token,argv); if
(token[03 == NULL) printf("Unexpected End Of File! (I was expecting a number) n"); break; } msg- argument = atoi(token); } PutMsg(sport,msg); * send the command to the server port.
* Wait(ipebit); * wait for the next message * if
(ctjmmand_line) break; i ) gettoken(tok,argv) char *tok,**argv;
I int i; char c; * get the tokens from argv if it's a command
line cal_ * ; f (com-:and_line) strcpy (tok,
argv[cor Kiand_line] ) ; command 1 i n e+r; return; ) c -
getcharO,- if (c == EOF); tok 10] = NULL; return; ) * consume
any non-alpha chars V while () (isalnuin(c))) c = getcharO,-
if (c == EOF) tok i 0 i = NULL; return; !
) * now fill the token * i - 0; while (isainum(c) ) t o k [ i + +! = c ; c = getcharO; if (c -- EOF) I tok [01 - NULL; return; } !
Tok[i++] = 0; !
- Listing Nine-- ;; Listing 9: scheme-init. Sort ;; turtle
initialization and support routines (define file-IC nil)
(define turtle-port nil!
(display "To start turtle stuff type (init)") (newline) (display "To exit turtle, type (exit)") (newline) (display "To get help screen, type (help)") (newline) (display "To quit scheme, type ccri- (or (abort-system)") (newline) (call-system "copy parse ramiparse") ;; use resident instead of copy, if available (define (init) (call-system "run turtle") I (define (tall-command string) (i f file-IO (tell-file string turtle-port) (call-syster (string-append "raccparse " string)) ) ) (define (tell-file string port) (write string port) (newline port) ) (define (file-orf) (if file-IO
(close-output-port turtle-oort) 0 ) (set! File-IO nil) ) (define (file-on name) (if (not file-IO) (begin (set! File-IO (ft) (set! Turtle-port (open-output-fila name)) ) FMSK2jO The reviewers have labeled F- BASIC: ¦NEW NEW- The FASTEST Growing FASTEST Performing AMIGA Language c Basics!
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(display "output rile already open") (define (penup) (tell-ccnmar.d "peuu") ) (define (pendown) (tell-command "oend") (define (tight angle: (define command (string-append "r '(int))}) (teli-command command) ) (define (left angle) (define command (string-appenci "1 '(inti))!
(tell-command'command) } (number-ostring angle (number- scring angle (define (forward dist) (define com.-ind (string-append "f " (number- string Mint)))) (tell-command command) I (define (back dist) (define command (string-append "b " (number- strir.g 1(int))) ) disc (tell-command command) I (define (zoom-in) (Cel1-command "z") (define (scon-out) (tell-command " x ") ) (define (shi.ft.-up dist) (define command (strina-append "8 " (number- string dist ' (inti))I (tell-command command) ) (define (shift-down distl (define command (string-apper.d "2 " (r.umber- string dist ‘ (int)))I (tell-command
command) ) (define (shift-left disc) (define command (string-append "4 " (number- string dist ' (int)))) (tell-comnand command} ) Idefir.e (shift-right dist) (define command (strir.g-append "S " (numher- string dist ¦ (int)) I ) (tell-command command) I ;; exit and new call parse, because they ;shouldn't be called in batch mode.
(define (exit) (call-system "parse quit") ) (define (new) (call-system "parse c") ) (define (help) (display "Turtle Graphics help:") (newline) (display "availible commands") (newline) (display "(init) -start up turtle graphics") (newline) (display "(new) -clears screen")(newline) (display "(forward x) or fd -moves turtle forward x units") (newline) (display "(backward x) or bk") Inewline) Iciisplay "(right x) or rt -turns turtle clockwise x degrees") (newline) (display "(left ) or It") (newline) (display "(zoomin) or zi -zooms in on center of screen") (newlir.e) (display "(zoomout) or zo -zoom
out") (newline) (display "(shift-up x) or su -moves image up units") (newlir.e) (display "(shift-down x) or sd -moves image down units") (newline) (display "(shift-left x) or si -moves image left x units") (newline) (display "(shift-right x) or sr-moves image right x units") (newline) (display "")(newline)
- -Listing Ten ------------------ - isting 10: (define (fract-tri
size) (if ( size 2) (begin (right 150) (forward size) ;; right
side of the triangle (right 120) (forward ( size 2)) ;; half
of the bottom side (left 90) (fract-tri ( size 2)) ; smaller
upside down triangle here (right 90) (forward ( size 2)) ;;
other half of the bottom (right 120) (forward size) ;; left
side of the triangle (left 30) ;; make sure we're pointing
straight up again ) () ;; if size = 5 do nothing )
- Listing Eleven - Listing Eleven (define (float size) (if (
size 3) ;; if size is big enough, draw the triangle (begin
(triangle size) ;; draw a full size triangle (right 30) ;; go
off to the right (forward size) (float ( (* size 3) 4)) ;;
smaller, recursive call (back size) (left 30) ) () ;; if the
size is too small, do nothing ) ) (define (triangle size)
(pendown) (forward size) (right 120) (forward size) (right 120)
(forward size) (right 120) (penup) )
- Listing Twelve - ;Listing 12: tree.scm ;; fractal tree (define
(tree size) (if ( size 3) (begin ;; draw the trunk ;; the
right branch ;; limbs to the right ;; back up right branch ;;
left branch is bigger ;; linos to the left ;; back to the trunk
;; straighten out ;; back to the start point (forward ( size
3)) (right 36) (forward ( size 4)) (tree ( ’ size 2) 3))
(back ( size 4]) (left 72) (forward ( size 3)) (tree ( size
2)) (back ( size 3)) (right 36) (back ( size 3)) ) (I ) )
• AC- AFL + THE AMIGA Primitive Functions and their Execution by
Henry T, Lippert, EclD APL IS A LANGUAGE THAT YOU CAN USE. SO
MANY OF THE OTHER COMPUTER LANGUAGES REQUIRE that one must know
the entire language structure in addition to linkers, loaders,
die CLI, DOS, and so forth, in order to do anything useful. APL
is appropriate for the beginner, a child, an adult anybody! It
is also a language that can be used to write an airline
reservation system where hundreds or perhaps thousands of
terminals access a common data base. While it is an all-purpose
language, it may not always be the best choice for all
purposes. It is an interpretive language. That means that
each statement is stored in die program just as you wrote it
and is not converted to machine language until it is ready for
execution. The code is said to be “interpreted.” For extremely
fast applications, such as die airline reservations problem.
APL would probably be a poor choice. It would probably prove to
be to slow.
The general APL answer might be that although die execution speed is not as fast as compiled code, the fact diat it is array oriented and can do vast matrix operations with very little code to be interpreted, may make it die fastest game around. The point is that APL is a complete language, with all the bells and whistles that anybody could ever want.
It will probably always remain a special language, and it may not be the all-purpose language for all uses, The language and its capabilities, however, will not prove to be a limiting factor for any programmer, no matter what the application.
Let us return to the business of how one writes instructions to drive a computer.
An APL program is called a “function." In the last article we wrote a function that computed the arithmetic mean of a group of numbers. The function listing was: V R 4 Average X [1] Rt- ( + X) + p X V and used one of the six ways that an APL function can be written. The one used required only a right argument and produced an explicit result. The following is a “call" to die function with a set of numbers as the right argument: AVERAGE 1 6741;
4. 33333333 where APL returned the result on the next line.
The symbol used for comments or remarks is die lamp ( R ), and it is used for “illuminadon” in die form of a comment or a documented action. No attempt is made to execute diat which follows the lamp symbol. While APL has often been criticized about lack of or difficulties with documentation, it is more often die lack of use of the documentation tools that are provided rather than a deficiency of die language. The lamp will be used on lines of future functions for the purpose of documenting the purpose and acuon of the .APL statement.
Let’s review. The first use of left arrow was to specify variables: TAX .0725 9 SPECIFY A SCALAR, THE TAX RATE PRICES «- .37 6.34 I-.90 43.00 fin VECTOR OF PRICES The second use of the left arrow was in the definition of a program to specify an explicit result, as in the header of the program AVERAGE above.
The slash “ " was called “reduction" and was used to extend a primitive madiematics function to each element of the array to its right. In executing the operation, a reduction in die rank of die variabLe took place, i.e., a vector became a scalar: t SALARIES FiaED UP ALL THE SALARIES The Greek letter for small r was “rho” ( p ) and was usecl to find die shape of its right argument: .
PPRICSS 4 indicating that there are four prices in the list stored at PRICES. Let's try it (shape) on Lite tax rate: ptax and nothing happened. Apparently APL did nothing. Actually, APL returned an empty line. Hmnun. Think of it this way. The variable TAX contains a single number, a scalar. It is a point on the number line (at .0725) and, as a point, has no shape or dimension. API,, therefore, when asked for the shape die scalar, returned an empty vector, i.e. TAX is a single quantity widi no dimension.
Many of die APL primitive functions have dual definidons depending upon whether they are used with one right argument or widi two arguments, one on each side. Monadic rbo, for example, returns die shape of its right argument. What happens if it is used diadically? Let’s try.
? F "acrix 3 4 p 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 It “reshapes" its right argument according to the left argument. In this case we asked for a “three by four reshape of the number 1000.” This is the way that a matrix is created. APL -will handle arrays up to eight dimensions! It is, however, rare to use more dian three or four dimensions.
OK. Lets look at some new primitive Functions that we can now use in APL.
The comma ( , ) is called “ravel" which no doubt came from die word “unravel.” In APL, it does just diat; it (un)ravels its right argument.
, Matrix 100C 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Previously, when we got the empty vector as the “dimension" of a scalar TAX, we knew that the variable was a scalar. Lets ask for die dimension of die same scalar that has been raveled , TAX i OK, the raveled TAX now has a dimension of one, but since iL is a single number (0.725), it now becomes a one element vector.
Note diat die request for the dimension of TAX: pTrtX reveals that it is still a scalar. What happened? Nothing, which is correct. Note diat we asked (two statements above) for the dimension of die raveled variable TAX. Contrast that widi die following statement: TAX +- , TAX and what happens when we ask for die dimension of TAX.
PTAX It was changed into a one element vector. This time we said to APL, “TAX is specified by the raveled Tax”, we changed TAX to a different shape by using the left arrow to re-specify die storage area called TAX.
TAX - + TAX R REDUCES TAX TO A SCALAR If we use a comma between two arguments, what happens?
It is called “catenate,” the useful part of the word, concatenate. Let’s save die answer, also.
ANSWER +- TAX , 1,00 p ? - ANSWER
0. 72s 1.00C 2 Let’s read it. “Answer is specified by tax
catenated to 1.00” is the first statement. The second was
“What is die shape of die display specified by answer?” First,
die contents of the storage area called “ANSWER" was displayed
on the diird line and a 2 on the forth line.
The last display is the answer to the part of the question regarding the shape, it is now a 2 element vector. The dyadic comma joins items together into a vector. The following statement ? - PRICES PRICES, 34.21 23.35
0. 37 5,34 27.98 48. 34,21 29,95 added two more prices to die
list of 4 and saved the new list of 6 by specifying PRICES by
the new vector.
The following APL statement applies die tax rate to each element of the list of prices, dien adds the tax to the prices, and dien adds them together by using sum reduction.
+ PRICES + PRICES y. TAX
157. 496625 Stop and think about die previous statement, We have
read many APL statements before and, of course, diey are
read from left to right. The English word statement above
the last APL statement said diat the tax rate was multiplied
and then the tax was added to the prices, etc. If we read it
from left to right, why did APL not also add up the prices
first, then add die prices and then multiply the tax rate,
in the same order? Why did it start on the right by
multiplying the tax rate first?
The difference in the two possibilities is whether APL works from left to right or right to left. The last APL statement above would read “add the prices diat are added to the prices multiplied by the tax rate.” Let's analyze this statement. It starts by saying: “Sum the prices.” What prices?
Those that are “added to the prices".
Which prices?
Those “multiplied by the tax rate".
If you think about it, you have to multiply the tax rate by die prices first, before you can add the amount of die tax to the prices and before you can sum them up to get die total. Yes, you have been tricked into starting at the right. APL executes statements from die right to the left. It uses an execution rule called the “right-to-left rule.” Lets see how it works.
In mathematics, the statement: 5x7 + 3 could be executed as “five times seven and dien add three, answer = (38)” using a left to right rule. On the other hand, it could be as “five times the result of seven plus three, answer = (50)” using a right to left rule.
In defining any computer language, the order of execution is a fundamental decision that must be made by the designer of the language. Most languages use a modified left to right rule. Usually it is not just a simple left to right rule, but one that is modified by a set of rules that govern the order of execution of the primitive elements of the language. Many languages have a set of rules that read something like; "raise to powers first, multiply and divide next, then add and subtract," a three level hierarchy of operations.
Using parentheses is another way to force whichever order: (5 x 7) + 3 or 5 x (7 + 3), is intended. The parentheses override the rules. The most common language of the day when APL was conceived. FORTRAN, only had five primitive arithmetic operations and used the three level rule stated above. APL, however, has a very large set of primitive operations. Depending upon how you group them, the count is from 60 to 80 primitive operations. A set of rules to unscramble such a large number of possible hierarchies would be hopelessly complex.
Dr. Iverson devised the rule which has become known as die "right to left rule." Hi APL it is the only execution rule. That is it. It is simply: "Each function takes as its right argument everything to its right, to the right parendiesis of die pair diat enclose it."
The ambiguous statement 5 x 7 + 3 is no longer ambiguous, the times sign takes the left argument 5 (since there is one) and takes everything to its right as its right argument. What is to its right? 7 + 3- The evaluation of 7 + 3 must take place before the right argument needed by the times can be used, Following this Line of thinking, before die left most function can lie executed .everything to its right must be evaluated. Likewise for all odier functions in turn.
The conclusion is that the right most function must therefore be evaluated irst. Let's give the statement above to APL for evaluation: 5 7 + j 50 2414 Pendleton Place ¦ Waukesha. Wl 53188 ¦ 9 AM to 5 PM M-F The result is 50 since the right most function + evaluates to 10 and the second step is 5 x 10, yielding the answer 50.
The issue of hierarchy of operations in terms of die order of their execution simply ceases to exist. How elegant! It was a stroke of genius and represents only one of the creative contribudons that exist in APL. Dr. Iverson probably used the criteria of simplicity to make such decisions. It did, however, bother a lot of folks who couldn’t or wouldn't adjust to this new idea.
Did not trust the APL interpreter to use the rule reliably.
Another trend in modem computing languages is tighter and tighter control over the “typing" of variables. In most languages a great deal of time and energy is spent making sure that the variables are integer storage spaces or are "floating point’’ (decimal) spaces, or variables that are able to take character data only, etc. You may have noticed that previous statements have freely mixed whole numbers and decimals. APL takes care of all such “typing" that is necessary'. Since the storage is dynAMIGAlly allocated at the time of use of the specification ( ) operation, the typing is simply
determined by APL and becomes a part of the description of the variable, without any action on the part of the programmer. If there are no decimals, the array is automatically stored as integers taking much less storage dian if there were decimals. Logical ones and zeros take one bit each, making maximum use of storage. If we create an integer matrix Alas, the rest of the world is moving in the opposite direction.
AREXX, die AMIGA version of REXX, which has skyrocketed into prominence with great promises of extending the versatility of this amazing machine, uses a strict left to right rule except as modified by parendieses. It lias an expanded set of 23 primitive operations and an eight level priority scheme for sorting out which operation operates when during execution. It is interesting to note diat AREXX’s priority 7, 6, and 5 is indeed die three level rule quoted above about exponentiadon, then multiplication, division, and then addition and subtraction. The highest priority is Logical NOT and the
lowest is Logical Exclusive OR. It is very likely diat liberal use of parentheses will be found in AREXX programs in order to keep track of what is happening radier dian relying on diis complex hierarchy scheme.
APL also uses parentheses in the usual fashion. Because of the right-to-left execution nile, two interesting conclusions follow. If a right parenthesis is found at the end of a line, it is die right member of an unnecessary set. Furdier, if two right parentheses are found together, e.g. one of die sets is not required. As you -write APL statements you will find that they can be written with a lot of parentheses or not, depending on your style. If you see APL statements written with a lot of unnecessary parentheses it isn’t wrong, it simply indicates that die writer did not understand the
right to left rule or Spotlight on Sottwaie 688 Attack Sub .... 37.50 Advantage, GoldDlsk . 120.00 A-Talk III .. 59 00 AutoScflpt ..... 71,00 Bars 8: Pipes . 170.00 Bars & Pipes Sound Kit ... 37.99 Bars & Pipes Musfc Box A...... 37,99 Can Do 88.99 Creature 25.50 CygnusEd Professional 2.0 .... 65.00 Dragons Breath .. 36.69 Drakken .. 36.99 Dungeon Master Editor 15.00
Escape from Singe's Castle .. 42.99 Fat Tracks 36.99 Shostbusters II ...... 28.89 Leisure Suit Larry 3 33.00 Pen Pal 90.00 PIC-MoglC ..... 60.00 Putty's Saga ... 27.50 Quarterback 4.0 .. 43.00 Rings of Medusa .. 31,25 Where Europe is Carmen? .. 34,25 X-Cad Designer .. 95.00 Circle 134 on Reader Service card.
? X- MATRIX 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 4- 3 5 p!4 and then add one decimal value in the middle ? - MATRIX 4- MATRIX[2;3]
14. D 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0
14. 0 14.0 14.7 14.0 14.0
14. 0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 Spotlight on Hardware... 501 Clone.
Spirit 512K .....80.00 68030 4megs '882 80Q ....
2899.C0 fltckerFlxer ..... 460.00
Floppy Drive. SupraDrive .... 135.00 Floppy Dive. Internal
2000.... 90.00 Harddrive. Quantum 40 ...... 420.00 Harddrlve.
Quantum 80 ...... 625.00 Harddrive, Quantum 105 .... 735.00
Harddrlve. Supra 20M 500 .. 505.00 Memory, AdRAM 520 Ok 500
120.00 Memory, Adv 2080 8Meg OK 147.00 Memory, BaseBoard OK
500 128.00 Meta4. TrumpCard Mem OK 159,00 Modem. Aprotek 2400
...... 85,00 Modem, Supra 2400 ..... 120,00 Mouse.
Cordless ..90.00 Mouse, Jin Mouse
(Konyo)..., 50.00 SCSI Controller, Adv 2000.... 155.00 SCSI
Controller. Byte Sync .. 170.00 SCSI Controller. Word Sync
170.00 Spirit Boards OK .... 224.99
SuperCard AMI ....72.99 SuproRAM 2000 OK
160.00 SupraRAM 2000 2 megs 315.00
Synchro-Express ....55.00 Orders Only
Please: 800-544-6599 Visa MC CODs APL did a lo: of work for
us. The amount of storage required increased greatly after
the conversion to the decimal notation. But why, Dr Iverson
asked, should the user of a computer who wants to solve a
mathematical problem be requ ired to become a computer
scientist in order to do so? Did you notice how easy it is to
index the matrix at row 2, col 3 in the last APL statement
above? ADA and MODULA2 are relatively new languages that
require a lot of the programmer's attention because they have
moved in the direction of tighter and tighter controls on the
issues of types of variables.
Let's look at more of our primitive functions: 1 10 12345676910 “IOTA" (x) is die index generator and returns the integers from 1 to its integer right argument. Used dyadically, IOTA becomes an index finder and indicates the position that the right argument occupies in the left argument, For example, remember what we had at prices?
PRICES
0. 37 6.34 27.98 46. 34.21 2S.95 Did you remember diat we
catenated two values and respecified PRICES giving die six
values? Of course you did. OK, for the dyadic use of IOTA
PRICES 127.96 3 indicates that 27.98 is the third element in
die vector.
Here's another new primitive function: r 7.3 8 “Ceiling” is the next higher integer above die decimal number right argument. Let’s see if you can use this one in die reduction of a vector.
F ¦ PRICES
43. 3 and... limmm. What did we do? Ceiling was extended by
reduction to the elector PRICES. Recall what reduction does.
It places the primitive in between each element of die vector
and reduces the vector to a scalar. Let’s peek inside and
w'atch it in operation.
0. 37 r 6.34 r -18.0 f 27 .98 f 34.21 f 29.95
27. 96 T 34.21
48. 0T 34.21
6. 34T 48.0
0. 37 f 48.0
48. 0 As you can see the larger of each comparison between each
pair in turn to each of the ceiling (or MAX in diis dyadic
use) operations, ending with die largest clement in the
vector. Try another variation: 7 9 2 T 5 3 4 7 9 4 which
indicates why die statement was made earlier regarding ”60 to
80 primitive operations, depending upon how you count diem."
The last three examples above of CEILING MAX appear as different operations when in fact they are using die dyadic form of MAX in each case.
[7.3 1 “Floor" returns the next smaller integer. You should begin to have some icieas. Here is one possible idea: To round a vector of numbers (VI) type VI 2.3 6.6 4. 5 5.0 5.4 VI - .5 2 7 5 5 5 which would be read: “what is the floor of the numbers at VI plus one haLf?” Did you see how it was done? You have to know what APL is doing and supply (diink) the intermediate steps if you want to follow, With APL, however, at any time you do not understand what happened, you are free to put the problem in step by step to see how the answer was developed. For example: 71 t- 2.3 6.8 4.5 5.0 5.4 fiSET
UP VECTOR VI VI + .5 fl THE FIRST STEP, ADD .5
2. 8 7.4 5.0 5.5 5.9 VI - .5 A REPEAT THE EIRS? STEP, TAKE FLOOR
2 7 5 9 3 Let’s take a test to see if you are thinking APL
yet. Let’s think APL without giving it to die APL interpreter.
5-4 = 9 What do you think xvould happen? First, you were tempted to read 5 plus 4 equals 9, right? Now, If you also thought “yes, that's correct” you have to go direcdy to jail, cannot pass go, and you won't get out until you begin to think APL! In all fairness, you really needed another fact before you could have acted as a complete APL enthusiast. Let’s give this statement to APL to evaluate. Before we do that, lets use APL in a discovery mode.
1 - 6 C 6 = £ 1 2 = 231012302 : o o o c : o o i APL uses all the relational operators , , =, , as propositions to be answered true (1) or false (0). So, back to our problem. One can always fire up APL and ask for the answer: 5 + 4 = 9 c The result should be obvious. In case it isn't, do it one element at a time: 4 = 9 0 A THE ANSWER IS NO, 4 IS NOT EQUAL TO 9 5+0 85 PLUS THE RESULT OF THE FIRST STEP, C 5 Let’s move along and t.ty another primitive: ? 10 3 34 7 100 3 7 100 ICO 700 100 100 67 0 49 71 67 This one might take a little time for you to figure out just what is going on. Random
numbers are being drawn from each element of die right argument. The repeat of 67 indicates that die random draws are with replacement so diat each drawr from each vector element is independent of all others. OK... do you suppose it can he used diadicnlly? Try it.
;c ? Too 4 6 54 5 97 84 9 10 66 23 Hmmm... Suppose... 10 7 10 473821956 10 10 7 10 81 10 3562947 Yep, it gives random numbers, the left argument tells how many and the right argument gives the domain. Ten random numbers from the domain 1 to 10 (10 ? 10) gives all of them in random order! A random permutation. The first request asked for only ten of the 100 numbers in the domain 1 to 100. Neat huh? The diadic use is called "deal,” the monadic use is ''random.'' Yes, you can try it: 100 3 10 DOMAIN ERROR 100 ? 10 Despite all the neat things APL can do, it can’t get more out of mathematics than
there is in the definitions. Let's try one more: DATA - 7 10COC p 1000 What did we do? Read it. “Data is specified by random draws from 10,000 reshaped 1,000's." If it sounds as if we independently drew 10,000 random numbers, each from die domain 1 to 1,000 and stored them away at DATA, you are right on track. You might check it out.
DATA WOW, are you sure? It will display 10,000 random numbers!
Go ahead and try7 it on die AMIGA. The editor, however, wouldn't want to do it here in this article! On the A2000 it takes about 49.66 seconds to display them at 14 across in each row. Maybe we better check before asking for this display.
P DATA A REQUEST THE SIZE OF DATA 10000 fl SURE ENOUGH! IT WOULD HAVE SHOWN ALL 10,000 DATA [ IS I R SHOW THE FIRST RIVE ELEMENTS 134 6 689 942 134 Yes, you can use operations such as IOTA to generate the numbers for indexing die array DATA.
The best way to leam about APL is to load the APL interpreter, click on the APL icon and try things out. If the operation is legal it will give the answer, if not it may be a DOMAIN ERROR or some other indication that die operation is not defined on every7 kind of number or structure in existence. OK, you have been eager to try 5-i-G flREAD "5 DIVIDED BE ZERO" DOMAIN ERROR 5 -t- 0 but it indicates that dividing by zero is outside the domain of the mathematician’s definition of division. Just what your mathematics teacher always told you. Neat way to learn madiematics. As a matter of fact,
learning APL would be a whole heck of a lot more productive in contributing to a child's education dian learning BASIC. By learning BASIC you learn all kinds of arbitrary rules, CONTROL THE UNIVERSE!
‘i'm totally awed by what you have done!...it's beautiful, especially when the lights are oil...congratulations..." Arthur C. Clarke author of 2001: A Sixu o Odyssey Distant Suns, the award-winning planetarium program, is endless entertainment and education for all. S69.95 retail. Ask for ii!
DArtuaf ‘Rgabitij Laboratories, Inc. 2341 Ganador Court San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 USA Circle 121 on Reader Service card.
Unique to BASIC, in order to learn computer literacy and how to write programs for a computer. By learning APL, you leam all those things and have a discovery-based mathematics workshop too.
Which is more productive will have to lie judged by each individual.
Next time we will do some statistical calculations and begin to look at the way that APL is implemented on the AMIGA. Now that you have seen that APL is a friendly language and easy to use, it is time to show some of the power of its implementation on the AMIGA.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR Dr. Henry T. Uppert is an educator. He has specialized in the application of computers in education and training and to the tasks of the instructor and the instructional designer. He was one of the original developers ofComputer-Based Instruction (CBIatthe University of Illinois during the I960’s. He is the Chief of the Instructional Methods Division at the Academy of Health Sciences in San Antonio, TX.
APL INTERPRETER FOR THE AMIGA Not copy-protected, includes reference manuals.
Spencer Organization, Inc. 24 Wampum Road Park Ridge. NJ 07656
(201) 307-9099 Inquiry 203 ¦AO PD dcE-e-ndlibitct HIGHLIGHTS OF
THE MOST RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE FRED Fish collection
include virus checkers, a simple encoder program, and a
200-page C Manual with more than 70 executable examples.
These programs can be found on disks 331 3*110.
VIRUS CHECKERS The first virus checker I came across is found on FED 331, LVR
VI. 20. This program detects and removes link viruses from disk,
among them IRQ, BSG9 (TTVI), Revenge of the Lamer
Exterminator (a fairly new virus) and die Xeno virus.
Insight into the World of Public Domain Software for the Amiga LVR can either search a directory or an individual file for a known virus. LVR scrolls the names of die files it is checking, but unlike most virus checkers I have come across, it does not indicate the number of files checked when finished. Author: Pieter Van Leuven til PH Select Select trive Beotlloek VirusUtils can be found on FFD 331.
VirusUtils contains two virus checkers, VirusHunter and VirusKiller. VirusHunter removes all known viruses from memory.
Some known viruses include the SCA (and clones), Revenge, ByteBanditand Byte Warrior.
For a complete list, check the document file in the VirusUtils directory on FFD 331.
VirusHunter does not scroll files when checking for known viruses; however, it does display a message (“No known virus found”, for example) upon completion.
VirusKiller V3.60 removes all known viruses from memory' and disk. After removing tire viruses, die disks can be checked without the viruses copying themselves back to the disks.
When activated, VirusKiller display's a new'window on the screen.
Here you give instructions to read the bootblock (readBB), write to die bootblock (writeBB), select die type of bootblock, and select which drive to check.
By Aimee B. Abren At the bottom of the VirusKiller window is a long rectangular box which displays messages to the user, such as: “disk removed”, “no disk in drive”, “disk contains normal BB", and “disk inserted'.
VirusKiller destroys SCA. Revenge, ByteBandit(2) and Turk, plus others. For the complete list, check the document file on FFD
331. Author: Pieter Van Leuven PROGRAMS Kryptor VI.0 (FFD332) is
a simple file encoder,'decoder.
The program is easy to use once you get tlte procedure down. An encoder is a program that allows you to turn text files into unreadable “garbage" characters for privacy or protection. These files are password protected, and can only be decoded with the correct password. Once decoded, the files are again readable text files.
The document files come in both German and English.
Unfortunately, the requestor boxes are all in German. This makes it a Little difficult when the requestor gives you two choices. After experimenting for a little while, you will learn what responses give you the results you want.
Encoding is as simple as selecting fire file you want encoded, typing in a password, and closing the window. If you do not click tire window closed, you will be prompted to type in anodrer password. This loop will continue until you click the window closed, allowing the use of more than one password for a file.
Once encoded, your file will be printed as garbage on the screen until the file is decoded. To decode your file, simply repeat the steps to encode. Author: Michael Balzer PPMore VI.5 (FFD334) is a program that reads ASCII files and files crunched with PowerPacker.
You’ve probably heard of a similar program called More.
PPMore is different because it uses gadgets and loads the whole file in memory, while More loads only sections at a time.
When loaded, PPMore displays a new window. The filename and number of lines in the file are located in tile title bar. The bottom of the screen displays the following options: Next Page, Prev Page, Next Line, Prev Line, goto N%, Print File, and Exit PPMore. They do as their names imply.
As mentioned earlier, PPMore reads files crunched with PowerPacker, a program used to compress files for more disk space, In the document file of PPMore, it claims to be able to read encrypted files as well. If a file is encrypted, a requester will appear asking for the password of the file. Author: Nico Francios. (Look for PPShow, which also was written to compliment PowerPacker.
PPShow is similar to Show, in that it displays IFF files. It can be found on FFD 334 Author: Nico Francios) ANIMATION AniPtxs (FFD332) is a collection of several animated pointers from fish to cats to space ships. These animated pointers will dress up any Amiga screen.
Images were created with DeluxePaint HI and Pointer Animator was used to compile the animations. Author: Bob McKain GAMES Your task is to clean up the viruses in your SYSOP’s hard disk in the game SYS (FFD 336). These creatures have infected every sector of your disk and it's your job to get rid of them.
To kill a virus you simply kick a disk, 5-1 4" or 3-1 2". At it.
But watch your back tire higher the level, the trickier they are.
Each virus has its own personality, 'lire mouse, who is quick on those corners, and the joystick are file milder viruses. The plroto diode is sneaky, so proceed ever so cautiously. The magnet is the most dangerous virus. He'll follow' you everywhere, especially on the higher levels.
While chasing these creatures thru your hard disk, ali is not glum. There are bonus surprise boxes where you can grab some extra points and gain another life.
The game can be controlled by the numeric keyboard or joystick. To pause the game, move the cursor to the right side of the screen. Some function keys are used as switches to turn music on (F6) or off (F7), to skip to level 10 (FI0), etc. Author: AndersBjerin MANUAL Included on FFD 336 is a 200-page Amiga C Manual with more than 70 executable examples, including source. Some topics discussed include working with screens, windows, graphics, gadgets, requesters, alerts, sprites, etc. Examples are written in Lattice C V5.02 but will compile with older versions as well as with other C compilers.
Registered users can update for the cost of a new disk and postage and handling. Author: Anders Bjerin EXTRA, TWO!
Two programs that seem worth taking a peek at are IFF2Ex V1.0 (FFD331) and SID VI.06 (FFD33S). IFF2Ex converts IFF pictures to an excutable file. Author: Peter Van Leuven. SID is a directory' utility for tire Amiga. Author: Tim Martin UPDATES
- Csh V4.01a (FFD331) is an update to V4.00a on FFD 207.
This program is an alternative command interface including command line editing, aliases, piping and more. Changes include restoring window title after quitting, and long lines in source files can be broken into more than one line. Authors: Matt Dillon, Steve Drew, Carlo Borreo and Cesare Dieni
- Multiplot V XLNb (FFD333) is an update to Y XLN on FFD
292. Multiplot is a program for making 2D plots. Bug fixes permit
the handling of greater than 20 data sets ancl reset plot
dimensions when a plot is redrawn without text. New'
features include the custom plot window' allows selection of
different plot symbols, 2nd all error reports are displayed
by alerts or requesters; no error messages will appear in
the current CLL Authors: Alan Baxter. Tim Monney, Rich
Campeaux ancl Jim Miller
- Cpp (FFD338) is an update to Cpp on FFD 28, This program is an
implementation of the C coprocessor. ANSI features w'ere added
to this updated version. Version number not known. Source code
included. Authois: Martin Miow and Olaf Serbert
- PCQ V 1.1c (FFD339) is an update to VI.0 on FFD 183. PCQ is a
sub-set Pascal compiler. This program includes compiler source
and example programs. Author: Patrick Quaid
- Plplot V 2.6 (FFD 340) is an update to VI.00 on FFD 222.
Plplot is a library' of C functions useful for scientific plotting on the Amiga. Some fixes include an improved intuition interface, new device drivers and the capability of adding additional device drivers easily. Author: Tony Richardson
• AC* R O by The Iiandito [The statements and projections
presented in "Roomers" are rumors in the purest sense. Tbebits
of information are gathered by a third party source from
whispers inside the industry. At press time, they remain
unconfirmed and are printed for entertainment value only.
Accordingly, the staff and associates of Amazing Computing™
cannot he held responsible for the reports made in this
column.] Tl TERE’S PLENTY OI; COMMODORE news this time. Seems
that the new administration has gotten quite a few pots
boiling, and rite soup will be served this year. The Bandito
has chased down a few hearty chunks of data, so sit back while
the data stew is served.
Atari rushed out iheir Ste computers in the fall before the software was quite ready, and as a result few ST programs were able to run on die new machines until Atari put out a software patch. Even now, there is still a lot of software that does not work on the new boxes.
The latest scuttlebutt is dial the launch of the 3000 will highlight Amiga- Vision, die newr “multimedia" software from Commodore that combines the best features of UltraCard, CanDo, and De- luxeVideo, Well, die Bandito isn't sure just how whizbang AmigaVision will really be; you’ll have to wait and see for yourself.
Some developers are annoyed that Commodore is publishing such an important piece of software and cutting into their business, Especially since the latest data heard by the Bandito is that AmigaVision may well be bundled with all Amigas sold.
This has publishers of certain products running a bit hot about competing with a piece of free software. On the other hand, bundling AmigaVision could help sell quite a few more Amigas, which means publishers can sell more software.
Commodore stock is down below 8 these days, lower dian it has been for years.
But computer stocks have generally been off. The stock could revive if die Amiga 3000 is well received. A lot depends on Commodore’s ability" to generate .Amiga sales in the United States.
The chance for an explosive Amiga market growth is still there, but hopes grow more distant as Commodore’s big effort over Christmas failed to ignite sales. On the other hand, new developments offer hope once more to those who still have not given up the Amiga Dream. The Amiga 3000, the Video Toaster, the Amiga CD-ROM project, and AmigaVision have all promised to supercharge Amiga sales. The faithful Amiga fans are still hanging in there.
The Amiga has never become a smash seller, but it has demonstrated staying power. Commodore seems to be the only computer manufacturer left that is even tiying to go after the home market.
The Bandito thinks the A500 is more important than die A3000, because the potential market is huge. The success of the C64 could happen all over again if the Amiga finds that magic price point.
The Bandito has his informants overseas, and they report more news on Commodore’s CD-ROM machine. The -word is that working prototypes have been shown to major developers in the UK. It's said to be an Amiga 500 motherboard with a built- in CD-ROM drive and the full complement of standard Amiga ports, Pricing is not fixed yet, but the target is said to be under S750; depending on component costs, perhaps it could lie as low as $ 600 at introduction.
Game developers hope and pray for CD based entertainment, and Commodore’s widget could be the answer to their pravers. Imagine games w'itli full CD quality sound tracks, gobs of animation, and great sound effects it would be super!
Commodore’s Amiga CD solution looks good on paper it has the lowest initial price point, which is crucial for a machine that wmuld attract game players. It’s still more expensive than people are really walling to pay for a game machine; hopefully, the price can come down fast enough to guarantee success. The initial Amiga software base will help sales. The development tools are mature, so new software can be developed quickly.
But Commodore is still contemplating its low end product strategy, and no decisions are set in stone yet. The pricing of the CD-ROM Amiga will be around $ 750.
The Amiga 500 is dropping to $ 499 bv this Christmas. And they have prototypes of a console machine (the Amiga 250?) With die chips of an Amiga and plenty of ports (including a cartridge port) but no keyboard or disk drive, which they could sell for under $ 250. The problem is devising a clear marketing strategy for these “similar- vet-diiTerent" products. They all have their good points and bad points. The worst thing would be to throw them all on the market with no marketing support. The Bandito thinks they should call an Amiga- based game machine something other than an “Amiga", if they
want to sell A3000’s.
After all, wrould you buy a Nintendo business workstation?
It will take some time for the dust to settle, but the Bandito predicts diat September will he a busy month for Commodore product introductions.
FISHING FOR NETWORKS Networking is finally moving onto Amigas, and it looks as though 1990 is the year that Amigas will finally be able to hook up to the rest of the computing world. At a recent Sun networking show, it was revealed that Commodore has tested a version of Sun's Network File System (NFS) for the Amiga. But no versions of NFS for OS 2 or Macintosh wrere shown. Could it be our friend die Amiga taking the lead?
A company called Hydra Systems has an AmigaXet Ethernet Cheapemet card at a list price of about $ 700; it wras demonstrated at AmiEXPO. The card also supports TCP IP, for those who know about that stuff. And the Bandito hears whispers that an unnamed Amiga developer (whose ini- tals are GVP) may be working on a similar card, diough at a lower price. And Commodore has an Arcnet card in the works, for possible release this summer. Cml’s Appletalk card may yet find its way to the marketplace. Even ASDG has announced they're working on a networking card. And Commodore has been talking to
Novell (among others) about software support for Amigas on their popular networking systems.
WHEN IT RAINS IT POURS As if Mediagenic has not had enough troubles lately (losing a patent suit with Motorola that cost them millions), they've got another lawsuit on their hands. Mediagenic bought Zsoft (makers of the bestselling PC Paintbrush) in 1988 for some of their stock. Now Zsoft's president claims that the stock is only worth a fraction of what Mediagenic said, and that it has not declared any dividends (and the stock price has dropped). Meanwhile, Zsoft stock made a profit of 5700,000, which all went to Mediagenic. So Zsoft wants control of dieir own company (and profits) again.
While there's trouble at Mediagenic, things are looking bright for Electronic Arts.
They reported an increase in profits and sales for 19S9- And Electronic Arts is now an official Nintendo licensee, thus putting to rest dieir efforts to reverse engineer the Nintendo cans. The Bandito supposes diat it was cheaper to “join 'em than fight 'em," as the saying goes. Nintendo is where the money is being made, so this should help Electronic Arts’ sales and profits.
Amiga entertainment software is being developed in Electronic Arts' UK division, since the Amiga is the -] computer in Europe. Electronic Arts is also avoiding roleplaying games unless they can import them. Roleplaying games tend to take a long time to develop, and the payback is chancier. Then again, the big hits are great moneymakers.
While we’re talking software, the Mouse is planning a frontal assault on the entertainment and creativity business in tire Amiga market. Disney apparently plans a stronger presence in lire software business, showing their muscle recently by hiring Accolade's marketing veep and a former Electronic Arts producer to run their operation. Apparently, the mouse folk are serious about making money on software.
Their new animation package should carve itself a good niche in tire market. Disney apparently hopes to imitate LucasFilm's success in turning movie titles into hit software.
The latest Software Publisher's association figures are in for 1989- For entertainment publishers, the news was not so good. Tire overall market shrank by 12%.
While IBM and Amiga software sales grew (and Amiga grew the most), the C64 and Apple II markets took a nosedive. Amiga is now recognized as the -2 target market for entertainment software development in the
U. S. In Europe, Amiga is 1 for entertainment. Electronic Arts
has a number of Amiga titles in development at their UK
subsidiary, so look for most of their Amiga action to come
from overseas.
NINTENDO UPDATE There is some news to report in the Nintendo Tengen court battle. Give this round to Nintendo, for they won die right to sue retailers who buy Tengen cartridges.
While the lawsuits won't really he resolved for years, this is an important victory for Nintendo. You can bet it had some influence oti Electronic Arts' decision to sign a licensing agreement. The other big news in Nintendo-land: Nintendo has told its licensees that they can now get as many cartridges as they care to order. This solves one of die biggest problems for licensees: since Nintendo was die only manufacturer of cartridges, there was always a shortage.
With the availability problem apparently at an end, publishers can go full speed ahead, So the Nintendo juggernaut keeps on rolling, though die graphics are looking pretw old. The Genesis machine looks very much like an Amiga, and so far it seems to be selling all right. Does the Amiga game machine have a shot? The Bandito thinks that Commodore may well decide to forget about it and concentrate on their CD-ROM device instead, even though it is much more expensive.
DCTV is the latest word buzzing around Amigadom. Supposedly, Digital Creations has a low cost way to expand the Amiga’s palette with some sort of frame buffer that will sell for around 5500. But they are not the only one. And Digital is not exactly rushing to the marketplace. Whatever happened to the V-Machine, which was supposed to be a Toaster-Killer? Looks like it won't be out for a while, and when it does happen it will be considerably more expensive and less effective than the Toaster, However, the V-Machine will work with Macintosh or IBM. Once again, owners of other computers can
expect to pay more to get what the Amiga gives you for less.
SOME JAM WITH THAT?
It is finally gening real, sports fans.
The long-awaited Video Toaster was die smash hit at the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) show in Atlanta.
People were stacked up like airplanes at O’Hare waiting to see the ultra-cool Penn & Teller videotape, and live demos of the Toaster’s effects (by their new media star, Kiki). The product is in FCC approval now, so volume shipments will begin when the Feds finish (probably in the summer). Jaws were dropping all over die convention, and the Video Toaster won the award for Best New Product. The Toaster was also featured in CNN reports on the show. The Bandito thinks the most interesting part was the reaction of industry types. They realized that the Amiga + Toaster combination may be able to
destroy' the market for their current zillion-dollar equipment.
Makers of inexpensive effects boxes (which used to cost 520-30,000) can see their doom on the monitors. The Bandito predicts that sales of other DVE’s will come to a crashing halt in anticipation of the Video Toaster's imminent release. Scuttlebutt says that NewTek has presold more Video Toasters than all the other DVE’s ever sold before. Commodore, of course, is breathlessly awaiting die Video Toaster’s impact on Amiga sales. Should move a lot of A2000’s in anticipation, say's the Bandito.
No one was neutral; they either loved NewTek or hated them. Among die hatees: Apple Computer, which saw its efforts to promote die Macintosh as video machine wholeheartedly ignored. On die flip side, all the users of video equipment could see die benefits of this new technology', and diey were clamoring to get their hands on the hardware.
SHOW STOPPERS GVP, in an impressive booth, showed off their A4000 plus 1, a 40 Mhz 68030 accelerator card that is a screamer.
They’re planning a 50 Mhz version for summer release. And when Motorola makes the 68040 more widely available, you can bet GVP will have a board out.
Showed off was the Rejuvenator, a board to upgrade the A1000 to die A2000 level, able to use the new Enhanced Chip Set and even a flickerFLxer (they have added a video slot that is almost the same as the A2000 video slot). Their booth was crowded, and they sold quite a few Rejuve- nators to eager A1000 owners looking to bring their machine up-to-date.
On die odier hand, a company called Delaware Valley Software announced a board similar to the Rejuvenator (the DVS Wonder), but they did not show a working version. Just a few' fly'ers. Which means nothing when someone else is actually selling a product.
The World Of Amiga show in New York was a bit of a turnaround for Commodore. Previously, they insisted that the show be called the World Of Commodore and used the opportunity' to show off C64's and Commodore PC clones as well as Amigas. After the fiasco in Los Angeles last year, where they' had fewer attendees than an Atari ST dealer's convention, Commodore wised up. The only reason for a Commodore show is the Amiga, no one cares about the C64 anymore, and if you have a PC clone, you go to a PC clone show
• AC* (lid L , „ by Rich Falconburg The variety or systems in
this world of computers is astounding. How can you possibly
choose the type of hardware you want and still find software
that will run on a particular machine that will let you
accomplish the job you wish to do? For many, this is not a
question of great importance, just pick the greatest computer
(the Amiga, of course) and buy it. For some, however, the
purchase of a system to use at home is often driven by
requirements of a daily job. Will I be able to finish work at
home if I need to? Are tire programs I am comfortable with and
use on a daily basis available on a machine that I would like
to own? All too often, the answer is a resounding NO.
Inevitably, you end up making some sort of compromise and
learning to live with tire consequences. Occasionally, a
piece of software might actually be file compatible with a
program you must use at work. In even rarer cases, you vail
have an identical program written for your specific computer.
Obviously, tire preference would be the last choice, especially
if the data files are compatible. The program we’ll look at
this month falls somewhere in-between the last two de
scriptions. It provides an interface that retains a format many
will be familiar with. In many cases, it performs equally as
well as the program it is designed after. Nevertheless, it does
fall shon in certain areas, requiring some adjustments.
In my daily usage of various operating systems, I find that it becomes tedious to constantly try' to remember which system I'm using so that I enter the correct commands for that system. Through the use of Aliases, both at work and on my Amiga, I’ve been able to alleviate much of the headache. But that is only a stopgap measure. This becomes obvious when I accidentally tty to perform an operation specific to a given environment. I have yet to find a machine that doesn't complain when you don’t speak its language. Very intolerant, drese technological beasts! Air well, artificial
intelligence is in the making, and some day it will help make up for my bungling. Until then, I must learn to adapt or find ways to teach my old dog some new tricks.
With the help of programmers such as Steve Koren, I am doing just that. I-Ie has provided the Amiga community with a command interface that is very similar to the UNIX Korne shell (interesting play on names, eh?). His Sksh shell is an environment that not only provides most of the UNIX commands that I use daily, but also gives me much of the same command line functionality that I've grown so accustomed to. This package offers some excellent features, for both the casual and tire power user.
The tremendous effort put into this Freely Distributable bundle of software speaks of someone with a flavor for professionalism. Steve went to great lengths to produce a package that in my opinion rivals the quality of those produced by some commercial software houses. The extensive documentation is dearly written and well organized. Included are a User’s Guide and a detailed Reference Manual, both impressive in themselves. The User's Guide is packed hill of information and examples covering the operation of Sksh. In die 100-page Reference Manual, he explains in detail the operation of every
command, complete with short examples, usage templates, and cross references. Each includes a Table of Contents, and the User’s Guide includes an Index. Other documents cover installation, error codes, differences between Sksh and the Unix ksh, hints on using the shell more effectively, bug reports, limitations, technical information, update addendums and more. All in all, it is a very complete package. And each page is nicely formatted to print on a standard page. The following is an overview of what this shell does.
The built-in commands include; alias set or examine aliases argcount obtain a count of the arguments supplied bascname print the base (file) name of a given path break break from an enclosing for or while loop cat copy files or stdin to stdout (similar to TYPE) cd change the current working dir (similar to CD) clmiod change file permissions (similar to PROTECT) continue resume next iteration of loop cp copy files (similar to COPY) date print date and time (similar to DATE) dec dec 1st argument by 1 or 2nd argument dimame print directory name of a given path echo echo arguments (similar to
ECHO) exit leave sksh export set value of an AmigaDOS env: variable extname print extension part of tile spec false do nothing; return false getenv get value of an AmigaDOS env: variable (similar to GETENV) history list command history inc increment 1st argument by 1 or 2nd argument info get device information (similar to INFO) local make local variables Is list directories (similar to LIST) match print arguments matching first pattern mem list system free memory (similar to AVAIL) mkdtr create directories (similar to MAKEDIR) mv move files or directories (similar to RENAME) options set or
examine sksh option flags ps get process status information (similar to STATUS) read set a variable value from standard input return return from function or script nil remove a file or set of files (similar to DELETE) rmdir remove an empty directory set list vars, aliases, builtins, or funcs shift shift arguments to function or script sksh the main executable for the shell sleep delay for n seconds source execute a file in current context touch update modification times on files true do nothing; return true unset remove a variable version print sksh version identification whence print info on
interpretation of name which print the full pathname of file (similar to WHICH) Shell script keywords include: expr: A type of calculator with embellishments. This command is useful for extracting or matching strings.
For..do..done: Executes a statement list in order force: Forces the shell to interpret die given command as one of a function, a buiitin, or an alias.
Function: A function is similar to a C function and allows you to establish a command that executes a series of statements to perform its operation.
If..then..elif..else..fi: This is die standard testing mechanism used in most programs.
Time: Displays the execution time, in seconds, ot a given command.
While..do..done: The standard looping construct used to perform a sequence of operation based on a set of conditions.
Environment variables used by the shell: SKSHINIT: Two files are included, .skshinit and .skshrc, which get executed at each invocation of the shell. The SKSHINIT variable points to the user configuration file .skshrc. This may be altered to point to a different file.
CliNUM: This variable contains the CLI process number of the current shell.
CMDNUM: This variable increments each time a command is entered.
COLUMNS and LINES: These two variables contain the height and width of the current window. Only the COLUMNS variable is currently used and will allow Sksh to adjust the line length if tire size of the window is changed.
HTSTSIZE: This variable contains tire size of the this history buffer.
HOME: This variable defines the default destination for the cd command, that is, when cd is entered by itself with no directory specification it will check this variable and change to the directory that it finds there.
EPS: Or Internal Field Separator. This character is used to break text from variables and command substitution into separate parameters.
LOGOUT: This variable is executed when the exit command is used to quit tire shell.
OLDPWD: This variable contains the previous directory. The -p switch may be used with the cd command to return to this directory'.
PATH: This variable contains a list of tire available paths.
PNPC: This is a special variable used by Sksh to define the number of non-printing characters in tire current prompt string.
PS1 andPS2: Each of these contains the primary and secondary prompt strings, respectively.
PWD: This variable contains the current working directory.
SHELL: Set initially to ‘'sksh”, this variable may be used to in shell Amazing Computing Subscription Questions PiM Publications, Inc.
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Scripts to establish execution criteria. Although not 100% compatible with die UNIXksh, some ksh scripts may run under Sksh and limitations can be defined using this variable.
SYSNAME: This variable may also be useful as described above.
Currently Sksh only runs on tire Amiga and such is die contents of diis variable.
In addition to die commands described above, several aliases are defined in the .sksinit file which has die affect of adding several useful commands to the collection. The command line editor is fashioned after the EMACS editor, thereby making diis shell useful via odier devices such as a simple .Alpha-numeric terminal. I’ve experimented widi diis approach using AUX: and have been very happy with the results. We’d examine that more fully next issue.
This command shell lias proven to be very reliable. The only difficulty I ran into was covered very clearly in the documentation.
If you intend to use diis shell, be sure to get a copy of die latest version of arp-Iibrary (1.3 version 39) and save yourself a lot of headache. I had an earlier version and had trouble getting Sksh to parse AmigaDOS commands properly, Next issue I'll begin a short series on how to turn your Amiga into a multi-user powerhouse through some more programs available in the public domain. -AC* Send questions or comments to Rich Falcon burg, c o Amazing Computing. P.O. Box S69. Fall River. MA 02722-0869, or send Email to R.Falconburg on Genie.
Advertiser Page Reader Service Number ACDA Corporation 17 104 AmiEXPO CHI 119 AmiTech Computers 45 114 Beta Unlimited 50 126 Computability 25 117 Computers Etc. 56 113 Delphi Noetic 67 142 Digisoft 44 137 Fairbrother & SoeperMcnn 34 179 Grapevine Group Inc., The 12 147 Grass Roots Video Productions 34 108 Hologramaphone Research 35 109 Flunter Group. The 9 111 Impulse, Inc. 5 115 Imtronics CIV 151 Inovatronics 7 110 interCoputing.inc. 11 116 Krueger Company, The 66 118 Lattice Inc. 33 124 Memory Location, The 63 107 Memory Location, The 34 186 Micro Migo 46 182 MJ Systems 62 149 One Byte 61
135 Puzzle Factory, The 3 163
S. P.O.C. 13 112 Safe Harbour Software 71 134 Saxman Systems 43
103 Silver Fox Software 54 105 StraightlineSoftware 28 106
Twilight Games 55 175 Virtual Reality Laboratories 73 121
AMIGA 3000 Launch 4 Multimedia and AmigaVision Take Center
Stage Neiv York, April 24, 1990. In the dark, historic
Palladium, the Amiga 3000 made its debut in front of over 350
members of the press, Amiga dealers, developers, and a host of
VIP’s. The event not only sponsored Commodore’s newest
addition to Amiga line, but established CBM's hold on die
multimedia market.
Preceded by a “countdown” flashed on overhead screens, Commodore introduced multimedia via demonstration with a superbly produced multimedia video created entirely on the Amiga. From Professor Corey, to a space launch, to the moon, and back to the past, CBM pulled all aspects of multimedia together for one powerful punch.
CBM’s President and CEO, Harold D. Copperman, was instrumental in generating Commodore's and die .Amiga’s predominance of multimedia staling, “Today’s event and, later this week, World of .Amiga give us an opportunity to re-introduce you to die Amiga technology7.
It’s a technology7 positioned to take advantage of the hottest marketing opportunity of die 90 s: Multimedia.
"It’s our turn, it's our time. We had the technology 4-1 2 years ago. In fact, we had the product ready7 for multimedia before multimedia was ready for a product. Today we’re improving the technology ...and we’re in the catbird seat. It is our Lime. It is Commodore's time.” Mr. Copperman went on to say7, "... I’m at Commodore just as multimedia becomes the most important item in die marketplace. Once again I'm with the leader. Of course, in this industry a leader doesn't have any followers; he just has a lot of odier companies trying to pass him by7!
But take a close look: the other companies are talking multimedia...but diey're not doing it. They're a long way behind Commodore not even close.1’ Mr. Copperman later described multimedia. “Multimedia is a first-class way for conveying a message because it takes die strength of the intellectual content... and adds the verve die emotion- grabbing, head-turning, pulse-raising impact diat comes from great visuals plus a dynamic sound track. For everyone with a message to deliver, it unleashes extraordinary ability7. For die businessman, educator, or government manager, it turns any ordinary
meeting into an experience.” The Amiga 3000 After listing the benefits and needs for multimedia, Mr. Copperman introduced die A3000. (For details on the A3000 see the May issue of Amazing Computing.) As part of die full effect of a multimedia presentation, Commodore used prepared video tapes of Jeff Porter, Commodore’s Director of Engineering, and Walt Simpson, Director of Product Marketing, to discuss die A300O.
The Amiga 3000, starting at S3299 for the 16MHz 40MB hard drive system, boasts a long list of special features. New designs in its hardware allow the A3000 to advance to a higher level of hardware and software technology while remaining compatible widi older versions. Its new display and operating system not only improve the look of die screen but provide die Amiga user with a new set of tools.
A miga Vision ™Annou need AmigaVision, CBM’s hot new audioring system for die Amiga, will now be bundled with all new7 Amiga 2000 and 3000 systems sold, according to CBM Director of Marketing, C. Lloyd Mahaffey.
Mr. Mahaffey said that a special offer w7ould be available to all .Amiga owners who purchased dieir computers within 90 days of the announcement.
The icon-driven, graphically oriented AmigaVision is Commodore's key device to place multimedia at the home user level.
David Archambault, CBM's director of business markets, said, “Unlike other authoring systems, AmigaVision is a non- intrusive environment which allows applications to run without die .AmigaVision menus being visible. Enhanced design capabilities allow7 for immediate on-screen preview7 while die presentation program is running. This allows the user to create unique user interface elements quickly and with ease.” Mr. Mahaffey wrent on to say, VamigaVision is a key component of Commodore’s product marketing strategy7 for the Amiga family. While professional users comprise the majority of the
multimedia related markets today, future plans call for penetration into the consumer market as home users begin to discover die benefits of multimedia.” Multimedia: Commodore's Territory There is little doubt diat Commodore is going to continue to push dieir advantage in die multimedia market. The event drey staged at the Palladium, as well as dieir presence at World of .Amiga (please see the related article on page 47 of this issue), has demonstrated Commodore’s commitment to maintain their advantage. With tools such as the A3000, the new7 Workbench 2.0, and AmigaVision, CBM has taken more
than a lead over their compeddon. They have staked their claim on multimedia with an open challenge to all.
• AC- IF YOU'VE BEEN IN COMPUTER PROGRAMMING A while you have
probably heard the terms “linked list” and "doubly linked
list”, and you may have read one or more of the numerous
articles that have been published on these subjects.
Of tire articles that 1 have encountered, the author usually spends lots of time covering the theories and definitions of doubly linked list technology without spending much time on implementation. Rather than reinvent the wheel, I'll spend more time on actual Linked Lists: examples. Some basic definitions are .in order, however, for those who Data location may not be familiar with linked lists ltl'ldc Sillinic and as a refresher course for everyone else.
A linked list is a method of storing information (data) in such a way that one data item “points" to the item that logically follows it. In other words, if you know where one member of the list is stored, it is possible to find all the elements that follow it. All the items are “linked” to each other. A doubly linked list fallows die same principle, but lias the added capability of "pointing” to items diat occur prior to the current member. This means that you can traverse a list forwards and backwards.
Since the items in the list are linked to each odier, it is easy to have any number of items in die list (often called a queue).
This means you don’t have to know ahead of time, as with arrays, how much data space to reserve for the list. Making room for a new' item in a queue is as simple as calling a memory allocation (malloc) function and setting the pointers to maintain the links.
The implementation dial i’ll be discussing uses doubly linked lists.
The key things to know about a queue is where die first and last elements of the list are located and how.’ to reach the member that occurs before and after any particular element. The easiest way to handle these tasks is through structures. Listing One is the “include" file that is used by die subsequent code. In it is defined die prototypes of all the functions, as wrell as two key structures.
The First stmcture type is named QITEM, Given any member, you must be able to find die previous member (“prev") and the member diat occurs next (“next”). .-Mi additional item is included in this structure to enable die members to handle variable length items. The “len” will represent die amount of memory required by die data but will not include the overhead of the QITEM structure. As you can see, if each member maintains its QITEM structure, it will be possible to reach the items dial precede and follow' it by referencing die structure variables next or prev. QMAIN is a header structure for
die queue of items. This structure contains a pointer to the first QITEM (top) and a pointer to die last QITEM (hot). Additionally, the queue header will contain a counter (cnt) of the number of items contained in the list. Notice that die order of the stmcture variables “top” and “bot” is important. By aligning “bot” in the same position as “prev” in die QITEM structure and “top" with the “next” position, it is possible to make a complete “circle” through die items. Of course you don’t want to accidentally treat the QMAIN as an element but there are times when you will intentionally treat the
queue's head as a QITEM. (More on this later.)
Given these two stmcture definitions it is now possible to write code to handle doubly linked list. The most important part of diis implementation is the queue functions that will do all die tedious work for you. You don’t want the burden o! Maintaining the queue everywhere you use it, so listing Two has the basic functions required.
At the very least, three of these functions are required, but it has been my experience that these three are enhanced by the addition of the odier functions shown in die listing. The 3 primary functions are "qinitO”, “qaddO". And “qdelO”.
Before using a queue for die first time it is necessary to initialize the QITEM pointers, top and bot. The function qinitO will "point" the start and end pointers to the QMAIN itself and set the count of items to zero. It is important to initialize a queue once before using it. Using a non-initialized header in one of the subsequent functions will certainly lead to doom, Be sure to only initialize a queue w'hen you know that it has not been used before. Initializing a queue that contains elements will result in your losing all the elements and the memory associated with diose elements.
The second primary function is qadd(). A list is of little value if you cannot add new things to it. Notice diat the parameters to diis function include die QMAIN of the queue being referenced, a QITEM pointer to a member of the queue, the data's pointer and die length of data to be stored. You might drink to yourself, “Why pass an element pointer' when you are simply adding?” The answer is that this function actually “inserts” a new member. This functionality means that you could build a sorted list, if you first determine where die item should be placed. In actuality, the same code is
required W’hether you are inserting in the middle of a queue or simply adding to die end of die queue. Therefore, die added feature only “costs” you a parameter value.
Remember how I stressed that the position of a QMAIN’s top and bot pobiters was important? Adding a new element demonstrates why. If you are adding a new element, you have to point to the previous element (the current last element) and make it point to the new one. Likewise, you have to make the current element (which in the case of addition is die QMA1N) and make its previous pointer point to the new element. Finally, you have to make tire new element point at the previous end and point the next at the QMAIN. By ensuring that llie poinLer in a QMAIN can be referenced like a QITEM, it is not
necessary to add code to specifically check to see if you are addressing the QMAIN itself. .-All you have to remember is this: To add a new element at the end of a queue pass die address of the queue as the first two parameters.
Also notice how qaddO actually stores the data. First, the size of a QITEM is added to die lengdi of the data as an overhead to maintain die doubly linked list. In diis implementation, diis means that me largest element that can be stored is 65525-bytes long (65535 minus 10, or the maximum value of an unsigned short minus the size of the QiTEM structure). It has not been my experience dist this size limitation causes any problems in programs.
The third required function is qdel(). As the name implies, this function is used to remove an element from the list.
Removing an element from the list works almost in the reverse of the add code. First, point to die previous element. Set diis pointer's next to the element following the one being deleted.
The following element also has to be changed to point back to the prior element. Once these two element pointers have been changed, the member in question has been removed from the chain and die associated memory can be released.
Notice that the qdel() function returns a pointer to die element diat followed die one deleted. This is most often die desired results since diese functions are often reference in "loops”. By returning the pointer to the next element you can easily keep track of where you are in die queue. Also, note that a special check is made to ensure that you do not accidentally try to remove die QMAIN from memory. The QMAIN is not an element and trying to release the memory associated with that pointer can be devastating.
Initialization, addition, and deletion are die primary' functions required to make queuing work. In practice, however, the need for several other functions arise to enhance the useability of linked lists. Aldiough there are a great number of functions that can be written to aide the use of queues (some of which I will cover in later articles), I think the ones diat I have included constitute die ground level. A discussion of each follows.
Often it will be necessary to point at (and perhaps retrieve) a particular element in the list. To accomplish diis, use die qsetO function to return the QITEM pointer of the element you require.
As an additional feature, and to help prevent errors, qsetO expects a pointer to the variable diac contains the offset position.
This allows die function to alter the requested value if it falls outside the range of the queue. A small attempt is made to increase the speed of the locating process by determining whether die requested offset is in the first or second half of the queue.
Another positioning function that is useful is die opposite of qsetO. This function, named qpos(), will return the relative position of an element in a queue. This function expects a QITEM pointer to an element and searches for it in the queue indicated by the odier parameter. If die element is not part of that queue, or is the QMAIN, a value of zero is returned.
Updating existing elements is a common task for programs that use queues. Rather than making the programmer include code to remove an old element to add the revision, the function qput() can been included. Accepting the same parameters as qaddO, the qputO function first determines whether the new data will fit into the same size location that is already used by die old element. If it will not, the old data is removed and the new data is added in its place. If it will, the data is simply moved into the old location.
Finally, when your program is finished using a queue it is necessary to release the memory associated with the elements.
The qfreeO function does tills task by deleting each element that remains in a queue. Remember, if you don'trelease the memory, your program cannot reuse it. This is an important point to note, especially if the queue is a variable on the stack diat will be lost after your function returns. Also, be careful not to simply re-init die queue using qinitO. This will definitely cause you to "lose” memory.
As mentioned, there are a number of other functions that could be added to this list to aide in the usefulness of queues. In die next couple of monUis I will probably include several others, but these are die key functions. Of course, a number of enhancements can be made to these functions to improve their performance both in speed and integrity. For instance, I also use Tixed- length” queues. These require similar functions (with “qf1 as the prefix) that do not require you to pass lengths except for qfinitO which stores the fixed length indicated in the QFMAIN structure. Additionally,
other checks can be performed to ensure that elements from the “wrong’’ queue are not accidentally changed. But I will leave many of these types of enhancements to you the programmer.
Relying 011 queues and queue functions can be both wonderful and terrible. Wonderful because of their flexibility in manipulating all types of data easily, and terrible when one or more of the functions has a bug 111 it. As a precautionary measure, it is good to do a little Quality' Assurance (QA) on the functions and I have provided such a program in Listing Three. In addition to being a test, this program also demonstrates how to use the queue functions that I have included.
The test program will test most of the features of the queue functions. A comment block has been provided in each area to explain the test that is being performed. Notice that in many area tire entire queue is traversed either forwards or backwards. This is accomplished by making a pointer to store the current QITEM.
Adding 1 to a QITEM pointer [i.e., (ptr + 1)] actually tells the compiler to add the "size” of a QITEM to the pointer. This is a quick method that can be used to point passed the overhead structure to the actual data that has been stored as tin dement.
Eight major tests are performed on the functions provided.
Within each major test, several minor tests may also be done to check the reliability' of the queue. In the event of a failure, the variable “error” will be assigned a unique number where it failed.
If at the end of die tests, your program prints an error value other than zero, it either means that the test program or one of die queue functions has a bug, Use the error number to find the specific area that failed and then you will know what to begin checking. For instance, an error of 7 indicates that in test 3, the data in the queue does not match the expected value of count.
This might mean that the qaddO function lias a bug in storing the data properly.
Linked lists might Look like a lot of work but once you have several well established functions, you will be surprised how many solutions to everyday programming problems they provide. They can offer more efficient memory use, which increases the useability of your programs. Take some time and do a few experiments. I hope you find queuing as useful as 1 do.
Listing One- typedef s;ruc: x struct x *prev; struct x 'next; unsigned short ien; 1 QITEM; typedef struct QITEM "bet; QITEM "top; unsigned long cnt; } QMAIN; void qir.it (QMAIN -que); QITEM * qadd (QMAIW "que,QITEM "member,void "data,unsigned short QITEM * qdel(QMAIN "que, QITEM "member); QITEM * qset(QMAIN "cue,unsigned long *iten); unsigned long qpostQMAIN 'que,QITEM "ptr); QITEM * qput(QMAIN "que, QITEM *ptr, void "data,unsigned short ie: voic qfree(QMAIN "cue); D; Listing Two include "queue.h" rinclude stdlib.h ' • i* QINIT establishes a new Queue by pointing the top and bottom *
pointers to the head of the queue and sets count of items to * zero. WARNING: if you do this function is passed an "active" * queue then the memory and elements that it contains will be * lost.
* the previous item now points to new • " the next item points beck to new * * the length of the item, stored •!
Memprev- next = member- prev = memaddr; memaddr“ Ien = len; movmen(data,(memaddr+i),ien); * store the data passed * que- cnt++; - count increments for this queue * return(memaddr); * return the QITEM pointer to new item " ¦ QdlL will remove the item pointed at by the passed pointer * * from the queue indicated. R * - QITEM * qdel(QMAIN "que,QITEM "member) QITEM *ptr; if (memcer [QITEM *)que) " first check to see if pointer is MAIN return(member); + if so then return (nothing to do * ptr - member- prev; * point to the item before the element * ptr- next * member- next; *
it now points to the item after member ptr * member- next; y* point at the item after the element ptr- prev - member- prev; * it now points back to the item before que- cnt-; ¦ the queue has one less element * free(member); ;¦ free the item * return(ptr); * return the pointer to the next item • ¦ void qir.it (QMAIN "cue) que- rop = (QITEM *)que; * point top to MAIN * que- bot = (QITEM *!que; * point bottom to MAIN * que- cnt * CL; * No items in queue yet • QSET is used to return a pointer to the element at the " sequential position indicated by the value in item. If i * item is
greater than the number of items in the queue then * item is set to the count of the last item.. " In order to speed the process cf positioning (somewhat) • it is first determined if the item can be found faster by ' starting from the last item in the queue or the first.
* QADL is used to add a new item to the queue in front of the * QITEM pointer that was passed. To add an element to the end .¦'* of a queue the pointer to the QMAIN should be passed as the • member. Because of the overhead required to maintain the !* QITEM links the maximum element size that can be added is: * (maximum unsigned short value - sizeof(QITEM)) or 65535 - 10 QITEM * qset(QMAIN "que,unsigned long "item) : unsigned long start; int inc; QITEM "ptr; QITEM " qadd(QMAIN "que,QITEM "member,void "data, unsigned short len) t unsigned short recsize; QITEM "memaddr,"memprev; reqsize **
ien + sizeof (QITEM) ; * adjust size " if ((memaddr = (QITEM ¦) malloc(reqsize)) “*¦ NULL) * get memory * return((QITEM ")NULL|; * no memory * memprev - member- prev; * point to item before member * memaddr- prev = memprcv; * make new item's previous pointer * I memaddr- next = member; * new item's next is the member * ("item que- cnt) * check to see if in this queue "item » quo- cnt; * cannot be longer than queue " ("item == 0) * Check for a value of zero • return((QITEM ¦)que); * return the pointer to MAIN " I "Item (que- cnt » 1)) in if item is in second half V inc -
- l; * look backwards * start = que- cnt; * start from the end
* ptr = que- bot; ¦ point at last item • lse ( " in the
first half * inc - 1; * look forward * for ( ; *item ! =
start; start +* ire) * look for item 7 * start at position
one 7 * point to first item * start. - 1; ptr = que- tOp;
Listing Three ptr ° (ir.c 0} ? Ptr- next ; ptr- prev; *
forward of backwards 7 [' This program will test the integrity
of the queue 7 * functions. It will perform, several test to
ensure 7 * that each is working properly.* include "queue.h"
include stdio.h return(ptr); typedef struct ( unsigned short
count; unsigned short len; char data[31); )ELEMENT; * element
structure that is used to * test the integrity of the queues
void ain () QMAIN queue; ELEMENT item; QITEM 'ptr; unsigned
long pos; unsigned count; unsigned error; qinit (iqueue); *
initialize the queue 7 * * I" Q?OS is used to determine the
relative position of an item in 7 * the queue indicated. If
the item is not found then 2erc is 7 * returned. The function
starts at the MAIN queue position. 7 unsigned long qpos(QMAIN
*que,QITEM *ptr) * return the pointer to item 7 7 * srch
srch- next; return(0L); queue 7 QITEM ’srch; unsigned long
item; srch = (QITEM *)que; * point the header 7 for (item «
0L; item » cue- cr.t item-*-*) ( " check entire queue 7 ptr)
return(item); * if found, return if (srch count 7 go to next
item V f* does not occur in if (queue.top '- (QITEM *)4queue *
is top incorrect 7 error - 1; * set the error condition 7 if
([error ll queue.hot != (QITEM *)£queue) * is end incorrect 7
error = 2; * set error condition* if ([error &£ queue.cr.t
I*1 0L) * length is not correct 7 error = 3; * set error
condition 7 * First check to ensure that the top and bottom
pointers 7 * point to the queue's address when after
initialization.* * ‘ printf("3egin Test i r n"l; error = 0;
assume no errors *7 * Next we will add to the queue 3C0
elements of 7 * varying lengths and data.* ’ CPU? Is used to
re-store an element back into the queue at the 7 * same
position that it held. If the element is the same site 7 * it
is simply moved into the same spot. Otherwise, to old item 7 *
is removed and the new item added in its place. 7 '-V QITEM *
qput [QMAIN *que, QITEM *ptr,void ''data, unsigned short ien)
if (ptr- lcn •=- ien) ( * if data fits into same slot 7
movrr.en(data, (ptr-1), len); " move data into old space 7
return (ptr); * and return this element * i ptr =
qdei(que,ptr); * remove the old pointer 7 return (cadd (que,
ptr,data, ler.) ) ; - add the item back here 7 ¦ *-7 if
([error) « if no errors yet printf("3egin Test 2 r n'f); fcr
(count = 1;count ** 300; count+~) item.count = count; * set
the item count 7 item.len - count % 30; * set variable length
7 if (item,len ==0) * on zero set to 30 7 item.len = 30; *
reset 7 mercset(item.data,35-item.len,item,len); * random data
ptr = qadd(Squeue,(QITEM *)iqueue,fitten,(unsigned
ort)(iten.len+4)); if (ptr == NULL)( * if failed to add 7
error *= ; * indicate error 7 break; * end the test 7 ) if
(count != queue.cnt) * check counts 7 error = 5; * indicate
error 7 break; J Nov verify that the entire queue can be
traversed in both directions and verify that the proper data
was stored.* 7 long as no error yet 7 « * increment the
count 7 eof(item)); * move largest size * count++; n
(ptr-:), iite * QFRES will free ail the memory associated
with the members of ’ the queue indicated as the parameter.
*-- void afree(QMAIN *que) for(;que- cnc G;) cdel(cue,que- top); ) I if (item.count != count) * verify data * error *= 7; * error * break; * step 7 } i: (item.len != count % 30)[ * check proper size 7 if (I (item, len 30 Si (count % 30 -« 0)M 1* except * error = B; * set error * break; * stop * ) ) if (item.len ptr- ler.-*() * check length stored * error =9; ' set error 7 break; * stop * ([error) printf("Begin Test 3 r nw); count ~ 0; * assume no value yet 7 for (ptr « queue.top; ptr !- (QITEM *)&queue; ptr = ptr- next} if (count == 300) ( * failed to find er.d 7
error ° 5; * set error 7 break; if (iten.dataE0} !¦* 35-item. Len) error - 1C; * wrong data * break; Now check the code that puts data back into the queue.* This time use a fixed size for all itens so that some * should fit into the existing space while others have to be deleted and added again.* if (!error 44 count !» 300} J* not enough items ’ error = 11; * indicate error * ) ) if (’error)! * as long as nc error yet •!
Court = 0; * assume no value yet *i for (ptr " queue.bet; ptr != (Q1TSK *) £queue; ?tr = ptr- prev) if (count =¦ 300)1 * failed to find er.c * error = 12; * set error " break; if (Ierror)( print f (’’Begin Test 6 r n"); for (ptr = queue.top; ptr != (QITEM *)£queue; ptr « ptr- r.oxt) 1
r. ovmem (ptr+1), 4item,ptr- len); * get the data *
memset(item.data, ' 15); * reset data * item.len - 15; !*
reset length * ptr = qput(4queue.ptr(iitem,(unsigned
short)(item.len+4)); if iptr == NULL}( * if out of mem *
error = 27; break; ) * increment the count * * not enough
items * * indicate error * count--; :t (count 1= 300) error
- 13; • * !* After the puts, check to insure that the
integrity of the linked * * list has been maintained by
traversing the queue in both directions.* Now test the
positioning within the queue using the * position by offset
and by pointer functions.* if (lerror) printf("Begin Test
7 r n"); count =0; for (ptr = queue, top; ptr ! = (QITEM *)
fiqueue; ptr - ptr- if (count == 150) * too many * error =
26; break; ) * if no errors yet * * position in first half
* * get the pointer * * proper place * * incorrect value
* if (lerror) f printf (‘'Begin Test 4 r n“}; pos •= 100; ptr
= cset(Squeue, 4pos); if (pcs != 100) error = 14; } if (1
error)5 if (qpcs (Scueue, ptr) ! - pos) error - 15; } if (
!error)[ if ( ( (ELEMENT ") (pcr l)) ~ cour.t 1= pos) * check
data * count**; ) if (count != 150 44 queue.cnt I* 150 error
= 2 3; * is this the same place * * nope * check counts
(lerror) ( count « 0; for(ptr - queue,bot; ptr if (count ==
150) i error = 30; break; ) count r; lr nope * * if no
errors yet * * position in second half ¦ get the pointer *1
I" proper place * * incorrect value " error = 1€; (lerror)
pcs ¦ 200; ptr a qset(iqueue,4pcs); if (pos !- 200) error -
17; (’.error) if (qpos (4queue ptr) ’= pos) error - 18;
(QITEM *)iqueue; ptr = ptr- prev) ¦ toe many * i: (count !=
150 error = 31; check * is this the same place * * nope *
if (lerror) if (1(ELEMENT *)(ptr+1))- count !3 po3) * check
data error = 1?; * nope ' As a final test the free code is
called to release ail the elements from the queue. Afterwards
the top and bottcn • pointers should point to the queue's
address. • if (!error)( pos = 500; * set invalid site * if
(qset(Squeue,4pos) != queue.bot) * does it return end *
error = 20; if (error ==011 error 3) printf("Begin Test
8 r n"); qfree(4queue); if (I error) if (queue.top 1= (QITEM
*)4queue) error a 32; } if (I error)( if (queue.bot I* (QITEM
•)4queue) error = 33; * if queue inited .f (!error) if (pos
Is queue.cnt) error = 21; did it reset pcs * (I error)• pos =
C; ¦ set MAIN * if (qset(squeue spos) I- (QITEM k) iqueue)
error - 22; } ) I if (lerror) ptr “ NULL; if (qpos (Squeue,
ptr) lB 0) error = 23; • As a verification to how successful
these tests have beer., print the error code's value. If error
has a value ether than sere then there is either an error in
the queuing functions or in this test code.* Use the number
printed to determine where the failure occurred.* set a bad
pointer * should not find this * Mow test the deletes code
by removing all the odd numbers elements.* printf ("Error «
%d r n",error); if (Ierror) printf("Begin Test 5 r n");
for(ptr = queue.top; ptr != (QITEM "Uqueue; ptr = ptr- next)
if (queue.cnt 150)! * too many * error = 24; break; ) ptr
= qdel(iqueue,ptr); * delete returns next oointer* ) if
(lerror 44 queue.cnt !** 150) error ¦ 25; ) if (lerror) ( *
check for only evens - for (ptr « queue.top; ptr I* (QITEM
*)iqueue; ptr 3 ptr- next) if ((((ELEMENT *) (ptr**l)
)- eount % 2) 1= 0)! * oops * error = 2£; break;
• AC* Display a la mode by Ernest P. Vlvelros, Jr.
ALONG WITH THE NEW WORKBENCH 2.0 software comes new display modes. Unlike the wo previous display modes for the Amiga (normal and Interlace), these enhancements are more easily accessible by the user. They also add a great deal more flexibility and choice for die Workbench display.
Selecting a Workbench display mode is accomplished simply by using the WBScreen editor. To do this, open the Preferences drawer, and double-click die WBScreen icon.
Welcome to the WBScreen editor! The available display modes, depending on die system hardware and monitors, are shown in a scroll gadget. Just point and dick on the mode of your choice. Each display mode has certain additive properties. A display box in the WBScreen window displays the properties of the selected display mode. Possible display properties include: Interlaced The display mode supports an interlaced screen.
Uses the Enhanced Chip Set.
PAL display mode available, (Only On NTSC Amiga with ECS.)
NTSC display mode available. Only on PAL Amiga with ECS.)
Supports the use of genlocking hardware.
Supports a draggable Workbench screen.
ECS PAL NTSC Supports Genlock Draggable After setting the Width and Height of the display mode, you can set the number of colors that can be displayed. Using the Color slider gadget, you can increase or decrease the number of colors. Again, this is limited by Max Colors and available CHIP RAM.
Finally, if you create a display mode wider titan the monitor’s display area, you can select the AutoScroll feature.
AutoScroll scrolls the screen automatically when the mouse reaches die edge of the visible screen. It's fast and smooth.
Good in theory, and in practice Using an .Amiga 3000 25 (with only 1MB CHIP RAM) 1 have routinely created and worked with Hires-Interlaced displays which would lie the size of a 4-page display (approximately a 20" x 25" display...it’s hard to measure a scrolling display).
The Soapbox These new display modes in addition to the oversize display bring new life (and powerful life) to the Amiga.
However. I really can't do anything spectacular with it right now. Much of die current 1,3 software runs buggy with plain vanilla Workbench 2.0, never mind with oversize displays. If only more .Amiga developers would create applications that take advantage of the Amiga’s unique Workbench display modes. The Amiga is ready. *AC* Panelled The selected display mode is mode up of several panels.
Also displayed in the WBScreen window is information about the screen sizes of the currently selected display mode. Information displayed includes; Supports Genlock Draggab ie Hires SuperHires Hires-lntertaced SuperH ires-Inter laced Product tuitv visible Size The size ot the Text over- scon area.
648 x 648 x 32752 x 16 288 288 32768 Min Size The smallest size that the display mode allows.
Max Size The largest size that the display mode allows.
Max Colors The maximum number of colors that can be displayed on a screen.
This is where it gets good! In tire WBScreen window, next to the screen size information, there are twro text gadgets labeled “Width” and “Height". Here you can set the size of the display mode. Your only limits are Min Size, Max Size and the available CHIP RAM.
Height: m i j£i default Jqj p«ft»fil«,litii;.3WbltduatJ_Ell ¦£» Cancel | V ,V| Wn if 1 V 1 v- i wtrtciwo ¦fed 9KUQL 'i_1 vcu|| kwtiipl pmicifTi upturn pontlr V 1 ‘¦W| M ii3D» II vcr|!
Prutci Plltttf tint iCIUl Hires and Super Hires are among the Workbench 2.0 display types.
PIPE DREAM by Miguel Mulet Pipe Dream is Lucasfllm’s latest entry in die arcade game market, In it, you play a plumber trying to control die excess “flooz" being produced by Acme Chemicals (“flooz" is a new brand of sewer cleaner). To accomplish this, you must build a pipeline long enough to contain the “flooz” coming from the plant. You score points for every piece of pipeline through which the “flooz" flows, and lose points for any piece of pipeline through which it doesn't flow. What makes the pipeline long enough? It depends on the level you’re on die higher the level, the longer the
pipeline required. The upper right corner of the screen shows what level you're on (L:) and the distance in pieces the ‘flooz" must travel CD:).
To build a pipeline, you take pieces from tlie parts bin on die left side of die screen. You really don't get to "select” each piece you must use whatever is die next available piece from the bin. Pieces are placed on die 7 X 10-piece playing field by moving die cursor (using die joystick, mouse, or keyboard) over die desired location, and then pushing the fire button. You cannot move a piece once it’s placed, but you can put anodier piece on top of it.
Replacing a piece takes a hide longer, and also decreases your score by 50 points, The pieces of pipe come in assorted shapes and sizes. There are are four right- angle pieces (which turn die “flooz” 90 degrees), horizontal, and vertical pieces, as well as cross-shaped pieces which allow Q UAD RO N BATTLE S by Tony This game was first shown at the World of Commodore show in Valley Forge, PA. It looked something like Hybris, one of my favorite “shoot-em-up” arcade style games. After watching my sons play for a while, I realized that it is alot more. I talked to Paul Lommbardi, die gendeman at
die boodiand President oflnnerPrise, and found out diat it was created by the authors of Hybris, After talking for awhile, I arranged for a review copy. InnerPrise Software has a real winner here. This game has all the elements needed to satisfy die most ardent arcade adventurer!
Battle Squadron starts out with a short series of black and white pictures and a story of the attack of the Barrax Empire.
It seems that die Earth defense forces must Preston rescue two comrades that were captured returning from a secret mission to Urania, the Barrax Empire home planet. The information they have will make die difference between success and failure of future counteroffensive actions! Commander Mayers and Bergin only managed a partial transmission of warning before they were captured. Your mission is to eliminate all Barraxian life forms from the planet's surface and subtenanean levels to rescue your comrades! If you are successful, rescuing your comrades you help to defeat the Barrax Empire.
The pictures and story at the beginning set the scene and can be bypassed with a click of die fire button.
Battle Squadron is a one or wo player game, at die start you can select your you to form “loops” in the pipeline. If you can get the “flooz” to cross itself in the pipeline, additional points are awarded.
Any of the pieces above (except the cross) may appear as a "one-way valve" meaning that the “flooz” will stop if the piece is placed in die opposite direction of the pipeline flow.
Some levels include “bonus” pieces.
If you can get the “flooz” to flow through them, more points are awarded. Of particular interest are the reservoir pieces, which slow the “flooz” temporarily (giving you a chance to catch your breath!). As if life as a plumber isn't hard enough, there are often obstacles (such as fire hydrants, broken sidewalks, etc.) which prevent you from running die pipeline dirough diat space.
Lastly, if you place pieces on the “board” through which the “flooz” doesn't travel, you lose points.
Pipe Dream is provided on one non- copy-protected disk. The manual encourages you to make a backup copy and use that for game play. To start die game, insert the Pipe Dream disk at the Workbench prompt. Although the disk is copyable, you do need die code wheel to begin. Once the title screen is shown, the game displays a picture and die name of a color. Using the code wheel, you dial in the correct picture and read the code which appears under the correct color. After the correct code is entered (you get three tries), the main menu is revealed, allowing you to customize die game.
There are several different playing modes. In the trainer mode, “flooz” travels slowly, giving you time to study the level and place the pieces. “Flooz” speeds up in the basic mode, but gameplay is otherwise the same. The expert mode allows a player to choose pieces from two different pipe bins. You select which bin the next part will come from by pressing the fire button and moving the joystick in the direction of die bin you want the next piece to come from. The advantage of this is two-fold: you get double die number of pieces, and 100 bonus points for getting die “flooz” to flow
through pieces selected from alternating bins (and you thought plumbing was easy!). The two-player mode allows the participants to place pieces both competitively and cooperatively but eacb player options such as joystick or mouse, one or two players, etc. You can turn the music and sound effects off individually, but they add alot to the excitement! When I first saw this game it was playing on an A500 hooked to a stereo, die sounds were incredible! This game really uses die Amiga stereo sound to its fullest. There is over 30 minutes of true stereo, digitized sounds, and music in a special
format that only takes up about 38 K 011 die disk. Because of the special compression techniques, In- nerPrlse is considering marketing a music editor using this format and plans to license the technology to other developers.
Similar to Hybris, is an optional setup screen where you can adjust specific game play features and difficulty. I like to setup die game with slosver enemies and die maximum number oflives. That way I survive a lot longer!
My favorite weapon is die Anti-Matter Particle Beams (Blue weapon) when upgraded, it will fire both forwards and backwards! There are 25 different weapon configurations. As you fight along your assigned mission, you will run into a ship that is heavily armored and armed. If you destroy the ship, it will leave a floating pod which when scooped up will eidier switch or upgrade the current weapon. The color of die pod is what determines which weapon it will upgrade. You have one additional weapon that is very useful in tight situations, the Nova Smart Bomb. Nova Smart Bombs are packed
with terrific destructive power, eliminating all enemies near you. You start the game with three Nova Smart Bombs, but will find floating capsules marked widi an “M” that you can use to increase you supply.
The instruction manual for the game is fairly simple and straightforward. It gives all the essential information on weapons and options. It even includes your orders from Headquarters!
Once things are setup and you start, the action is fantastic. The screen scrolls smoothly in all four directions as you fly your fighter. The basic idea of the game is simple, shoot everything in sight! There are ground gun and missile emplacements to watch out for in addition to the many different attacking aircraft.
Battle Squadron has a nice feature, with two players during level one, you can get killed and restart joining your comrade again and again! If you get killed while still scores points only when flooz flows through pieces he or she has actually placed. Any combination of joystick keyboard, mouse joystick, etc. can be used in the two-player mode. Once you select the number of players and what input devices they’ll be using, you can then specify the level at which you'd like to start by typing in the password for that level (you get the password by successfully completing the previous level).
Pipe Dream is a well-thought-out action-strategv game. The player must right against time in order to build a continuous pipeline with the pieces available. If a piece has no immediate use.
The player must think ahead as to where the pipeline may go.
Flexibility is also important, as players may find that drey have to reroute the pipeline in order to meet a specific goal of the level they're on. The two-player game is particularly interesdng, as each player scores points for the amount of “flooz" that flows through his her pieces. If players don't cooperate, die "flooz" won't flow long enough, and both players will lose. On the odier hand, once the "flooz" has flowed through the required number of pieces on a level, both players are at each other’s throats trying to get the ¦’flooz" through dieir equipment. An interesting arrangement to
say the least!
Pipe Dream has some other nice features. For instance, you can restart at almost any level desired. After eveiy four levels, a password is displayed on the screen. Enter that password the next time you play and the game bypasses earlier levels, returning you to the level at which you left off. You are encouraged to make a backup copy to play die game; this is important because die game does store the high scores to disk. There are also two ways to pause the game. Once you have completed a level, the computer requires on level one, you don't have to wait for your partner to die before playing
again! A quick click or two of the lire button puts you back in the action! Once you leave level one and proceed into the subterranean levels (level two and onward), dead is dead, you have to wait till your partner dies before joining in again.
You start out on the planet’s surface fighting your way to the entrance to the next level. The entrance to the second level is well marked and takes you inside the planet where you come up against a wide variety of creatures. These creatures are all out to end your mission in a ball of flames! At the end of the second level you return to die upper surface for the third level. Again fight your way to the fourth level entrance and go down to face more of the planets creatures. You alternate above and below the surface with things getting more and more difficult at each level. Eventually, you
reach die end of what seems like an impossible mission for one last battle.
If you succeed, you are declared a hero and have rescued your comrades. It isn't easy at all to get thru the different levels, I died many a time. I did finally make it tliru to the very end (I had the help of a magic word diat makes you invincible). Widiout the help, i don't think my reflexes are fast enough to defeat die Barraxian Empire! Maybe you can succeed -where I failed!
1 had a lot of fun with diis game of fast action, super grapliics, and superior sound. From an enjoyment standpoint this game is the best I’ve seen. The Graphic images for the ground emplacements have a 3-D effect that has to lie seen. The pyramid shaped gun and you press die fire button to go to the next level (this allows you to regain your composure after a particularly grueling ievd). Also, if die phone should ring while you’re playing, hitting the 'P' key wall pause the game in mid-stride.
Pipe Dream also has some drawbacks. Game graphics and sound ttre adequate but not spectacular, and die dieme music that plays at the beginning of each level tends to grate on your nerves aftera while. The documentation is also confusing at first. The main manual is written for the Macintosh, and die screen dumps are from the Mac as well. The code wheel used for copy protection iias some rather generic symbols, while the Amiga uses graphics which differ from both the code wheel and die manual. Thus, it took a little bit of time to decipher the codes when things didn’t look too much alike. The
"Amiga specific” reference card also makes reference to "making a folder" another carryover from the Mac. It would be nice to see at least a reference card which was truly written for die Amiga.
Pipe Dream is not the type of game that you can’t put down, but the betier you do, die more you want to play. Game play is both interesting and challenging. The two-player mode is great fun. 1 like Pipe Dream, although it's not the type of game that blows your socks off. Take a pipewrench to your local dealer and give Pipe Dream a try. *AC* PIPE DREAM Lucosfilm Games
P. O. Box 10307 San Rafael. CA 94912
(415) 662-1902 Price: $ 39.95 Inquiry 206 missile emplacements
not only have a feeling of depth, but down below are more
targets for you to destroy!
The Graphics uses 32 colors, with vertical and horizontal scrolling that is die smoothest of any game I have played. With over 30 different enemies to worry about, you rarely have time to rest.
In some situations, you may have as many as 70 objects on die screen at the same time! The game has several levels of different sceneiy with each containing more deadly enemies to attack. You actually have a choice at the end of level one, you can bypass the passage into the next level and continue on to see more of the first level. Once you leave the first level and then get killed, your game is over. The game allows play with botli the mouse and a joystick(my preference).
The game is great, well -worth the suggested retail price of $ 39-95- Battle Squadron runs on any Amiga and only requires 512K.
An update is planned with additional sound capabilities that will only be available if you have 1 meg or more of memory. The game comes on a copy protected disk.
If you enjoy a fast paced shoot-em-up arcade type game Battle Squadron is the game for you! *AC* BATTLE SQUADRON InnerPrise Software. Inc 128 Cockeysville Road Hunt Valley. MD 21030
(301) 785-2266 Price $ 39.95 Inquiry 205 (Listingsfor
"Convergence",page 41} Listing One- LISTING *1, Drawing
circles using convergence, AmigaEASIC REM KEM * Program to
test for convergence REM * by Paul Castonguay REM *
December 13, 1933 REM **********.*».*. DEFFNx(x) «
INT(((x-xmin)+dx 2) dx) DEF Fny(y) = 195 - INK (y-ymin)
+dy 2) dy) xmin = -2 xsax - 2 ynvin = -1.4 ymax = 1.4 cx =
(xmax-xmin) 631 dy = (ymax-ymin) 195 SCREEN 1, 640, 200, 4,
2 WINDOW 2, , (0,0)-(631,186}, 0, 1 Crunch “ 500 M - 4 CLS
LOCATE 10, 23 PRINT "... Pattern is beir.g generated ..."
FOR j-yrain TO yaax+dy 2 STEP dy FOR i = xmin TO xmax+dx 2
STEP dr. G0SU8 Calculate GOStJB Select.Color P5ET (FNxUI
,FNy (j) i NEXT i NEXT : Listing Two LISTING r2, Calculate
subroutine for Mandelbrot set, AmiagBAS’ Calculate: x « 0 y
= 0 k = 0 r = 0 WHILE r =M AND k Crunch xk = x*x - y*y + 1
y = 2*x*y + j x = xk k = k+1 r = x*x + y’y WEND RETURN
- Listing Three- LISTING 13, Modified Mandelrot subroutine,
AaiigaBASIC Calculate: x *= 0 y = 0 k = 0 xk = 0 r = 0 WHILE
r M AND kcCrunch xk = x*x*x - 3*x*y*y + x*x - y*y * i y K
3*x*x*y - y*y*y + 2*x*y -i x = xk k = k+1 r = x*x + y*y WEND
RETURN listing Four- WHILE INKEYS CHRS(13S) WEND WINDOW
CLOSE 2 SCREEN CLOSE 1 END Calculate: r = i*i * j«j k = 0 WHILE
r =M AND k Crur,ch r * r*r k = k+l WEND RETURN LISTING 4,
Listing to draw figure 42 REM HEM * Sixteen Color Fractal HEM *
by Paul Castonguay Rjjj
I*****.****.**,.***..****..,,**.***,,,.,,,,.,,.,,,....,, DEF
Fnx(x) = INT(((x-xmin)+dx 2) dx) DEF Fny(y) = (Vertical.Pixels
- 51 - INK ((y-yrain)+dy 2) dy) xmin = -.06 xiaax - .04 ymin =
1.1345 ymax = 1.2045 Vertical.Pixels = 400 Select.Color: IF k
-* Crunch THEN COLOR 2 ELSEIF k = 11 THE) COLOR I ELSEIF k = 5
THEN COLOR 12 ELSEIF k=4 THEN COLOR 11 ELSEIF k=3 THEN COLOR 10
ELSEIF k=2 THEN COLOR 9 ELSEIF k=l THEN COLOR 8 ELSE COLOR 0
END IF dx ** (xmax-xmin] 631 IF Vertical.Pixels * 200 THEN dy
= ymax-ymin) 195 SCREEN 1, 640, 200, 4, 2 WINDOW 2, ,
(0,01-(631,186), 0, 1 ELSEIF Vertical.Pixels = 400 THEN dy =
(ymax-vmin) 395 SCREEN 1, 640, 400, 4, 4 WINDOW 2, , (0,
0)-(631, 386), 0, 1 ELSE PRINT "Set Vertical.Pixels to 200 or
400" GOTO Done END IF GOSuB Choose.Color.Numbers GOSUB
Use.New.Colors RETURN ,Green 16, ¦Green 16, ,Green 16,
.Green 16, .Green 16, ,Green 16, ,Green 16, ,Green 16, .
Green 16, .Greenilo, . 10.Green 1 .11.Green 1 .12.Green 1
.13.Green 1 .14.Green 1 ,15-Green i PALETTE 0, PALETTE PALETTE
PALETTE PALETTE PALETTE PALETTE PALETTE PALETTE PALETTE PALETTE
PALETTE PALETTE PALETTE PALETTE PALETTE RETURN Reg.O.Blue 16
Reg,1.31ue 16 Reg.2.Blue 16 Reg,3.31ue 16 Reg,4.31u= I6
Reg.5.Blue 16 Reg.6.Blue 16 Reg.7.Blue 16 Reg.S.51 re 16
Reg.9.Blue 16 6, Reg.10.Blue 16 6, Reg.11.Blue 1 6 6,
Reg.12,slue 16 Reg. 1u.Blue 1 6 6, Reg.14.31ue 16 6,
Reg.15.Slue 16 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ", 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
• AC- Calculate: x = 0 y = 0 k =0 xk =* 0 yk = 0 r = 0 WHILE r =M
AND k Crunch xk «= x*k*x - 3*x*y *y +• x* x - y*y * i yk =
3*x*x*y - y'y'y + 2*x*y - j V = V y = yk k - k-1 WEND RETURN
Select.Color: IF k = Crunch THEN COLOR 0 ELSEIF k =l00 THEN
COLOR 1 ELSEIF k =31 THEN COLOR 2 COLOR 3 ELSEIF k =21 THEN
COLOR 4 ELSEIF k =l8 THEN COLOR 5 ELSEIF k =16 THEN COLOR 6
COLOR 1 CO LOP. S ELSEIF k»10 THEN COLOR 9 ELSEIF k-9 THEN
COLOR 10 COLOR 11 COLOR 12 ELSEIF k=6 THEN COLOR 13 ELSEIF k=5
THEN COLOR 11 COLOR 15 ELSE Crunch = BOO CLS LOCATE 1C, 23
PRINT "... Fractal is being generated ..." FOR j=ymin TC
ymax+dy 2 STEP dy FOR i = xmin TO xraax+dx 2 STEP dx GOSUB
Calculate GOSUB Select.Color PSET (FNX(i),FNy(j)) IF INKEY5 "
CKRS(138! THEN C-OTO Done NEXT i NEXT j REM Wait for operator
to press function key [F-1Q) WHILE INKEYS CHRS(138) WEND
Done: WINDOW CLOSE 2 SCREEN CLOSE 1 END COLOR 0 END IF RETURN
Choose.Color.Numbers: LOCATE 10,20 print "... Please wait while
I adjust colors Reg.0.Red = 0 Reg.0.Green = 0 Reg.0.Blue = 0
Reg.1.Red - 15 Reg.1.Green ~ 15 Reg.1.Blue = 15 Reg.2.Red = 15
Reg.2.Green = 15 Reg.2.Blue - 0 Reg.l.Red = 11 Reg.3.Green - 15
Reg.3.31ue = 0 Reg.-I. Red = 11 Reg.l.Green = 13 Reg.l.Blue = 6
Reg.5.Red = 12 Reg.5.Green •= 11 Reg.5.Blue = 3 Reg.6.Red * 12
Reg.6.Green - 6 Reg.6.Blue = 0 Reg.7.Red ¦» 13 Reg.7.Green = 6
Reg.7.Blue = 0 Reg.S.Red = 14 Reg.8.Green = 4 Reg.8.Blue = 0
Reg.9.Red = 15 Reg. 9. Greer. = 0 Reg.9.Blue = 0 Reg.10.Red = 3
Reg.10.Green = 9 Reg. 10.Blue = 13 Reg.11.Red = 2 Reg.11,Green
= 9 Reg.11.Blue =12 Reg.12.Red = 0 Reg.12.Green = 9 Reg.12.Blue
= 11 Reg.13.Red = 3 Reg.13.Green - 9 Reg.13.Blue = 10
Reg.14.Red = 4 Reg.14.Green - 9 Reg.14.Elue = 9 Reg.15.Red = 0
Reg.15.Green = 9 Reg.15.Blue = 9 RETURN Reg.0.Aed 16, Reg.O
Reg,1.Red 16, Reg.l Reg.2.Red 16, Reg.2 Reg.3.Red 16, Reg.3
Reg,4.Red 16, Reg.4 Reg.5.Red 16, Reg.5 Reg.6.Red 16, Reg.6
Reg.7.Red 16, Reg.7 Reg.8.Red 16, Reg.8 Reg.9.Red 16, Reg.9
Reg.10.Red 16, Reg Reg.11.Red 16, Reg Reg.12,Red 16, Reg
Reg.13.Red 16, Reg Reg.14,Red 16, Reg Reg.15.Red 16, Reg
Use.Hew.Colors: The Fred Fish Collection Due lo the increasing
size of the Fred Fish Collection, oniy the latest disks are
represented here. For a complete list ol all AC, AMICUS, and
Fred Fish Disks, cataloged and cross-referenced lor your
convenience, please consult the current AC's Guide To The
Commodore Amiga available at your local Ama2ing Dealer.
Erpri fish Disk H?0 ArmgaTrekA continuation c? Mte's Amga Trek stories, which are parodies ol the Star Trek series, with an Amiga flavor. Earier stories are on cfisk 278. Author Mfte Smiffiwick Am-Omega Amiga pod of the Omega game. Omega is similar lo hack cr rogue, but is much more complex.
There is a city, several lowns. A wilderness, lots ol dungeons. A rraJfeude cf monsters, k&s o! Spes.
Magic items, ex. There are several quests lo cccnpiete. All in aJ. It is an exce'fent game Requres 1 Mb or more of memory. Amiga version
1. 0.binary only. Author: Laurence Brothers. Amiga pert by flick
Golempiewski Fred Fish Disk 321 DezHexBtn An intuition based
programmers tod to convert integers between decimal,
hexadecimal, and binary.
Very smal. Verson 1.1, indudes source in assembly code. Author Miehael Dja-ridan tanJ icorJ signiScanGy enhances the toonX program, and is 100% compattte. It allows scrips to be executed by doubto-diCking the script's icon. Abilities include joining the script with the icon file itself. Of calling it Irom any directory or disk, executing ettoer AmgaOOS or Areix septs, ouqxring to any Sleor devce. Running ireeractire scripts and scripts rat conta n conditionals, and creating relative console windows. Includes a utility called AtaU which attaches cr detaches a script tolrom an icon lie.
Version 1,0. Induces source m Jforth. By: Rch Franzen its An Iterated Function System viewer which graphically displays iterated function systems and allows the user to interactively create the afine functions Ptal define such systems. An IPS can represent complex pictures very ccnpacdy. Simpfe iFSs can describe an infinite number of different and interesting Irama; displays, includes a number of dsplays that the author and others have discovered.
Verson li. Indudes source in C. Author. Glen Fi tin er Planets Som e routines ported to the Amiga by Bob Ldvian.
That compute the location ol the planets (as viewed from a specific point on the earth! And the phase of the moon, for an arbitrary date and time. Indudes source. Author Keith Brandt VIII, Jim Cobb. F. T. Mendenhal, Wan Paefh. Petri Latmmen, Bob Lei van Turtle A shared Itbrary cf turtle' functions for drawing in a flastflon. Indudes source in assembly and C Author: Thomas Albers UnixOrs A program wfich intercepts calls to dos.library to add the UNIX style'.' And syntax for current and parent directories, respectively, to tile and path names I.E.,youcanrefef toftesrthea rem tfrectory as ’ too'
and fifes m toe parent Rectory as ¦Jtoo'.orany combination of the two. Tndudes Source in assemby. Author; Murray Bennett and MarkCyster Whereis Axther ‘End-that-fife' utility. Whereis searches on your (hard-)cSsk for a Byname) and displays tie petit to fiat fie. Some features are case independent search, wildcards, interactive mode cd implemented!, can display size and date of files, always abortabie. Can archive filenames for 'ZOO' (like teams recunSr), and no recursive procedures.
Includes source in C. Version f .18 2-15-90).
Author Roland Bless Fred fish Dish 322 Gwiri This is version 1.0 of GWIN. GWIN or Graphics WlNdow is an integrated coDecton of graphcs routines callable from C. These routines make it easy 10 create soph isticated graphics programs m the C environment Cre-fino calls give you a Custom saecn (ten types available), menu items, requestors, text, crctes. Polygons, etc. GWIN is a hw-dmenstortal floating point graphics system with conversion between world and screen coordinates, GWIN includes built-in clipping that may be turned eft lor speed. Use cl color and Xcfl operations are great! Y simplified.
Many examples cf the use d GWIN are mduded in an examples directory.
Examples include Snefcar graph program, geographic mapping program, SpfCE 2G.6 graphics post-processor and others Extensive documerttation is inducted , Author: Howard C. Anderson.
Fred Fish Disk 323 McrToofeThree tools that manipulate The cdas of your screen.
Binary oniy. Author Deter Bans CZEd A complete micti package tor use with afl Casio CZ synthesizers. Contains a Ml fledged sound editor, a split simulator for CZ-10N100&230S, a bank loader and a memory dump lor CZ-i. Ths is a formerly commercial package now released as shareware.
Binary onfy. Aulhor: Oliver Wagner UnkSound Two examples of functions that you can ink with your own code to produce a short musical 'beep* or a sound that is simlar to striking a drum, Includes scuce.
Author Dieter Bruns Show A very versatte program to display IFF 1LBM files.
Features realtime unpacking scroll, smart analyst ol any IFF tile, total control over display modes, simple slideshow process-ng, patten matching, and a dozen other options. OnlySK. Vers-cniO.bfiaryeffy. Author. Sebasbano Vigra FrftL5sfiDisU2iA This Fred Fish Dsk is offered as an abridged disk until Fred can createa replacement disk- One program has been removed from this dsk due to ccpynghl problems.
ANSIEd Derrc version ol an ANSI screen fife ecdor. Hallows you to easily create and modify a screen of ANSI-styte led graphics on the Amiga. The standard ANSI color set (red. Green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, white) and tert styles (plain. TxXdace. Underlined, rtafic) are provided, along with some smpie «&Ung and drawing functions. This demo version has the save features disabled. Ths is version l ,3-0, an update to version
1. 2QaD on dsk 221. Bnary orty. Author Greg Epfey DiskFree An
smal eonrSabte intuition program tiat shews the amourt cf free
space avaSable on all mounted disk devices, both numerically
and graphcaiy. Version 1.0. shareware, binary only. Author;
Dieter Kurtz DPFrT An enhanced version of DPIol from disk 2S0.
Dplct is a simple display program (or experimental data, wrih
the goats of supporting paging through lots of data and
providing comiortabfe scaling and presentation. The
enhancements tor DPFFT include addifon of a Fast Fourier
Transform (FFT), dbplay ol a customized amplitude and phase
spectrum. A prewhrten’ng capabiriy, and a Welch window tor
spectral smooching This is version 2.1. binary only, Autfior:
A A Walma Mailchk A mail client lor Dnet, which wifi inform
you of any new maJ and wilf give the choice of viewing,
deleting, or printing a message. Version 2 01, includes
source.
Author; Stephans Unxhe Fred Fish Piik 325 Baichman A program that allows the user to execute CLI programs and batch files simpfy by cScking on a gadget. It can be used as the center of a tunkey system, where the user Ssmp'y dicks on gadgets to launch applications. Version 1.1, includes source in ModJa-lt. By: Mchal Todorcvic DC feck A ‘Durti b Clock’ utility that displays the date and time in the Workbench screen title bar. Uses only about 2 percent o! The CPU time and about 10Kb ol memory.
Also has an alarm dock feature artt audble beep lor programs that calf DisplaySeep, This is version 1.12, an update to version 1.5 cn disk 298, with many enhancements and a few bug fixes. Includes Source.
Author Ota? Sartoel DcRevision Ths program implements easy creation ol source code revision headers (very similar to the log headers lo be found al Ihe top ol too Amiga ’C include ties). Version 1.0, indudes source. Author Ola!
Bartoel FAM A Fife Access Manager tor the Amiga Pal slows multiple Aflexx programs to access a buffered verson cf a directory in a consistent and serialized manner. I buffers ait the names, dates, sizes and so on. For quick access. Version 1.1 will source. By: Darren New FarPrinj Debugging funchons tor programs wtech don't have any links lo toes’ environment FarPmt consists of two major parts; a harbour process open to receive and dstnbute messages and requests, and a set cl C functors to be linked into any program wishing to com rrmcate win toe FarPrint man process. Thts is verson 1,5, an
update to version 1.3 on fisk 281, and adds a shared Ifcrary as well as linker libraries for both Lattice and Artec C. Includes source. Author; Qiaf Eartbel KeyMacre A keyboard macro program, configurable via a text tie, that also supports hotkey program execution. You can map up to eight functions to each key, including keys such as cur 50f keys, toe return key. Etc. Verscn 1.0. includes source. Author; OtaJ Bartod DfeCydes Some sort ol biorhythm type program. No docs included. Version 2.0. binary only. By: Michal Todorovic Mem Guard MemGuard is a MemWatch-like program which has been
rewritten in assembly language lor maximum speed and efficiency. Unbke MemWalch MenGuard does not run as Task in a dummy loop but rather as a kw-levd nterrupt routine which is capable ol trapping memory thrashing even before exec might know of it Arc even wftfe task switching s forbtoden. In fad the tow memory area ts checked each frame. VxtuaJy no prxessng time is wasted, the interrupt routine does the check in aboul hall a raster scan line's time. Ths program was contributed by flail Thanner. Who spent three weeks programming 4 debugging it. In ths program Rail uses ser e very delicate treks
to let hs hiemipi routine work with totiAbon aterts.
Version III. Binary only. Author; RallTharmer RexxHostlib This is a shared i&rary package to simplify the Aflexx host creatiorVmanagement ptocedure.
Retx message parsing is also rnd Jded making it pcsstofe to control Aflexx bom program s such as AmigaBASIC (can you imagine AmigaBASIC controlling AmigaTeX?). Includes source. Author OiaiBarthei Fred Fish Pi S.U2S CBDump This is a CLI trtJriy for toose who are working with the Amiga's clipboard device, it's sde purpose in life is to dump the current contents cf the clipboard to stdout or by redirection to a pipe or a fie. Useful lor testing and interfacing with programs that do net suppcto toe clipboard. Source inducted. 3y; Stephen VermeiAen.
DispMod One cl too series ol R08BS (Rexx Object Building Block System) modules by Larry Phillips. DispMod is a dsplay module that oniy understands Aflexx messages t! Al'ews. Under program control, toe cSsptey of text and toe acceptance of keyboard data. Version0.11. includes sourra. Author. Larry Phillips ftb Ths propam convert s an icon to an IFF p ?jfe (brush) lie. H harxjes bCto s-ngfe and alternate image (animated) toons. Ths is version 1.10 which adds a colour palette to toe previous version from dsk 85, Version 1.10, binary only. Author: Stephen Vermeufen.
MtoroTerm A vary smal. Very simple, almost train-dead terminal program. Primarily useful as an example of how to lafk to toe consote and sera! Deuces.
Version 0.1 „ includes source. Author; Stephen Vermeiien.
NeuroralNets Programs for piayxngwltihNeurenalNea using HctofieW and Hammng algorithms. Binary. By; L e Schaefer PopScreen A small hack to pop a hidden screen to toe from from toe CUL Ths was written to allow toe author to use VLTjr with ether programs that also use custom screens. Source included- Author Stephen Vermeuten.
Snap A tod for clipping tert or graphics from the screen, using toe clipboard device. Snap finds out character coord rates automatical)1, handles dftftrem bra, keymaps, accented aracters. And more. Vl.a, an update to FF27A Includes source.
By; MkaelKarlsson VS,nap This is an enhanced version ol Snap 1 -3„ submitted by Stere Vermeuien. Wtirtt adds toe abJity to save tfpped graphics as IFF FORM lLBM"sto toe clipboard, so toey can be imported to ether programs that understand IFF and too clipboard.
Dubbed it Vsnap, since the olftial 1.4 Snap is also included cn this disk, tockictes sairte. By: Mikael Karisson. Enhancements By Steve Vermeuien FlrtFlshlM&Z ARTM ARTM (Amiga Rea) Time Monitof) displays and ccntrois system activity such as tasks, windows, libraries, devices, resources, ports, residents, interops, vectors, memory, mounts, assigns, loots and hte'dware. Includes both a PAL and an NTSC version. Ths is version 1.0. an update to version
0. 9 on disk 277. Binary only, Autor; Diotmar Jansen and F. J.
Mertens
MM. AnimpementaticnottoegameUasterm rd. intos gam you must try
to guess a cdor combiraton which ne amiga sets via a random
generator.
There are 6 colors which can be set in any combination, Inckxtes source. Author; Dietmar Jansen MRBackUp AharddiskhackuputiSTytoaidoesafife By He copy to standard Am igaDOS floppy tksks, Includes an ritution interface and fife compression.
Ths is version 3.4, an update to version 33e on dsk 279. Binary only. Autocx: Mark Rintret Msh An Amt.3a fie system handfer that handles MSDOS formaned diskettes. You can use Lies on such disks m almost exactly the same way as you use Res on native Amtgs DOS disks. ThsisaWly functional, readwnte version, that supports 3.5, or 10 sector dsks of SO tracks, and should atso work on 40 track dnves and hard disks wito 12 or 16 bit FAT of any dimension toe FAT allows, includes source. Author; Ola! Seibert Soflfent Converts portrait soft tents ter HP LaserJet compatble laser printers lo landscape
format.
Includes source. Author; Thomas Lynch Fred Fish Qisk323 AnalytCa'c A full featured system for numerical analysis and reporting Includes a spreadsheet, graphcs programs, documents and fadStes tor pertormrg many commonly needed functions.
Features include an 18000 by 18000 cd I spreadsheet using virtual memory, random access to other 5a ved spreadsheet formulas or values, easy save pr merge of partial sheets, up to 400 wjxJqws on screen, ability to drive ary cefl from external macros, built in matrix algebra, random num ber generation, date arithemetic. And much more. Thisi5versionV24'01a,anupda!eloFF!76.
Bria only. Author Gfe™ E’ erhan Hames Some .miscellaneous program.s from Chris Hames.
D rWork V1.01 is a fast, small, simple effidert D-.rUtility. FSDire V1.3 is a floppy accelerator program. VMK 727 is a sm l vires detector killer that knows atat 27 dillerent viruses and car detect new ones, NoWoVl.O stops programs from producing' jnlo’ Res. Binaries only. Autoor: Chris Hames RoadRoute A trip planner toat takes a list of cities and a fist of known rou'es between cities, aid generates toe stance and ime req Jred tc reach your destination. An update to FF 251. With an expanded dalebase of ones and roads lor New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma. Kansas. Nebraska, South Dakota, Louisiana,
Arkansas. Missouri. Colorado and Mississippi, sited by Fred Mayes and Gary Ddzor.
Induces sourae. By: J.m Butterfetd, Fred Mayes.
Gary DeZer Fredfi5lLDifi.y23 CPU Two programs, ene in C and one in assembler, which deck for CPU type. This verster. Can detect 6S»Q, 63010.63020. and 68831 processors.
Includes source. Author; Ethan Dicks, based on WhaiCPU by Dave Haynie DiSkSpeedA d«sk speed testing program specifcaiy desgneri to gve the most accurate results c* the tree dsk pertonTi-ance of the Ssk under test. Automatically updates and maintains an ASCII database of disk results for tested disks. This is version 3.1, an update to FF288 wlto some source code cleanups and stress tests ter CPU and DIM. Includes sowce in C. Author: Michael Srz Empire A complete rewrite, from the ground up, in Draco, of Peter Langston s Empire game. Empire is a muff player game o( exploration, economcs. War.
Etc. whch can last a coupfe of months. Can be played either on the local keyboard or remorefy through a modem, Tins is vetsteo IJWw, an update to FF118, and includes many changes 2nd enhancements. Binary. By: Chris Gray, Davd Wright. Peter Langston FileSystems Distfa ys AmigaCXJS tSsk de-vces wrto information abou- toe head geometiy, BufMemType, and ihe lower level exec device. Includes source.
Author: EthanDcks OnePtane Removes toe hgiest number btplane Irom toe WcxkBench saeen, Normally used to take Workbench screen Irom 2 btyianes to 1 bilpiane.
This allows CON: st e devices to scroJf text faster.
Indudes source Author: Ethan Dicks EeamsflDisxaa Mcstra A very versatile p’ogra.m to cksplay IFF IL3M ffes.
Features realtime unpacking saofl. Smart analysis ol any IFF file, tout control over display modes, simple slideshow processing, pattern maichino, and a dozen ether optons. Oniy UK. This is verecn
1. 0, an upgrade to to Show program on disk 323, and adds SHAM,
double buffering, fap.er decompresson. Color cycling. TeXdocs.
Startup files for easy customizng. And complete Wcrk3ench
support through ToofTypes and Style icons. Bnary only. By:
Sebastiano Vigna atese A tod which allows you to change
another program’s custom screen colors. Ths is version
1. 1. an update to toe version on disk 55. New featores indude
checks for WorkBoncri startups, checks for HAM. Half Bnte. Or
more than five bpianes, and more gracefii exits, includes
source in assembly. Author: Randy Jcuett, CJ Frege, Carolyn
Scheqpner, Charlie Heato V1100 AvtlOO emulator fcr toe Amiga,
which also supports various fie transfer protocols ike terms,
xmodera.
Yrr.odem, zmoderr. Etc. has an Arexx pert, can use custom external protocol modules, and more. This is version 2.9a. an update to verson 2.9 on f
275. Includes source. Author: Dave Wecker. Tony StmraU. Frank
Antoes, and Chuck Forsberg XprKenrrt An Amga shared Ibrary
whicri pwefes Kermitfiie transfer capability to any
XPR-compacbie Cortimunicalions program. Supports version 2.0
ol the XPR Protocol specification. Version 15.
Includes source. Author Marco Papa, Stephen Walton Fred Fish Disk 331 Crctois A game based on computer programming. Unlike arcade type games which require human input contcfcfig sone object, an strategy m Crobots s condensed into a C language program Put you desgn and write, to control a robot whose mission is to seek out, rack, and destroy ether robots, running different programs. Ail robots are equally equipped, and up to four may compete a! Once. Version 2.2w. an update to FF3I1, Binary onfy, source avajiaWe from author. By: Tom Poindexter, Amiga version by David Wright Csh Verson 4.01a cf
a csh like shell denved from Man Dion’s shell, version 207. This is an update lo version 4 JX)a on disk 309. Changes indude mostfy bug fixes and corrections. Includes source. Author; Wan Dillon. Steve Drew. Carte Borneo. Cesare Dieri i’f2E e A program 10 corner !r F pictures to an enecuUtte. K can hamjio NTSC PAL interlace and overscan Version 1 r0, bnary orty. Author. P.e'er van Leuven LM’cA An i.Tulon’zed ard far.er version of hare lor the Amga Requres ARP ibrary. Version C.Ma, Pnarycrfy Autovx Hanjyasj Yoshizaki, Ar.iga version by Stefan Scteg LVR Link Virus Remover. A program that
recursively searches dvcc'.ores tor Ink vrutes in executable Wes Ths is verson 120. Binary only. By: Pieter van Leuven NTSC-PAL Ltdi»es whch ale* Amigas wm re re* ECS i Mo Agrw to easly swr.m between PAL and NTSC dspay modes Version l.Q.irtoudes source in assemNy.
Author. Vico FraxcrS PatMoadSeg Ths program patohes me toadseg rouble to autornaacaty deer firk .ruses *nen a program is Joaded Ospiays an alen when a wus is detected in a program beng toaded loreaecutca Version t ,20.
Includes source. Authcr; Piete: van Leuven VirusJals Two programs to detect viruses on risk and in rr*rr ry Wusriurter removes afi kno»t viruses in memory Viruskfld removes al known viruses in memory and after removing the viruses the disks can be checked without the virus copying itself to the disks. Version 3.60. binary only. Author Pieter van Leuven Fred FisfiPisk Ui AniPtrs Some we animated porters i have adocted one cf then as my permanert replacement tor the bcmg red arrow. B-nary onfy. Autoor: Bob McKam DevPatch ApitigramthaTinsatisapatontorOperWrvdc tocheck the ffewVAreJcw ituue. If
the rte mathn a specfc String. Tie hegft w-rt ;e faced to 45 piets. Ths ffeps to recuce chip memory usage lor programs mat open overly large wridcws and then seldom use them.
Incrudes source. Author Jont Tyberghen, Nco Fraxcrs. P. Warivoet Helper A We 'nputEverrt hade, activated via the HEL3 key, Ohginaity mean* to provide a unique method of g ng the user help (you dor t havo la put that h p slulf into your own p'ogram). New also contains a color requester and a sma1'notepad. Version i.Oi. includes source.
Author: Ucftae! Balza' K1_Edi!a An editor !cr the Kawa Ki(m) syrtoesjer wito two auxilfery programs fee managing sound dumps. Thus is version 1.00, shareware, indudes sc-jrce. Author: Mc-aei Batrer Krypy a sraal, smpte and ccrafortafete fife encoder Decoder.
Verson 1 C. inetafes source Author Mcnaei Baler RwBut Another InputEvent hack, giving you a toggling right mouse button Verson i ,o, includes source Author: Michael Baker EadfMUBttaa MurtPa A parage tor making 2D plots ccrr.-erwxy. Tin Mooney wrote the original program, witch was then enhanced by Alan Baiter with a nicer user interface, support for the PLT: device, and supoort for fite conversions. Rich Charrpeaux and Jm Mi Ter wrote toe PLT: handler when emulates a plotter by accepting HP-Gl commands, creating a raster mage, then dumpngit to any preferences supported graphics printer, Tmij
verson XLNb. An update to FF2S2. And npudes many bug fiies. Style changes, and enhancer erts. Indudes source. Authcr A r. Baiter. Tim Mooney,R n Campeau*. Jim M3et Freg Fish Diai&j FBM An Am. Iga port c! Toe Fuzry ?; i1Map image marvpJaiior library. Tr*s package iJkms mana aton, ax con verscn cl a variety of »'a and B4W image tormats.
Supported formats include Sun rasrerfifes, Glc, IFF, PCX. PBM bitmaps, fate* files. And FBM fifes, A so has input converters for raw images, iikc Dig.Vie* les. And Output converters tor PostScript and Diabto grapnes Besd« domg format corr.ersor. some of the other image manipulation operators supported include rectangular ereaction, density and contrast changes, rotation, rasterization. Halftone grayscaling, edge sharperv'g. And hstograns. Ver«n 0.9, bnary onfy.
Author fiAchaei Mautfn: Am ga port by Kerr Barry PPMore A Tncre* replacement program that reads norma! Asoi text fiies as wtf! As Mes crunched with PowerPacker.
The crunched Eles can restit in corsder d,s*. Space so. Rg; Version Ti. Binary oriy. Aumor Nco Francos PPSbcw A ¦show* program for normaJ iFF LBM ties cr LEW ies crunched wth PowePacker. The decrjnchng is done auto- matcaiy as re Fie s read Version 1.0. binary onfy. AiAhor: Nco Francois Wutts A neat lirtto ufitty whch ret onfy recogrures a w de varty cl f.'e types (executables. FF. Cons. :oo Hes.
Etc), but prints interesting reformation about the structure or contents of the recognized file types Version 12a.
Binary onfy. Author: J. T ybergfxfm EfriRihPiiKMi BongDemc Demo 'rersionpfa neat game due lor reease in March 1590 ftis fJly fiArtonal but the piay time is limited to fwe minutes per play. VERSION 0 30. Binary only. Author: Kevin Kdm, Alternate Realities DTC AutLtyprcw-xSnga £impiecatenda'WFh h,canhcidand shew apporrtnerta. It may be useU n managrg ycuf dme. Is chW goals were to prbode day. Week and mcrith at a glance tor any date between 1 1,0001 and 1231 5999. Tefajilhg to the ojrrent da'e. It it menu srr.er, and tarty eary !s use )nc.kjdes sevee n Fortran.
Aurcsr: Mrtch Wyie, Ar.ga port by Glerr Evertan SeeHear A progran to do a soecrogram c? A sampled sot id fua.
Ttvs is a graph with time on one axis, frequency on tne other and the sound inserts 1y at each point determining Lie pixel color With source m C, inducing FFT ro-Tre.
Ths is verscn 1.1. Author: Da.hef T. Jchnswi EredHatiPiai33a Car A Mvo-dflienstonal fjH screen scrolling racng game with realistic four channel stereo sound and overscan, tor ether NTSC or PAL Am igas. The goal s to guide you* car around ere cf ter s eced tracks. Each trac* has its individual n*gn score Esi Version 20, bnary crty.
Author Anders Sysnn FifeW.Ttow A compfctefy pubc dcmar, Be requester when mayteused nanyprogram, evencorrmeroalones. 1 uses dynAMIGABy allocated memory to hofd me file names so the anfy limitation is me amount of memory avaiaye inctudesa filter cpbon to imiqspiay of ftenames to orty ones with a specie ertenswn. Names are automaticalfy sorted whife they are Being read and cSspayed, V1.10. ncJudes source. By: Amers Sjenn
f. 'n.B'iast Ashocremupgamewfuchans sifineinamirti- tasAng
environment. Al iasl you can eqcy a ssrss ng
r. egaaiast whsJe you are wxrg a bcrrg essay. Sheet art Ttng that
moves, and t i doesni more, shoot it anyway. V1.00. bnary
only. By: Anderj Bjern Sys Agame
buitonmeadictvegamePONGObuiwth severi added features
Youhaiebeerias&grvedme OemantfTj task of cteanrg vvuses from
your SYSOP'S hard t s ._ To toll a vars. You srr.py took a
risk at ft.
Thera are filly cSffereirt levefs, and on each level, the speed wit increase and no viruses will be s'mer and Start to hunt you V2,10. Brwy ony By, Anders B,«nn Eiidfish p.ijji 137 Cmanual A ccnplele C manual for Jhe Amiga wfuch describes how to open and work with screens, windows, graphics, gadgats. Requesters, alerts, menus. IDCMP, sprites, etc. The narta] conssts of more than 203 pages ini 1 chapters, iogemer rb mere than 70 Wy eiecutabte examples wth source code. When trpacked. Me manual and ettmpfes nearly fil up trvw standard Amiga ftoppes.Thisis VERSION i .00 and ndudes soutoeforal
examples. Author Adn B;em FrcdFiihCirtttg Cpq This s a copy Cl the Deems cpp. Ported to me Am.ga This cpp is more powertu! And complete than either of the burt m epo s in Manx cr Urxe C. This is an update to me lerscr cn disk 29 ,1 has had some ANS! Featues aPded. Includes sauce. By; Warn V now. Otef Seibert SASToois VancuS submtssiors from *S-Ck Amiga Soft*. Irxdudes some virus tods, some screen hacks, some small games, and miscellaneous utilities, inctodes source in assemoy and ModutaTi Author Jorg S *i SO A vt-'y enprertersi.e drEctory uclty tor ne Am.ga ru: supports si least a coupe of
dozen ftffaon! Commands for operating cn files, Verscn i .05. binary only. Author: Hon Martin Frctf Fish PM aS PCQ A f reefy reosrix-t e. Se« compfcng. Patcai ccrpier fgr the Amga, The onfy major toatore d Pascal Tat is nctimp'enemedissots Tims is vwscn Me. An update to vtrsor. 1.0 on ksk 183. 1 ismuch enhaix d and about tou bmes farter Ixtodes toe compter wuce and example programs Authcr’ Patrick ad FreflFii?!PiaKMQ NorthC A compfete fteeiy rafistnbutobfe C environment for the Amga based on me Sozcbon Ld C compiler. Chartie Gib's assembler, the Sohware Dstilery's Inker, and pcoxs from oner
sources. Steve has puled everything together and added some enhancements in toe process Version 1.0, partial source only. By: Stove HawBn, ct al.
Pipfot A library of C functions useful tor scientific ptoning on tne Amiga. The liraiy ts Lattce C Compatfite Contour ptortng, three dmertsioral ptottng, us tede'nxn. Log- iog picrtng and muftp'e subpages are a lew d Ptpiof s features. The plots can be dsplayed cm a monitor cr sent to a graphics fie tor subsequent pnrpng. Ths a verscn
26. Rnd update to verson * .00 cn FF222 Ths verscn Lxiudes a
great!y unprowed smutcn interface, preferences support tor
ha'dxpy, several new bewcs drr ers. And toe capablly o! Addr
add tonal devce drivers easily. Includes souce, Author: Tony
Rici-arPson SpeakerSim Demo verson of SpeakerSm 20. A
touCspeaker CAD prolan. Simulates verted (Thee-Snafi} and
dosed sox systems. Asa tmUates 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order hgh
and low pass filters, Binary only. By. Dissidents P2C P2C is
a ted far translating Pascal programs into C. It handles toe
totowng Pascal cSaleas: HP Pascal, Turbo) UCSO Pascal, DEC
VAX Pascal Oregon Software Pascal2. Macxmorti Programmer’s
Workshop Pascal, Sun Berkeley Pascal ktodu£a-2 syntax s also
supported.
Mosl r easonabte Pascal programs are converted imo Wy functional C whsto wnl compte aid on wito no further rnotf5catiarts, VM3 Indjdes »uce Autoor: Da Gitesofi. Amiga port by G R.(FrBd)Wa:er Fred Fish Disk 342 £ Ths s an con editor *r*cn can create and modfy toens up to 640x299 piels m size (also dual render), ft can set stack see. Pcstcn Utocniatso free-Toaang), defaUt tod. 10 tool types and control over opened wndow. Rt can also generato the C source code boh md the icon tor program inctosion Version 1.0, binary only, source arable from author Autoor Peter Kiem Sksh A ksh-lke shell for toe
Amiga. Some of its features Lxiude command substtwon. Shei tuvrjons with parameters, aliases, local variables, oca] functions, local aliases, powerful control stnjctues and tests, emacs style fine ectng and hstory (mctiorts, 10 redtecticn, pipes, large vanety of bui-in commands, Urw syfe w'Wcards, Umx style filename corventons,fiename ccnpleten.ardcoeiiifencg wifi script! From otoer sneTs Very weti oocumenad. Varucn 1,4. An update to .ervon i j cn osk 399 New leaves .rvtoude a Vry* vtrvx. A workng case construcL support 'or resbert commands, smaler and faster erte'nai ccmmands, and moe. Binary
only. Autoor: Stere Koren Sbftfoni Ccoverts ponrat soft km for HP LaserJei compatible Laser printers to landscape lormai Tr*s rs an update to FF327, Inc'udes souse Author: Thcrras Lynch SnakePit A simple, yet addictive game m whch you must get toe snake (you) off o! The screen. There are. However, some rough spots and some obstacles that may need to be cvewne. ExceTert elamps© cf a game toat is as system trendy as possble(*rtfi scucs . By: Mchaef Snz SoftSpan Soft Span BBS program Imutive.command-fine based menu system w,h message bases, updown leads, fife credt system, extensive help system,
etc. Ths is shareware verson t .0. binary only, lattice C source code avaiabie trom the author. Autoor Mad Wtffskart StockBroker A prog m toat helps you foitow toe recent Qbte of exchange from one (or more) share] s). Bui of course you must tefl the A-nga toe reoeri latte of exchange every day. Reqmres AmigaBASiC Bxnary orty. Author: Jwchaef Kara!
Keytoa'd Factions to translate RAWKEY Lhtusbcn messages n» usabte keyatees, Trar iaaon into Mod-Ja-S of C source (by Fat6a.i G 0 », in) on d$ k 291. Version 1 jQ.
Indudes soi te. Autoor Fab&an G. Dufoe I". Peter Graham Evans RKMCcmparoon A two disk set of materaf Gteaied by Commodore for use with the 13 revison cf the Amiga RDM Kernel Reference Manual, Libranes and Devices, published by Addson-Wesey. Almost 300 files, induing C sou’ce code examples and eiecutabtes. Have been packed into two hare archives, one for each disk of the two disk set.
These exampes are not public domain, but may be used and dsinbotod under the conditions specfed in toe copyrights Author Commodore Business Machines, toe.
FrtdFtsh Disk 345 Crobots A gar.e based on computer programrrsg.U- ke arcade type garn.es wfxh require human mput contrblmg seme obrect. At strategy m CrobcfS is condensed mto a C language program toat you design and wnte, to cortrcJ a robot whose mssioiisto seek outi rack and destroy otoer robots, each ruovng different programs AJ robots are equally coupped. And up to tour may compete at cnce. Ths is version 2.2w, at update to FF331. Binary onfy. Source arailabte Irom autoor. Author Tcm Poindexier. Amiga verson by Davto Wngfl Du Pnnts nt Tibe1 ol dsc bocks used in selected lies or
directories. Modified bom original version on disk 48 to make output more readable, and handle "C exit, includes soutee By: Joe Muetef,enhancements by Gaw Duncan Get .mage An enhanced vers.cn cf ‘gi* from ask 14 t new looks for tne GRAB marker, in the brush Ne. Instead of assuring that it is at a specific place, sets up the PunePidt value n toe Image structure, and dfeetes any imed btcfanes to save memory and d$ k space includes sorce Authcr Mke Famen, enbancererss by Chwx Brand MemFrag Displays rur per cf memory tfvnks »zes to show memory fragmentation. Chunks are dspiayed as 2"N bytes wtxch
ii a rcxugn gutee fx.1 s*J usefJ. Th-i n an enhanced vxrs-on cf 'Frags* from dsk 69. Todudes source By; M*e Meyter. Enlargements by Gay Djxan, Roses A program rat Craws sine roses, tirpiements an atgorihm grren in toe article 'A Rose is a Rose by Peter M. Maurer in American Mathematical Monthly. Vol &i. No. 7.1937. p 631. A sine rose is a graph cf the polar equation *r - tnfn’d)* for vanous values d n and d Author. Carmen Muo Unshar This prograrr extracts fifes from Urtx shat a'chves. It scoresovcf itmlar programs by bemg smal a,id fasti handing ertraewn of suWkrectorfes. Recogajing a wide
ar«ty cf seT and car rtw ferrats. And handbig large Ses spread ac-oss severaJ stw fifes. Ths is verson 13, an update to me vqrsten cr C«sk 297. Includes C scurte.
Autoor: Eddy Carrol Vc£d A Voce (T ore) Etftor for the Y amaha 4 C-peraior senes sjrrtoesaers B'-naryorfiy, source avaitabb from autoor.
Author Chuck Brand X2X Cross converts between Motore&'toteVTekmx ASC"- hex files. These files are typcafly used for down-tne- Icadmg rio EPROMS, or lor transmission where binary fies cause cnacs. Rarqfes Si. S2 S3. INTEL (me US3A records). Tekfrcna (nc ertendedi. Sourteuxl- Jed.
Autoor: Gay Duncan.
Fred Fish Disk346 Az A nice fittte taxtedrtcr that is fast smpfe to use. And very AmgaTzed This s verson 1.50. an update to FF 223.
With las cl new features, bug faes. And ether improvements Binary orty. By; JearvWchef Forgeas CassEti Cassette tape label prrter. Includes source m GFA Base.
Autoor. Thorsten Ludwig FME Paten to AdocMeriV) to asow badyceagned programs wtKh request fesl mem without nacessf t to be an on 5t3xmachnes, kckjdes soi pen user ber. Author.
HcJgerLutxtz GcWB Very sma* (296 bytes) and effective replacement lor the well known 'LoadWB' and *EndCU* command pair. This release fixes a se.rere bug n toe frst verscn wff.ch used la guru if run out of a sap: Incfudas source n C. Authcr.
Oliver Wagnw PacketSupport A Inx library, tor use with Lattice C. providing a few functiora to handte DOS packet postage. Indudes source. Authcr: Of.ver Wagner PatchNTSC OS fix la alicw the growtog number cf PAL dspiay programs to be run on NTS C machines. WJI paldi the imxtcn OpenScreenf) function to assure screens wth PAL fteighi to be opened in rserf ce mode. Includes source m assembler. Autoor Over Wagner Te»tPa*rt Seccnd maor release of the Ais enter. Alma.cr bugs have been ,ied. And a bunch of rewopoons have been added, e g possibrty to reload ar i fifes or CumodJes, 4 cdor option,
optimized keyboard layout, new drawing maort, ngrt mouse auran support i ke DeluctPan!) And much more 6nary only, iha.rewa.te- ByrOtver Wagn Tmetefl Working example to show toetirreOanc gmtn)e() functons or the Laltice C support library, indudes swree in C. Autoor: Oliver Wagner W8D Possbiy thjsmales! UWdy to set the wcrVbench screen to any depth Includes source m C. Sy: D-ver Wagner FttdHahPiam Cursor A 3-pass BASIC Compiler lor BASIC programs written in AmigaBASC, does net yet SuppCrt ait tf toe BASC commands but u able to compile itself. This is verscn 1 0. Rcirtei source. Autocr: Jurgen
Faster Dnp Dnp is an arcade styfe game w;?s 15 foorsflevels).
You must move along toe pipes of each fioor and rust them to advance to the next level. Every 3 floors completed wi' ere tie you to a bonus round where extra drps ca.i be won. An extra drip w!l a'so be awarded fa every 10.000 points. B«ary cr.ly. At ha: Art Sfeiles FredFshPHKW CcferReq Describes toe update to toe coiorlbrary aid has an eumpte crog.ra.rn, wto sxree. Toat demcrstrates« use. Aubxr: Dssxtentj Software DsEdtor This is a demo cf toe dss dents shareware text ed tor.
Verscn 1.1. binary orty. Autoor: D.ssderts Sortwaio D-sSeceury This program can be used to fife mformation r a “Tife cabttet' hype envinnmenL 5 e we" sated fa jobs such as manaring a cSSt cata'og. Or user group membership, etc. included is a data fie cf toe fitrary catalog, disks 1 lo 310. Version ’Wanda*, bna7 ony Author: Dcssibems Software FifeiO Contains updated fi'es ter versten 16 of the cedents requester fibrary. There s a bug fu 10 the fibrary as wef: as a r.ew function. See FF257 fa the compete documentation, arte examples. By; Dissidents Software iLBMLb Cortams updated fi’es fa toe
dssdats fibra cn FF237. Wch new Lb Searaes and a rew Ltrary Afso me.ucted is a much improved (better ogaazedl doc He. And new C exampes toat show how to use toe I-brary fa any knd of IFF fife. See FF23" ?a otoer tonnes Author. Dissidents Software MSJaTLibs A program to copy fJes to toe UBS dr of a boot ds*.
Can be used to create a handy r,sapatix program (hard dsks especially) for programs that need dsk- ba sed libraries, to jjes sdurce. By: Dssdet; Software SAM? An IFF sampled sound torma: designed fa profess,-onal muse use. It can be used la i6-t*T samples, multiple waveforms, etc includes a SAMP reader tenter shared library, interface routines, anti programming examples Aiso includes 3 program to ccrvert BSVX to SAMP. Author: DuwJerrts Software Frttfritf.0a.KJfl MED AmuSlC« citw llch!ikeSountiTracke., Ascng canssb of uo to 50 blocks of music, wh'Ch ca" be played m err oda Edfeng features
inckitie cut paste ccqy b&tos cr xcs, c•na.'cng toe .loato tempo.
CresceridQ, and note voone Ore' features ircute switching cf the low-pass-fiiter on a ol on a per song basts, and a cute kite animated porter of a guy Oorg ¦jLnp-n; ;acks* ntimeti: toer.usc1 Vas«n 2 00, an update a vtrscr T.12 on FF255 Now -ndudes fj: source. Autoor Te o Kmnen EffitflStLDaKaa Icons A large variety of icons la many uses, of practically every description. Most are animated. By Braiey Vi.
Scrienck Mem Mometer a program that opens a narrow window and graphically displays your memory usage Ike a gauge.
Based on Wfrags, by Tomas Rokjck Version 2.10, :ndudes source Author. Howard Hul Stiitoery Ths shareware program taadi un IFF mages and creates charted pmems from them fia u» n coated cross-Sbttft and Otoer forms of reedfewoO. 3 requres one rregabyte of memory to run. End works best wrto a good hgh-resokrtson printer !cr pnteng toe patterns The Stochery was wrrten wrth The Dreaa and toe Projector is -xridet Version t .21. Autoa BrajJey W. Scfenck TradsUils T wo uMt-es toat deal wrth disk racks. Tcopy copes cne a moe racks from one disk to another, and is utekJ tor copying part pf a fogey isk
into RAD: durrg boctup. Tfti© creates a djrr.my fife wnch ‘marks* a specified range of tracks, preventing AmigaDOS from using them and allowing them lo be used la raw trackdisk data. Includes C sou*ce. Author: EddyCarro!
To Be Cdrtrued.
LiLCanstuxlefl To !be best d1 04jr krcwle , tfie maiefials in tnu liraiy are f'sety disloDuiao'e. This neans l;ey wa’a ehhef putMicfy poaied and placed in tne pebic domain by Sieir authors, or they haae resiriciiors published in their ties lo wtveh we have acfiered. II you become aware ol any violation of me authors' wishes, pease contact us by mail.
IMPORTANT NOTICE!
Th s list is compiled and published as a service to the Commodore Amiga community for informational purposes only. Its use is restricted to non-commeical groups only! Any duplication for commercial purposes isstocdy forbtiden. As a pert of Amaz ng Conputing™, this icsi is inherently copyrighted. Any infringement on this proprietary copyr gm without expressed written permission of toe publishers will incur the fufi force of legal actions.
Any non-commercial Amiga user group wishing to duplicate this list should contact: PiW Publications, inc.
P. O.Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 PiM Publications Inc. is
extremely interested in helping any Am ga user groups in
ron-commercial support for the Am .9a, (continued from page
50) Saxon Publisher Makes Its Imprint!
Saxon Industries demonstrated their first Amiga entry Saxon Publisher ($ 450), an Amiga professional desktop publishing package. Saxon's documentation describes Saxon Publisher as being“... based on a more structured system of style text and tagging, in which elements of a document are given identifying names which can be stored for later retrieval, When creating a new document, you can draw on any work that you've done before, and can reformat entire paragraphs with a click of the mouse button."
This system allows a user to give a name to a particular style, including font, font sizes, and position, and then recall that style by name as needed. In the same way, a user may recall pages, text, bitmaps, boxes, and structured drawings used in other documents.
According to the documentation provided by Saxon, additional features of Saxon Publisher include: artificial intelligence routines for improved resolution of output, professional four-color separations (including full trapping and under color removal), bitmapped textures on text and structured drawings, vertical justification and drop caps, text sizes over 8000 points, non- rectangular lext boxes, and the ability to directly import 24-bit images without the need for conversion utilities.
When asked about the attention Saxon was receiving from attendees, Haris Majered, Saxon’s President, responded, “Many people at the World of Amiga asked if we were using an accelerator in our demonstrations on the A2000, but we were in a basic 68000 machine. We believe this confusion is caused by the extreme ease of use and processing speed of our program."
Superbase 4 Amiga Precision Software, famous for their Superbase Professional and Superplan, announced a new version of Superbase. Not to be released until Fall 1990, Superbase 4 Amiga ($ 495) will include features available in Lhe PC-compatible Superbase 4 for Microsoft Windows. Precision states that Superbase 4 will be the first Amiga database to support connectivity through local area networks based on either Ethernet or ArcNet "hardware and network software currently under development for the Amiga.
Superbase 4 features will include faster processing, an expanded Database Management Language (DML), plus a new forms creation tool which incorporates check boxes, radio buttons, images as buttons, and 3-D push buttons with the “tactile” look and feel of the new Amiga operating system.
Entertainment Electronic Zoo, a new face in the Amiga market, was among the many entertainment publishers at WOA. Electronic Zoo displayed a new graphic adventure game, WilliamTell(S39.95). EZ also announced several new entertainment pieces to be released in the next few months. Treasure Trap is an undersea treasure hunt through multiple puzzles ($ 39.95). Tennis Cup is a simulated tennis competition played on a variety of surfaces against 32 seeded players ($ 39-95). XIPHOS is a combination flight simulator and arcade action game due in mid-summer ($ 39.95). There is also Black Gold, billed as a
game of “Sabotage, Speculation and Strategy in the Oil Industry,” it should be available bv mid-summer ($ 39.95). Representatives from Accolade were exhibiting three new Amiga contributions, Blue Angels (a simulation of the famous precision flight group), Day of The Viper (a multilevel sci-fi action puzzie), and Harmony (a cool and thoughtful new turn in entertainment technology). Accolade now has over 40 games or auxiliary disks for the Amiga.
Electronic Arts showed 688 Attack Sub (a wartime submarine simulator) and the Indianajones titles. Eawas also providing a look at their new versions of DeluxePaint EQ and DeluxeVideo III.
Media Tech&BethesdaSoftworks, creators ofWayne Gretzky Hockey, combined to show the new Dragon’s Lair: Escape front Singe’s Castle with all the great graphics which has made Dragon’s Lair such a hit on the Amiga.
Another great graphics entertainer is Spectrum HoloByte.
Spectrum was demonstrating the ever-popular Falcon and Falcon's new Operation: Counterstrike disk, as well as Tetris, a game of falling shapes which combines dexterity, strategy and problem-solving skills, and Weltris, the new Tetris-style game in three dimensions.
Music On the music frontier, Dr. T’s Music Software Inc. created a stir with their KCSv3.0 Sequencing Program. Music Mouse, and Tiger Cub. KCS, or Keyboard Controlled Sequencer, ($ 275) is listed as “the only complete Desktop Music Workstation," with a long list of professional features including “drum machine style" automatic loop recording, mouse-controlled editing, and more. Music Mouse ($ 79) is another fun and educational way to make music. The mouse is moved to create tones, while the keyboard is used to select different patterns for an endless assonment of possibilities. Tiger Cub ($ 99)
is a small, powerful music program with plenty of features to entertain and educate real music editing and recording, Hologramophone Research introduced upgraded versions of Pixound and Hyperchord. Pixound ($ 99) transforms graphic art into music. Using the graphic image, Pixound moves the cursor across any picture and creates sounds based on the graphic "fingerprint" it discovers and the conditions the user sets. Hyperchord ($ 159) lets you create riffs or sequences of up to 40 notes to lie stored and then used in real time, it can store up to 30 riffs for real-time playback,
• AC* &MIGA AC GUDEJ M Two Great Ways to SA VE on the Original
Amiga Monthly Resource Complete Today, or Telephone
1-800-345-3360 Name_ Address.
City._ V SA State _Zip_ Charge my Uvisa DMC _ Expiration Date_ .Signature. Ail Charges are subject to a 520,00 minimum (charges under S20.00 will receive a $ 2.00 service charge).
Please cirde if this is a New Subscription or a Renewal PROPER ADDRESS REQUIRED. In order to expedite and guarantee your order, all large Public Domain Software orders, as well as most Back issue orders, are shipped by United Parcel Service. UPS requires that all packages be addressed to a street address for correct delivery.
PAYMENTS BY CHECK. All payments made by check or money order must be in US funds drawn on a US bank.
One Year Of Amazing!
Our regular subscription now includes 12 monthly issues of Amazing Computing plus die Spring edition of AC* GUIDE Mldt ?
?
$ 28.00 U.S $ 44.00 Foreign Surface $ 36.00 Canada and Mexico Our New SuperSub!
12 monthly issues of Amazinc Comoutine PIUS AC) ClllDFj&MfGA FI 3 Product Guides! Spring, Fall, and Winter! A savings of $ 32.25 off the O newsstand price. The Product Guides alone reLail for $ 6,95 each $ 36.00 U.S $ 52.00 Foreign Surface $ 44.00 Canada and Mexico (Domestic and Foreign air mail rales available on request) Please cirde any additional choices below: Back Issues: $ 5.00 each US, $ 6.00 each Canada and Mexico, S7.00 each Foreign Surface.
VI. 1 VI.2 V1.3 V1.4 VI .5 V1.6 V1.7 V1.8 V1.9 V2.1 V2.2 V2.3
V2.4 V2.5 V2* V2.7 V2.8 Subscription: S_ Back issues: $ _ V2.9
V2.10 V2.11 V2.12 V3.1 V3.2 V3.3 V3.4 V3.5 V3.6 V3.7 V3.8
V3.9 V3.10 V3.11 V3.12 V4.1 V4.2 V4.3 V4.4 V4.5 V4.6 V4.7
V4.8 V4.9 V4.10 V4.11 V4.12 V5.1 V5.2 V5.3 V5.4 V5.5 Back
Issue Volumes: Volume 1-S19.95* Volume 2-S29.95' Volume
3-S29.95* Volume 4-$ 29.95* 'All volume orders must include
postage and handling charges: $ 4.00 each US, $ 7.50 each set
Canada and Mexico, and $ 10.00 each set for foreign surface
orders. Airmail rates available.
Freely Distributable Software: Subscriber Special yes, even the new ones!)
1 to 9 disks $ 6.00 each 10 to 49 disks $ 5.00 each 50 to 100 disk $ 4.00 each 100 or more disks $ 3.00 each $ 7.00 each for non subscribers (three disk minimum on all foreign orders) Amazing on Disk: AC 1.. .Source & Listings V3.8& V3.9 AC 2.. -Source & Listings V4.4 AC 3.. .Source & Listings V4.5 & V4.6 AC£4.. .Source & Listings V4.7 & V4.8 AC 5.. .Source & Listings V4.9 AC 6.. .Source & Listings V4.10 & V4.lt AC 7.. .Source & Listings V4.12 & V5.1 AC 8.. .Source & Lstings V5.2 & 5,3 AC 9.. .Source & Ustings V5.4 & V5.5 AC 10 ..Source & Listings V5.6 & 5.7 InNOCKulation Disk: in i ...Virus
protection IS 1 20 2 21 3 22 23 5 24 6 25 7 26 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 33 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 5" 52 £3 54 55 56 NA 53 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 63 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 NA 81 82 83 84 35 86 NA 83 69 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 93 100 101 102 103 1W 105 105 107 103 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 135 137 133 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 145 147 148 149 150 15i 152 153 154 155 156 157
158 155 150 161 162 163 164 165 156 167 163 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 185 187 183 169 190 191 152 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 20i 2C5 206 207 2C8 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 223 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 233 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 245 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 2=4 255 256 257 259 259 260 261 252 263 254 265 266 267 263 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 273 279 280 281 232 283 264 285 265 237 268 239 290 291 252 293 294 295 295 227 233 299 303 301 3C2 303 3C4 305 306 307
3C8 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 313 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 325 327 323 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 (NA Denotes disks removed from the collection) 343 344 345 346 347 343 349 350 PDS Disks: Fred Fish Disks Total: Please complete this form and mail with check, money order or credit card information to: PiM Publications, Inc.
P. O. Box 869 Fali River, MA 02722-0869 Please allow 4 to 6 weeks
for delivery THE 4 i m I F
* & PERSONAL COMPUTER SHOW June 29 - July 1 at The Chicago Hyatt
Regency Chicago, Illinois Sponsored by jL Vf . VV O R LI)
Admission includes the Exhibition, Seminars, Keynotes & Amiga
Artists Theatre!
120 Amiga Exhibitors Featuring State of the Art Software and Hardware, at the lowest prices!
Master Classes Available in Amiga Graphics, Video, Programming, Animation, Rendering and Publishing!
Seating for Master Classes is limited; call for schedule and availability before registering.
PRE-REGISTRA TION DEADLINE IS JUNE 15,1990 (No cancellations or refunds after deadline) For Hotel Reservations Call the Chicago Hyatt Regency at (312) 565-1234 Hotel reservations deadline: June 13,1990 For discounted airfares, call American Airlines at (800) 433-1790 and give them this ID: 12Z 04F _______ __ hr Arm* an Register by Mail, or Bring This Coupon to the s ton' or Call 800-32-AMIGA Nationwide (or 914-741-6500) For Your Ticket to The Amina Event!
NAME __ COMPANY ADDRESS CITY Registration is $ 5 Additional At The Door ZIP STATE For MasterCard or Expiration Date_ Account Number_ VISA Payment Yes, I want to come to AmiEXPO-Midwest Friday Saturday Sunday Master Class!es) - List Class and Time - $ 60 Each One day - $ 15 Two days - $ 20 Three days - $ 25 Name as it appears on card: Signature_ Make Check or Money Order Payable to: AmiEXPO 465 Columbus Ate., Ste. 285 Valhalla, NY 10595 Total Amount Enclosed L . _ circle 172 on Reader .Service card. _ lmtronicsinc is making history bv introducing the worlds fastest PC clocked at 50 Mhz.
The HURRICANE 2800 brings ultimate performance to your Amiga 2000. The 68030 CPU is clocked at 28 Mhz and now also at 50 Mhz, with the 68882 FPU up to 33 Mhz. Now including a standard SCSI autobooting FFS hard drive controller which works under both the 68030 and the 68000. The board is asynchronous and gen-lock compatible. The hardware is switchable between 68030 and 68000 operation. A performance increase of more than 1200% compared to a stock Amiga is possible with 28 Mhz and even 2000% can be achieved with our 50 Mhz design. Memory is expandable with our MEMORY board and the complete
system fits into only one slot!
The M2000 memory board can be used with the HURRICANE 2800 and the HURRICANE 2000 accelerators. Ultrafast 32-bit RAM multiplies the performance of the HURRICANE boards. Due to our innovative design, the RAM speed on our board rivals those of 'burst' mode designed boards.
The HURRICANE 500 board turns your Amiga 500 into a 32-bit work station and is extremely easy to install in the 68000 socket. A performance of over 500% is possible with the 68020, additional performance increase can be reached with the 68881 68882 FPU of up to 33 Mhz. The HURRICANE 500 is hardware switchable between the 68020 and the 68000 operation.
12301 South West 132 Court Phone: (305) 255 9302 Miami, Florida 33186 Fax: (305)2556903 Circle 151 on Reader Service card.

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