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AmigaWorld 3 Much has transpired in the past few months, some of it positive and some of it negative. Commodore announced losses for the last quarter at the same time that income had increased. They laid off a number of employees and the press quickly jumped on them, some going as far as saying that Commodore and the Amiga were dead. I got many calls from concerned readers. Was Commodore discontinuing the Amiga? Is Atari running away with the market? Was Commodore folding? Did they close down the Los Gatos plant? Who was fired? Just what was going on, anyway? I have been following Commodore for a number of years and while this recent news isn’t great, it doesn’t really bother me either. I’ve seen Commodore and other computer companies make worse mistakes. From Commodore there was the Plus 4 and the C-16; from IBM the PC-Junior; Apple had the III and the Lisa; Tandy manufactured the model II and MC-10. Remember Texas Instrument’s 99-4A, the Coleco Adam, etc., etc.? So why is the press so quick to write Commodore obituaries? Because Commodore is an easy target. It is very difficult to get much information from them, and they have alienated a number of reporters in one way or another. Sometimes they don’t say enough and sometimes they say too much. Commodore isn’t going to fold. They aren’t going to drop the Amiga, Atari isn’t burying the Amiga in the sales race. Another up note is that software and hardware is beginning to show up at a steady rate around the AmigaWorld offices. (There is so much Amiga Beta- ware floating around that we finally decided that we won’t review products unless they are in a shrink-wrapped package and 100% ready for sale.) The number of companies producing, or in the process of producing, products for the Amiga has expanded to the point where we had to increase the size of the magazine to accommodate the additional advertisements. We are getting more and more calls, mail, visits from people who are doing some amazing (did I say that?) Things with their Amigas, and despite the stormy press and events at Commodore, the users, developers, fans and Amigaphiles have been progressing at an impressive rate. The advantage of having so much software and hardware show up is that the future of the Amiga begins to slip out of the hands of Commodore and into the hands of the users and manufacturers. After a certain point in the evolution of a new machine, the end users become the driving force and the machine succeeds or fails because of them, not because of the company’s marketing (or lack thereof). So, no matter w'hat Commodore does or doesn’t do with the Amiga, its future is set. People are using the Amiga to do things that other computers just can’t do, and with extra nudges, peripherals, software and imagination, the Amiga is finding itself in the most unusual and creative places.

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Amiga World Vol 02 05 1986 Sep Oct

Document sans nom DtgHoi Solutions Inc brings you the light with eosy to use software specifically designed to use the power of your Commodore Amiga''
Announcing IPO v Writer LPD'V Planner IPD'“ Filer Eoch ol these programs give you all the (unctions you would expect trom productivity software plus the following unique features:
LPD’V Writer. IPD " Planner and LPOlt Filer can run individually or together When running together, information can be transferred from one application to another manuolly. Or automatically using "links”, a transfer procedure unique to IPD software the software allows you to see all projects and applications through windowing. Each application can then be doomed" up to full screen size. You can execute a command by using the mouse, function keys or "short cut" command sequences A "suspend” feature allows you to put away all applications you are currently working on and o resume” command will restore the applications to the presuspended state. Also featured is on line memory resident help In addition. LPD Wrrter.
U>D'V Planner and lPD“Filer each have their own very special character istics
Powerful software that's simple
LPD Writer
Word Processor
muiipie databases r
IK> • wettie Word Processor*
muitple documents can Do o
mora Ilian one wndow can do opened
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lore thon one wndow eon to op cn a spocrlc dorocose lull oogc record lofouls x "Od lypos numeric, character.
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- pan generation inducing headers toorots and record by record cdcuiosons
i Digital l Solutions ' Inc.
30WermoimCourr.No ? Richmond Hit. Ontario Cancxla MB 1B5 te'echcv'e
(416) 731 B775
p. 12
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VOLUME 2, NUMBER 5
SEPTEMBER OCTOBER
1986
FEATURES
The Illusion of Life:
Traditional Character Animation on the Amiga
By Jeff Evans
How one man used the Amiga, a few tools and professional animation techniques to inexpensively make Atomic Fried Chicken.
E Oh No! It’s Mr. Bill!
By Melanie Ingalls
Filmmaker Walter Wiliams, the father of Mr. Bill, tells how he is using the Amiga to aid in the creation of a new character.
Astronomical Art and the Amiga
By Joel Hagen
A professional scientific artist uses the Amiga to take us to unexplored and mysterious locations in the Solar System.
Miami Vice Co-Stars Amigas?
By Vinoy Laughner
Will Crocket and Tubbs use Amigas to chase more seedy dealers from the stucco mansions of South Florida? Stay tuned.
Amiga Basic Graphics Primer
By Tim Knight
Capture the lightning of Amiga graphics through Basic and its graphics commands. Suitable for beginners.
ARTICLES
Amiga Sidecar
By Bob Ryan
Commodore’s hardware expansion with its 8088 microprocessor could soon place you in command of parallel universes: AmigaDOS and MS-DOS. A product preview.
Using Libraries from Amiga Basic
By Lou Wallace
Here is your pass for checking out, from Basic, the rows of routines in libraries in ROM or on disk.
Fundamentals of C: C Concepts
By William B. Catchings and Mark L. Van Name
Part Two in our series on learning the magic of C. In this issue we discuss key concepts.
Ld Art Behind Glass:
Aegis Images and Aegis Animator
By Vinoy Langhner
A review of two powerful programs from the graphics specialists at Aegis Development Inc.
The Amiga Shows Up
By Bob Ryan
A report on COMDF.X Atlanta and the enthusiasm there surrounding some powerful new products for the Amiga.
MaxiPlan Spreadsheet:
Unmistakably Amiga
By Bob Ryan
A preview of a product from MaxiSoft that makes good use of the Amiga's talents.
DeluxeVideo Construction Set
By Bob Ryan
Another preview, but not of just another program; animation power from Electronic Arts.
Textcraft Tricks
By Pebber Brown
Writing isn’t easy, but using a word processor should be especially on the Amiga.
AmigaWortd (ISSN 0883-2390) is an independent journal not ton netted with Commodore Business Machines. Inc. Amiga World is published bimonthly by CW Communications Peterborough, Inc.. 80 Pine St.. Peterborough. Nil 03458. T '.S. subscription rate is 519.97, one year. Canada and Mexico $ 22.97. one vear. U.S. funds drawn on
U. S. bank only. Foreign Surface 539.97. Foreign Air Mail 5" 1.97. U.S. funds drawn on U.S. bank. Second class postage pending at Peterborough. N'H. And at additional mailing offices. Phone: 603-924-9471.
COLUMNS
D Zeitgeist
Time again to put things back in perspective.
Info.phile
By Mark L. Van Name and William B. Catchings
Practical advice on file management; an orderly approach.
DEPARTMENTS
Repartee
Letters, letters, letters to the editors.
Hors d’oeuvres
From the serving tray of your experience.
Digital Canvas
Somewhere pleasant to rest your eyes.
Km Reviews
Flow, Amiga Transformer, The Hailey Project, Financial Cookbook, The Talking Coloring Book, Rogue and Temple of Apshai Trilogy, A Mind Forever Voyaging.
EES What’s New?
More, more, more new products for the Amiga.
Help Key
Where no problem is too small (and no answer is too long).
Coming Attractions
tut ire contents cop)right 1986 by CW Communications Peterborough. Inc. No part of this publication may be printed or otherwise reproduced without written permission from die publisher. Postmaster: Send address changes u> Amiga World, Subscription Services, l’O Box 954, Farmingdale, NY 11735. Nationally distributed by International Circulation Distributors. AmigaWorld makes every effort to assure the accuracy of articles, listings and circuits published in the magazine. AmigaWorld assumes no responsibility for damages due to errors or omissions.
Publisher
Stephen Twombly
Editor-In-Chief
Guy Wright
Managing Editor Shawn Laflamme
Review Editor Vinoy Laughner
Technical Editor Robert M. Ryan
Editorial Assistant Bill Jacob
Contributing Editors
Peggy Herrington, David T. McClellan
Advertising Sales Manager
Stephen Robbins
Sales Representative Ken Blakeman
Ad Coordinator Heather Paquette 1-800-441-4403
Marketing Coord nator Wendie Haines
Customer Service Manager Barbara Harris
Secretary 5t;e Donohoe
West Coast Sales Giorgio Saluti, manager
1-415-328-3470 1060 Marsh Road Menlo Park, CA 94025
Art Director
Glenn A. Suokko
Editorial Oesign
Glenn A. Suokko, Roger Goode
Production Advertising Supervisor Rosalyn Scribner
Design Assistants Anne Dillon, Karla Whitney
President CEO
James S. Povec
Vice-President Planning and Circulation
William P. Howard
Vice-Presldent Finance
Roger Murphy
Assistant General Manager
Matt Smith
Executive Creative Director
Christine Destrempes
Special Projects Director
Jeff DeTray
Special Projects Manager Craig Pierce
Graphic Services Manager
Dennis Christensen
Typesetting Supervisor Linda P. Canale
Typesetter Doreen Means
Manufacturing Manager
Susan Gross
Circulation Manager
Frank S. Smith
Direct Marketing Manager Bonnie Welsh
Single Copy Sales Manager Linda Ruth
Telemarketing Manager Kathy Boghosian
800-343-0728
Audits and Statistics Manager Susan Hanshaw
Director of Credit Sales & Collections
William M. Boyer
AmigaWorld 3
Much has transpired in the past few months, some of it positive and some of it negative. Commodore announced losses for the last quarter at the same time that income had increased. They laid off a number of employees and the press quickly jumped on them, some going as far as saying that Commodore and the Amiga were dead. I got many calls from concerned readers. Was Commodore discontinuing the Amiga? Is Atari running away with the market? Was Commodore folding? Did they close down the Los Gatos plant? Who was fired? Just what was going on, anyway?
I have been following Commodore for a number of years and while this recent news isn’t great, it doesn’t really bother me either. I’ve seen Commodore and other computer companies make worse mistakes. From Commodore there was the Plus 4 and the C-16; from IBM the PC-Junior; Apple had the III and the Lisa; Tandy manufactured the model II and MC-
10. Remember Texas Instrument’s 99-4A, the Coleco Adam, etc., etc.?
So why is the press so quick to write Commodore obituaries? Because Commodore is an easy target. It is very difficult to get much information from them, and they have alienated a number of reporters in one way or another. Sometimes they don’t say enough and sometimes they say too much.
Commodore isn’t going to fold. They aren’t going to drop the Amiga, Atari isn’t burying the Amiga in the sales race.
Another up note is that software and hardware is beginning to show up at a steady rate around the AmigaWorld offices. (There is so much Amiga Beta- ware floating around that we finally decided that we won’t review products unless they are in a shrink-wrapped package and 100% ready for sale.) The number of companies producing, or in the process of producing, products for the Amiga has expanded to the point where we had to increase the size of the magazine to accommodate the additional advertisements. We are getting more and more calls, mail, visits from people who are doing some amazing (did I say that?) Things with their Amigas, and despite the stormy press and events at Commodore, the users, developers, fans and Amigaphiles have been progressing at an impressive rate.
The advantage of having so much software and hardware show up is that the future of the Amiga begins to slip out of the hands of Commodore and into the hands of the users and manufacturers. After a certain point in the evolution of a new machine, the end users become the driving force and the machine succeeds or fails because of them, not because of the company’s marketing (or lack thereof). So, no matter w'hat Commodore does or doesn’t do with the Amiga, its future is set. People are using the Amiga to do things that other computers just can’t do, and with extra nudges, peripherals, software and imagination, the Amiga is finding itself in the most unusual and creative places.
Animation is one of those creative areas where the Amiga is already starting to generate some excitement. As you will see in this issue, there is a lot more to Amiga animation than Robo City and bouncing balls. Cel animation techniques on the Amiga are causing quite a stir in the animation field. We are beginning to hear about Amigas being used in some glamorous places by some pretty impressive people. The artist Walter Williams, who created the hapless Mr. Bill for Saturday Night Live, is using an Amiga as you will see in “Oh No! It’s Mr. Bill!” (p. 22). There is a possibility that you will be seeing Amigas on the set of Miami Vice this season (they wanted to “tech-up" the show a bit). We have heard that Disney Studios now has a handful of Amigas. Lucasfilms has been working with Commodore on a few projects. Other rumors have been floating around and we have been treking them down. The great thing is that most of them turn out to be true.
But just in case you prefer the less glamorous and more practical, we have included more meat to sink your teeth into. Part II of our series “Fundamentals of C.” “Using Libraries from AinigaBasic” and “AmigaBasic Graphics Primer” for those less C-inclined. This installment of info.phile talks about file management, and our feature review takes a look at Images and Animator, both from Aegis. And even if you don’t care about animation or graphics or art, take a look at “Astronomical Art and the Amiga” (p. 26). Here’s an artist
who uses the Amiga for more than just spaccy pictures; there’s some serious number crunching going on here.
The latest Comdex was held in Atlanta, and Bob Ryan, our staff techie, brought back a lot of information. In his special Comdex report (“The Amiga Show's Up"), Bob talks about Maxiplan, DeluxeVideo and the Sidecar, Commodore’s MS-DOS hardware expansion chassis that should he available sometime this Fall. (Where have 1 heard that before?) And for those interested in the IBM-PC software emulator that has been shipping, wre have a no-fluff, hardhitting review of the Commodore Transformer.
Finally, judging by the response to our July August issue, Hors d’oeuvres is an instant success and people liked our more substantive coverage. We have been fine tuning AmigaWorld all along, but wrc can really use your feedback. Let us know what you think about the magazine, the articles, the artwork, the columns, any and everything. We have to know when we’re striking the right notes with you and when we’re out of tune. If you don’t like something, tell us. If something we publish really turns you on, then tell us. If you don’t want your comments to wind up in our letters column, Repartee, then just say so at the top of the letter and wre will just keep it between you and us. If you wrant to give us a call, we are fairly easy to talk to and never too busy to listen to a reader. After all, you pay our salaries... which reminds me, I could use a raise.B
Kiss your earthbound buddies goodbye and travel the solar system in the most exciting space program ever envisioned.
The Hailey Project: A Mission In Our Solar System™ is history's first real-time space simulation.
Circle 3 on Reader Service card
by the stars from planet to planet, Complete all ten missions and be j invited to face the ultimate challenge: the incredible secret eleventh mission.
So take off to a software dealer and join an elite group of space explorers, As for your chums, tell them you’ll wave as you fly over.
PLANE
Its challenge provides out-of- this-world stimulation.
Lightweight space jockeys need not apply, this one's for qualified star pilots.
A rigorous ten-mission training program will test your knowledge and skill as you navigate
Software that challenges theX mind.
The Hailey Project is available on: Apple. Atari? Commodore* and Amiga}
Mindscape, Inc. 3444 Dundee Road. Northbrook, Illinois 60062,1-800-221-9884 (In Illinois 1-800-942-7315)
Copvright c Mindscape. Ire - R arts Reserved Aopie. Ater Commodore and Amiga are legrstered trademarks o* Apple Computer Ayr; Inc.. Commodore Business Macmnes. Arc
m moo ore-
' *

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v



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n
Repartee
Bravo to the Dumb Blonde
As a reader of your magazine since the premiere issue, I was beginning to worry that AmigaWorld luas going to be a proverbial “dumb blonde" that is, all looks and no brains. While your*s is the slickest, most stylish computer publication around, it suffered from a noticeable lack of substance. However, my fears have been laid to rest by the May June issue. With information on Amiga DOS, the text editor, Deluxe- Paint, IFF, screen-to-slide transfers, Amiga Basic and more, you at last have begun to provide the type of useful, enlightening articles your readers have been waiting for. I hope this is a taste of things to come!
Timothy Doherty Honolulu, HI
At I read (every page) of the May June issue of your publication, I felt the urge to stand up and issue the staff of AmigaWorld a hearty “Bravo." You have succeeded in the delicate task of providing specific, technical information while continuing to offer thought- provoking material about the use and future of the Amiga and microcomput- ing in general.
I especially appreciate the unbiased candidness of your hardware and software reviews. This renders them truly useful.
I am positive that I speak for a majority of Amiga followers and owners as I ask you to continue to provide issues which refect the content and style of the May (June edition.
Rick Carpenter
Pascagoula, MS
Warhol Means Business
I was both surprised and disappointed by the vitriolic tone of the letters about your Andy Warhol article. I think that these correspondents are negatively judging Warhol because of his celebrity status and enigmatic personality rather than clearly considering his very real tab ent, contributions and achievements.
Andy Warhol is an internationally recognized and respected artist who has created original and uniquely American images that portray aspects of American life and behavior in ways that are both revealing, insightful and disquieting, and with greater depth than some people apparently have the willingness or ability to perceive. Warhol using an Amiga can only benefit the A miga and its users by focusing attention and publicity on the Amiga and its special qualities and abilities.
As far as the art versus the business issue is concerned, art is a business! Art, design and graphics are a part of commerce just as much as spreadsheets and databases. Art and design are all around you if you look. Art, design and graphics are billion dollar industries that generate income, improve products and services and employ hundreds of thousands of people.
My wife, who is the art director for a $ 30 million garment manufacturing company, purchased two AMIGAs and peripherals that are in use eight to 10 hours a day designing textile patterns and garments and doing fast recolorations of past artwork. That's art and that's business!
Gary H. Reams
Los Angeles, CA
On the Hth Day of Christmas
Since buying my Amiga, I have received without charge:
Three updated disks and a new manual from Commodore.
An unsolicited refund check from Electronic Arts, accompanying an apology that they were unable to immediately fill a software order, and later, an unexpected DeluxePaint backup disk.
A free swap and upgrade of Oki- data's IBM plug-n-print kit I had purchased upon erroneous recommendation by Commodore.
Two Okimate 20 printheads after I reported to the service outlet that my original one wore out prematurely.
These companies definitely show class. Earnestness in assurring customer satisfaction is so rare today that indeed, it is a bit startling. Although poor documentation and lack of standards continue to vex and alienate the “computing consumer," in the area of conscientious customer service, we may be seeing a refreshing return to the days when the customer was king.
Dick Mealey
Clear, AK
Better Late Than Early
want my $ 495 back for my monitor. I was told when I purchased my Amiga (with a monitor at an extra cost of $ 495) that there would be no price reductions for the Amiga. Every store I went to gave me that very same promise and said word for word that this no-price'Change policy was straight from Commodore. How I can purchase an Amiga for $ 1,295, the same price as before, but I get a free monitor. Perhaps Commodore feels that since the actual price of the Amiga has not changed that they are living up to their promise. That's a pretty sad excuse for a promise, if you ask me. Believe me, if I knew I could save the $ 495 for the monitor when I was shopping last fall, I would have done so.
Robert F. Halle Southfield, MI
I realize that Commodore Business Machines has found it necessary to introduce its $ 500 price reduction on the Amiga (purchased with monitor) to remain competitive and to boost sales. However, I am wondering what Commodore is planning to do for those people, like myself who bought the Amiga when it was first introduced. We took a significant risk by buying a computer with an uncertain future from a company whose future was even less certain. I think it would only be reasonable for Commodore to provide original (pre-rebate) purchasers with some of the software that Commodore advertises new purchasers will be able to afford because of the price reduction. How about it,
Commodore?
Christopher R. Geiss
E. Northport, NY
The $ 500 rebate ended June
1. Unfortunately, at press time, Commodore had not announced any plans to offer early Amiga buyers price or compensation benefits.
Editors
Send your letters to: Repartee, AmigaWorld editorial, 80 Pine St., Peterborough, NH 03458. Letters may be edited for space and clarity.
Introducing Pow*R»Card . .Memory Expansion from RS DATA Systems"
A powerful new 8 Megabyte memory expansion board to give Amiga greater power and flexibility. Multi-tasking and multi-processing gain greater dimension without worry of out-of-memory crashes and dreaded Guru Meditation numbers.
Begin with a 2 Megabyte PowR*Card ™ and upgrade. . .2 Meg at a time. . .to 8 Meg, or purchase boards populated with a 4, 6, or a full 8 Megabytes of “Fast” RAM for almost unlimited power on the same board without sacrificing valuable slot space. Your PowR»Card'M fits all expansion boxes manufactured for the Amiga, including the new 7 slot expansion box by The Micro Forge. Imagine. . .up to 8 full Megabytes using only one slot! Only the Pow*RmCard ™ gives your Amiga that | much expandibility on a single board.
No other memory expansion product for the Amiga gives you the memory expandibility and flexibility of PowR'Card ™.
PowR*Card™. . .the last word in Amiga memory expansion.
The Pow»R*Card ™ is available now. . .from your nearest Amiga dealer. . .or call RS DATA Systems™. . .for expansion to the limit.
Trademarks:
Amiga-Commodore Business Machines, Inc. The Micro Forge-The Micro Forge
RS DATA Systems™ 7322 Southwest Freeway, Suite 660 Houston, Texas 77074 713 988-5441
Hors d’oeuvres
Here is another serving of Amiga delicacies for your dining and dancing pleasure.
Meaty morsels stuffed with subtle seasonings and tangy spices, all “byte-sized” and easily digestible; hints, tips and ideas to delight the palates of all Amiga users. Pop a fetv into your hungry Amiga and watch the smile spread across it’s face. Yours for the sampling, these gems are baked especially for discriminating tastes. All we ask is a fair trial and. . .perhaps you have an idea or two for the sharing.
If you are so inclined, then send us your hors d’oeuvres with your name, address and T-shirt size. (Ah yes, even though we keep all Hors d’oeuvres entries, we don’t pay cash for these goodies. However, to anyone submitting an accepted entry, we will send an official AmigaWorld T-shirt that will have your friends salivating with envy!) Send ’em hot-off-the-grill to: AmigaWorld Hors d’oeuvres, 80 Pine St.. Peterborough, XH 03458.
A note of warning: although we check ingredients, not everything spread on this table is 100 percent guaranteed. If you find a tip not to your liking, let us know so we can cross it off the menu next time.
Once again, Bon Appetit!
Date Time Startup Follow-up
In the July August '86 issue of AmigaWorld we published an Hors d’oeuvres tip for setting the date and time during the startup- sequence. We have received a few calls about it from people who couldn’t get it to work. There are three problems responsible. First, there has to be a space between the word DATE and the question mark that follows it. There is a space in the magazine, but it is a very thin one and many people didn’t see it.) Second, a few developers found that the DATE ? Command does not work with Workbench version 1.2 (the problem lias been reported to Commodore). Third, in the Echo prompt showing the date and time format, an extra Y slipped in somehow. The line should read: ECHO "DD-MMM-YY HH:MM”.
Quicker Disk
With a two-drive system, you can improve your directory access times on frequently used disks using a simple trick. Just format a new disk (and INSTALL if it is going to be a Workbench disk), then with the disk you want “fixed” in the internal drive and the new disk in the external drive, from the CLI type:
COPY DFO: TO DF1: ALL
This reorganizes the file layout and improves the directory access times noticeably.
Noah Sherman
Olympia, WA
Three Copy Tips
1) Copying Files can be a very slow process, especially if the source and destination files are on the same disk. This is because AmigaDOS uses a maximum buffer size of 512 bytes. 512 bytes are read, then written, read then written, etc., until the file is copied. You can increase the buffer size, and on files of 10K or so you can also increase the copy time by a factor of five or more. From the CLI use this sequence:
COPY sourcefilename TO RAM:
COPY RAM sourcefilename TO dest ina t ion plena me
DELETE RAM ’sourcefilename
2) If you find yourself copying a large number of files between multiple disks, no doubt you’re sick of reinserting your Workbench disk every time you turn around.
The reason you have to keep swapping disks is that AmigaDOS has to reload the
copy program each time it is used. You can eliminate all the swapping by putting a copy of COPY on a RAM disk by entering the following sequence from CLI:
COPY C:COPY TO RAM:
Then when you want to copy a file type:
RAM:COPY sourcefilename TO desti nationflename
3) The last copy trick is to use RENAME instead of COPY. This will only work if the source and destination files are on the same disk and if you only want one copy of the file, not two. For example, you could use RENAME to move a file from one subdirectory to another subdirectory on the same disk. The advantage to using RENAME over COPY is that the file is not copied only its pathname is changed. The RENAME command takes less than a second, regardless of the size of the file.
David Allen
Wcstbury, NY
r
Editor's Note: In the above examples using the COPY command, the word TO is optional, but we like to include it anyway because it isn't that hard to type and it clarifies things quite a bit when you are looking back over a screenful of COPYing. For more detailed information about copying pies, check our “info.phile" column in this issue.
VCR as Monitor
Due to limited finances, when we bought our Amiga we could not afford an external drive, memory expansion, or even the Amiga monitor. We had planned to use our home television set, but the salesman at the store said that would be difficult. He did, however, say that we might be able to connect the Amiga to the television through a home VCR, but he couldn’t guarantee the results.
We bought the Amiga anyway and headed home after a quick stop at Radio Shack for cables. (ED’s note: see our next tip
Circle 23 on Reader Service card.
Software designed for AMIGA.
Lattice C Compiler $ 149*95
With more than 30,000 users worldwide, Lattice C Compilers set the industry standard for MS-DOS software development. Lattice C gives you all you need for development of programs on the AMIGA. Lattice C is a full implementation of Kernighan and Ritchie with the ANSI C extensions and many additional features.
AMIGA C Cross Compiler $ 250.00
Allows AMIGA development on your MS-DOS system. Price includes the above product.
Lattice Screen Editor (LSE™) $ 100.00
Designed as a programmer's editor, Lattice Scree i Editor (LSE) is fast, flexible and easy to learn. LSE's multi-window environment provides all the editor functions you need including block moves, pattern searches and "cut and paste." In addition, LSE offers special features for programmers such as an error tracking mode and three Assembly Language input modes. You can also create macros or customize keystrokes, menus, and prompts t o you r st yI e and p referen ces.
Lattice dBC III Library™ $ 150.00
The dliC III library lets you create, access anti update files that are compatible with Ashton-Tate's dBASE system. DI3C Ill's C functions let you extend existing dBASE applications or allow your users to process their data using d iC ill or dBASE 111.
Lattice Make Utility (LMK') $ 125.00
An automated product generation utility compatible with UNIX Make. Lattice Make I 'tility (LMK) lets you rebuild complex programs with a single command. Once you specify the relationships of the various pieces of your system in a dependency file, IS IK automatically rebuilds your system the same way every time, and only compiles program files that have changed. But LMK is not limited to updating programs. You can use LMK to update documentation or perform any executable command!
Lattice Text Utilities ™ $ 75.00
l. attice Text Utilities (EEL} consists of eight software tools to help you manage your text files. GREP searches files for the specified pattern. DIFF compares two files and lists their differences. EXTRACT creates a list of file names to he extracted from the current directory. BlIII.D creates batch files from a previously generated file name list, WC displays the number of characters and optionally the checksum of a specified file. ED is a line editor which can utilize output from other ITU software in an automated batch mode. SPLAT searches files for a specified character string and replaces every occurrence with a specified string. And FILES lists, copies, erases or removes files or entire directory structures which meet the specified conditions.
Lattice Unicalcx Spreadsheet $ 79.95
Unicalc is a simple-to-operate program that turns your AMIGA computer into an electronic spreadsheet. Using Unicalc you can easily create sales reports, expense accounts, balance sheets, or any other reports you had to do manually.
Unicalc offers the versatility you've come to expect from business software, plus the speed and processing power of the AMIGA.
• 8192 row by 236 column processing area • Comprehensive context-sensitive help screens • Cells can contain numeric, algebraic formulas and titles * Foreign language customization for all prompts and messages • Complete library of algebraic and conditional functions • Dual window capabilities • Floating point and scientific notation available • Complete load, save and print capabilities • Unique customization capability for your every application • Full compatibility with other leading spreadsheets.
Lattice MacLibrary™ $ 100.00
The Lattice MacLibrary™ is a collection of more than sixty C functions which allow you to quickly and efficiently take advantage of the powerful capabilities of the AMIGA.
Even if your knowledge of the AMIGA is limited, MacLibrary can ease your job of implementing screens, windows and gadgets by utilizing the functions, examples and sample programs included with the package.
Other MacLibrary routines are functionally compatible with the most widely used Apple* Macintosh1'* Quickdraw Routines™, Standard File Package and Toolbox Utility Routines enabling vou to rapidlv convert vour Macintosh programs to run on the.AMIGA.
Panel1' $ 195.00
Panel will help you write your screen programs and layer your screen designs with up to ten overlapping images. Panel s screen layouts can be assigned to individual windows and may be dynAMIGAlly loaded from files or compiled into a program. Patiel will output C source for including in your applications. A monitor and keyboard utility is also included to allow you to customize your applications for other systems.
Wiih Lattice products you get Lattice Service including telephone support. Notice of new products and enhancements and a 30-day money- back guarantee. Corporate license agreements available.
Lattice, Incorporated Post Office Box .3072 Glen Ellyn. Illinois 60138
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about cables.) When we hooked everything up, it turned out to work beautifully! Not only could we use the VCR as a “TV Amiga interface," but we then had the added advantage of being able to record directly from the Amiga onto videotape. We have since added an audio cassette deck and we make Amiga Videos for our friends.
In short, we are happy with our minimum purchase and have found an added dimension to owning a home computer.
Ruth Jenkins and Jeff Collins
Tucson, AZ
VCR Connection
Those of you who are video buffs may be wondering how to connect your Amiga to a VCR. It is really quite easy. On the back of the Amiga there is composite video output running through a female RCA video jack (marked simply VIDEO), just use a cable with an RCA male connector at each end. (Radio Shack part number 422365 is about a three foot long cable, but they sell longer cables as well.) Plug one end into the Amiga video output jack and the other end into the jack marked VIDEO INPUT on the back of your VCR. That’s all there is to it!
Sonny Shrivastava San Ramon, CA
Editor’s Note: If you want to get fancier, buy two RCA male-to-male cables and a “Y” cable (RCA male, male-tofemale) so you can connect your Amiga audio to the VCR as welt. The male ends of the Y cable plug into the audio output jacks on the hack of the Amiga; your second male-to-male cable connects the female end of the Y to the AUDIO INPUT jack on the VCR. If you have a stereo VCR, just buy three RCA male-to-male cables (one for video and one for each of the audio channels).
Auto CAT Window
I am a fifteen-year-old student living on Long Island and I have a tip that might be useful for people who like to use both the CLI and Workbench. First, make a copy of your Workbench as a precaution. From the CLI prompt type:
ED S STARTUP-SEQUENCE
then move the cursor down and add the following line just before the last line (which reads ENDCLI >NIL:):
NEWCLI CON:540 150 100 50 CLI
Press the escape key, then the X key and return to save your modified startup-se* quence. (If you mess things up hopelessly, press Q instead of X to bail out of the editing without saving your changes.)
This command opens a new CLI as a console window, which means that you must
7 j
give the X and Y coordinates, the width and height of the window, and a title. The first two numbers in my line above (540 and
150) arc the X and Y coordinates, which determine the placement of the window (in this case the lower right of the screen). The next two numbers (100 and 50) are the width and height of the window; the last part (CLI) is the name that you want to appear on the title bar of the new window.
The Workbench screen is in the 640 x 200- pixel mode, so consider this if you want to change the location of the window; note that, in my example. 540+ 100 = 640 (screen pixel width), and 150+50 = 200 (screen pixel height).
Once you have altered the starmp-se- quence and rebooted, you will be in Workbench, but a small CLI window will be automatically opened in the lower right of the screen. The advantage of this method is that you don’t have to have quick fingers for a CTRL-D, or lots of patience for opening drawers and windows to get to a CLI. And when you want to go back to Workbench from the CLI, you don’t have to type LOADWB return ENDCLI as you would with other variations of startup-scquenees.
Michael Rubino
Commack, NY
Editor's Note: When you use ED to modify or create a file like the startup sequence, and then hit escape, X, and return to save your changes, the
CLI “ > ” prompt will appear on the screen for a few seconds before the disk operations are complete. WAIT FOR THE RED LIGHT TO STOP before rebooting with CTRL, Amiga, Amiga, or you may scramble your disk. We discovered this one the hard way.
Joysticks
Contrary to what my dealer told me (that I would have to buy an Amiga joystick if I wanted to play such games as Electronic Arts’ Seven Cities of Gold), you can use any of the numerous Atari joysticks available (or Commodore 64, VIC-20, etc.). IBM, Apple and Radio Shack joysticks, however, will not work.
Robert E. Keeley
Berwyn,IL
Amiga Basic Joysticks
While trying to use the joystick functions STICK and STRIG in Amiga Basic, I found some errors in the documentation (pp. 8*
143 and 8-144). The manual states that return values for the Y directions on both A and B joysticks are 1 for the “up" direction and - 1 for the “down” direction. Actually it is the other way around. A return value of 1 means down and a return value of - 1 means up. The X direction functions are described correctly in the manual.
The STRIG function explanation has two mistakes. First, the return value stated for “depressed fire button” is 1 when it should be - 1. Second, the subscripts to acquire status from B joystick should read STRIG
(2) and STRIG (3), not STRIG (0) and STRIG (I).
This was aggravating to figure out, so I thought I would share this information with others who may want to use these functions in their own programs.
Rob Fallier
Vidalia, GA
Use the Brains your Commodore Wasn't born With.
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‘ i :
v> i&a,
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Illustration bv Steven Lvons
*
The Illusion of Life: Traditional Character Animation On the Amiga
With the Amiga and a few good tools, you can create the visual magic of animation.
By Jeff Evatts
Animation pervades our visual media. The proof of this is evident every time we sit for a while in front of the TV. Saturday morning cartoons, most TV ads, scientific and educational programs and news and documentary programs all employ special effects produced through the various techniques of animation. The animation community also creates much of the imagery used in modern mass communications. Animation in corporate training and promotional videos and slide shows is another common and enormously important use of the art.
Mickey and Bugs
It is generally agreed that the highest achievement of animation is character animation the process of creating a series of images that conveys to the observer the “illusion of life." When we think of Mickey Mouse or Bugs Bunny, we think of a genuine character who, even if not real, has a memorable personality and distinctive characteristics. Our emotional response to Dumbo or Daffy Duck can be as real and strong as the response we have to Laurel and Hardy or Luke Skyvvalker.
Unfortunately, the art of classical character animation has become a very expensive and risky proposition. Over the last twenty years, good quality character animation has at times seemed to be on the verge of extinction, due to changing markets and rising costs. Recently there has been something of a revival due to the popularity of science Fiction and fantasy films in general. However, full classical character animation as opposed to the limited Saturday morning variety is very difficult and rare.
All over the world, animators and animation enthusiasts have yearned for an economically viable and artisti-
J i
cally satisfactory system to do quality character animation. Below I will describe something that could revolutionize this field a fine quality animation system using the Amiga, available for around $ 3,500. First, though, let’s take a brief look at the traditional method of character animation.
Animation Then and Now
In the traditional method, referred to as cel animation or classical animation, an animator draws a series of pictures on sheets of paper that are held in register by animation register pegs. The drawings are then traced or photocopied onto transparent sheets or cels (short for celluloid) and painted. The eels are then placed one by one over a background and photographed by a stand camera. The sequence of frames taken by the camera, when quickly and continuously projected onto a screen, provide the desired illusion of movement.
Since the heyday of classical animation, epitomized in the feature animations produced by Disney Studios, most of the innovations in animation have been concentrated on automating the production steps and replacing the time-consuming hand drawing and painting with computerized processes. The process I’ll describe, which we’ll call AmigaAnimation, attempts to reverse this trend in some respects by emphasizing the animator’s personal hand-drawn images as the basis of the entire process, and by integrating the video production process on a couple of simple and inexpensive devices. All phases of the process are under the complete control of the animator, and at a cost that any individual or small organization can afford.
A m igaA n imation
The basic AmigaAnimation system comprises an animator with a pencil, a digitizing pad, an Amiga with 512K minimum and a VCR. The digitizing pad I used is called EASYL, and is made by An akin Research Inc.
see the accompanying product profile).
Using EASYL, the animator makes a series of drawings on pieces of paper held in position by register pegs, as in the traditional method of animation. Sketching lightly on the sheets does not activate the pressure sensors. When the animator is satisfied with a drawing and firms it up by pressing harder with the pencil, the drawing is input to the computer by EASYL and displayed on the monitor.
This procedure is similar to the classical method so far, with one radical difference: It is the animator’s mere act of drawing that inputs the “cel” into the animation process. This eliminates photocopying, painting, shooting on (he animation stand and all associated costs.
At this point, the digitized drawing can be colored, placed over a background, or altered at will by the animator. Because EASYL images conform to the IFF format, many other Amiga images can be included, from a landscape produced with a paint program to a picture from a digitizing camera or a videocassette recorder. The image on screen can be stored on disk or dumped directly to videotape. A series of images sent to videotape can then be edited and dubbed using normal video-editing techniques.
Making Atomic Fried Chicken
My first crude example of AmigaAnimation was created in February 1986 in Toronto, Canada. I was invited to produce a computer video piece for a group art show in a small art gallery. The common theme was "chickens.” (The gallery is next to a chicken packing plant, and the floor is continually covered with chicken feathers tracked in by patrons!) I decided to do a two- minute video entitled Atomic Fried Chicken, featuring a materialistic chicken who is made aware of the danger
of nuclear war in a very sudden and final fashion.

Using EASYL, I designed the character, sketched back-
Artist’s EASYL
Anakin Research of Rexdale Ontario, Canada, has a pressure-sensitive digitizing tablet that makes entering traced or original drawn images directly to the Amiga an easy process.
EASYL allows the artist to draw on paper affixed to its surface and, depending on the amount of pressure applied, transfer the drawing directly to the Amiga’s screen. EASYL has an 8 1 2 x 13-inch surface and a resolution of 1,024 x 1,024 pixels, it can be used with Amiga paint programs, or alone with its own software, which allows easy access to the Amiga’s resolution levels. Images created with EASYL software are in IFF format. Source for the software is also included, facilitating special applications such as image processing.
EASYL is available for S499. Contact your local Amiga dealer or Anakin Research, 100 Westmore Drive, Unit 11C, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada MOV 5C3.
416 744-4246. ¦
grounds, tried out color schemes and created the storyboard.
When I was satisfied with the pre-production planning, I started animating. Lsing Lhe register pins mounted on EASYL, I drew the key drawings for the animation of the chicken character, sketching the drawings on separate sheets of paper. I drew lightly with a pencil, flipping the separate sheets and correcting the movements until I was satisfied.
Since I was sketching lightly, the initial drawings didn’t activate the pressure sensors on EASYL; when I pressed harder while making the final over drawing on each sketch, my act of drawing inpul the lines into the computer. If I made mistakes or wanted to change the drawing, 1 could “erase" part of the old drawing. I colored the drawings using the instant fill touch command with EASYL, and stored each image as a file on an EASYL data disk. After taking the files representing line drawings and transferring them over to DeluxePaint, I stored the figures as brushes on DeluxePaint data disks.
I then called up the background that I wanted to use and dropped the colored line drawings onto the background, one frame at a time. The resulting composite of animation drawing and background was then shot off the monitor screen with a video camera and stored on videotape. I could have sent the screen image direct to VCR via the Amiga video output plug, but I lacked the correct RCA jack and time was pressing, so I used a video camera.
1 then took the videotape of the Amiga images to a VHS editing facility (they specialized in making videos of weddings and bar mitzvahs). In half an hour, the music track (the overture to Also Sprach Zarathustra) was synchronized to the images and the video was complete. I then used DeluxePaint to do the titles and credits.
The time involved from the beginning of the animation using EASYL to delivery of the finished film to the art show was 28 hours. The time actually spent animating and shooting onto video was 18 hours. The point to emphasize here is that this was a first attempt, and 1 was lacking the tools necessary for integrating sound and for editing on the Amiga. These tools should be available soon.
The cost of materials (four Fuji disks and one video- cassette) was about $ 20, and the cost of VHS editing and mixing was about $ 12. Thus, the total cost of the video was around S32.
At the art show, the artists and the others attending were fascinated by a seemingly professionally-made (though slightly fowl) video that was obviously custom- made for the show.
Present Limitations
Obviously, any video shot from a TV screen with an ordinary video camera is not going to he very clear, yet it was watchable. All the frames still exist on disk, and I intend to redo the video using the video output on the Amiga, going directly to videotape.
With 512K available on my Amiga, it wasn’t possible to use DeluxePaint and EASYL in high resolution with the speed and flexibility I wanted. I used low resolution
Can you pass this simple true
test on structured programming;
Itrue BASIC ’ is a true, structured language.
0* True. ? False.
Skemeny can also help teach students mathematics.
ST True. CD False.
True-with the Kemeny and Kurtz Mathematics Scries, including programs on algebra, trigonometry, pre-calculus, calculus, probability theory, statistics, and discrete mathematics. They’re reasonably priced at only $ 49.95 per single copy with quantity discounts available.
True BASIC offers a full selection of control structures like SELECT CASE, nested IF-THEN-ELSE IF, and DO-LOOP, and external procedures which can he compiled into libraries, making True BASIC faster, easier, and more flexible.
K
lot*11
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Til
2 True BASIC has a wide range of powerful features. 5 True. ED False.
True BASIC has a complete matrix algebra package and the best graphics ever in a higher level language. And there are optional libraries for things like sorting and searching and 3-D graphics.
3 Programs in True BASIC are fiilly portable.
E? True. CD False.
Programs written in True BASIC will run on any computer which runs True BASIC, good news for anyone who uses more than one kind of personal computer.
4 Classroom Computer Learning named True BASIC one of the “Outstanding Products of1985.”
?fTrue. CD False.
Not only that, but Byte magazine called it “Superior to Microsoft™ BASIC.”
PC magazine said it was “the easiest to learn of all the BASICS....” And finally Electronic Learning concluded c 1 Good graphics have never been easier ”
O. K. You’ve made me a True believer.
Whether you’re programming for your own applications, teaching others, or developing products to go to market, you should consider the advantages of True BASIC. After all, the true test of a good product is adoption. And True BASIC has passed that test. High schools, universities, and corporations around the world have chosen it.
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It’s a flexible, powerful structured programming language that you can depend on, 100 percent. True BASIC is available for the IBM™ PC and compatibles, Apple Macintosh," and Commodore Amiga'"
To order call 1-800-TR-BASIC.
I n New Ha mpsh i re, C%
call (603) 643-3882.
Or send the coupon below.
BASIC information necessary to pass this test: John Kcmcny and lorn Kurtz invented the original BASIC programming language. Now they're back with an even better version: a flexible," easy-to-use structured programming language they call True BASIC.”'
Svucm requirements: IBM PC 192k. IX)S2 0 +; Miciiuosh 12XK; 5I2Krccommcmkd. Am.gj 5I2K
Mtcrmoft i j trademark ofMkannlt Corporation. IBM is i trademark oflntcrrutmiu! Business Machines Corporation. Macintosh is a trademark of Apple ComputcrCqfpotafion. Amiga is j trademark of Commodore Business Machines. True BASIC is a trademark ofTrue Basic, Inc. *
When you use the most sophisticated and exciting computer on the market today, you deserve an equally sophisticated and exciting companion magazine.
Introducing AmigaWbrld. Published by CW Communications Peterborough, the leader in quality computer publications. It's the only magazine for Amiga users.
AmigaWorl&s clearly-written features help new users take full advantage of the newest Commodore. Plus, livelv and fullv-illustrated articles offer inspiration to
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even-one who wants to be creative while learning.
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You'll get outstanding color reproduction on high- quality. Oversized pages. Instead of a reasonable facsimile. You'll see true-to-Iife examples of the Amiga's colorful graohics!
O i
Magazine
Making the Amiga Work For You
With unrivaled graphics and sound capabilities, the Amiga is already in a class by itself. AmigaWorld not only tells you why, it shows you how every incredible feature can work for you.
In each issue, AmigaWorld authors will guide you through a new frontier of computing!
Subscribe to AmigaWorld today and:
• Explore the speed and versatility of the Amiga for home and business applications.
• Leam about the latest and very best new hardware software on the market.
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• Discover a regular buyer's guide, timely reviews, and user hints and tips.
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The cost of an AmigaWorld subscription couldn’t be better! By becoming a charter subscriber, you’ll save 25% off the basic subscription rate, and nearly 37% off the cover price!
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instead. The results were still amazingly good. RAM expansion and a hard disk will virtually be a must if you want to get the best and quickest results.
Continued from p. 14
Backgrounds drawn with DeluxePaint are fine, but it would be nice to be able to use backgrounds executed in other media also (e.g., watercolors). With a video digitizer, this will be easy for you to do. It will also be much more feasible to synchronize frames with a sound track when genlock becomes available, which could dump a set number of frames to VCR,
Even at the maximum resolution of 640 X 400 pixels, video animation from the Amiga won’t travel well to a big movie screen. However, on video it is excellent, and the whole aim of this process is to produce video as the final product.
Advantages
AmigaAnimation allows the production of fine character animation on video. It is “artist-friendly.” I also found EASYL to be an incredibly responsive and simple tool for this purpose; The prerequisite for using EASYL is knowing how to hold a pencil! Since EASYL uses animation pegs to hold the paper sheets in register, the process of sketching, flipping, correcting and making the final drawing is preserved, thereby emphasizing traditional animation skills. This is the process by which the finest character animation in the world has been traditionally produced. EASYL replicates every' subtle curve and change of line on the original drawing to the limit of the resolution mode.
AmigaAnimation radically simplifies the production process. The former procedure for character animation involved many widely separated steps, many specialists, and many complicated and expensive bits of machinery. In addition, the bureaucracy involved in finding the money for such projects and in keeping track of everything usually made the creative process very fragmented, and often left writers and animators with very- little freedom.
However, this system is very accessible. Think of it: For about one third the price of a car, anyone can own a complete video-animation facility. The cost of an Amiga with two drives and 512K, FASYL, a VCR and a pencil is about $ 3,000. Many schools, businesses or individuals can, for an unprecedented price, do their own profes- sional-quality animation production.
That's All Folks!
Will the Amiga figure in a reasonable solution to the neglect of traditional animation caused by its prohibitive costs? The implications of using the Amiga combined with the power of video to do this type of animation do seem significant enough to rekindle a lot of enthusiasm for this fascinating art form, on both professional and popular levels. AmigaAnimation could truly be a catalyst in a renaissance of traditional character animation. ¦
Address all author correspondence to Jeff Evans, cfo Vellum Print and Graphics, 37 Staffem Drive, Concord, Ontario, Canada UK 2X2.
Circle 71 on Reader Service card.
Take off on an interactive, educational space adventure . - ? Aboard your powerful and complex spaceship
HERE NOW
• Engulf yourself' ] in the full potential of your Amiga j- with graphics, music and rCK . -talking «‘ K v. robots
As you 'wjSJ explore and repair the ’ - inner workings of Discovery, you will be challenged with solving math and spell ing problems while being called upon to muster every bit of your joystick skills. The level of difficulty is set by yoU.
P. O. Box 3475 Granada Hills, CA 91344 Dealer's inquires invited
(818) 360-3715
Once Upon a time... Enter the Magical Land of Holm, where you participate in the adventures [ of three brothers as they seek their ultimate fate in The Faery Tale Adventure. Travel with brave |ulian, lucky Philip and gentle Kevin, on their quest through a faeryland full of vicious monsters, enchanted princesses, fearsome dragons and even a kindly old woodcutter or two. There are forests, oceans deserts, mountains, castles, caves, villages a huge landscape that will take you weeks to explore, let alone conquer.
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Earth will be destroyed in 12 minutes to make way for a hyperspace bypass.
Should you hitchhike into the next galaxy?
Or stay and drink beer?
AND ELL YOU WHAT A GREAT CHAP YOU ARE AND THEN THE EARTH GETS UNEXPECTEDLY DEMOLISHED, YOU WAKE UP WITH A HANGOVER WHICH LASTS FUR ALL ETERNITY, YOU HAVE DIED,
Slip the disk in your computer and suddenly you are Arthur Dent, the dubious hero of THE HITCHHIKER’S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY, a side-splitting masterwork of interactive fiction by novelist Douglas Adams and Infocom’s Steve Meretzky. And every decision you make will shape the story's outcome. Suppose for instance you decide to linger in the pub. You simply type, in plain English:
DR INK THE BEER And the stoiy responds:
YOU GET DRUNK AND HAVE A TERRIFIC TIME FOR TWELVE MINUTES»
ARE THE L IFE AND SOUL OF THE PUBt THEY ALL CLAP YOU ON THE BACK
Suppose, on the other hand, you decide to:
EXIT THE VILLAGE PUB THEN GO NORTH
In that case you’ll be off on the most hilarious adventure any earthling ever had.
You communicate-and the story responds-in full sentences. So at every turn, you have literally thousands of alternatives. If you decide it might be wise, for instance, to wrap a towel around your head, just say so:
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M RAP T H E TOWEL r R U U N D M V HEAD And the story responds:
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IT IS SO DIM IT THINKS IF YOU CAN'T SEE I T ? IT u A N I SEE Y 0 U *
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AEGIS
Animator Images ... $ 89
Draw .....$ 125
Images ...$ 69
Impact ....$ 125
AMIGA
Lisp ......$ 149
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Financial Plus $ 250
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Logic Works ......$ 159
CHANG LABS
Accts Payable $ 109
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Digital Link $ 49
Gizmos ...$ 39
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DigiView Software . . $ 185 DISCOVERY
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ELECTRONIC ARTS Adv. Constr. Kit .... $ 29
Archon ...$ 29
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Dpaint Data Disk ... $ 25 Dpnnt Data Disk ... $ 25 Financial Cookbook $ 35
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Maxidesk .$ 52
Maxiplan ..$ 109
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Oh, No! It’s Mr. Bill!
Filmmaker Walter Williams, creator of Mr. Bill, talks about using his Amiga to develop a new character for television.
By Melanie Ingalls
Walter Williams, (he master of “low-tech television” has traded his Super-8 camera for an Amiga and is at the keyboard these days, putting the finishing touches on a new character for television. “It’s still in development and I’m not allowed to give it away,” says Walter, “but I can tell you that he’s a perfect character for the '80s and the Amiga was invaluable in defining his look and personality.”
Mr. Bill’s New Buddy
You'll have to wait to find out who he is. But Walter talked at length about the part the Amiga played in his new character’s development. “1 wanted to show the network executives how the character would look and sound, without going to the effort and expense of filming a segment. So. 1 decided to do a short animated storyboard on the computer. Using my Amiga, I was able to draw the character, animate him, create voices and titles, and write and orchestrate a theme song. 1 laid it all out onto video, edited it just like a film and presented the tape to show them how the show would look.”
He began by drawing the character’s features eyes, ears, nose, arms, legs and saving them separately as brushes before assembling them. “This way,” he says, “I could play with a single element, shrink or enlarge it, move it around, change the color, until I had exactly what I was looking for” He found that the Amiga was a perfect tool for sketching because it allowed him to change his mind freely. "If I’d been working on paper it would have taken me much longer.”
After designing the character and the basic scenes, Walter worked with an artist friend to complete some of the compositions. “It was fun to see how quickly he took to the Amiga. He was amazed by the amount of
Walter Williams
detail he could get in a picture using the magnify function; and he found it a great advantage to be able to save and reuse an object not to have to draw it over and over, each time it appeared”
When he was satisfied with the elements of a scene, Walter tackled the problem of animation, using Aegis Animator. His character has arms and legs that rotate and telescope and he had to create sections almost 30 in all that would slide in and out of one another. It was his first attempt at traditional animation and he was impressed both by the size of the job and by the Amiga's ability to handle it. “There were so many things I wanted to do in each scene. I’m glad I cheated with Mr. Bill (who doesn’t move without the help of Mr. Hands or a large truck) or I’d still be working on my first film!”
Some Fitn Tricks
Walters biggest problem was lack of memory. “I got a little panicked early on when the machine kept saying
‘gotta go,’ but I soon learned a few tricks.” For example, he says, say no when the machine asks, “disable undo?” It will say, "have it your way,” and let you continue with more memory. But beware: it might take the object you were working with and place it somewhere else on the screen. "To get it back, select Undo from the project menu. . .and hold your breath,"
Memory shortage also caused continuity problems. Walter drew a family and a dog in front of a TV set and wanted to have the woman move her head while the dog’s tail wagged. He didn't have enough memory to do both things in the same shot. However, he knew he could edit two shots together in video post-production if he could find a way to make the pictures line up. He discovered a trick. Save the first picture as
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M Script A, go into the storyboard and splice die last tween of Script A onto a new storyboard frame. Save that new frame as Script B. Next, clear Script A from RAM by selecting New Script, load Script B, and continue the sequence. By splicing the last tween of the first sequence onto the next storyboard frame, the objects will be in alignment.
Walter is anxious to acquire more RAM expansion as soon as it becomes available. In the meantime, what is the best advice he can offer the would-be Amiga animator?: “Save every little piece and every movement as you go along. . .
How He Did It
The final five-minute storyboard was made up of 53 shots created with DeluxePaint, Aegis Images and Aegis Animator. How would he compare these programs for creating images for animation? “Really, you can work with all three programs simultaneously, because they are all compatible and each has its advantages. In DeluxePaint, you can flip brushes. I could create the right arm of a character and flip it horizontally and I would have the left. You can also paint with two colors simultaneously (or erase with your background color) without going back to the palette. On the other hand, Images has many more drawing tools; parallelograms, polygons, lots of built-in shapes and brushes. It also has a watercolor function that creates a beautiful blend of colors. Animator’s drawing tools arc less sophisticated one of my friends described it as drawing with a rubber band but it is possible to create a fairly smooth curve by simply doing it in smaller increments. And when you draw in Animator, you have many more options for movement.”
Beyond Playdoh
Beyond the presentation value of the storyboard, the Amiga added to the production in many other important ways. Not only did the computer help design the
look of the character, but it influenced his personality, too. “Animator moves figures in a mechanical way, which was just perfect for this new figure. It helped me picture the way the final three-dimensional figure should move.” Also, by designing on the Amiga, Walter was able to give bis model-makers drawings from which to create the three-dimensional model of the character. “I was able to make Mr. Bill with my own hands because of my skills, developed in childhood, working with Playdoh. This character is made of more sophisticated materials, so I’m having an artist create the model. Using the Amiga, I can control the look of the character even though I can't make him myself.”
Finally, Walter wrote and orchestrated the new show’s theme song on the Amiga with Musicraft. “I don’t really have the ability to write sheet music, even though I play the clarinet. But with the Amiga, and software that plays the notes as I place them, it is possible to compose, orchestrate and print music myself. This lets me get my ideas down so that I can collaborate with other musicians. I don’t have to whistle and do a tap dance to explain it to them.”
Walter knew that computers would ultimately be part of his work, hut says that until now they seemed a bit alien. “My computer experience started in college with Fortran IV. Unfortunately, it took years before I had the courage to work with computers again. I guess I really came back to them from the game side.” He bought an Intellivision when it first came out and played lots of
Walter Williams and Boh Rose
games like Motocross ancl Bi-planes. "Everyone thought I was goofing off, but the games really taught me how the machines work. Honest!" And, he laughs, "1 guess all the hand eye coordination it developed has finally paid off." He Finds the Amiga combines the best aspects of a game machine ease of use, user-friendliness, an icon-based command system with the advantages of a powerful computer. "The Amiga is a machine 1 can use as an artist, not a programmer. 1 don't want to type commands all day,”
Mr. Bill’s Fan Mail
Walter thinks the Amiga is a perfect tool for a filmmaker; he put his to use the minute he got it. "I was doing a Mr. Bill commercial for an appliance store chain. We needed to make some changes in the storyboard and I drew them on the computer. I typed in the text below the shots and distributed color prints to the people involved in the production. It was very helpful.
It showed us ways to simplify the action and gave us a clear idea of what we were after."
The Amiga is now central to the work of Walter’s production company. He uses it to do bookkeeping, production planning, even to correspond with Mr. Bill’s fans. He’s done a series of letterhead designs on the Amiga and prints out different ones, depending on the project. He also has a Kaypro 2000 portable, which he uses primarily for scrcenwriting, and uses the Amiga Transformer so he can use some programs on both computers. "The computers,” he says, “are a key part of the whole operation. They let me keep things down to a manageable size, and they let me live and work where I want."
Video, Sluggo, and Other Stuff
How about future projects on the Amiga? Walter did a music video for the dB’s and is working on others, incorporating Amiga images with live footage. “The Amiga can produce effects that would cost hundreds, maybe thousands of dollars in a post-production facility, and I can do them at home, even in the middle of the night.”
How about a game for the Amiga? Walter designed a Mr. Bill game with DataAge for the Atari game machine, but the company went bankrupt before it was produced. It was picked up by Datasoft and redesigned in a computer software version, but Datasoft went under, too. The game market may be shaky but there is nothing wrong with the game and Walter thinks the Amiga would be perfect for it. How is it played? “It’s an adventure strategy game called Mr. Bill's Neighborhood. You are Mr. Bill, trying to save your Mom, Spot and Miss Sally from the neighborhood bully, Sluggo, Obviously, Mr. Bill lives in a bad part of town.”
Prime-Time Amiga?
Finally, Walter would like to explore more sophisticated animation, “The design of my new character was only done on the Amiga as a way of showing how he would look and act. He really isn’t meant to be animated. However, I feel there is a character and a style which will make this form of animation legitimate for television. I can imagine doing a half-hour show for TV, using the Amiga for both sound and visuals, combined with audio and video post-production.
“With this machine, the sky (or at least the RAM) is the limit!"®
Walter Williams lives in New York. In addition to his new character, he is developing a live-action Mr. Bill series with Shelley Duvall Address author correspondence to Melanie Ingalls at 400 W. 25th St. 43A, New York, NY 10001.
Astronomical Art and the Amiga
By Joel Hagen
Astronomical art occupies a fascinating territory where the boundaries of art and science overlap. The Amiga meets both the technical and creative needs of a new generation of artists who are exploring the frontiers of
In late January of this year, the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew past the planet Uranus and its host of moons, returning their images to us across 2.8 billion kilometers of space. I was present at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, the command and imaging center for the ongoing mission, during the days of data analysis following closest approach on January 24th. Using information from the daily press and science briefings, from conversations with geologists on the imaging team, and from the daily photo releases, I worked on an Amiga computer in the evenings doing astronomical paintings of what these newly-seen landscapes might be like.
Today, a generation of artists is exploring the opening frontier of space, much as Thomas Moran and his generation of landscape painters explored the frontiers of the American West in the 1800s. We look out on new worlds through computer terminals and the remote senses of sophisticated spacecraft. In painting these distant scenes, all available scientific information is used as a rigorous foundation from which to create accurate, dramatic renderings of the mountains, craters, canyons
and skies of other worlds in our solar system.
1. Jupiter from caldera on lo. New Took
The advent of a personal computer as sophisticated as the Amiga places a new tool in the hands of astronomical artists, a powerful bridge between science and
art. The Amiga can accomplish all the calculations and schematics that must precede the rendering of a landscape, then provide the artist with enough graphics power to proceed with the illustration on the same machine. With slide rule or calculator, many computations are time consuming and repetitive enough to put a damper on an artist's inclination to try different orientations of elements within a painting. Building these formulas into self-tailored programs 011 the computer gives the artist freedom in moving his point of view in space, changing latitude, longitude or orbital position to find a dramatic composition of elements while the computer keeps the astronomical parameters accurate. The Amiga is faster and better at this than other computers I have worked with, but its real value to me as an artist is its graphics capabilities.
I have written astronomical art software that I have used frequently 011 other computers in developing my paintings. Normally, I use this software to arrive at a satisfying composition with planets, moons and landscapes represented schematically on the screen at correct sizes and orientations. I then translate this information into a sketch on canvas or illustration board and begin detailing geological features using NASA photos and other data as reference. In the past, the graphics capabilities of personal computers were far too limited for serious representational art. The Amiga changes that. This machine is capable of supporting the efforts of any serious artist. The range of 4,096 subtle color and value gradations and the screen density in high resolution of (540 x 400 pixels prove to be ample. I used Electronic Arts’ DeluxePaint for the illustrations accompanying this article. This is a well thought-out program with unique features suited to some fundamental complexities of space art. Once I was familiar with using the graphics program, I found I could work very quickly on the screen and accomplish some things more easily than I can using paint and illustration board.
Using DeluxePaint
Illustration 1 shows a view of Jupiter calculated from the region of a small polar caldera on lo. This illustration was done in the low resolution mode of 320x200 pixels. In that mode, the artist can build a palette of 32 colors from the available 4,096, as compared to 1(5 colors in hi-rcs. Astronomical landscapes tend to be fairly monochromatic, and I never felt limited by even 16 colors. 1 used one of DeluxePaint’s most unique features extensively in this image. The SMEAR command allows me to sweep a brush of my own definition (a small circle or a long bar, for example) across an area of the image 1 have drawn. As this brush passes over color boundaries, it does something akin to pixel aver-
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A powerful feature of DeluxePaint is the way in which the artist can build a palette of colors. For a representational rendering, it is important to have subtle shape and shade contours. The artist might want, for example, eight shades of a brownish gray, showing even gradations from very dark to medium bright for building convincing rock masses with shadow and highlight areas. This could be a daunting task if each color had to he separately constructed from its red, green, blue, black and brightness components. DeluxePaint allows the artist to do this if he wishes, but provides the option of building only the endpoints of the spread and letting the computer interpolate the others. My procedure has been to quickly build a red at one end, a green at the other, and have the computer interpolate 14 color stages between them. There are invariable interesting browns in the midranges. One of these can be used to create a spread by copying it to an endpoint where you darken it and then to another endpoint where you lighten it; you then create a range between the two.
This feature also allows the artist to change the colors in a finished illustration a dozen times to see if a new combination works better. Changing the palette changes the corresponding color in the painting. This is much like finishing a manuscript on a word processor, then experimenting with different printer formats until the look of the page is right. In fact, the analogy of a graphics package to a word processor is appropriate. The same labor-saving freedoms one has with a word processor as opposed to a typewriter are there for image creation in a good graphics package.
Advantages of Computer Graphics
There will always he advantages to using paint, brush and canvas. The artist has very fine control over detail, line quality, translucency of color, character of stroke and other subtle factors. However, it is important to accept and explore the advantages inherent to any medium, and there are many advantages to a computer graphics system like the Amiga’s. For instance, it is easy to build up and tear down areas of an image with great flexibility. Cliff faces can be sketched up, trimmed back down in size, their profiles, slope and roughness radically altered, all without remixing colors to match or waiting for paint to dry. Switching keys on the mouse while drawing allows you to instantly paint clift color into sky, or cut sky color back into cliff. This makes experimenting with the look of terrain features easier than with traditional materials.
Another great advantage of the computer system is its ability to save a painting at any state. Like a climber hammering in a piton before a risky move, the computer artist can save a picture to disk before typing a radical alteration of the image. He is not forced 10 risk ruining the image for the chance of enhancing ii. This freedom is conducive to the experimentation and innovation fundamental to art. Another feature unique to computer graphics is the ability to magnify an area of an image, go into that area, and with precision, refine a contour or add a highlight, pixel by pixel.
Other features, such as the CIRCLE and ELLIPSE drawing commands, get a lot of use in placing planets and moons in the sky at accurate sizes. The ability to cut out a planet sphere once it is finished and move it behind the horizon to the desired spot is a luxury unknown to those working in oils and acrylics. Working speed and the freedom and flexibility to experiment stand out as strengths of the computer as an artistic tool. These graphic strengths, combined with its power to perform the calculations at the technical stage of a painting, make it an ideal system for exploring techniques of astronomical art.
Calculation and Speculation
Nine new moons were discovered by Voyager at Uranus, all small (from a few kilometers to 170 km across) and poorly photographed. The five previously known moons are from the most distant inward Oberon, Titania (each about 1,600 km in diameter, or half that of earth’s moon), Ariel, Umbriel (each about 1,200 km) and Miranda (only about 500 km). Beautiful images were returned from all of these. The close-ups of Miranda may he the best shots taken so far during the nine years of the mission.
An awareness of the science behind the images is critical to the astronomical artist. Most solar-system images that the public is familiar with have had the color radically exaggerated to enhance structure for study. The artist must be aware of the extent to which his photo reference has been contrast- or color- stretched, lest he be misled and (as has happened) paint blue into the bands of Saturn. He must understand what the scale of an image is to evaluate the geological processes responsible for the feature, or how that feature may translate into the field of view of his painting. If he ignores the scientific information available to him, he has no real foundation upon which to build his aesthetic decisions. His paintings, while they may he pretty, become fanciful, and he is no longer within that fascinating shared territory of art and science.
Data other than images will also reveal much about the look of a distant moon. The artist must use all possible sources. My illustration of a rift floor on Titania (Illustration 2) was done when the feature was barely visible in early Voyager images, before I had more information at hand about the nature of the surface. At that time, albedo differences (the relative percentages of light reflected) seemed to indicate that some bright icy floor might be logical. However, a statistical comparison of reflected photons at two different phase angles of sample now tells us that Titania has a highly porous surface of pulverized rock. This is not evident in the photos.
Before rendering the landscape of Titania, I needed some fundamental calculations in order to depict Uranus in the sky. For example, its size must be determined in units meaningful to a visual representation. The diameter of Uranus is about 50,800 km. By calculating its angular diameter (i.e.. how many degrees of the sky it occupies), it can be given an accurate size in the painting. Trigonometry can solve for angular diameter. Think of the radius of Uranus (25,400 km) by the distance to Titania (438,000 km) gives .058. Taking the arcsine of this gives 3.32 as the angular radius, or 6.65 degrees angular diameter.
I now elect to work within a certain field of view, thinking of the width of the painting in degrees rather than centimeters or inches. If I hold out my arms to the sides and look from left hand to right, I am obviously seeing 180 degrees, one half a circle. This is too wide an angle for an effective landscape painting. Ophthalmologists I have talked with feel that the human eye draws most of its information from a 30-degrce cone of vision. A camera with a standard 50mm lens takes in about a 40-degrec wedge. 1 usually work in this 30- to 40-degree range as a familiar, non-deceptive frame of reference for the viewer. So, if the field of view of the painting is 40 degrees and the width of the painting will be 18 inches, we divide 40 degrees by Uranus’ 6.65 degrees to get 6.02. Eighteen inches divided by 6.02 gives 2.99, about a three-inch diameter circle to accurately represent Uranus’ size. Uranus is an oblate spher- iod and must actually be represented by a slight ellipse. In doing a series, such as the moons of Uranus, I stick
to a consistent field of view in order to give a true relative feeling for sizes and distances within a system.
My own astronomical art program performs these operations for me, giving me both a graphic representation of what I have asked for and a page of pertinent information adjusted to tlie conditions 1 have given it. Illustration 3 shows Uranus from Titania in a 40-degree field as drawn by my astronomy program. To work directly from the diagram of Titania into a DeluxePaint image, I need only set the picture width to the horizontal dimension of the intended graphic mode, in this case 320 for lo-res. The dimensions my program feeds out are now measured in pixels, and I can use the Coordinates option of DeluxePaint with its ELLIPSE drawing command to make Uranus the precise size and
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I have data for the entire solar system built into the program to give me great flexibility to move around in space without looking up numbers. I can call up not only views of planets from the surfaces of their moons, but combinations of planets and moons in space, their oblateness and relative axial tilts calculated and graphically represented. From the surface of a moon, I am quickly told by the program exactly how much of the planet’s polar regions are visible at that distance (for example, whether I will be able to plausibly show Mars' polar ice caps from its closest moon, Phobos). 1 can select precise latitude and longitude coordinates for mapped features on a moon, such as the volcanic feature Pelc on Jupiter’s active moon, lo. Trigonometric formulas built into my program tell me if Jupiter will be visible in the sky, and if so, at what height above the horizon and with what degree tilt of its equator and handing.
I can press a button and have the computer build the profile of a volcanic plume on Io, such as was seen earlier in Voyager's journey when it passed through the Jupiter system. The striking umbrella shape (Illustration
4) is a fountain of parabolic arcs whose extent is calculated from known gravitation, angles of ejection and velocities. Printed out, these profiles can be used as templates for airbrushing an accurate plume into a painting. I can call up ballistic trajectories for any body in the solar system. This can tel! Me, for example, how far an astronaut could jump on Miranda. From this I could judge how far apart his footprints might he if I were to choose to render them in order to show the effect of disturbing the thin, dark surface of that tiny moon. In this case, I find that under the weak gravitation of Miranda, a man could jump hundreds of meters. It would be nearly impossible for him to even try to produce a line of footprints. A tempting visual idea which doesn't fit the science, it must be saved for a heavier gravity moon.
Miranda has some of the most complex geology yet encountered in the solar system, a patchwork of heterogeneous features on a world only 300 miles across. Miranda may have been shattered by an impact in its past and reaccreted, creating the unique jumbled surface. Complexes of terraces, cliffs many kilometers high and baffling angular features make this a compelling landscape for the space artist to explore. I used hi res to illustrate an area of steep cliffs and gorges (Illustration 5). The smoother curves and finer detail of this grahics mode arc evident. The moons always keep the same face toward Uranus, locked by tidal forces from the planet. T his is common throughout the solar system. One significance of this to the space artist is that the planet remains fixed in the same position in the moon’s sky. If you look above the horizon at a certain latitude and longitude and the planet is not in your field of view, it never will he.
The only close-up photo of one of the newly discovered moons is of 1985U1, well inside the orbit of Miranda and about 170 km in diameter. I did a speculative illustration of the moon against Uranus’ bright disk in hi res mode (Illustration f>).
Ariel has huge, grabcn-like features and wide faults apparently filled with some smooth flowing material. In Illustration 7, I speculate on what the floor of one of those valleys might be like at a point of intersection with another fault, I used a shading function on the far cliff to knock the values down in such a way as to give a slight look of stratification. I do not show the rings of Uranus. They arc thin and composed of some of the darkest material in the solar system. Soot reflects more light than does the ring material. I think it unlikely we would see them with the naked eye, even acclimated to the low light level only one quarter of one percent earth normal. The crescent phase Uranus was easy to do with the ELLIPSE command, cutting a clean bite out of the disk and smoothing the terminator (shadow line) with the SMEAR command.
Orbiting farthest out from Uranus is Oberon. Impact craters show bright rays thrown out across the surface and crater floors filled with some darker substance. In Illustration 8, I used hi res to create this view of a fractured and slumping filled crater floor. Uranus in the sky is flanked on its equatorial plane by three of its moons. Being able to work with consistent colors in dark values allowed me to retain the clarity of features in deep shadow areas. I reworked them many times experimentally with an ease I would not have had using paint and brush.
We are privileged to be the one generation that sees new worlds in our solar system for the first time. As an astronomical artist, witnessing the Voyager's encounter with Uranus was an unforgettable experience. Part of the joy of that experience has been the ability to work immediately on visualizing those new worlds with a tool allowing me such smooth interplay between my technical and artistic needs. I.ike the scientist exploring through the numbers, astronomical artists explore through any new piece of information. They try any new artistic tool. They visit any unusual landscape they can study for geological analogies. On a foundation of science, the artist proceeds to build something more. He searches for drama in the data, for grace in the terrain. He seeks to isolate these and find a perspective from which their beauty is clear.B
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©1986 ILLUSTRATED IMAGES, Inc.
A ma World 31
Give your mouse the edge*
Your mouse can 30 through a lot of wear and tear every time you use it.
That's why you need Moustrak. Its the first and only natural rubber pad available today for the Amiga" With a special surface to reduce mouse wear, Moustrak will keep the rollers dean and the tracking smooth.
Moustrak protects delicate furniture finishes, too. And the pad stays where you put it.
Best of all, Moustrak is available at your dealer right now.
In a variety of colors, sizes and prices.
For your local dealer, call (800) 221-MOUS in California call (707) 963-8179
Unleash Your Imagination with the Experimenter’s Tool Kit.
Expert System Kit now shipping. $ 69.95 plus $ 3 shipping and handling.
Explorer Disassembling Debug Monitor and Exploration Tool now shipping. $ 49.95 plus $ 3 shipping and handling.
COD add $ 4. Visa MC orders ceil (612J 871*6283. Money orders or checks to:
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Dealer inquiries welcome.
AMIGA is a trademark of Commodore- Amlga inc.
M aquamarine pastels), and a new room will be added to the Vice station a tech room with all manner of sophisticated gadgetry. When we spoke, Boh Lacey's plans were to incorporate three Amiga's (possibly painted black) into the tech room and maybe use one in the surveillance van, the bright green van with the giant bug on top, cleverly referred to on Miami Vice as the “bug van.”
Mug of the Week
The Amigas would be shown displaying screens of mug shots or of mug shots being composed (probably digitized pictures of the guest-star ‘‘criminal of the week," or screens combining text material and digitized pictures, or maybe screens with images from remote video cameras (for surveillance, etc.). With the Amiga’s graphics programs and video compatibility, it should very successfully give the appearance of technical sophistication desired by the show’s decorator. Maybe Don Johnson or Phillip Michael Thomas will walk over and punch a button or click the mouse and call up a digitized image of the episode's evil drug-smuggling social menace, who knows, maybe.. .Frank Zappa.
Boosting the Ratings
In the offices at AmigaWorld, there are mixed feelings about Miami Vice, in general. The opinions range from “very cool” and “slick" to “Why doesn't Don shave once in a while?” (I’m from Florida and I never knew anyone who had a pet alligator! But I do watch the show in New Hampshire in about February it’s soothing for me to see palm trees and pelicans.) However, all opinions aside, we look forward to the attention this might bring to our favorite computer (the press has been myopic, if not blind, in its coverage of the Amiga), and the fact that this implies that the Amiga is justifiably perceived as the vanguard of new- micros. Miami Vice is definitely a high-gloss show using first- rate, state-of-the-art techniques, and we feel the same way about the Amiga.
“Who Cares?”
Maybe you could care less about whether the Mac is used on Moonlighting, or the Amiga is used on Miami Vice, but there is often something behind the way these micros are chosen for use on these shows. A Mac, the standard yuppie computer, is often seen on a clever, sophisticated adult comedy fitting; likewise, an Amiga, the turbo-micro dream-machine, appears on a show known for its outstanding flash, color, music and artistic trend-setting filming.
For various reasons, aesthetic and self-serving, we are unashamedly hoping the Amiga is a part of Miami Vice’s new 1986 season “look.” I’ve heard a very impressive stereo version of the theme from Miami Vice created on the Amiga with Musicraft. I may dig out my best tropical-motif shirt and my old flip-flops and wear them to work. Maybe in the future wre’ll publish parameters for getting the Amiga to sound like Don Johnson,
I can hear it now, cigarette hanging from the disk drive, “Okay Pal, party's over, hang it up before I turn you into shark bait...
Talking Ward Processor
Talker does everything you’d expect from a full-featured word processor, plus Talker does just that talks. It reads your text, word-for-word or letter-bv-Ietter. So, Talker is great for proofreading, learning to type and the sight impaired. Talker's pull down menus and simple commands make it easy to use, and at S69-96 it's easy on your budget. Bring your words to life with Talker.
S69-96
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TALKER
SOFTWARE
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Circle 91 on Reader Service card.
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Senor Tlitor leads a beginning Spanish student through self-paced, changing lessons. You learn greetings and phrases, household terms, and much more.
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“rotating" effect; although it’s not the smoothest animation possible with the Amiga, it certainly shows how useful the AREA command can be.
ANIM:
CLS
FOR X= 10 TO 150 STEP 2 AREA (X,Y)
AREA (150,10)
AREA (160 - X,150 - X)
AREA (10,100)
AREAFILL
FOR D = 1 TO 16:NEXT CLS NEXT
FOR X= 150 TO 10 STEP -2 AREA (X,Y)
AREA (150,10)
AREA (160 - X,150 - X)
AREA (10,100)
AREAFILL
FOR D = 1 TO 16;NEXT CLS:NEXT GOTO ANIM
PATTERN and PALETTE
When you issue an AREAFILL command, the points you’ve defined with AREA are connected, and a solid polygon is formed. You can change the pattern used to
fill the polygon or to make the lines of its border with the PATTERN command for such applications as making distinct textures for bar graphs or creating more realistic graphics.
The pattern you create is stored with a numeric array. This array must consist of a number of elements equal to some power of 2; therefore, you can make a pattern with 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc. elements. Each of these elements should be a decimal or hexadecimal number that establishes which bits (pixels) in a pattern are “on" (equal to 1) and “off" (equal to 0). Therefore, if you want a pattern that is made up of (wo elements with the following pixel conditions:
0000000011111110
0000000000000001
your two elements would be 254 and 1, since these are the corresponding decimal numbers to the above two binary numbers. You could use these decimal numbers, or you could translate them into hexadecimal and precede them with &H to indicate that you are working with base-16 numbers.
Once you know what your elements are, store them in an array; for instance, if you want to use an array called TEXTURE%() for the two elements above, you would type:
TEXTURE%(0) = 254
TEXTURE % (1) = 1
Circle 180 on Reader Service card.
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- The format for the PATTERN command is:
PATTERN [line pattern] [tarea pattern]
and the “area pattern” is where you specify the array in which your pattern elements are stored. The “line pattern” is another number made up of 16 bits, which can either be hexadecimal or binary; this number will tell the computer what type of pattern to use when drawing the border of a polygon.
This next program demonstrates the PATTERN command bv setting up four random elements for the pattern, giving the PATTERN command, filling the random polygon area with AREAF1LL, and then repeating the process again. This will create random overlapping polygons, each with a different random pattern.
DIM A R HA. PAT % (3)
THERE:
FOR X = 0 TO 3 AREA.PAT%(X) - RND*3000 NEXT
PATTERN &HFFF, AREA.PAT%
FOR X = I TO 5 ARF.A (RND*600,RND* 180)
NEXT AREA FILL GOTO THERE
This next program is even more unusual since it keeps using the same polygon, vet the pattern keeps changing within the polygon:
GLS
DIM A REA. PAT % (1 ),P( 14)
STRANGE:
AREA.PAT%(0) = R D*32767 AREA.PAT % (1) = RND*32767 PATTERN &H FFF, ARE A.PAT %
IF I) = 1 THEN GOSUB ROL I INF .GOTO STRANGE FOR I = 1 TO 6 P(I) = RND*5()0:P(I + 6) = RND* 180: AREA (P(I),P(I + 6))
NEXT
ARFAFILL
D = LGOTO STRANGE ROUTINE:
FOR L = 1 TO 6 AREA (P(L),P(L + 6))
NEXT L: A REA FILL RETURN
The last command we're going to examine is PALETTE, which allows you to access any of the 4,096 colors of the Amiga. If you have an analog-RGB monitor, you can really take advantage of this command, but the different colors arc too subtle for a normal color television to display properly. In order to use PALETTE, simply follow the command with the color number vou want to use (in this case, we ll be using color number 1), followed by the three numbers representing
the red, green and blue levels of the color you want to create. These color levels can range from 0 to 1, so PALETTE 1,0,1,0 would make color 1 completely green, while PALETTE 1,1,0,0 would make color 1 completely red. The following program uses three FOR. . .NEXT loops to show off the colors of the Amiga computer:
LINE (0,0) (200,200), 1. BF
FOR R = 0 TO 1 STEP .01 FOR G = 0 TO 1 STEP .01 FOR B = 0 TO 1 STEP .01 PALETTE l.R.G.B NEXT NEXT
NEXT
The SLEEP command in this next program will make the computer wait until a key or mouse button is pressed, or until some other action occurs. When some kind of input is received, the computer will go back to its routine that randomly changes the background and text foreground) colors:
REPEAT:
PALETTE 0,RND,RND.RXD PALETTE 1 ,RND,RND,RND SLEEP
GOTO REPEAT
Lastly, here's a fun little program that will let you type into the keyboard while the foreground and background colors change randomly with each press of a key:
J
REPEAT:
PALETTE O.RND.RND.RXD KEY:
A$ = IXKEY$ :IF A$ = I'HEN KEY ELSE
PRINT AS:
GOTO REPEAT
Using Graphics
Although we’ve only explored the fundamentals of Amiga Basic’s graphics commands, this should give you a solid foundation for writing your own graphics programs. After you’ve mastered the commands described here, study the Amiga Basic manual so you can learn more about these and other commands. Pictures, diagrams, bar and pie graphs, animation and games are just a few of the possibilities of Amiga’s graphics; after you’ve been experimenting with your computer for a while, you’ll probably find quite a few others. We’ll explore one of these techniques animation in our next installment.¦
Address all author correspondence to Tim Knight. 1027 The Alameda, Suite 160, San Jose, (A 95126.
RANGE
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SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 512K RAM 2 Disk Drives (or)
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NET LIST FROM SCHEMATIC
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Amiga Sidecar
Commodore announces an IBM PC XT-compatible coprocessor system for the Amiga.
Previewed by Bob Ryan
Editor's note: This preview was written with information supplied by Commodore Business Machines. It is a report on the announced features of the Sidecar, not a hands-on review.
When the Amiga was launched in July, 1985, Commodore made a big deal about the Transformer a software emulator that would allow you to run IBM PC software on the Amiga. When the Transformer finally showed up (about six months late), it was apparent that a software emulator was a very limited solution for people who wanted to run MS-DOS on the Amiga (see our review of the Transformer on page 97). Commodore was under pressure to make good on their promises of PC compatibility. Their answer is the Amiga Sidecar.
First shown at COMDEX Atlanta, the Sidecar is a PC clone in a box, or, more accurately, a PC XT clone in a box. The box attaches to the Amiga via the expansion bus on the right side of the computer. The Sidecar contains an 8088 microprocessor running at 4.77 Mhz the same processor and the same clock speed found in the IBM PC and PC XT.
Using the same microprocessor doesn’t ensure compatibility, however, so the Sidecar also uses BIOS ROMs that are compatible with the PC XT BIOS. BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System. It consists of a number of routines that control how software reads the keyboard and, most importantly, how software writes to the display screen. The BIOS in the Sidecar was written by Phoenix Software Associates, a company that has acquired a solid reputation for being able to duplicate the functions of the IBM PC BIOS without infringing upon IBM’s copyrights.
Memory and Math
The Sidecar comes with 256K bytes of memory. This is expandable in the box to 512K, although additional
memory can be added via the Sidecar’s built-in expansion slots. The Sidecar also contains a socket for an 8087 math coprocessor, which can greatly increase the execution speed of computation-intensive applications.
You will also find a cooling fan built into the Sidecar, as well as a speaker. The Sidecar can make any sounds the IBM PC can.
Disk Dilemma
In order to run IBM PC software, a computer must be able to read IBM disks. This creates a problem for the Amiga because it has 3.5" drives while most IBM software is distributed on 5.25" floppies. To overcome this limitation, the Sidecar contains a built-in 5,25" drive and controller. It also contains a connection for an external 5.25" drive. Both these drives have a formatted capacity of 360K bytes.
The Sidecar also has three IBM-type expansion slots. One of these slots is reserved for a hard-disk controller, while the other two are available to any IBM expansion card. Because it may have to power a hard disk, the Sidecar has its own power supply, which means that it doesn’t have to draw power from the Amiga.
I O Hardware
The Amiga Sidecar doesn't have its own keyboard and monitor; it uses those of the main computer. It can also use the Amiga’s built-in serial and parallel ports, as
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well as any disk drives that you have connected to your system. Your Amiga floppies have a formatted capacity of 760K when running under MS-DOS.
Although the Sidecar uses the Amiga’s monitor as its display device, it won’t tie up your system. The Sidecar runs MS-DOS in an AmigaDOS window, with MS-DOS simply becoming another task that can he run concurrently with Amiga native-mode software. You can choose between an IBM monochrome display or an IBM color display for the Sidecar. In color mode, you can change the four IBM colors into four of your own choosing.
Sharing Resources
The Sidecar is not simply an IBM clone. You can also use it as an expansion chassis for your Amiga. Commodore has stated that they will release a 2MB memory board for the Sidecar. The board will be available as main-memory expansion for the Amiga and as a RAM disk for MS-DOS applications. In addition, any hard disk you install in the Sidecar can be partitioned; You can dedicate some space to AmigaDOS and the rest to MS-DOS storage. AmigaDOS 1.2 supports disk partitioning as well as the use of the Sidecar’s 5.25" disks by AmigaDOS.
Some resources are not shared by the Amiga and the Sidecar. The 512K internal memory in the Amiga is not available to the Sidecar. But touche!, the Sidecar’s internal 512K can't be accessed by the Amiga, either. At this writing, it is unclear whether the Amiga’s mouse joystick ports can be used by MS-DOS programs running on the Sidecar.
Commodore has also announced that they are working on a scheme to allow data sharing between MS-DOS and AmigaDOS. Whether this would include actual file sharing or just file-transfer capabilities is unclear. In any event, the ability to move data easily between MS- DOS and AmigaDOS applications will increase greatly the utility of both systems.
Winter Arrival
The Amiga Sidecar is expected to hit your dealer’s shelves in December. Although this is over a year since Commodore promised a viable MS-DOS option for the Amiga, the Sidecar may be worth the wait. If it satisfies both the needs of people who want to run MS-DOS and those who want to expand their Amiga, it will quickly become the most popular peripheral for the Amiga.
To make any impact at all, the Sidecar is going to have to be sensibly priced. As yet, the only word from Commodore is that it will be priced "significantly below SI000.” But all that says is that it will cost somewhere between $ 0 and $ 999. If you can believe rumors, then the Sidecar will retail for about $ 600. This is about the going price for less-expensive IBM clones. If Commodore can supply the Sidecar a combination IBM clone and Amiga expansion chassis for under $ 600, they will sell a lot of them. Sell the Sidecar for less than $ 400, and they may not be able to build enough Sidecars and Amigas to satisfy the demand.¦
UNLEASH THE AWESOME POWER OF THE AMIGA!
The PAL is a turnkey expansion chassis that provides the most powerful and cost effective hardware growth path for your AMIGA. Features: High speed direct Amiga DMA controller and hard disk • Five DMA expansion slots • 1 Meg Ram with Clock Calendar • Room for multiple storage retrieval devices • 100% compatible with current and future Amigas • 1 to 8 megabyte ram card options * Optional pass through bus connector for further expansion * Optional prototyping card * Future products currently under development
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An easy-to-read, easy-to- leam users guide provides comprehensive instructions for setting up your own books. Plain-En- glish menus are the system “roadmaps" for both the novice and for the more experienced. Because FINANCIAL PLUS is a totally integrated accounting system, no longer must you purchase individual packages, store entries on separate diskettes, or run confusing transfer programs to obtain complete integration. Suggested retai price $ 295.
Using Libraries from Amiga Basic
By Louis R. Wallace
Amiga Basic is a full-featured language that supports most of the abilities of the Amiga. Developed by Microsoft, it was adapted from the already advanced versions of Microsoft BASIC used by the IBM and Macintosh computers. A large number of additions were made in order to take advantage of the special nature of the Amiga, notably in the areas of graphics and animation. However, it’s not surprising tHat they did not incorporate every feature of this very complex machine in a directly accessible manner.
There are literally hundreds of specialized subroutines built into the Amiga’s ROM and on disk-based libraries. These are the very same routines used by C or bSOOO-assembler programmers on the Amiga, and many of them are called by the Amiga Basic interpreter in order to utilize the built-in Basic functions and commands. But there are some things that are not implemented directly by Amiga Basic, and you must use less direct methods in order to access them from your Basic programs.
For example, Amiga Basic has two special commands for disk operations. These are FILES and CHDIR. FILES is used to get a directory from Basic, and CHDIR allows you to move to another disk device or subdirectory. However. You cannot easily send other AmigaDQS commands from within your programs. For example, it would be useful to be able to create new directories or send data files to the printer from Basic, just as you can from DOS. Or perhaps you wish to multitask another program from your Basic programs. Maybe you need some special graphics, animation or Intuition function not supported by Amiga Basic. What do you do?
The answer lies in the ability of Amiga Basic to use the command CALL to access a library routine. It is very similar to calling machine-language routines, with parameters passed in the same manner as in C.
For the Basic programmer to use these libraries, he must first know what libraries exist and what routines are contained within them. The only libraries mentioned in the Amiga Basic manual are the DOS and graphics libraries, and what useful routines they contain are not mentioned. The real source of information is the Amiga ROM Kernel Manuals, volumes 1 and 2, These two books contain around 2.000 pages of information on the Amiga, and much of it concerns the Amiga libraries and ROM routines. (These manuals are available from Addison-Wesley.)
There are many libraries you can use from Amiga Basic. Associated with these libraries are special files that describe to Amiga Basic the parameters required and where they are within the library. They are called ,fd files, and they can be found on the Amiga 68000 Assembler disk and the Lattice and Aztec C compiler disks. They are ASCII (text) files that list the routines in the library and the parameters required for each routine. The 16 .Id files are listed below.
Clistlib.fd
console! Ib.fd
diskfontlib.fd
dosl ib.fd
execl ib.fd
graph icsl ib.fd
icon 1 ib.fd
intuitionlib.fd
layers! Ib.fd
mat hffpl ib.fd
mathieecdoubbaslib.fd
mathieeesingbasl ib.fd
mathtranslib.fd
potgolib.fd
ti inert ib.fd
translator! Ib.fd
Before you can begin using the routines in the .fd files, Amiga Basic requires you to convert them to a slightly different form called .bmap files. These can he generated by using the program called CONVERTFD. Found in the BASICDEMOS subdirectory on your Amiga Extras disk. This program will create the proper file for use by Basic and store it in the system directory called libs:.
To convert a file from .fd to .bmap, copy the .fd files you wish to convert to the directory that contains CONVERTED, usually the BASICDEMOS directory of the Amiga Extras disk. Load Amiga Basic, then load and run CONVERTFD. It will ask you the name of the .fd file to convert. Using the graphicslib.fd as an example, you would then type in the complete name “graphicslib.fd". It will then ask for the name of the .bmap file to
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call the converted file. You would type in “graph* ics.bmap”. The program will then create the .hmap flic to be used by Basic.
There is a conflict when using certain library commands from Amiga Basic (e.g., commands like INPUT, OPEN, READ. ATN and others that have a direct counterpart in Basic). Amiga Basic will tokenize the commands when writing the .bmap file, causing incorrect results when you attempt to use it. The solution is to make a new version of the CONVERTED program, called NEWCONVERTFD.
DECLARE FUNCTION AskSoftStyleS LIBRARY
LI B R A R Y "graphics.library"
enable% = AskSoftStyle&(WIN DO W 8))
FOR i%= 0 TO 7 ChangeStyle i %
IF
i%=0
THEN
PRINT
"If
0
then
text
is
normal."
IF
i%-l
THEN
PRINT
"If
1
then
text
is
normal underlined."
IF
i% =2
THEN
PRINT
’If
2
then
text
is
bold."
IF
i% = 3
THEN
PRTNT
"If
3
then
text
is
bold underlined."
IF
i %=4
T HEN
PRINT
"If
U
then
text
is
italic."
IF
i U5
THEN
PRINT
"If
5
then
text
is
italic underlined."
IF
i% =6
T HEN
PRINT
"If
6
then
text
is
bold italic."
IF
i% =7
THEN
PRINT
"if
7
then
text
is
bold italic underlined
PRINT NEXT i%
ChangeStyle 0 1 return to normal font style
LIBRARY CLOSE ' close graphics library
END ' rem end program
DECLARE FUNCTION Executed LIBRARY ’ only useful from CLI askquesdons:
LIBRARY CLOSE
com mand$ ="":answer$ ®"”:query$ ="":x=0 INPUT "What CLI com mand";com mand$
INPUT "Do you need data back (y n)";answer$
IF answer$ ="n" THEN CALL CLIStuff (commands)
ELSE CALL CLIReturn (commands)
INPUT "Do you wish to send another CLI command y n";query$
IF query$ ="y" THEN askquestions
Listing continued on next page.
In order to save space for other examples in this article, we will not give the entire listing of NEWCONVERTFD. (After all, CONVERTED is on the Amiga Basic disk.) Instead, 1 will tell you where to add a few lines that will take care of the needed changes.
First, load Amiga Basic. Then in direct mode (not within the list window), type CHDIR “BASICDEMOS", which will change you to the directory that contains CONVERTED. You may then type LOAD “CONVERTED'’, which will load the program for editing. The program will load and the list window will open, showing the program. Point to the list window with the mouse and click the right button once to enter the list window.
You will need to add several lines to the program.
The first new lines should follow the line:
DEFIN E A-Z ‘by default, all variables are integer
On the line starting after this line, type:
READ CNT DIM CONS(CNT)
FOR K = 0 to CNT - 1 READ CONS(K)
NEXT K
This will read in the data we will add at the end of the program into the array CONS. The next change is in the subroutine called GotFunction, which is 30 lines below our newly added lines.
The first line of GotFunction is this:
GETTOKEN ’ TOKENS = FUNCTION’S NAME
Immediately following this line, add these lines:
KS=TOKENS FOR K = 0 TO CNT - 1 IF K$ = CONS(K) THEN TOKENS = “X ” + TOKENS NEXT K
The next change is in the subroutine Bad file format. Change the word STOP to CLOSE and change the word RETURN to STOP.
Finally, at the very end of the program (following the subprogram GETCHAR). Add these lines of data:
DATA 11
DATA ABS.CLOSE.EXIT.INPUT.OPEN,OUTPUT DATA READ,TAN,TRANSLATEAVAIT,WRITE
When typing the DATA statements above, please be careful to use the same case (upper or lower), as it is very important. That completes the needed changes. To save it to disk, type (outside the list window):
SAVE “NEWCONVERTFD”
which will save the new version to disk. This should now be used to convert the .fd files to .bmap files. As it converts them to .bmap form, it will check for the com-
mands in the data statements, and when those subroutine names are found, they will then have the letter x added to the beginning of their name. When you CALL these routines, it will be necessary to call them by this new name (e.g., xClose or xlnput).
In the same directory with CONVERTFD are the .bmap files graphics.bmap and dos.bmap. The .fd files are not on the disk, however. Since you may not have the ROM manuals and you won’t know what routines are in them, these two .fd files are listed on pages 53-55.
In order to access library routines from Amiga Basic, it is necessary to first open the specific library that contains the routine you want to use. To open the library, use the statement LIBRARY followed by the library name.
LIBRARY “GRAPHICS.LIBRARY"
This will make the graphics library available to Amiga Basic, and you can take advantage of it from within your programs.
For example, let’s look at a simple demo (Listing 1) that uses the graphics library to change the SoftStyle of the font in memory. SoftStyle indicates what form the font is, such as regular, bold, italic or underlined. We can easily use the library routine called SetSoftStyle in the graphics library to do this.
Let's walk through this program. The first line is:
DECLARE FUNCTION ASKSOFTSTYLE& LIBRARY
This command is merely a directive to Amiga Basic that says I will be asking for a returned value from the library routine AskSoftStyle. The trailing character indicates the type (in this case a long integer) of the returned value. This is necessary for all returned values from a library call.
Next, we have the statement:
LIBRARY “GRAPHICS.LIBRARY”
which opens the graphics library for use by Basic. (We can have up to five libraries open at once.) Next is the statement:
ENABLE% = ASKSOFTSTYLE&( WIN DO W(8))
which returns a long integer value that contains the soft-style bits of the current font. The WINDOW 8) function returns the current RASTPORT (which means the current display window).
Then we have a FOR.. .NEXT loop that contains a call to the subprogram ChangeStvle. We pass a number from 0-7 with the call. This number indicates what form we wish the font to be. Within the subprogram, we have the actual call to the library routine SetSoft-
4
Style. This routine requires three parameters, the RASTPORT, a mask (0-7) and the soft-style bits contained in ENABLE% (which was returned by the call to AskSoftStyle).
By using this technique from within your programs, you can quickly and easily change the font style, adding
Listing continued oji next page.
SUB CLIReturn (commands) STATIC LIBRARY "dosjibrary'1
x=Execute&(S A D D(com mand$ +" >ra m:tem p"+C H R$ (0)), 0, 0) OPEN "RAM:temp" FOR INPUT AS 1 WHILE NOT E0F(1)
LINE INPUT 1 ,aS PRINT a$
WEND
CLOSE
KILL "RAMitemp"
END SUB
SUB CLIStuff (commands) STATIC LIBRARY "dos.library"
x=Execute&(S A D D(co m mand$ +C H R $ (0)), 0, 0)
END SUB
DOS Libfd
rrr base _D0SBase
bias 30
public
0 pen(na m e,accessM ode)(D 1 D 2)
Close(ffleXDl)
R ead(flle,buffer,length)(D 1 D 2 D 3) Write(file,buffer,length)(D I D 2 D 3)
InputQ
OutputO
Seek(fiIe,position1offsecXD 1 D2 D3) DeleteFile nameXD 1)
Rena me(oldName,new Na meXD1 D2)
Lock(na m e.typeX D 1 D 2)
UnLock(lockXD 1)
DupLock(lock)( D 1)
Exa mine(lock,fileInfoBlockXD 1 D2)
E x N ext(lock ,f ilelnf oBloc k)( D 1 D 2)
Info(lock,para m eterBlockX D 1 D 2)
Create DiKna me)(D 1)
CurrentDir(lockXD I)
IoErr()
Create Proc(na m e,pri,segList,stackSizeXD 1 D2 D3 D4) Exit(returnCode)(D 1)
LoadSeg(fileNa me)(D 1)
U nLoadSeg(seg m ent)( D1)
private
GetPacket( wait)(D 1)
QueuePacket(packet)(D 1)
public
DeviceProc(na m e)(D 1)
SetCom ment(name,com ment)(Dl D2)
SetProtection(na me, mask)(D 1 D2)
DateSta m p(date)( D 1)
Delay(timeoutXDl)
W ait ForChar( file, timeout)(D 1 D2)
Parent Dir(lock)(D 1)
Islnteractive(file)( D1)
Execute(string,file,fiIeX D 1 D2 D 3) r Hend
Listing continued from previous page.
ClearEOL(rastPort)(A 1)
ClearScreen(rastPortX A 1)
TextLength(Rast_Port,string,countX A 1, AO, DO)
Text( R astPort,string,count.)( A I, A 0, DO)
SetFont( Rast PortI D ,textFont)(A 1, AO)
0 penFont(text A ttr)( AO)
CloseFont(textFont)(A 1)
AskSoftStyle(rastPort)( A 1)
SetSoftStyle(rastPort, style, enable)(A 1, DO D 1)
* ¦ Gels routines -
UK public
A dd Bob( bob ,rast Port)(AO, A 1)
AddVSprite(vSprite,rastPortXAO A I)
DoCollision(rasPort)(A 1)
DrawG List(rast Port, view Port)(A 1, AO)
InitG els(du m m y II ead,du m m yTail,Gels!nfo)( AO A l A 2)
Init M asks(vSpriteX A 0)
R e mIBo b( bob, rast Port, view Port)(A0 A l A 2)
Rem Vsprite(vSpriteX AO)
Set ColIisLon(type,routine,gelsInfoX DO AO A 1)
SortG Ldst(rastPort)(A 1)
AddAnim 0b(obj, animation Key, rastPortX AO A l A 2) AnimateCanimationKey,rastPort)(AO A 1)
C. e t G B u f f ers( animationO bj,rast Port, do u hie B u f f e r)( A 0 A 1, D 0)
InitG M asks(a ni m a Ho n 0 bjX A 0)
private GelsFuncEO GelsFuncFO
* - Remaining graphics routines -
a a public
Load R G B4(view Port,colors,count)( A 0 A 1, DO)
Ini t R ast P or t(r ast Por tX A 1) lnit V Port( vie w P ort)( A 0)
MrgC op(vie wX A I)
M ake V Port( vie w, vie w Port)( A 0 A 1)
Load View(view)( A 1)
W aitBlit()
Set R ast(rast Port,colorX A 1, DO)
M ove(rastPort,x.,yX A 1 ,D0 D 1)
Draw(rastPort,x,yX A 1.D0 D 1)
AreaMove(rastPortTx,y)( A 1,D0 D1)
AreaDraw(rastPort,x,yXA I,DO D 1)
AreaEnd(rastPort)( A 1)
WaitTOFO
Qblit(blit)(Al)
Init A rea(arealnfo, vecLorTable,vectorTableSizeX A 0 A 1, D 0)
SetR GB4(view Port,index,r,g,b)( A0, DO D 1 D2 D3)
QBSBlit(blitXAI)
BltClear( mem oryfsLze,flagsXA 1, DO D 1)
RectFill(rastPort,xl,yl,xu,yu)(A 1 ,D0 D 1 D2 D3)
Blt.Pattern(rastPort,ras,xl,yl, max X , max Y ,fillBytes)(a 1 ,a0, DO D 1 D 2 D3 D4)
ReadPixel(rastPort,x,y)(A 1,DO D I)
WritePixel(rastPort,xfyX A 1,D0 D 1)
Flood(rastPort, m ode,x,y)( A 1, D 2, DO D 1)
Poly Draw(rastPort,count,polyTable)( A 1, DO, A0)
Set A Pen(rastPort,pen)(A I, DO)
Set Bpen(rast Port,penX A 1, D 0)
Set Dr M d(rast Port, draw Mode)( A 1, DO)
Init Vie w (vie w X A 1)
C Bu m p(copperList)( A 1)
C Mcve(copperList,destination,dataXA 1,DO D 1)
C V ait(cop per List, x,y)( A 1, DO D 1)
Vbea m Pos()
InitBit Map(bitMap,depth,width,heightX A0f DO D 1 D2)
ScrollRaster(rastPort,d X ,d Y, minx, m iny, maxx, m axyX A 1 ,D0 D 1 D 2 D 3 D4 D 5)
W aitB 0 V P(vie w port)(a0)
GetSprite(sim plesprite,nu m)(a0,d0)
FreeS prite(nu m)(d0)
ChangeSprite(vp,si m plesprite,data)(aO a 1 a2)
MoveSprite(viewport,si m plesprite,x,yXaO a] ,d0 dl)
Listing continued on next page.
Significantly to your ability to format text output.
Another useful feature is to be able to pass commands to AmigaDOS as if you were in the CLI. This is demonstrated in Listing 2.
This involves the use of the DOS library command EXECUTE, which allows you to send commands to the CLI from within Basic, just as if you had typed them. It is only usable if you loaded Amiga Basic from the CLI, not from Workbench. And while not all DOS commands will work by this method, it is a useful execise in programming libraries.
We begin by using the DECLARE FUNCTION EXECUTE & LIBRARY statement to indicate that we will be returning a long integer value from the library routine Execute. Then there are a couple of variables initialized, and you are asked for the CLI command you wish to send. Next, you are asked if you need any data returned from this CLI call. If so, a separate routine is used to call that CLI command. What type of command returns data to you? Many of them, like DIR, LIST, TYPE, INFO, DATE, etc., will list to the screen some information. However, when you send them from Basic, the data is not listed to the Basic window. Instead, it is still directed to the AmigaDOS CLI window. So, for those routines that return data we use the subprogram CLIReturn. This routine directs the data to a temporary file in the RAM disk, and then opens it for input, just like any text file. It then prints the information it gets to the Basic window and deletes the file when through. If we don’t require information back to the screen, we use the subprogram CLIStuff. This will simply execute the command string you send. Some examples for CLIStuff are:
TYPE TEXT.DAT TO PRT:
RUN SAY -X SPEECHDATA.TXT RUN PROGRAMNAME ED DATAFILE.TXT
You can use these to get information from the disk back to your programs, or even to multitask some other program from within your Basic program. Some CLI commands don’t respond to this mini-shell subprogram, such as CD (Change Directory). But Amiga Basic has a CHDIR command, so that is not a problem.
Calling Assembly-Language Routines You can also call assembly (machine) language routines from within Basic using the CALL statement. The method requires you to read the machine language into memory, then CALL the routine using a simple variable that identifies the address in memory where the machine code starts. If your routine requires parameters, they must be passed as short or long integers. If you require single- or double-precision numbers, you will need to use the command VARPTR to pass the numbers’ address. If your parameter is a string, then use SADD (the string address function) to pass the address of the string variable. And if you need to pass an array, use VARPTR to indicate the address of the first element of the array.
DIM ARRAYVALUE(99,99) DIM SORTCX)DF,% (255) ’ 255 BYTES OF CODE FOR SORT ALGORITHM FOR J = () TO 254 READ SORT CODE % (J) ’ READ CODE FROM DAFA STATEMENTS NEXT J FOR K = () TO 99 FOR J = 0 TO 99 ARRAYVALUE(K,J) = RXD* 1000 ’ ASSIGN VALUE TO ARRAY NEXT J NEXT K CODEADDRESS = VARPTR(SORTCODE%(())) ' ADDRESS OF MACHINE CODE A R RAYA D D R ES S = V A R PT R( A R R Avr V A LU E( 0, ())) ’ ADDRESS OF ARRAY CALL CODEADDRESS(ARRAYADDRESS) ’ CALI MACHINE CODE END REM DAFA FOR MACHINE CODE ROUTINE DATA XXXXX.XXXXX.XXXXX,X XX,XXXXX. XXXXX,XXXXX,XNXXX
Listing continued from previous page.
LockLayerR o m(layer)(a5)
U nlock Laver R o m(Iayer)(a5)
S y nc S Bit M a p(l)(a0)
C o pyS Bit M a p(l 1,12)(a0 a 1)
0 wnBKtterOO
Disow n Blitter(X)
In it T m pRas(t m pras, buff,six eXaO a I ,d0)
A sk Font(rast Port,text A ttrX A 1, A 0)
AddFont(textFontXA 1)
Rem Font(textFontXA 1)
A Hoc Raster(width,heightX DO D 1)
Free Rasler(plarieptr, width,heightX A 0, DO D 1)
A nd R cct R cgion(rgn,rect)( A0 A 1)
0 r R e c t R egi o n( rgn ,rec t X A 0 A 1)
N e w Region(X) X otR egion(rgnXAO) C lear R egion(rgn)( A 0)
D ispose R egionfrgnX A0)
FreeV Port CopLists(view port)(a0)
F re e C o p L ist (c o p 1 ist )(a0)
ClipBIit(srcrp,src X ,src Y ,destrp,destX ,de.st Y ,si .eX ,size Y, m interm)
(A 0, DO D1, A 1, D 2 D 3 D 4 D 5 D 6)
X orR ect Region(rgn,rect)(aO al)
F ree C pr L ist(c prlist)( aO)
G etC ol c) r M a p( e n t.ri es)(d0)
Free Color M ap(color m ap)(a0)
Get R G B4(color map,entry)(a0,d0)
Sc roll V Port(vpXaO)
lT Copper ListJnit(copperUst,nij m)(a0,d0)
FreeG Buffers(anim ationO bj,rastPort,doubleBuffer)(AO A 1, DO)
Bit Bit M ap R astPort(src b m fsrcx,srcy,desLrp,desL X ,dest Y ,size X ,size Y, m in term) (AO, DO D 1, A 1, D 2 D 3 D4 D 5 D6)
end
DATA XXXXX,XXXXX.XXXX ,XX XXW
XXXXX. XXXXX, X XX
Circle 57 on Reader Service card.
We read the machine code in as elements ol an array, and using the statement VARPTR, we CALL the address of the base clement of the array. Likew ise, we created an array of random numbers and passed the location of the base element of the array to the machine lan- guage sort routine.
As you can see, it is not too difficult for the Basic programmer to use the many specialized routines in the ROM and in disk-based libraries from Amiga Basic. And it is just as easy to use your own machine language routines from within Amiga Basic programs. Even though the actual physical location in memory of the machine code may change each time you use your program, Amiga Basic contains commands like VARPTR and SADD to find the absolute locations so your program can Find and execute the code.
I hope this serves as a good introduction to programming the Amiga ROM and disk-based libraries. It is not possible to cover all the material in one article, or even ten. The sheer amount of commands is statnierinii. I he
no o
best way to understand it is to keep on plodding along. After all. As the ancient saying goes, a journev of a thousand miles begins with a single step. And we’ve g »i a lot of walking to clo!H
Address all author correspondence to Louis A Wallace, 612-411 AW 11 Place. Gainesville. FL 32607.
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AmigaWorld 55
Fundamentals of C

Our C programming tutorial continues with a discussion of the key concepts of the C language.
By William B. Catchings and Mark L. Van Name
In our first installment, we discussed the basic components of a C program and used them in build a sample program, called wardcaunt. Here we will examine several key concepts of C. We then will use these concepts in a sample program that performs simple text analysis, called analyze text.
We make the same two assumptions here as in the first installment: that you have some programming experience, and that you have access to a copy of The ('. Programming language by Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis . Ritchie. You can find in it more information on the topics we cover. Also, we assume that you have read Part One of this tutorial, although that is not essential.
Variables
C is a structured programming language that groups statements into blocks, and requires all variables to be declared before they can be used. When you arc working within a block, you need to know exactly which of these variables you can access, or see. The blocks in which a variable may be seen arc referred to as its scope.
A variable’s scope is determined by where it was declared. Most variables are declared within a block. These variables are visible only to statements within that block. Since a block is a kind of statement, all blocks embedded, or nested, at any level within a given block can see any variables declared within that block.
Consider the program fragment shown in Example 1. The statement i=j; occurs twice: first, in the block labeled Block Two, and then in Block One. The first occurrence is fine, since it can see both j (declared in the same block) and i (declared in a higher
block Block One). The second (in Block One) will generate an error, as it can see only i. Since j is declared in a lower block (Block Two), it is not visible.

I* Block One *
tnt i;

* Block Two *
int j = 0;
i =T
* legal *1
}
i=T
* will cause an error *
Example 1.
As Example 1 shows, you can declare variables at the beginning of any block, not just at the start of a function. Variables that are declared in a block are called local variables, as they are visible only locally (i.e., within the block in which they are declared). You can declare variables with the same name in different blocks. When a statement references such a variable, it uses the one declared closest to it. The closest declaration is the first one you find by looking in the current block, then in the one in which the current block is nested, and so on. In essence, you look up the tree of blocks to find the closest declaration. However, you can see only up; variables in blocks down (nested deeper) are invisible to you.
You can make variables visible to all of the routines in a file by declaring them at the beginning of the file, outside of any block of code. You can also declare variables as external to a file. This means that they are declared in another file. You do this by prefacing their declaration with the word extern and putting it before any block in the file. For example:
extern int globalvar;
AmigaWorld
MetaScope: The Debugger
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March April 1986 Interactive video, laser-disk technology, using Intuition. Amiga software programs listed.
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MetaScope gives you everything you've always wanted in an application program debugger:
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• Powerful Expression Evaluation
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main( arg_count, arg_striri2S ) perform .simple text analysis '•'
int arg_couni; char :’:arg_strings[];
(
int c:
int num_chars = 0, * auto-initialize all of the counters "7
nu m_pchars = 0, * number of non-white-space characters *
num_words = 0, num_lines - 0,
nu m_sents = 0, in_a_word = 0, * and start out not in a word * option = 0: * assume they got the invocation wrong :7
* there should be 1 command line argument, if not, error & quit *
if ( arg_count != 2 ) teil_usage();
while ( ( c = getchar() ) != EOF ) * read until the end of file *
mini chars++; * this counter includes every character *
if ( is_space( c ) )
in_a_word = 0; * not in a word, so set flag :7
else
num_pchars++; * a non-space, so up the printable counter :7
* if we weren't in a word, increment the word count and :7 * set the flag to show that we are now *
if ( !in_a_word )
(
in_a_word - 1; nu m__words++;
)
)
if (( c =='.') I | ( C =='!’) | | ( C =='?') )
* hit a sentence-ending punctuation mark, so bump that counter *7 num_sents++;
if ( c == ' n' ) num_lines++; * hit a newline, got another line *
)
j* now, based on the com mand line request, print out the statistics :7
option = lower( (int) **++arg_strings ); * get the command option =7
* note the **++ construct. The ++ moves us from *
* arg_strings[0], a pointer to the routine name, *
* to a pointer to the first real com mand line arg*
* The first * gets us the pointer and the second :7
gets us what we want, the first char it points to*
* in both cases print out a simple header * printf( " n tSimple Analysis of input text n" ); printf( " t- n" );
switch ( option 1 (
case V: * do complex case first. Print complex slats and *
* fall through to print the rest as well *
* use floating point number mask %4.1f *
* cast the result of all divisions to be floats *
printf "Average number of characters per word: %4.1f n",
(float) num_pchars (float) mi words ); print f( "Number of sentences: %d n", num sents );
printf( "Average number of words per sentence: %4.lf n",
(float) num_words (float) num_sents ); case 's': * give the wordcount stats and quit the switch *
printf( "Number of non-white-space characters: %d n",
num_pchars ):
Listing continued on next page.
If you do this, there must be a corresponding declaration in another file. For our example, it would be:
int globalvar;
A variable that has its declaration outside ol the code of one file and an extern declaration for it in every other file of a program is called a global variable. It is visible globally, to every statement in every routine in the program.
Example 1 also shows how variables can be initialized as they are declared (of ten called auto-initialization). Just follow the name of the variable you are declaring with an equals sign and the value with which you want it initialized. Then either terminate the statement with a semicolon, or insert a comma and put in another declaration. You should initialize all of your variables before you reference them, either this way or with a normal assignment statement. If you do not, there is no guarantee what value the variable will contain when you first reference it.
Related to the scope of a variable is the duration of time during which you can use it. Local variables exist only while the block in which they were declared is being executed. (They are placed on the program stack and removed from it along with that block.) Also, any auto initialization associated with a variable is performed every time its declaration block is entered. This is usually what you want. Sometimes, however, you want to use a variable only in one block or routine but don’t want it to be initialized every time you enter that block or routine. When this happens, preface the variable’s declaration with static. For example, the declaration:
static int call count = 0;
creates a variable call count that is initially zero. You can then change its value and know that the new value will not be lost, as it will not be initialized again every time its block is entered. Any auto-initialization of global variables is done only once as they do not belong to any block.
Addresses and Variable Contents
Now that we know when variables may be used, we will discuss how they may he used. You refer to a variable by its name, such as varl. T he contents of a variable are stored at some location in nicmorv. Suppose that the contents of varl are stored at location 347593 in memory. Then the address oi'varl is 347593. C allows you to get (he address of a variable by using the ampersand operator [8c). The value of Scvarl would he 347593. You declare a variable that is to contain an address (often called a pointer to the data at that address) by using the asterisk operator *). The declaration:
char *char_ptr;
says that the contents of char ptr will contain the address of, or point to. One or more characters. You determine exactly how many items to which a pointer refers; C sets no limits. Thus, char ptr can point to anywhere from one character to an entire string of characters.
You can use the ampersand and asterisk operators to manipulate directly the addresses of variables and to affect the values of those variables by using their addresses. Consider the following:
int varl, *var_ptr;
var_ptr = &varl;
* var_ptr = 1;
var ptr first is declared to be a pointer and then is set to contain the address of varl. In the third line, we encounter another use of the asterisk operator. When not in a declaration, the asterisk means to get the contents stored in the address in the designated pointer (often referred to as dereferencing the pointer). Since, in this example, var ptr is the address of an integer, *var_ ptr is the integer value stored at the address in var ptr. Thus, the statement *var ptr = 1; sets to one the integer that is pointed to by var ptr. Since var ptr was earlier made to equal the address of varl, this statement sets the value of varl to one. It is equivalent to varl = 1;.
The ampersand and asterisk operators are complementary. Therefore, *8cvarl means the contents of the address of varl, or just varl. This example is clearly silly. However, the ability to manipulate addresses simply and directly allows you to work very close to the underlying computer system. This ability makes C a very good language for systems-level programming.
Pointers serve another important function in C: arrays are implemented using them. The array declaration:
int foo[ 10 ];
declares a pointer eo that points to 10 integers. The second element of the array foo could be referenced either by the usual foo[ 1 ], or by using the pointer *(foo + 1). In the latter, we add one to the address contained in foo and then get the contents stored at this computed address. The parentheses are required here because the ampersand operator has a higher priority than the plus operator. (See the sidebar on ‘‘C Operator Precedence,”
p. 60, for more information.)
This example also shows why it is important to declare to what a pointer points. The operation foo + 1 does not just add one to the address stored in foo; it adds whatever is necessary to point to the next integer after the one pointed to by foo. If integers are two bytes long, then this operation actually adds two to foo, C automatically determines the amount that should be added to get the desired result.
Functions
Programs in a structured language are composed of one or more procedures, either subroutines or functions. The difference is that a function returns a value while a subroutine does not. All C procedures are functions. C relies very heavily on functions: all I O and other system support is provided by them. Even the main routine of a program is just another function.
Listing continued from previous page.
Printf( "Total number of characters: %d n", num_chars );
printf( "Number of words: %d n", num_words );
printf( "Number of lines: %d n", num_lines ):
break;
default: * tell the usage and quit *
tell_usage();
} * end of main routine *
* tell the user how to call this and then quit *
tell_usage()
(
printf( "You called analyze_text incorrectly An" );
printf( "Correct usage: fanalyze_text file_name cf (or s) n" );
exit( 0 ); * use this C library function to quit the program
} '•' end of tell_usage *
int is_space( ch ) * returns true (1) if whitespace, false (0) if not
int ch;
I
* white space is a blank, a tab, or a newline * if ( ( ch =- 1 f ) || ( ch == ' t' ) || ( ch == ' n' ) ) return ( 1 ); else return ( 0 );
) * end of is_space '*!
* returns the incoming char set to lower case *
int lover( ch ) int ch;
(
if ( ( ch >= 1A1 ) && ( ch = ’Z' ) ) return ( ch + 'a' - ’A' ); else return ( ch );
* end of lower *
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M The basic formal of a function declaration is an optional return value type (integer is the default), followed by the function's name, and then its arguments, separated by commas, in parentheses. Unlike other C statements, the function declaration is not terminated by a semicolon. After the function declaration, you must specify the data type of each argument, and then the function’s code. Example 2 shows a function, cpy str, that copies one string to another, up to a specified maximum number of characters, and then returns the actual number of characters copied.
Int cpy_str( source, dcst, max_chai status )
char ?source, ?dest; int max_char, *status;

int i:
for ( i = 0; i max_char; i + + )
if ( ( *dcst+ + = ?source + + ) ! = * ()’) break;
?status = 0;
return( i );
}
Example 2.
A (. Function has three main parts: its arguments, its code and the value it will return.
Let's look first at the arguments. U passes arguments by value. This means that it gives a function a copy of the value of the argument specified by the caller. Thus, a change to the argument affects only its value, not the value of the variable put in the call to the function. In Example 2, if cpy str changed the value of max char, it would not change the value of the variable that the caller specified as the third argument. If you need to change the value of some variable of the function's caller, you must pass the address of that variable to the function. The address is then copied, hut you can use it in conjunction with the asterisk operator to change the caller’s variable. T his is how status is changed in Example 2. T he call to cpy str would resemble the following:
len = str_cpy( stt l. str2. 50. &status ):
We use the ampersand so that cpy sir is passed the address of status rather than the value in it. Similarly, in
cpy str we need the asterisk in front of status to change
its contents rather than the value that is the address.
A function’s code follows the rules wc have discussed so far. In Example 2, we encounter a slightly more complex statement composed of several of the constructs we have discussed:
?dest + + = ?source + + ;
Here ? Is applied to source to get the contents of the character to which it is currently pointing. Then ? Is
applied to dest as it receives the value we just got from source. Then the + + operator is applied to both pointers, and they are incremented to point to the next character in their respective arrays.
All C statements evaluate to some value. The value of this statement is the character assigned to the address currently pointed to by dest. In the statement, we then compare this value to the special C null, end-of-string value ( 0). If it matches, we want to stop copying the source to the destination as we have finished. We do so by terminating the for loop with a new statement: break.
C Operator Precedence
The order in which operations in an expression are executed is determined by the precedence, or priority, of the operators involved. One simple type of operator precedence is found in arithmetic expressions: multiplication and division are performed before addition and subtraction. Thus, the expression 4 + 5 ? 6 yields 34, not 54. To change such an ordering, we would have to use parentheses.
If two operators are of equal precedence, then we
need to know whether they are evaluated from left to

right or vice versa. If in the above example addition and multiplication had equal precedence, left to right evaluation would yield 54, while right to left would give us 34.
C provides a very large number of expression operators. In the table below, the operators are ordered from highest to lowest precedence. Those with equal precedence are shown in the same group. Having this table handy while you program can save you a lot of trouble and debugging later.
Operator Evaluated
primary-expression () [] . - > left to right
unary ? 8c - ! + +-- right to left
sizeof (cast)
binary left to right
Multiply Divide * I %
Add Subtract + - Shift > >
Inequality > => =
Equality = = ! =
Arithmetic AND 8c Arithmetic XOR A Arithmetic OR Logical AND 8c8c Logical OR ||
Conditional ?:
Assignment = + = - = ?= right to left
1= % = >> = =
Multi-statement grouping . Left to right
A break stops the nearest enclosing loop. It does not affect the if statement, as that statement is not a loop.
The last part of a function is the value it returns. The type of the data to be returned is specified in the function declaration. The value is returned to the caller by the return statement. In Example 2, we return the number of characters actually copied in the integer variable
i. We had to return it in an integer because the function declaration specified a return type of int.
MODULA-2
the successor to Pascal
Command Line Arguments
Many programs, such as the AmigaDOS CLI commands, require input parameters that you specify when you run the program. These parameters are often referred to as command tine arguments. In C, you access such parameters through two standard (but optional) arguments to your program’s routine main. They are usually named argc and argu, but you may name them whatever you wish. The following code fragment shows how to refer to command line arguments in your main function.
Main( arg_count, argstrings )
int arg_count;
char *arg_stringsU;
The first argument, arg .count, is the number of command line arguments. C considers the name of the program to be the first argument, so arg count is always at least one. The second argument, arg strings, is an array of character pointers. Each of these pointers refers to a standard C null-terminated (ends with 0) character string. The first string, arg__sfr ?igj[0], is the program name. Argstrings[l] is the first argument given to your program. The C runtime library takes the command line the user enters, breaks it into words and puts those words in these character strings. It considers a word to be a group of characters terminated by a space. If we invoked a program test with the command:
test argl arg2 arg3
argstrings[0] would contain the string “test 0”, argstrings[2] would contain the string “arg2 0’ and arg icount would be 4. Our sample text analysis program uses command line arguments.
The switch Statement
Our sample program also uses a C statement called the switch statement. A switch statement is equivalent to a series of if.. .then.. .else statements but looks much cleaner. Also, under certain circumstances, some compilers generate much faster code for a switch statement than for a group of if.. .then.. .else statements.
The format is the keyword switch followed by an expression in parentheses. This expression is evaluated to determine which of the choices within the switch statement to execute. Then there is a followed by those choices. Each choice is indicated by the keyword case, followed by a constant integer expression and a colon. After the colon, you place the statements you want to execute if the switch expression evaluates to the
CODE statement for in-line assembly code.
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14
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¦ CASE has an ELSE and may contain
¦ Programs may be broken up into
; subranges
Modules for separate compilation
¦ Dynamic strings of any size
¦ Multi-tasking is supported
¦ Machine level interface
¦ Module version control
Bit-wise operators
¦ Open array parameters (VAR r: ARRAY
Direct port and Memory access
OF REALS:)
Absolute addressing
¦ Type transfer functions
Interrupt structure
¦ Definable scope of object
Pascal and Modula-2 source code are nearly identical. Modula-2 shoutd be thought of as an enhancement to Pascal (they were both designed by Professor Niklaus Wirth).
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M same value as this case's constant integer expression.
You may place here zero or more statements to be executed. Unlike in the body of a function, you do not need to surround such a group of statements with braces, although you may wish to do so to declare a variable local to that group of statements. A } terminates the switch statement.
There is one special switch option. You can specify what to do if none of the case constants equals the value of the switch expression. You do this by using the keyword default, followed by a colon and a group of statements to be executed.
Once the case has been found whose value equals the switch expression, all statements following it are executed until a break statement is encountered. (A break terminates execution of the switch statement as well as loop statements.) This allows you to have a number of cases fall through and execute the same code.
Casting
C offers several different data types, and they are stored very differently. The most commonly used ones are characters, integers and pointers. Though it varies from one type of computer to another, these three data types are typically 8. 16 and 32 bits long, respectively. They cannot be used interchangeably. Yet, one of C's best (and worst) points is that it provides you a great deal of flexibility in dealing with data. If, for example, you want to use a character as an address, you can.
To bring some order out of this chaos, you use casting. You use casting to assure that things of different
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data types are compared and assigned correctly. You cast a constant or variable by preceding it by a data type in parentheses. If you do not specifically cast a variable reference, C will decide on a data type for you and implicitly cast the reference. However, it will not always decide correctly. If, for instance, you wanted to check to see if a pointer passed to your function was set to zero, you might use the statement:
if ( char_ptr = = 0 ) return;
You specified no casting, so C chooses the default, which is to cast char_ptr to an integer. If integers are 16 bits and pointers 32 bits, as is often the case, char ptr would have 16 bits of its value thrown away and then be compared to 0. This is bad, as you lose much of char ptr s meaning. In the following version of this statement, we cast the zero to be a character pointer like char ptr:
if ( char_pir = = (char *) 0 ) return;
Now the zero will be extended to 32 bits and the comparison will work correctly.
A problem related to casting is that of declaring what functions in other files will return. By default, C assumes that all functions return integers. If you call a routine that is defined in another file, to get anything other than an integer returned from it, you must declare it in your file. To declare such a function, give the data type it returns, followed by the function name and then empty parentheses. If the routine foo returns a pointer to a character string, you should have this statement in your program;
char * foo();
You should cast rather than trust the compiler to make the correct choice for you. Casting has been largely overlooked in the past, partly because much of the use of C has been on machines where, due to vagaries of the operating system or underlying hardware, C happened to wwk fine without it. However, when C programs written on such machines were ported without casting to other computers, the programs often did not work. Ports to microcomputers in particular were likely to leave broken programs. If you ever plan to use your program on another kind of computer, casting is a necessity.
We have now covered most of the major concepts and constructs of C. Though not actually a part of the C language, there still remain the C libraries. In Part Three, we will look at the relatively standard parts of these libraries. In Part Four we will discuss the Amiga libraries that let you harness many of your Amiga’s exciting features. Until then, wre urge you to try our sample program and others of your own devising.¦
Address all author correspondence to William B. Catchings and Mark L. Van Name, 10024 Sycamore Road, Durham, NC 27703.
Manx Aztec C68k Ain The C for the Amiga
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Art Behind Glass: Aegis Images and Aegis Animator
Reviewed by Vinoy Laughner
Aegis Development is a company that has made a solid commitment to the Amiga, and one that obviously clearly foresaw the potential of this machine, especially in the area of graphics. Many would agree, after all, that graphics is the Amiga's raison d'etre. Aegis's first three products are Aegis Images, Aegis Animator (which includes Images) and Aegis Draw (a CAD package); by the time you read this, Aegis Impact, a husi- ness-presentation graphics program, will be available also. The major competition in this area comes from, of course, Electronic Arts, with their programs DeluxePaint and DeluxeVidco. How Aegis Images compares with DeluxePaint will figure much in (his review; unfortunately, at the time of this writing, I hadn't seen a finished version of DeluxeVideo. So I couldn’t make any fair comparisons between it and Aegis Animator.
Painting with Light: Aegis Images
Images is Aegis’s paint program and is available alone ($ 79.95), or comes as part of the package with the Animator ($ 139.95). (Animator may not be purchased separately, except with a special form that comes in the Images box, plus $ 60 and proof of purchase.) As I said above, it is worthwhile to compare Images with DeluxePaint from Electronic Arts since both these programs are full-featured powerful paint programs. I have heard that over 50% of Amiga buyers buy DeluxePaint as many as 70%. Those are pretty enviable statistics. Graphicraft from Commodore, though sophisticated and of high quality, lacks many of the features that make these other two programs so appealing. Graphicraffs only major advantage is its price, $ 50, but you miss a lot to save $ 30 to $ 50.
Basic Drawing Tools
As far as basic drawing tools go. All three available programs are about the same. Images offers 32 colors modifiable from a possible 4,096, allows swapping between two screens and has an airbrush feature (Images and DeluxePaint only), and has large Brush and Shape selection menus. Images offers a few shape options missing from DeluxePaint: a parallelogram and a circular curve. As far as creating custom brushes is concerned, in my opinion DeluxePaint has the better approach, allowing enlarging, reducing or reversing of any size screen area as a brush, with a few easy keyboard entries. Images allows you to define a screen area as a brush also, with its Frame feature, but this brush cannot be as easily manipulated (for instance with color cycling) as in DeluxePaint, and is limited in size. In my opinion, DeluxePaint’s most outstanding feature is its custom brush feature. However, though DeluxePaint's brush feature outshines Images’, Images is not lacking in powerful and unique special features of its own.
Editing
Beyond the standard Undo, Clear Screen and Swap Screen options, Images allows you to define any area of the screen as a Frame, for use as a brush, or, when saved as a Window, to be copied anywhere else in another Images picture, or, more notably, into an animation in the Animator. Unfortunately, a brush created in this way cannot take advantage of the program’s Special features: You can’t, for example, create a huge face as a brush and cycle draw with it. However, this feature is still powerful, allowing detailed objects to be repeated, manipulated or animated. Images' Magnification feature allows you to size your magnification window and move it about the screen, a handier approach than that taken by DeluxePaint. Images also allows zooming in by sliding a bar on the side of the magnify window with the pointer.
It is appropriate to mention here that Images uses the menus and options in a way seemingly more native
to the Amiga and Workbench than DeluxePaint does it is more exclusively mouse-oriented. Furthermore, although the menu bar may be hidden from view, it is still immediately accessible, and passes of a brush over the visible menu bar cause it to be painted behind. With DeluxePaint, the option bars when viewable (by function key setting) are not “canvas” space. Constant jumping from mouse or graphics tablet to the keyboard and back again is something that DeluxePaint requires, and something I don’t care for. I lean towards a graphics program that requires keyboard entry only for text. Images’ Workbench “feel” may or may not be of any value to you, but I find its overall approach more comfortable and easier to use, more (gulp) intuitive, if you will.
Special Features
Images has Wash and Smear features, similar to DeluxePaint’s Blend and Smear. Wash gives the look of the mingled blurred edge created by watercolors when they meet; Smear gives the general look of oil colors when smeared in a sketchy manner. (I’m not taken by Smear in either program since often one color dominates completely and merely cancels out the other.) Images’ Mirror feature (as DeluxePaint’s) allows you to divide the screen in different ways into areas that duplicate symmetrically what is drawn in one area.
Images has a four-channel color cycling feature and cycle draw (as does DeluxePaint). A quirk in Images color cycling that I noticed is that after selecting color cycling, you must go to the Shapes menu and select something other than freehand draw or line if you want the cycling to be nice and smooth. Color cycling is a major feature of any Amiga paint program, and Images takes full advantage of it. This is an impressive feature you will spend a lot of time with. I must admit that I find Graphicraft’s Cycle feature more than adequate and the easiest to work with; though it has only a
one-channel system, it allows you to produce effects equally as entertaining.
Images other Special Effects features are: Spread, which fills an area with a preset range of colors, gradually blending (dithering) as it fills this is a useful and clever feature; Antialias, a handy feature that produces a mid-range outline around objects or lines, allowing you to disquise, among other things, the stairstep effect created by a diagonal line; Pantograph, a feature whereby you can reproduce one area of your screen in another location, and visible only when you paint in
that location; Grid, its horizontal and vertical spacing which you can define, and which automatically conforms shapes drawn to its grid intersections; Constrain, which constrains lines drawn to its selected degrees; Under, which allows you to paint over without altering a color or a certain preset range of colors, again, very useful; and Tile, a feature that lets you select a rectangular area of the screen as a “tile”; the tile being revealed when you draw or fill, as if it resides behind your current screen. This feature can be used for creating patterns larger than those available with the Patterns feature.
Colors and Patterns
In Images, colors can be selected from the color selection menu or picked from the screen. Images has low- and medium-resolution modes, offering 32 and 16 colors, respectively. DeluxePaint also offers high resolution (eight colors), but unless you have an expensive high-persistence monitor, high-resolution flicker caused by interlacing will be a big disappointment.
One very powerful feature in Images that DeluxePaint does not offer is its Patterns feature. Sixteen patterns are available at any time for drawing or filling and an editor lets you modify any or all patterns. Pattern fills are done by hardware and arc lightning fast. Shapes can be set to fill with patterns automatically also. (The circular shapes do not hardware fill.) 1 have managed to lock the Amiga up a few times with Images doing fills in areas involving complex patterns, or involving intricate line grids: if this happens to you, sit tight, your Amiga will regain consciousness before long; advice: save pictures often with any graphics program, so you never lose your efforts. All sorts of amazingly complex textures and fabric-like or patchwork-like effects can be produced with linages’ Pattern feature. It is otic of Images strong points and is a lot of fun to use.
Shapes
The Shapes menu includes 12 options, including an ellipse, a parallelogram, a circular curve and text from five fonts. An Options selection allows you to choose from outlined or automatically filled shapes, how you want the shapes defined (from end or center points, etc.) and shapes that repeat from your determined points. You can choose to I.ock the shape options also so you don't have to go hack and conf igure each shape as you use it.
Finishing Touches
If money is no object and you are going to use your Amiga primarily for graphics, 1 would recommend owning Images and DeluxePaint. DeluxcPaint’s custom brush feature is so exceptionally useful, and il graphics is your primary use, you will want to own it too. If it’s an either or situation, however, you wouldn’t he foolish in choosing Images over DeluxePaint. Images lacks a few nice features DeluxePaint offers, but has numerous unique special features of its own. I also think it is more comfortable to use, rarely requiring keyboard input. It’s also $ 20 less than DeluxePaint and is not copy-protected. As a stand-alone package, Images is a good value and I can safely recommend it; as a part of the Animator package, it is a must-have for those of you who want to explore the graphics potential of your
Aegis Animator is a metamorphic animation program; with it you can create objects and change their shapes or sizes in defined discrete steps. These objects can also be moved about the screen as you wish and
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their 32 color possibilities can be modified from the well-worn 4,096. If making moving images or cartoons has ever intrigued you, this program will give you the ability to do so.
The Whole Show
The Animator allows you to create up to nine separate animated sequences concurrently and display them on its Storyboard. These nine sequences (actually each made up of numerous sequences themselves) can also be combined in various ways and spliced together to create your own “epic" animations. Animator scripts are broken up into discrete time segments called tweens. Within any given (ween, numerous objects can he manipulated, separately or together. Eventually the connected tweens make up the final complete animation, the above-mentioned script.
The timing of an animation can be controlled with the rime feature. Individual tweens can have their times adjusted to add more natural motion to the movement of an object in a script, for example. Objects can change colors in the context of an animation, all under your planning and control.
You can create either lines or polygons in the Animator, and it has the set shapes Circle, Block and Star to choose from. Shapes can be chosen as outlined only or as filled. Once you have chosen the shapes you want, combinations of which can be made to create more complex objects, you can control their movement in different ways. Objects can be eliminated at any time in the context of the script with the Destroy feature and objects can be duplicated easily using the Clone feature. So if you came up with a particularly nice looking fish-shaped polygon for a deep-sea animation, for instance, you could quickly clone a whole school.
Directing the Action
I he options you have for moving your "object players” fall into certain categories: sideways, forward and backward movement; apparent 3-dimensional rotation around a vertical or horizontal axis, (the locations of which you determine), or in-plane rotation; size or color changes; a path you can preset for an object to follow; a change from filled to outlined objects (or vice versa); and finally, metamorphic change.
The Morph option allows you to subtly or completely change the shape or position of an object in an animation gradually or quickly. You can use the Hook or the Loop to stretch, bend and in general transform anv line or polygonal object. You could, as a simple example, have a sequence where stars turn into squares which then turn into random shapes. This amazing feature makes this program fun and very powerful.
Individual polygons can be acted upon as whole
objects, or in segments, or by the points that make up the shape. Objects can also be acted upon individually or as groups.
Amigas. And Images and the Animator go together like a hand and a glove (er. . .brush), which brings us to part two of this review.
Moving Pictures: The Animator
Watching Your Movies
Scripts can he run while in progress either as individual tweens, whole scripts, or in a loop, so a script will play over and over. The Next Tween feature allows you to step through tweens for editing, reviewing and fine tuning. Tweens can be viewed at their beginnings or ends, so you can easily think through the progress of a given tween.
Too much space would be required to exaustively describe every feature of this program. The specifics are not too easy to explain; unless you are familiar with animation jargon, the word tween itself is rather obscure. But the new terms and concepts involved in this product are well worth learning, considering the fascinating end results. For all its complexity, it is really amazingly easy to learn and use. Of course, to complete a highy polished and complex animation will take planning, time and effort, but it can be done with the Animator and it is worth the work.
Artistic Collaborators
On the Amiga's silver screen, Images and the Animator were, so to speak, made for each other. Pictures created in Images can be used in the Animator as backdrops, and any objects created with Images can be used in the Animator as “players” in an animation script. You cannot metamorphically alter objects created in Images, hut they can be moved around and acted upon in other ways, and you can save these backgrounds and characters in such a way that you can use them over and combine and alter them as you wish.
Adding the dimension of video makes the possibilities even greater. Paint program images, video images and Animator-generated images can be combined to make highly professional moving video animations.
This not only places these creative visual technologies in the home, but opens up numerous applications for professionals who don’t have the big bucks for expensive equipment. We will have a lot more to say about animation and video in the future, and it looks like Aegis will be a major player.
DeluxeVideo, from Electronic Arts, could surely give Animator a run for its money (or yours). What I have seen of DeluxeVideo looks very deluxe indeed; it incorporates, among other things, text, various screen wipes and above all, sound. It does, however, involve a totally- different approach to moving images than Aegis Animator (it uses cel animation); Animator stands alone as a very sophisticated and entertaining mctamorphic animation program. Therefore, I'm hoping that these products aren't perceived as either or products. 1 have learned a lot about computer graphics and animation from using the Animator, and have had hours of fun as well. It will be used in unique and different ways than DeluxeVideo; I am hoping they both do well.
The Last Frame
The Amiga lends itself to stationary and moving graphics; Images addresses the former area, and the
Animator is designed to take creative advantage of the latter. The Animator offers graphics possibilities heretofore unavailable except to professionals and at a high cost. Polished animations can be created, combining detailed backgrounds and drawn objects (from Images), polygonal objects that can be altered metamorphically (created in Animator itself) and video, using the Genlock device and a video camera. The Animator points in many different graphics directions the Amiga can go and opens doors to new combinations of different mediums.
Aegis Development has, in my estimation, so far done a great job of creating products that allow serious and entertaining exploration of Amiga graphics, for artistic dabblers and professionals, and at a very reasonable price. Aegis Draw (CAD) could be instrumental in putting Amiga creativity into the hands of architects, and Aegis Impact could make presentation graphics a more affordable luxury for many businesses. I can highly recommend Aegis Animator Images to anyone interested in their Amiga’s graphics potential.¦
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The Amiga Shows Up
By Bob Ryan
COMDEX in Atlanta proves that the Amiga is at the center of innovation and excitement in the micro world.
“I laid out a lot of money for my Amiga and all I wound up with was an expensive doorstop."
Thus wrote one AmigaWorld reader earlier this year, reflecting the feelings of many people who had taken a chance on the Amiga and Commodore. Commodore’s very low profile at last year’s COMDEX Fall and this January's Consumer Electronics Show did nothing to raise the spirits of Amiga boosters. To top it off, many Commodore and third-party products for the Amiga had missed their earlier, overly-optimistic release dates, adding to the frustration of a user community starved for software and hardware products. Could the harpies be right? Was the Amiga doomed to failure?
These questions and more were on my mind as I walked into the World Congress Center in Atlanta, sight of this year’s COMDEX Spring. Five minutes after elbowing my way into the Commodore booth, I knew the skeptics were wrong. The Amiga is here to stay.
Commodore Strikes Oil
Looking like an off-shore drilling platform, the Commodore booth was 2,400 square feet of excitement and innovation. Dozens of developers were displaying their wares for the Amiga, putting to rest the notion that the Amiga is a machine without software and hardware support. The enthusiasm developers displayed for the machine was infectious, and the Commodore booth quickly became “THE place to be” at COMDEX.
My first foray into the booth brought me to the Mimctics exhibit, where Bob Hoover and Joy Weigle were demonstrating SoundScape. SoundScape is a beautiful software system that allows you to use your Amiga as a professional music studio. Combined with Mimetics1 stereo digitizer and MIDI interface, SoundScape gives you control over any number of MIDI devices and allows you to produce some mindbending (and earbending) effects. SoundScape is a must Unprofessional musicians who want to explore and exploit the potentials of electronic music.
Next to Mimetics, Electronic Arts was demonstrating a music program of a different sort. If, like me, you barely managed a 1) in Music Theory 101, then you’ll love Instant Music. The program plays three parts of a four-part piece; you plav the fourth part with your mouse. The great thing is that the program keeps you in tune and at the correct rhythm. Watching the demo was fun, but it wasn’t long before I pushed my way to the front and began jamming on my own. If only my old music professor had been there to see me.
Across from Instant Music, Activision demonstrated Music Studio. Music Studio lets you compose and play songs, control MIDI devices and create new sounds very easily. While it doesn’t have all the professional score- printing features of Deluxe Music Construction Set or the power and versatility of SoundScape, Music Studio is going to he a hit. It is fun, easy to use and it only costs 60 bucks.
By the way, the Video RoomMate Powered Speaker System from Bose that AmigaWorld reviewed in March April ’86 were all over the Commodore booth. It seemed that everyone who showed off a sound or music product was using them.
Soti of Transformer
Also near the Mimetics display was an Amiga with a curious box hanging off the side. The program running was obviously a flight simulator, although I couldn’t understand why the designers had used so few of the Amiga’s colors. The reason, of course, was that the program wasn't designed for the Amiga; It was Microsoft’s Flight Simulator for the IBM PC.
T he box was the Amiga Sidecar. Due out in the Fall (after it gets FCC approval), the Sidecar is a box about one-foot square that lets you run IBM-PC software at full speed on your Amiga. In addition, it contains three expansion slots that can be used by both MS DOS and AmigaDOS. Needless to say, the Sidecar is an impressive piece of hardware. For more details, see the product description on p. 46.
There was a lot of impressive hardware at the show. I had my first glimpse of the Amiga Genlock the device that lets you overlay graphics images on pictures from
a video source. You can display the result on your monitor and even save it to videotape. Commodore was also showing Amiga Live!, their real-time framegrabber. It transforms images from a video device into digital graphics that can he manipulated like any graphics on the Amiga.
Surprisingly, Commodore is now saying that neither the Genlock nor Amiga Live! Will ship before the Fall. Although 1 was disappointed with the news (both products were to have been released in the Spring), it seems to reflect a new attitude at Commodore: Don’t frustrate people by announcing unrealistic release dates.
If you can’t wait that long for a digitizer, you can get Digi-View. It isn’t a real-time framegrabber, but it does support the 4,096-color, hold-and-modify mode. It also has one other advantage over Amiga Live!: It’s available now.
Next to the Digi-View display, Dan Lovy of Applied Visions was demonstrating FutureSound, his sound digitizer for the Amiga. There was always quite a crowd around the Digi-View and FutureSound displays. People are very interested in how the Amiga can capture and manipulate sounds and pictures from the analog world.
The Expanding Amiga
Many companies were displaying hardware expansion devices for the Amiga. The most popular mcmory- expansion cards were Cardco’s 1MB (one megabyte) aMEGA board and Comspec’s 2MB A2000 board. Both devices are auto-config, a term you’ll be hearing a lot of in the coming months, especially with the release of version 1.2 of Kickstart and Workbench. An auto-config device is one that indicates its existence to the operating system on powerup. You don’t have to configure or install (in the software sense of the term) an auto-config device. If you use a device that is not auto-config, you could experience memory conflicts with other devices that are.
To give you an idea of how auto-config will make life easier for all of us, consider the differences between the Cardco and Comspec boards and the Tecmar T- card. With the Cardco and Comspec boards, you simply plug them in and the memory they contain is immedi-
atly available to the operating system and to any programs that follow Commodore's guidelines for memory management (something all programs should do). With the T-Card, you have to go through an elaborate installation procedure. I’ve had the T-Card for weeks now and I still haven’t gotten it to work properly. From now on, auto-config will be a must for Amiga expansion devices.
Also on the hardware end, The Micro Forge demonstrated their expansion chassis for the Amiga, as did Bvte-by-Bvte. The Micro Forge also demonstrated their
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tape backup for hard disk drives. The tape backup will make the Amiga more attractive to large and small businesses. AmigaWorld will be taking a close look at the issue of hardware expansion in our next issue.
The Big Three
If you think your Amiga can’t cut it as a productivity tool, think again. At COMDEX, 1 saw three database programs for the Amiga, two word processors and three spreadsheets. The database programs ranged from a file manager MiAmiga File to Datamat, an extremely powerful, relational database-management system. MiAmiga File reminds me of the database in Appleworks, but it is much easier to use. 1 have never seen a file-management program that lets you manipulate data as easily.
Datamat is at the opposite end of the spectrum. A true database system, it can access data from many files at one time and it lets you manipulate the data to your heart's content. On the negative side, the version of Datamat shown at COMDEX was a straight port of the program as it exists for MS DOS, VAX and UNIX machines. Transtime Technologies is at work on developing an Intuition-based front end for the program. Datamat has all the power you’ll ever need out of a microcomputer database. All it needs is the right user interface to let people take advantage of that power.
Aquisition, a database-management system from Taurus, falls between MiAmiga File and Datamat. Like MiAmiga File, it features an Intuition-based front end. The difference is that Aquisition a network type database manager is nearly as powerful as Datamat. Due out in the Fall, Aquisition shows that even "serious software” can be vastly improved by making it easier to use.
¦ On the word processing front, Byte-by-Bvte showed up with the Write Hand, a simplified word processor (a la PFS:Write) that you can buy as a stand-alone product or as part of the Financial Plus package. I’m no businessman, but Financial Plus seems to have everything you need to run a small business with your Amiga.
The other new word processor I saw was Scribble! From Micro Systems Software. Scribble! Is a definite improvement over Textcraft: It eliminates the six icons used in Textcraft. With Scribble!, you select what you want to do front menus. This is a more consistent approach than Textcraft uses and I like it. (One word processor I didn’t see was Textcraft Plus. Commodore listed it in their press kit but didn’t show it in the booth.)
Micro Systems Software’s other products are Online!, BBS-PC. Analyze! And an as yet unnamed database. I got a chance to meet Steve Pagliarulo, who did the coding, and Mark Lautenschlager, who wrote the manuals for all of these products, as well as Larry Studdard, who makes sure that everything gets done. Larry must be doing something right, because I don’t sec how so few people can produce so many fine products in such a short period of time. Maybe he should write a book.
Look Out Lotus
It was ironic that the Lotus Development booth was next door to the Commodore booth, because I saw three spreadsheets for the Amiga that could make you forget 1-2-3. The first was the above-mentioned Analyze!. Analyze! Uses an Intuition-based interface to make the power of a spreadsheet accessible to dummies like me. VIP Professional is a spreadsheet for the Amiga that emulates the workings of Lotus 1-2-3, right down to the macros and 1-2-3’s limited graphing capabilities. Thankfully, VIP Professional also has a separate program that lets you create colorful, Amiga-like graphs from your spreadsheet data. Dan Nelson of VIP Technologies thinks that his product will swing a lot of diehard Lotus users into the Amiga stable. After all, they won’t have to learn anything new to produce their “power spreadsheets” The last spreadsheet program I saw was MaxiPlan from Maxisoft. MaxiPlan goes a step beyond Analyze! In taking advantage of the Amiga’s special capabilities, such as multitasking, speech and color graphics. (For more about MaxiPlan, see the product highlight on p. 74.) Between MaxiPlan, Analyze!,
VIP Professional and Lattice's Unicalc, which has been on the market for months already, Amiga owners can choose the spreadsheet program that best suits their needs.
Beyond the Big Three
Jim and Karen Bayless of New Horizons Software were demonstrating Flow, their outline processor for the Amiga. Jim explained that they had added yet another way to export Flow files to Textcraft. He also
demonstrated how Flow could be used as a free-form database. Like many Amiga products, Flow has a lot of hidden power.
Desktop utilities were also in evidence at the show. Digital Creations was showing off Gizmoz, and Maxi- Soft had the latest version of MaxiDesk. Mike Lehman of MaxiSoft informed me that the manufacturing problems that had plagued the first release of MaxiDesk had been cleared up in the latest version. Mike also showed me the four components of the MaxiPower series. MaxiKey is a keyboard macro program that lets you enter abbreviations for commonly used words and phrases. MaxiCache sets up a RAM buffer between any program you’re running and a floppy disk. The program accesses the buffer rather than the disk, thus saving a lot of access time. The buffer then updates the disk without slowing the operation of the program.
MaxiMizer and MaxiShare are two programs that I found fascinating. MaxiMizer lets you record long sequences of keystrokes and mouse commands from inside any application program. For instance, you can draw a figure in a graphics program, recording the brushstrokes automatically. You can then choose another color or brush size, position the cursor near the beginning of the original drawing and have MaxiMizer reproduce the drawing in the new brush or color. The result is a slightly offset copy of the original.
You’re not limited to reproducing drawings with MaxiMizer you can save any combination of key*
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presses and mouse actions.
MaxiShare is an extension of MaxiMizer. It lets you link two Amigas that are running the same application program and allows them to exchange data interactively. The connection can be direct or via a modem. Using the program, you can draw pictures on your version of Aegis Images or DeluxePaint and replicate your key and brush strokes on your friend’s machine located across the country.
Speaking of communications, the aforementioned Digital Creations is also selling Digital Link for the Amiga. I didn’t see it demonstrated at the show, but I didn’t have to. I’ve already used it to transfer files from a Mac to my Amiga. It works.
Hardcore
A number of languages and utilities were on display at the show. Lattice and Manx were side by side, exhibiting their C compilers for the Amiga. Lattice will soon be releasing an updated compiler that will have greatly improved floating-point performance. Janice Suckow of Manx reports that they’re quite pleased with the reception their C compiler has received from the Amiga development community.
Les Caudle of TDI Software Inc. was exhibiting his Modula-2 compiler for the Amiga. Modula-2 is the direct descendant of Pascal; in fact, it corrects many of the deficiencies of Pascal. I've never tried the language, but from what I heard from Les and others, I’m going to learn Modula-2. C is nice, but the source code is just
about unreadable. You can tell what a Modula-2 program is doing just by reading the source code, and it gives you the same bit-level manipulation that makes C so popular with systems programmers.
In the area of utilities, Metadigm showed their Metascope program for the Amiga. It is an object-code debugger that lets you step through your programs one instruction at a time. Also on display was Printer Driver Maker from Software Supermarket. Not surprisingly, the program lets you create custom printer drivers for the Amiga.
Feasts for the Eyes
Some of the graphics programs being produced for the Amiga are simply stunning. Aegis Development was showing Images and Animator reviewed elsewhere in this issue), Draw (an amazingly low-priced CAD package) and Impact, a business graphics and presentation program that should be out by the end of the year. Not to be outdone, Electronic Arts showed Deluxe Video Construction Set (previewed in this issue), DeluxePrint (reviewed in this issue) and a number of new entertainment products. These include Marble Madness, Chess- master 2000 (which has a United States Chess Federation rating of over 2100 nearly master class) and Return to Atlantis, a graphics adventure game that lets you converse with different characters.
DeluxePrint could turn out to be the most popular program EA has released for the Amiga. After seeing it, I can understand why Broderbund has shelved its plans to bring out Print Shop. DeluxePrint is by far the superior program.
Bing Gordon of EA also informed me that the company was bringing out an upgraded version of DeluxePaint this summer and that they would also be selling a DeluxePaint Utility Disk, The disk will have a slideshow program and a lot of pictures and clip art. I was very' surprised to see the number of new products that EA is developing. They apparently aren't content to rest on their laurels as the recognized leader in Amiga software development.
Elsewhere in the booth, Mindscape was demonstrating The Hailey Project. It looks great on the Amiga (but I can’t understand why they didn’t draw rings around Saturn). The Scarborough System had Mastertype for the Amiga. As good as this typing tutor is on other machines, it is better on the Amiga. On the more serious (and expensive) side, Soft Circuits was showing PCB CAD formerly known as PCLO. This program is a professional tool you can use to design and test printed circuit boards. This program will sell a lot of Amigas to electrical engineers.
Finally, Commodore was showing a game called Mind Walker. Developed by Synapse, a division of Broderbund, the program is a marvel of fast animation and music. I didn’t understand the game from the demos, but I've never seen a better looking game. Watch for it.
That’s about it for COMDEX, the show that reaffirmed my belief that the Amiga is here to stay. I wish every Amiga owner could have attended the show, just to see the excitement of the people who work closest with the machine. No more excuses exist for using your Amiga as a doorstop. ¦
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Scientific Engineering Software
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MaxiPlan Spreadsheet: Unmistakably Amiga
AmigaWorld previeius a spreadsheet that brings all the capabilities of the Amiga to bear on the question “What if r
By Bob Ryan
MaxiPhm, from Maxisoft of Pebble Beach, CA, is one of a small but growing number of programs that are unmistakably Amiga programs. Like MiAmiga File from Soft- Woocl and graphics programs such as Aegis Images and Deluxe Paint, MaxiPlan is easily identifiable as an Amiga program simply by the look of its screens. It uses most of the features that make the Amiga unique; it couldn’t look the same on any other personal computer.
Like all spreadsheets, MaxiPlan uses a matrix of columns and rows to arrange and analyze data. The power of a spreadsheet lies in the fact that you decide the relation- ships between the data. You can also change the numbers easily to answer those “what if” questions that spreadsheets handle so well.
Starting Out
MaxiPlan works under Workbench; the first window that conies up is the Control window. From here you indicate whether you want four or eight colors for your worksheet (the default is eight), and whether you want to open an existing worksheet or create a new one. Deciding how many colors to use in a worksheet is important. Eight-color worksheets and charts are striking, but use more memory than four- color ones. You may have to stick with four colors when you create a large worksheet.
Selecting New Worksheet from the Control window brings up the basic worksheet
window. With MaxiPlan, you can have six

windows active at once. Most of the screen
is taken up with the worksheet the familiar arrangement of numbered rows and lettered columns that make up all spreadsheet displays. Above the worksheet, the program displays the coordinates and contents of the current cell and a string of “function buttons” that allow you to enter formulas into cells by using the mouse alone. At the sides and bottom of the worksheet are vertical and horizontal scroll bars and a sizing gadget. Except for the eight colors and the function buttons, MaxiPlan seems like any other spreadsheet.
MaxiPlan is not copy protected. Furthermore, MaxiSoft decided in June to drop copy protection of all its products.
King-sized Sheets
MaxiPlan’s strengths become apparent when you begin to fill the worksheet with formulas and data. First of all, MaxiPlan can create huge worksheets up to 8 million cells, depending upon memory so you have to have an easy way to move around inside a worksheet. MaxiPlan gives you a lot of ways to specify a particular cell as the active cell. You can use the cursor keys or WordStar-type control-key combinations; you can click on a cell with the
4
mouse; you can use the vertical and hori- zontal scroll bars. Using the command menu, you can move to the top-left or bottom-right of the worksheet, specify a particular cell’s coordinates or specify the name of a cell. Finally, MaxiPlan has a zoom feature: By clicking in the zoom box, all columns are reduced to the width of their identifying letter(s), allowing you to get more of the worksheet on the screen for quick cell selection with the mouse. When you're where you want to be, clicking zoom again returns the columns to normal.
The zoom feature is nice, but what makes MaxiPlan unique is its use of color, text styles, speech and multitasking. One of the 63 built-in functions lets you designate the color for a cell or a range of cells. Another lets you designate the style of the display of a cell’s contents. The styles are normal (default), bold, underline, italic and any combination of the four.
The best thing about having color and style control as functions is that you can control the display characteristics of a cell depending on the contents of a cell. For example, if the contents of a cell goes above a predetermined limit, you can have the contents displayed in boldface. Conversely, you can have negative numbers displayed in red (or blue, or whatever). With the ability to highlight important cells, you can create a worksheet that is self-documenting.
Say It Again, Plan
MaxiPlan gives you two ways to access the Amiga’s speech-svnthesis capability. The first is via the Say function, which allows you to have your Amiga speak a message based upon your criterion. The second use of speech comes with the cell notes.
Each cell in a MaxiPlan worksheet can have a cell note consisting of up to five lines of text. When a cell is selected as the active cell, hitting the help key activates the cell note. Cell notes can either be printed on the screen, spoken or both. With them, you can have on-line help that is specific to your worksheet. Think of it: You can create a spreadsheet template that highlights the input cells with a specific color. Then, you can provide the cells with cell notes that explain what should go into the cell. The re
sult is a template with such easy data entry that anyone can use it with a minimum of fuss.
Six Pack
By taking advantage of the Amiga’s multitasking capability, MaxiPlan lets you open up to six windows at a time. The windows can be any combination of worksheet and chart windows as long as one of the windows is a worksheet. Creating charts with MaxiPlan is a breeze. You can use Maxi- Plan’s defaults for creating charts or you can specify which columns and rows to graph. You can create bar, line, area and pie charts. You can have more than one chart linked to the same worksheet. The best thing about the MaxiPlan charts is that they are dynAMIGAlly linked to a worksheet; make a change in the worksheet, and the chart automatically changes. The charts also automatically size themselves to fill the available window space.
MaxiPlan also lets you cut and paste between worksheets. The program automatically opens a clipboard when you cut or copy from a worksheet. After clicking in the window of another worksheet, you can easily paste the information from the first window into the second.
Leftovers
Like Lotus 1-2-3 and many other “megaspreadsheets,” MaxiPlan has some built-in database functions. You set aside a certain number of cells for the database and you can use specific functions and commands to manipulate text data within the database range. You can insert and delete records, sort records and select records based upon a specific criteria. You can also load and save database areas from within worksheets. The functions available for manipulating the database include sum, average, variance and standard deviation. The MaxiPlan database is a nice bonus in an already powerful program.
Other important features of MaxiPlan include the ability to import files created with Lotus 1-2-3, the ability to protect cells and ranges of cells and the fact that charts are saved in IFF graphics format, allowing you to spruce them up further with DeluxePaint or Images. The most important fact about MaxiPlan, though, is that it takes full advantage of the hardware. There arc a number of fine spreasheets available for the Amiga Analyze! And VIP Professional would be superior programs on any machine but if you want a spreadsheet program that captures the capabilities of your Amiga, then check out MaxiPlan from MaxiSoft.H
Please note: This is not a review, but a preview based upon the writer's first impressions of the pre-release product.
MaxiPlan
MaxiSoft
2817 Sloat Road Pebble Beach, CA 93953 S150
408 625-4104
Product Preview
DeluxeVideo Construction Set
A tool for professionals and video enthusiasts alike, DeluxeVideo Construction Set gives you the power to create and enhance animated videos with your A miga,
By Bob Ryan
DeluxeVideo Construction Set is difficult to categorize, simply because there has never been a program quite like it. Aegis Animator for the Amiga and Fantavi- sion for the Apple II are similar in some respects, but their strength lies in polygon tweening. DeluxeVideo, written by Mike Posehn and Tom Casey, lets you combine and manipulate pictures, animated objects, music, digitized sound, text and regular polygons into video sequences that you can show on your monitor or dump to videotape. In effect, DeluxeVideo Construction Set is an easy-to-use animation programming language for your Amiga.
Big Production
DeluxeVideo is a large program: It occupies three Amiga disks. The Maker disk contains the tools you need to make videos. The Player disk contains the program that runs the videos you create with Maker and a number of demonstration videos. The third disk contains parts (pictures, sounds, etc.) that you can use in your videos, an Unpack utility that breaks videos down into their component parts, and Framer, a utility that lets you extract animation objects from IFF picture files.
Of the I lu ce disks, only Maker is copy protected. It uses a key disk copy protection method you can copy the program to any disk, but you have to insert the original Maker disk at some point in the boot process to run the program. Although the Maker program can also play hack videos, Electronic Arts included the Player program on a separate disk so that you can make videos and then distribute them to friends and associates.
Video Construction
To make a video, you select the Dvideo icon from the Maker disk and New from the subsequent project menu. Dvideo now displays the Video Script window.
A video constructed with DeluxeVideo consists of a number of tracks and effects, arranged in a hierarchical structure. T he lop level of the hierarchy is the Video Script. At this level, you can have a minimum of one track and a maximum of five. T he one track you need in every Video Script is the Video T rack. The other tracks available at the Video Script level are Foreground. Background, Music and Control.
T racks at the Video Script level have global effects. Any songs you indicate on the Music track will play for whatever duration you indicate. The music may be superceded by a sound effect in some scene, but it will pick up again after the sound effect is over. The Video Script level sets the environment for your video.
Heart and Soul, Track and Effect
Video Script tracks are composed of effects. The Video track, for instance, consists of a number of effects strung together that, in their entirety, form the heart of your video. Just like in the movies, effects on the Video Track are called scenes. To create an effect (scene) on the Video Track, you pull down the empty effect box from the corner of the Video Script window and place it on the track. Clicking on the empty effect box brings up a Scene Script.
Scene Scripts are where most things get done in DeluxeVideo. Like Video Scripts, Scene Scripts have two components, a track and an effect. At this level however, putting an empty effect on a track doesn’t create a new scene; rather, you get a requester box that lets you indicate the effect you want in the scene.
For example, let’s say you want to load a picture into memory and then have it appear on the screen. At the Video Script level, you click 011 the empty effect box on the Video track (the default track) to get to the Scene
Script level. At the Scene Script level, you move an empty track box onto the track display. At this point, a requester pops up, asking you to indicate what type of track you’re creating. You dick on the Picture box to indicate a picture track, and DeluxeVideo goes to the data disk and gives you a list of all the pictures on the disk. You then choose the one you want to work with.
The Picture track now takes the name of the picture you’ve indicated. If the picture was named “Still Life” on the disk, the Picture track would now he labeled “Still Life”. While you've indicated the picture you want, you still haven’t told the program what you want to do with it. This points out the way that DeluxeVideo works. T racks arc nouns things that arc acted upon. Effects are verbs they act upon the tracks.
Action!
You can perform Five different effects on a picture: Wipe, Load, Fadeln, FadeOut and Cut. You’re first step should be to Load the picture. The Load requester has three options: Cut, Get Ready and Cancel. Cancel is self-explanatory. Cut tells Player to display the picture as soon as it is loaded. Get Ready keeps the picture out of sight until you choose another effect like Wipe or Fadeln.
By choosing Cut, the picture is displayed as soon as it finishes loading. You’ve just written your first video.
Beads on a String
Not impressed, huh? It's just taken you five minutes to do what any paint program can do in five seconds display a picture. If that’s all DeluxeVideo can do, it’s nothing special. But rest assured, the best is yet to come.
DeluxeVideo's power lies in its ability to create multiple tracks with multiple scenes and effects on each track. You string scenes and effects together like beads on a string, controlling the timing of each, having some
play simultaneously while others occur in sequence, until you've created video animations of astounding complexity. And no matter how complex the video, the basic building blocks remain the same tracks and effects.
DeluxeVideo has the power to do many things. It can take a brush from DcluxePaini or a window from Aegis Images and move the object against a picture background. It can resize the object as it moves, and even animate all or part of the object. Animation is accomplished with the help of a painting program and the DeluxeVideo Framer utility. Using the painting program, you can, for example, create a specific number up to 99 of rectangles, each being a slightly different version of the same object. The rectangles must all be of the same size, so you’ll have to use a grid.
Once you’ve created the picture with the animation object, you run Framer and capture all the different versions of the object. Then, when you choose Anim- Seqn from the Object requester, DeluxeVideo lets you indicate the sequence of the animation. Although it sounds complicated, animation is a simple process with DeluxeVideo. The hardest part is creating the slightly altered versions of the same object with a painting program. DeluxeVideo takes care of the rest.
Deluxe Video also lets you include text in your videos and move it around as an object. If you want to get fancy, you can go to the Polygon Text option, where you can also size and rotate text. Polygon Text is slower that regular text, but you can do more things with it. In addition to manipulating alphanumeric text, you can also use any of the 26 built-in regular polygons (arrows, boxes, etc).
What Time Is It?
DeluxeVideo lets you easily synchronize events. Each effect box has one or two “timing legs” that let you indicate when an effect should begin and end. (Effects with one leg have a set duration that you can't control, like loading a picture from disk.) To synchronize two effects on two different tracks, you simply line up the starting points of the two effects. For instance, if you wanted the appearance of a foreground object to coincide with the appearance of the background picture, you’d simply line up the Cut effect for the Picture track and the Object track. You could even synchronize these events with a sound effect that would begin playing when both picture and object appear on the screen.
DeluxeVideo measures time in jiffies one-sixtieth of a second. On the Video Script and Scene Script windows, time is the horizontal coordinate. The farther to the right you place an event, the later the event will occur.
Technical Stuff
DeluxeVideo uses the Amiga dual playfield mode.
The background picture and foreground objects occupy different pi ay fields and have different palettes. To conserve space, the playfields are limited to three bit planes, resulting in eight colors each. If you want to use pictures or objects that use more than eight colors, DeluxeVideo has an optimizing routine that will convert 16- and 32-color images into eight-color ones. You can also adjust playfield palettes to maximize the color fidelity of imported pictures and objects.
Video Tools
You can use many different hardware and software tools to enhance videos produced with DeluxeVideo Construction Set. You can use the Amiga Genlock to overlay your videos on signals from a video source. You can also use digitized pictures created with the Amiga Live! Or Digi-View framegrabbcrs. Any IFF picture file can be used with DeluxeVideo.
DeluxeVideo can also use sampled sounds created with any of the sound digitizers, such as Applied Visions FutureSound or the Mimetics Sampler.
Although sound samples take up a lot of room in your Parts Pool, they can add some great effects to your videos.
On the software side of things, any painting program that outputs IFF files can be used to create objects and pictures for DeluxeVideo. The same holds true for song and instrument files. You can compose sound tracks for your videos with any IFF-compatible note editor.
Composing songs is difficult, however, if you don’t know much about music. In that case, you can use a new program also from Electronic Arts that lets you create music regardless of the level of your musical knowledge. The program is called Instant Music. It conics with about 60 songs that you can modify and play to your heart’s content. The thing that sets Instant Music apart from note editors and other composition tools, however, is that it takes care of details like tempo and tune. All you have to know is what you like; Instant Music does the rest. If you’re not a composer. Instant Music is the perfect program to create music for your videos. In fact, it may be the perfect music program for anyone who likes music but doesn’t know enough theory to use the sophisticated note editors for the Amiga.H
To use pictures, objects and sounds in a video, they must be in memory. DeluxeVidco stores them in an area called the Part Pool. You can reserve up to 200K for your Part Pool. Using Load and Fetch effects, you can Fill up the Part Pool while titles are being displayed, thus minimizing disk access during animation and other time-sensitive operations.
The maximum size of a video created and edited on floppy disk is half the disk. However, with a high-capacity disk, you can edit videos that will occupy an entire floppy disk.
Speedy Videos
Player lets you play back videos at varying rates of speed. Normal speed stops the internal timer for things like disk access; it pretends that these outside delays don’t exist. Real-time is just that; in this mode, the timer runs the video in real-time. You've got to be sure that all parts for a specific effect are in memory before that timer begins the effect.
You also have three speeds that make it easy to use DeluxeVideo with VCRs and tape decks. For those machines that can record at 1 2 and 1 4 speed, DeluxeVideo will run at those speeds. DeluxeVideo will also step through a video one frame (1 30 of a second) at a time. This lets you record very high-quality videos on single-step tape machines.
When running in normal time, the number of different frames that DeluxeVideo displays in a second is dependent upon the complexity of the video. It can create up to 20 frames-per-second when using objects and pictures. Polygon Text, on the other band, can slow things down to as little as four or five frames-per- second.
Circle 61 on Reader Service card.
Theoretically, a video created with DeluxeVideo can run for a little over eight days. I think you’ll run out of memory and patience long before you butt heads with that constraint!
Who Needs It?
Electronic Arts believes that the production of “desktop videos” can be as important in the Amiga market as desktop publishing is to the Macintosh. They expect to sell DeluxeVideo Construction Set to four major markets two vertical and two horizontal.
Cable and low-end transmission TV stations can use DeluxeVidco in combination with the Amiga genlock as a character generator. Normally, video character generators have prices starting in the five-figure range. DeluxeVideo and an Amiga make an inexpensive solution. Another vertical market is ad agencies. They often have to produce “anamatics" demos of how a commercial will look before a client will agree to a particular ad strategy. With DeluxeVideo, they can produce anamatics for a fraction of current production costs.
Producing educational and presentation materials is a large industry in this country, and Electronic Arts expects DeluxeVideo to wind up in many corporate training and graphic arts departments. By using the Control effects (Chain, Keywait, KeyChain) you can branch to a particular video by pressing a button on the Amiga keyboard. These control features could make
DeluxeVideo useful in interactive training situations, as well as in classrooms.
I he last major market for DeluxeVideo is the home
market. Millions of VCRs have been sold in the past few years, and the introduction of low-cost, light-weight video cameras has created a new class of hobbyist the video enthusiast. These people can use DeluxeVideo to spruce up their own video productions with titles, credits, music and animation. DeluxeVideo even has a half- dozen built-in Scene Generators video templates that make it child’s play to create titles, credits, even animated pie charts! And there are those who will simply want to create videos to run on their Amigas for the fun of it.
Wait and See
DeluxeVideo is such a departure from conventional software that no one is exactly sure what it will be used for. With DeluxeVideo, anyone with an Amiga has the tools to create sophisticated video sequences. Like all good tools, DeluxeVideo lets you concentrate on the creative side of things while it takes care of the details, DeluxeVideo Construction Set promises to be a very unique program, maybe as unique as the Amiga itself.®
Please note: This is not a review, but a preview based upon the writer's first impressions of the pre-release product.
Deluxe Video Construction Set Electronic Arts
1820 Gateway Drive San Mateo, CA 94404 415 571-7171 $ 99
AMIGA $ 500 OFF
AMIGA GIVES YOU A CREATIVE EDGE
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This month’s Digital Canvas features the work of Jim Alley, Professor of Computer Art at the Savannah College of Art and Design. Jim oversees the college’s new Amiga computer lab.
Canvas
Jim Alley teaches classes in both computer literacy and computer graphics, but he is quick to point out that he is primarily an artist rather than a “hacker.” There are currently 24 Amigas in The Savannah Cob lege of Art and Design's computer lab.
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The work that Jim is doing now on the Amiga is a synthesis of his earlier work in paint and photography. "The computer allows me to achieve effects that would be tedious to accomplish in other media” he says. The portraits presented here were executed mainly with DeluxePaint.
Alley’s students share his enthusiasm for the Amiga. “The students are doing some exciting things. We have people here with a wide range of skills, from illustration and painting to architecture, interior design and historic preservation. All of them are finding the Amiga to be a useful tool. Weaving students can experiment with patterns. The photography students are eagerly awaiting the arrival of the digitizers we have ordered. And we’re just beginning to explore the areas of video and animation.
“The lab is a great place to work. We have four Diablo color ink-jet printers, plus various others, such as the Okimate 20, as well as Epsons for text printing. We’re looking into laser printers and plotters, too.
We’re in a restored building in Savannah’s Historic District. It's an exciting place to be!”B
Special Note: Anyone submitting artwork to be considered for exhibit in Digital Canvas should send the artwork on a disk and properly packaged to:
AmigaWorld
80 Pine St.
Peterborough, NH 03458
Attn: Art Director
Please include brief biographical information, relevant details about access to the pictures and any information regarding special products or procedures used in creating the artwork. Please do not submit disks with less than eight finished pictures.
AmigaWorld 81
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Paul (grid)
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Info.phile
Managing bur Information
By Mark L. Van Name and William B, Catchings
The Amiga offers easy-to-use and powerful information- management utilities that correspond directly to office filing techniques.
Computers once were thought of primarily as arithmetic engines, or “number crunchers.” Today, however, they are seen as “information processors.” where the information may be text, formatted data, voice or even good old numbers. As we store more information in our systems, managing that information well becomes more important. To accomplish this successfully, the Amiga offers easy-to-use and powerful information-management utilities.
Files is Files
The Amiga stores information as data in files. Though it may be useful to distinguish between files containing programs the manipulators of data and files containing data, both are just files.
The Amiga provides facilities for organizing information that correspond directly to office filing techniques. Sometimes these facilities can seem confusing because the two different operating environments of the Amiga AmigaDOS and the Workbench use different names for the same things. These differences exist to fit the styles of the two worlds: The Workbench is visually oriented, while AmigaDOS is much like a more “typical" computer. In the following table we show the relationships among the data organization structures of these two environments and a simple office.
AmigaDOS CLI Workbench The Office
data file project file
program file tool procedure
directory drawer file drawer
disk diskette icon file cabinet
The correspondence among the three worlds is not perfect. For example, many office procedures would not be implemented as programs, and vice versa. Also, the CLI only “sees” files, while the Workbench dis- tinguishes between tools and projects.
When you open a tool’s icon, you start a program; when you open a project’s icon, the Workbench automatically starts up the tool with which you created the project.
There are some files that you can access from the CLI that you cannot see when us- ing the Workbench. No magic is involved here: You just can’t gel to a file from the Workbench unless there is an icon for that file. You may have noticed that in the CLI, a file’s icon is in another file named Fite* name.info. For example, the icon for the file Textcraft is in the file Textcraft.info, (These .info files can contain other information as well, but we are concerned here only with the icon.)
Drawers or Directories?
The Workbench and AmigaDOS also offer different sets of file-organization commands and procedures. For example, there are two different diskcopy commands. The one you use from the CLI is stored in the C directory on your Workbench disk, while the one for the Workbench itself is in the System drawer. Both commands perform the same task, but in ways appropriate to their respective environments.
Whether you arc in the CLI, the Workbench, or an office, filing operations are rarely very exciting or pleasurable. Typically, you move files from one place to another, copy them, rename them and so on. Sometimes, however, a system will offer a pleasant surprise, such as a simple answer to one of your pet peeves, or a particularly powerful or unexpected facility. The Amiga’s two environments offer both of these.
Window of Choice
The Workbench provides a simple answer to a frequent gripe. The complaint goes
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Have you ever wanted to copy all of the files in a directory that began with some letter? More generally, have you ever wanted to work on a group of files at once? If you're like most computer users, the answer is an emphatic yes. At the same time, the prospect of typing each command once for every file is often daunting.
Fortunately, AmigaDOS offers a number of CLI commands that allow you to work on multiple files at once. These commands include: COPY, DELETE, DIR, LIST and SEARCH. In all of these, you can replace specific directory or file names with a template that may identify more than one item. These templates are known in AmigaDOS as patterns, or sometimes as wildcards. These patterns are compared by AmigaDOS against the files or directories present, and those that match are taken as input to the command.
Looking at Patterns
Patterns are specified through the use of special characters in combination with normal file-name characters. Patterns are best understood by looking at and playing with lots of examples, but before you can understand the examples, you need to know what special characters they can contain. The following table lists the special characters and their meanings.
Pattern Matched
Special Character
matches any one
.
Character
matches zero or more occurrences of the pattern pat> that follows it
pat >
matches the null string (e.g., use it in combination with others to allow some characters to be absent from a name)
%
matches a sequence composed of anything that matches patl> followed by anything that matches pat2> matches anything that matches either patl > or pat2>( ) used to group patterns
Any regular character (e.g., “A”) in a pattern just matches itself.
pat 1 > pat2>
pat 1 > | pat2>
There is one final special character, the apostrophe (j. You use this one when you want to treat one of the special characters as if it were a regular one. For example, if you wanted a pattern that would match a string containing a question mark, you would need to put the question mark in the string as ’? Or it would be interpreted as a special character. This character can be applied to any of the above, including itself, when needed.
A few examples will help to clarify how to use special characters to form patterns. First, let’s look at ?, which is probably the most important one. This is the universal wildcard, as it matches anything. The character matches zero or more of what follows it, and the ? Matches any one character, so together they match a string of any number of any characters. Thus, the com- mand LIST ? Will give information about all of the files in the current directory. Similarly, the command LIST j ? Will give information about all of the files in the current directory that begin with the letter "j” (including a file named just “j”, if there happens to be one).
Since these patterns can be applied to directories as well as files, we could have the command:
COPY ? ? TO RAM:
i will copy all of the files in all of the iirectories in the current directory to RAM: pseudo-disk, omplex Patterns
) far we have looked at only very simple erns, but we can put together quite iplex ones. For example, the pattern:
? mark|bill) ?
Match any name that contains either string “mark" or the string “bill” some- ¦re in it. On the other hand, the pattern ark) will match any number of occur- ces of “mark”, e.g., "mark”, “markmark”, u kmarkmark”, and so on. Cmcmber that if you want to use one of special characters as a regular character i pattern, you must preface it with ’. For tuple, if you want to match all names have a question mark somewhere in n, you would use the pattern ?’? ?, The ling and trailing characters ? Match thing at either end, while the ’? Charac- match only a question mark somewhere he string.
He best way to become proficient with
terns is to use them. Try various combi-

ions in such commands as LIS !'. One d way to practice is to use patterns to y files to the RAM: pseudo-disk. Check nake sure you get what you expected, then type:
»ELETE RAM: ?
I ear it out so that you can start over. Be Tul not to use patterns with the DK- ’L command until you are very sure that know exactly which files you will be de- lg. With a little practice, you will find patterns can save you a great deal of ng time and effort.¦
something like this: “I like this visual system very much, but I hate where this window and those icons appear." You may want your Workbench window always to be shorter, or wider, and with its icons rearranged, perhaps alphabetically in columns.
You can easily change where a window and its icons appear using the Workbench Snapshot facility. First, make sure the disk the window resides on is write-enabled. To change the window’s location, use the window’s sizing and movement gadgets. To move an icon, use the normal method: point to it, hold down the left mouse button, move it within the window as desired, and release the button. To save the positions of multiple icons, you must move them using the Workbench extended selection facility. Move the icons around as before, but hold the shift key down the entire time. You will notice that each one von se-
4
lect will remain highlighted even after you release it. Release the shift key only when you arc done moving all the icons you want moved. When both the window and its icons are arranged as you want them to be, enter the Workbench menu titled Special and choose the choice Snapshot, From then on, that window and its icons will appear in those new positions.
CLI: Not Pretty, But Powerful!
While the CLI seems less glamorous than the Workbench, it does offer a number of powerful and yet simple features. Many
times you may not remember where a file

is, or exactly what is on a disk. The AmigaDOS DIR command comes in handy here as an easy and simple general File browser.
To browse through a disk or any directory on it, just type:
DIR Disk or Directory Name OPT = I
Above, you would refer to a disk drive (e.g., DIR DF1:) or a file directory (e.g., DIR System). The I option stands for interactive.
This useful command will take you through all of the files and subdirectories in the named directory, one by one in alphabetical order. The name of each will be presented to you followed by a question mark. If the name is that of a directory, (dir) will appear after it and before the question mark. For example, if you typed:
DIR DFO: OPT = I
with your Workbench disk in the internal drive, you would probably see:
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231 -E South Whisman, Mtn. View, CA94041
c (dir) ?
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Oops. We Goofed!
In the last installment of info.phile, our very first one, we made an error. Sigh.
I hrough the evil of sloppy testing we gave you some incorrect information in the sidebar titled “Stopping die World from Passing You By.”
We were discussing ways to stop output from scrolling by too quickly while in the
CLI. Our advice (hit the space bar to stop it and the DEL key to resume) was fine and is still the recommended approach. However, our explanation of why it works was incorrect.
Why It Works
Here's the straight scoop. When you type in the middle of some output, AmigaDOS suspends the output and puts you in an input mode. You are now typing ahead of the next command. It will keep listening to what you type and hold the output until you in some way finish.
You can Finish in one of three ways. First, you can hit the return key; the output will resume and the command you typed will be processed when that output is done. The other two methods cancel the command so that, in effect, you have typed in nothing. You can enter CTRL-X, which will delete all of the characters you have typed, or you can use the DEL key to delete all of die characters you typed. In either case, the output will resume. Our solution worked despite our inaccurate explanation because the space bar started a command and the subsequent DEL key deleted the last (and, in this case, only) character of that command and so finished it.
This mechanism is a nice one because it allows you to type commands when you wish to without having the characters you type strewn throughout the output you are viewing. Once again AmigaDOS provides us with a nice facility.K 4 You can enter several commands after the question mark. Some work whether die name refers to a directory or a file, while others work only on one of these two types. (By convention, we show all of the commands and options in uppercase, but in AmigaDOS that is not required.)
If die name shown is a directory, you can browse its files by typing E after the question mark. Any files it contains will appear beneath it, slightly indented. If you encounter a directory that is empty, you can type DEL (the characters D-E-L, not the key labeled that) and delete it.
If the name shown is that of a file, you also can type DEL (as above) and delete the file. Be careful, you will get no chance to reconsider. If you would like to look at the file’s contents, type T. This is equivalent to issuing the CLI command TYPE. As always, you can terminate the output early by typing CTRL-C, or you can view the entire file. Either way, you will be returned to your browsing and given the same file’s name again. Thus, you could, for example, look at a file and then decide to delete it, all without leaving this one CLI command! With these capabilities, this command moves from being just a viewing utility to one that you can use to clean up and maintain your disks and directories.
Options with I
With the I option, several further options are always available. If you hii the return key after the question mark, the next name on the list will he presented to you; if the name denotes a directory, you will not see any of the files in that directory. If the name is the last one, the command will terminate. You also can finish browsing at any time by typing Q after the question mark. Finally, you can type B to take you back up a directory level and on to the next file there. If you are already at the highest directory, the command will stop.
File I option of the DIR command provides a convenient way to search for files and perform simple disk and directory maintenance. Like the Workbench Snapshot facility, it is one of the many ways in which the Amiga makes routine chores easier and more pleasurable.M
Address all author correspondence to Mark L.
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technologies
Am
Textcraft Tricks
Practical information and good sound advice for everyone who does word processing with Textcraft.
1. Initializing Textcraft for two drives
Many Textcraft users have been trying to load and save files to an external data disk as one would naturally do with a system with two drives. However, Textcraft needs to be initialized for working with an external disk before this can he done.
To initialize Textcraft for two drives, simply re-boot the entire system (press the CTRL and both Amiga keys) with Textcraft in the internal drive. After the Textcraft icon appears on the screen, insert the data disk in the external drive. (You must have previously initialized the data disk.) Now position the mouse pointer over the Textcraft icon and click the left button twice. What you should now have is the Textcraft window opened up on die screen. Before clicking on Textcraft inside this window, simply click the left button only once on the data- dtsk icon. (The data-di.sk icon should now be colored black.) Now, hold down the left-shift key and click twice on the inside Textcraft icon. Textcraft will now be initialized to load and save files to an external data disk.
2. Saving Textcraft files as straight ASCII
You can also use Textcraft to write ASCII files to be sent through the serial port on the Amiga by simply selecting the Text Only option on the Save menu.
Please remember to place the cursor at the beginning of the file before saving it. Many users have had file problems due to incorrect cursor placement while saving.
3. If you’re using either a Star Micronics Gemini 10 15-X or an Okidata printer (but not an Okimate 20 )
Both the Star Gemini and the Okimate require Preferences to be set to straight Epson code. However, one cannot simply print straight away from Textcraft, To print using either of these printers, you need to save
the file first, clear the memory by selecting New Document on the Project menu, load the document that you’ve been working on, then select Print Document. Your file should then print without any problems.
4. Printer Compatibility
The Preferences menu has a wide selection of printers to use with the Amiga. However, there arc some quite popular printers that aren't listed on the Printer menu that take the same codes as the listed printers. Here is a small table of compatible printers and codes:
Set Preferences to:
Diablo 1)30
Epson
Epson
Brother HR 15 XL Epson
Printer
Epson DX-10, DX-20, DX-35 Citizen Printers Star Micronics Gemini Com rex CR-IIE Okidata 192. 193
Special notes on the Star Micronics Gemini 10-X: Set the Gemini 10-X to 59 lines per page in both Workbench Preferences and Textcraft. In the Preferences Graphic Select menu, set the Aspect to Vertical. This will allow the Gemini 10-X to page properly and allow multiple copies to he made.
5. Naming files so you can figure out what they are later
One area where many users arc sloppy is in the way they name files when saving to disk. You might stash away a disk for a week or two and then later load it into the computer to see if a certain file is on it. Unless you have been using an organized method of naming
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your files, ii can become difficult or impossible to tell what is in a particular file simply by looking at the filename. For example, if you typed a letter to your Mom last week and you saved it as “Today", you would probably have to load the file and begin reading it to figure out what it is.
The most popular way to name files has actually been around for many years. People who have a background in mainframe or minicomputers are familiar with what I am talking about. You simply use the "dot" prefix before the filc-title extension. (Dot simply means a period.)
You begin with your file name, such as "Bob", “Mom", “AegisI", or whatever you choose, and then a dot or period, and then the type of file that it is.
The letter you tvped to vour Mom would be named “Moin.ltr”. With this method, you can scroll through all of your files on the screen and see exactly what kind of files they are. The reason that you use a period instead of a space is that computers read a space as an "end of name terminator.” It reads a space as a separator between words, so that “Felix Cat” is read as two separate words.
In other words, a file called “Felix Cat" would only be read by the computer as “Felix”, whereas if you had named it “Felix.Cat”, it would read the full name. The period is read as a single character in the entire word. This is especially true with mainframes and IBM compatibles. Textcraft. However, will read the file in whatever way that it is named, unless the file is saved as an ASCII file. To save the file as an ASCII file, you have to name it using the dot prefix in order for that file to be read by another computer.
This technique has been used by programmers and developers for quite a long time, and there are a few standard mnemonic codes that seem to he generally accepted as common file extensions. Some of them are:
File extension
Description
File.txt
standard ASCII text file
File.doe
document file
File.dbf
database file
File.Itr
letter
File.BAR
backup file
File.has
Basic program
File, pas
Pascal source code
File.c
C source code
File.o
C object code
File.obj
object code
File.asm
Assemhly-hmguage source code
Fil e.zz7.
“snooze” file to he read later
File.rpt
report
Filc.gph
graph
File.ibl
table
File.ttl
title page
File, in v
inventory file
File, trm
term paper
File.dwg
drawing description
File.tst
test file
As you can see, the ways that this method can he used are up to the imagination of the individual. The benefit from using this method is that you will he able to look at the directory of a particular disk and see
exactly what kinds oi files are on that disk,

A popular alternative to using the dot prefix is the underscore, or underline prefix. With this method, Felix.Cat would be named Felix Cat.
6. Using Textcraft as an advanced editor for Pascal or C programming
Although the Amiga is equipped with a built-in text editor, you may prefer to use Textcraft as an editor for writing code. Textcraft works extremely well for this.
The Sun cross-development system that the Amiga’s operating system was written on uses a high-resolution monitor that resembles the way the screen looks in Textcraft. The black text on a white high-resolution screen is preferable for long hours of late-night coding, because on an RGB color monitor such as the Amiga monitor, the pixels are hidden when you use black for the text color. This effect prevents much of the fatigue and eyestrain that develops over an extended period of time. You can tone down the monitor so that the background color is comfortable for the eyes, while at the same time creating highly readable text.
To use Textcraft as a programming tool, simply write your code on the screen as you would with the regular editor. The advantages of Textcraft over the editor are readily apparent when you try to either cut and paste or use any editing feature not contained directly within the Workbench text-serccn editor (F.I)). Gode-develop- mem time can be reduced by doing it in this manner, since you will be sparing yourself a lot of eyestrain. Code must be saved as “text only” to be used by a compiler. Pascal source code must be given the mnemonic extension .pas, C source code must be given the extension x, and Basic programs must be given the extension .has. Save your source code as text only, and then compile it with either the Lattice. Metacomco or Aztec compiler.
To edit code or files in Textcraft that have already been written using the Workbench editor (FD), you have to re-boot with Workbench, call up the CLI, and at the CLI prompt, type TKXTCRAF'T filename. Before von press return, you must insert the Textcraft disk with the
current file on it. If vour Textcraft disk doesn’t have the

CLI file on it, you have to do a DOS file copy to that disk before Textcraft will read it. After you copy the necessary CLI files to the Textcraft program disk, load them with the above procedure. After your CLI files are loaded into Textcraft, put the cursor at the top of the file and then save it to dfl: by opening the project menu, selecting Save and then typing QY 'filename in the title box. This will now save the CLI file to an externa! Data disk as a Textcraft file. Among most programmers, the “hip” way to name files is with the .prefix after the file name. Also, if there are many chapters to a file, it helps to name them as Chaptl.txt, Chapt2.txt, Chapl3.txt, etc. Once again, using logical mnemonic names for file extensions makes it much easier for you to keep track of your work.H
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145. 00 94 00
... (All
99. OC
31. 00
45. 00 141 00
(All
106 00
81. 00 106 00
70 00 110 00 92 00
3100
CALL
25 00
75 00 CALL
83,00
135 00
55. 00
39. 00
, CALI
3300 3100 (All 37 00
44 00
44. 00
44. 00
44. 00 44 00 44 00 44 00
44. 00
. CALL
28. 00
CALL
33. 00
33. 00
22 00 35 00
ES5C CALCU1A10R .....
CAIL
ACCESS SOFTWARE
OMEGA STAR SOFTWARE
leader Board
24. 00
AmiQD Dos Manual
(All
FourncmenT Drsk 1
1200
GRAPHICS MUSIC
Tenth Frame ACCOLADE
24. 00
SOFTWARE
Mean 18
ACTIVISION
... 24.00
Borrowed Time or Hacker
27. 00
ACTIVISION
Mindshcdow .
... 27 00
The Music Studio ......
. 36 00
BETHESDA SofTWORKS
AEGIS
Gridiron......
.....CALL
Animator Images
80 00
ELECTRONIC ARTS
Draw
115. 00
Adventure Construction Kit
27 00
images ..
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Archon or Artk Fox
... 27.00
Impact ..
. 135 00
Chess Mostet 2000 ...
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Prodrcw ....
680. 00
Deluxe Paint____
.. 53.00
Art Pak 11 ...
39 00
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Golden Oldies
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27 00
11. 00 17 00
28. 00
28 00
10. 00 18,00 .CALL IB.00
CALL
Call
CALL
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Inti (API
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Maxiplan ..
HARYSOFT
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Expert Statistics ......
Linect Progressions .....
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MEGAS0FT
A filer oi a Report .....
METROPOLITAN SOFTWARE
Q-Ffe cr Q Clvwlbook ...
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MIMETICS
Soundscope Audio Digitizer
Soundscope Pro Midi Studio......
NEW HORIZONS SOFTWARE
Flow Idea Processor ..
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BOOKS
BANTAM
Amiga Users Maruol ...
ADDISON WESLEY
AMIGA Tech Reference Manual
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DISCOVERY SOFTWARE
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D. L. DEFORE
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Typing Tutor Word Invaders FIRST BYTE Kid Talk
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Antonyms
Practical Vocabulary Vocabulary Adv I, II or III
How To Spell
MICRO ILLUSIONS
Discovery ..
MINDSCAPE
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51 00
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Ftanetfoll or Sorcerer .24.00
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Suspect ...... 27.00
Witness 24.00
Zork I ....24.00
Zork II or 111 27 00
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MINDSCAPE
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Kings Quest .... 37 00
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Amigc-lint ... CALL
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Essex or Mradwheel
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Dos X Compiler .. 190.00
Mac Library ...... 75.00
Panel .. 145.00
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Text Utilities ...... 85.00
DEC III library .. 115.00
MANX
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Aztec C Development 245 00
Aztec C. Peis ... 165 00
MAXISOFT
Amiga Proqrcmmers library . CALL
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Meiosctrbe 66 00
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Piogiammers Toolkit .... CALL
MICROFORGE
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Rem Disk ... 23 00
Prolog Level 1 ... 67.00
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68000 Eoevelopmert Tool . . 110 00
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PC EF Emulator . CALL
IECHNI SOFT
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True Bosk language
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TYCHON TECH
Utilities ..... 37 00
INTERACTIVE ANALYTIC
Explorer 35 00
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AMARAY
System 3
(3 5“ 3 Pact} 7 00 CURTIS
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Emsdd 3200
Santa 4B00
toy _______ 4600
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Disk Onve Cleaning Kit 20 00
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3. 5" SS DD TO Pock____
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Pen Moose Plus 295 00
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All Products ...CALL
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Ore Slot 20MB ..... 1375.00
7 Slot Bax 650.00
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Dual External 5‘A" Drives 495 00
Stereo Digitizer 285 00
2MB Ram Band ..... 785 00
SKYLES ELECTRIC WORKS INC
256K Memory Expansion CALL
STARPOINT SOFTWARE
256K Ram Card ..... CALL
TECMAR
T Card 256K .. 525.00
I [aid 1MB .... 655.00
I Conned . 325.00
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ANCHOR AUTOMATION
Vaksmodcm 300 1200 . 169.00
Signalman Express 1200 Baud 252 00
Lichtning 2400 Baud .... 378 00
HiYES
Smortmodem 300 ... 137 00
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Smartmodem 2400 ...... 585.00
knset 1000 128K .... 265 00
IrcnseT 1000 512K ..... 390 00
NOVATION
Mat ...... 97 00
Novation 2400 .... 520 00
PROMETHEUS
1200 BAUD MODEM 205 00
TECHMAR
1-Modem 2400 525 00
U. S. ROBOTICS
Password 1200 ...... 205 00
Courier 2400 450 00
AMDEK
Cobr 300 Composite 220 00
Cobr 600 Ni-Res (640X240) 389 00
Color 722 Hi-Res Dual Mode .... 520 00 PRINCETON
HX 12 12" Hi Res RGB ... CALL
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Multisync .. 520.00
MICRO SYSTEM SOFTWARE
BBS PC
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MEGA50FT
A Term ..
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C. . Reviews
• ' _i. I. i i .. (¦
Flow
This idea processor for the Amiga is a good tool for organizing, brainstorming and projecting your ideas.
Reviewed by Erv Bobo
Though it is billed as an idea processor and is probably thought of by most people as an outline maker, Flow, from New Horizons Software, is a product with brainstorming and “what-if" capabilities that coulcl well make it an invaluable addition to your Amiga software library.
Similar to the very successful MS-DOS product ThinkTank in it’s on screen layout and action. Flow achieves a greater ease of use through the application of the mouse and pull-down menus the by now familiar Intuition interface. And because it is easy to use, you’ll be drawn hack to it again and again.
Stream of Consciousness
Okay. But at some point in elementary school, you were very carefully taught how to outline a project, a chapter, or an entire novel. Today you find it easy to take the few rules you remember and jot your notes on a piece of scrap paper, and you’ve been getting along just Fine. So why bother with another computer program that must be booted and opened and who knows-what- else before you can write your first note?
You’ll find your answer in the Examples Drawer of the Flow window. Once it is opened, choose the file called Amiga Magazines. Now your window is the entire screen and you see two listings: AmigaWorld and Amazing Computing, The cursor, shaped somewhat like an I-beam, is resting next to the AmigaWorld listing.
With the mouse, pull down the SubMenu menu and click on Expand. Now each issue iA' AmigaWorld is listed; you’ll notice these
are in hold type. Set the cursor next to any listing and click on Expand. Now that part of the File opens to show you a complete table of contents of that issue. Further, had you chosen Expand All from the pulldown menu, every issue would have been opened
and you could have scanned the contents of

all of them.
Expanding and Collapsing
Were it not for this ability to expand and collapse Files, most of what Flow offers could be duplicated with any word processor. Because it does have this ability, it can save you time and effort First in locating a File from the broad heading, then in locating specifics through the opening of the more topical subheadings.
Creating a File is easy. As you begin a new document, your cursor is at the far left of the screen. Type in your title and press return. Now, for your First subheading, tab once. As you do this, the program interprets your First line as a heading and changes it to bold type. After typing your subheading and return, you may get to the body of your outline by tabbing twice. Once again, the operation of the tab tells (lie program that the line with only a single indentation is a subheading and transforms the line to bold type. So long as you are writing the body of the outline, your cursor begins two indentations into the form. When you wish to create a new heading or subheading, simply go to the pulldown menu and select Unindent. In the example given above, you’d do this when the article listings for one issue had been completed and you were ready to start on the next issue, identifying it with a subheading.
Those outlines you did in school would have been easier had you written each entry on a separate strip of paper, allowing you to rearrange them at will. And so it is with Flow. Because the program gives you the same Cut, Paste and Copy functions you would expect from a good word processor, your rough notes can be moved, rearranged, copied and deleted, giving you freedom to engage in “what-if ’ exploration and to change the order and the.. .well, flow. . .of your document as often as you like.
With the pull-down Search menu, you may Find a particular heading by typing the name or a keyword in the requester box. The First occurrence of that name below the cursor will be highlighted: and, if you suspect you have more entries that are similar, you select Find Next. Since this works only on a File that has been expanded, it would be more useful on longer Files; with a short file, visual scanning is probably faster.
From the same menu, you can select Sort, to sort all entries in a file; the requester window then gives you the option of ascending or descending alphabetical order.
Printing Your Thoughts
Along with the many ways of opening or searching a file, there are also many ways in which to print a file. When you select Print from the pull-down menu, you’ll get a hardcopy of onlv what is open at that particular moment, allowing you to make your report as succinct or verbose as you like.
Because Flow resides on a Workbench 1.1 diskette, it will boot immediately after Kick- start; because it runs in only 256K of RAM. It will run concurrently with many other programs that share the Intuition interface. This would allow vou to work with a word processor, for instance, with Flow running behind your workscreen. Permitting you to flip screens and consult your outline as often as necessary.
It is recommended that you make a work-

ing copy of Flow and place the original copy in a safe place. Because Flow is on a Workbench diskette, this is easily done with the standard diskcopy routine. These same attributes will allow for easy installation on a hard disk, so the program will he quickly available whenever you need it.
Documentation is sparse, about 18 pages, but even that is more than you’ll really need. Go through the first section, follow-
ing the examples given, and you’ll probably have the program mastered. If not, read the other 30 pages and you'll certainly have it.
Coming to Conclusions
Although I've always been one of those to grab for a piece ol scrap paper, I quickly became converted to the use of Flow as an outline processor. Seeing my ideas on the screen and in print, and having the ability to quickly move, delete and rearrange topics has proven to be a spur to the generation of still more ideas and has allowed me to consider various new ways of doing things.
Although “what-if" is a term usually reserved for spreadsheets, it is a very viable part of idea processing. Flow makes its application quick and easy.H
Flow
New Horizons Software
PO Box 13167 Austin, TX 787 15 512 280-0319 S94.95
No special requirements
Amiga Transformer
Commodore’s so-called trump card is no ace in the hole, and, in light of the coming Sidecar, looks like a lame-duck product.
By Mark L. Van Name And William B. Catchings
When the Amiga was introduced, there was a lot of hubbub about a mysterious card Commodore supposedly had up its
sleeve. This was not just any card, it was their Trump Card. A Big Blue trump card. We’re talking, of course, about software the IBM Emulator finally dubbed by Commodore as The Transformer. According to the announcements, the Transformer would run "popular IB.M-PC software,” and emulate many of the capabilities of the IBM PC. With one or more Commodore 5 1 4- inch disk drives, you would he able to tap into the huge library of software available for the IBM PC.
The Transformer, developed by Simile Research, would be available soon after the Amiga’s launch (Tall ’85), so you could quickly get down to real serious business. (Surely everybody knows by now that unless your micro is “IBM-compatible," you cannot expect it to be taken seriously by the hosts in three-piece suits.) Commodore obviously had big plans for the Amiga in the business world, and the Transformer would sweep away any obstacles in the path to a solid niche there. The prickly issue of IBM-com- patibility seemed to be pretty well wrapped up.
Fifty-two Pickup
Then the nice neat wrappings started to unravel. The Transformer was late. Dealers got demo-only, not-for-sale test copies in November 1985 already several months over- due. Copies for the public would not be available until May 1986, six months later. So much for early availability. Reports about pricing ranged from S99-S4Q0; the product finally arrived bundled with Commodore’s 5 1 4-inch drive for $ 495 (suggested, but you can buy it for $ 200-5400). As for PC-compat* ibility, the best indictment comes from Commodore itself. The manual lists just 13 IBM- PC programs that should run, and repeatedly states that no others are guaranteed to work. (As we show below, even what it is able to do it does slowly.) Then came the final blow: Commodore’s announcement of the Amiga Sidecar, a hardware option that provides 100% IBM PC-compatibility and will be available in late 1986.
The writing on the wall is clear: The Transformer is an orphaned product, one that was shipped purely because Commodore made a public commitment to doing so. If you want to run IBM-PC software on your Amiga, wait and buy the Sidecar it is based upon proven products (the IBM PC- compatible computers Commodore markets in Canada and Europe) and is clearly part of the future direction for the Amiga. Our advice: Unless you absolutely must run one of the supported IBM-PC programs before the Sidecar is available, avoid the Amiga Transformer.
Calling the Bluff
At first glance the Transformer looks good. It can make your Amiga pretend to be an IBM PC with a monochrome monitor. You can use up to the PC-DOS limit of 640K of main memory, although you need over 1MB of Amiga memory to have access to 640K for PC emulation. It maps all Amiga keys to IBM-PC keys, with a bonus cursor pad. You can use the Amiga serial and parallel ports. It offers all PC-DOS and PC-BIOS interrupts (basically, the operating system and support routines), and direct control over PC screen memory and typical devices.
The Transformer also supports several ways of storing data. You can use standard IBM-PC 5 1 4-inch disks with the Amiga 1020 drive or format your Amiga 3 1 2-inch disks as 360K PC disks. If you have a version of PC DOS that supports the higher density 3 1 2-inch PC format used by the Data General One and other systems, you can use disks with that format.
And, of course, you can run any of the listed 13 IBM-PC programs, as well, presumably, as others. While we did not test all of these, those we did test ran successfully.
Cards on the Table
Unfortunately, the Transformer’s flaws outweigh its virtues. It will not run any program that uses any service from the IBM-PC
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ROM (Read Only Memory provides functions similar to those of the Amiga Kick- start disk). This excludes a large number of programs. The Transformer also uses the entire Amiga, so you can kiss multitasking goodbye. (Contrast this with the Sidecar, which was shown at the Spring Comdex running the Microsoft Flight Simulator in one Amiga window!) The Transformer is also missing several basic PC functions. You must run programs as if you have a monochrome monitor, despite the fact that both the Amiga and the IBM PC can support color monitors. Even that emulation is incomplete, as you cannot have character underlining or blinking. Serial printers are not supported. Your mouse is useless, even though many PC applications now support a mouse.
The Transformer comes with a Preferences program that lets you configure your pretend PC just by following menus and picking options. This is a nice idea. Unfortunately, many options, such as those that deal with the above deficiencies, are ignored “in this release." The ability to assign Amiga drives to DOS drives as you choose is a welcome exception. Even when the Preferences program works, it behaves very differently from its obvious cousin, the Workbench Preferences program. Rather than clicking on desired options with your mouse, you must flip between them with the arrow keys and the space bar. You get to pick the background color, which is nice, but you must do so by hitting function keys to add numbers to color intensity displays while pressing the space bar to preview the results. Where are the simple drag bars, with their immediate feedback, of the Workbench Preferences? The Transformer Preferences program unnecessarily invents a new (and poorer) Amiga interface style.
A Losing Hand
Finally, the Amiga Transformer is slow. In the list of the 13 programs in the manual, each program is accompanied by the number of times slower that it runs on the Amiga. All but one are listed as from two- to four-times slower; the one exception is said to be four* to six-times slower. T hese numbers seemed to be accurate, or even optimistic, for the programs that we tried. In addition, we ran three benchmarks of our own, one compute-intensive and two that exercised disk I O. The Transformer was
7. 8-times slower than a PC on the former, and 5.4- and four-times slower on the latter two. Software emulators of computers are generally slow, so this should be no great surprise, but il certainly is disappointing.
Folks, these are not twenty or even one bundled percent speed penalties, as were once rumored. These are multiple times slower, hundreds of percent worse. CPU-intensive operations, such as large spreadsheet calculations, seem as long as the wait for the Transformer's arrival on dealers’ shelves. In a PC market rife with ever faster processors, die Transformer gives you the slowest PC-compatible system that we have ever seen or heard discussed.
A Better Deal: The Sidecar
The Amiga Transformer was a product with promise, but it is incredibly slow. Its Preferences program shows many interesting ideas, but most are not fully realized. Its user interface is unlike most Amiga software and is generally poor. T he Transformer was very late, and now the vastly superior Sidecar is nearly upon us. While obviously more expensive, the Sidecar provides the true compatibility and reasonable performance with which the Transformer merely tantalizes us. Commodore and Simile combined to produce an interesting but critically flawed product. Commodore has clearly chosen a different future and the Transformer is an orphan. Put away your checkbook; do not buy this product.¦
Amiga Transformer
Commodore Business Machines Inc.
1200 Wilson Drive
West Chester, PA 19380
215 431-9100
$ 495 (suggested)
Bundled with 5%-inch drive
The Hailey Project: A Mission In Our Solar System
Mindscape proves that educational software can be fun.
Although Comet Hailey is speedily returning to the nether reaches of the solar system, its effects are still being felt here on Earth. Scientists of many nations are analyzing data from the armada of satellites that intercepted the comet; many of the people who awoke before dawn to see the comet have become confirmed star gazers. And Mindscape is still producing The Hailey
Financial Cookbook
A fine collection of recipes for wise investments.
Reviewed by Ervin Bobo
There are those of us w7ho are forever daunted by anything resembling a financial package, even one that limits itself to “personal' finances If wTe can be persuaded to use one, we tend to doubt the answers given and, at first opportunity, give the same problems to our accountant, pay the
Circle 89 on Reader Service card.
AMIGA HAS MULTI-TASKING, DISCOVERY SOFTWARE USES IT!
FROM NOW ON YOU CAN PRINT OR SAVE ANY SCREEN, FROM ANY PROGRAM, ANY TIME!
You won't grow old waiting for GRABBiT to finish printing, either. When we say multitasking. Wc mean it GRABBiT has a unique TPM (Task Priority Monitor) module which makes sure your other software can still run even while GRABBiT is printing. The TPM module constantly tracks GRABBiT s printing priority making sure it is neither too high nor too low but always just right! GRABBIT adds a new dimension to the AMIGA'S multi-tasking capability.
GRABBiT supports dozens of different printers because it uses the standard Amiga device drivers Any printer you can choose in "Preferences' is automatically supported by GRABBiT. You'll get the most from color printers too. Because GRABBiT supports full- color printing. In fact, we have seen amazing color printouts produced by GRABBiT on the Oki-Mate 20. A color printer costing less than S200.00.
$
95
GRABBiT
Project a program inspired by the return of the celestial celebrity.
The Hailey Project is an engaging educational game. You are assigned ten training flights to prepare you for your ultimate mission. Each of the flights requires some prior knowledge of the solar system. For instance, you may be required to fly to a planet with no moons or a moon with an atmosphere; if you're not up on planetary astronomy, you’ll have to do some research to complete your training missions. The Hailey Project doesn’t push information at you, it simply provides an incentive for you to learn on your own.
Celestial Navigation
To travel around the solar system, you use the Control Panel of your ship. The panel features a viewing screen that lets you see the constellations that lie along the ecliptic the background of stars that the sun seems to move against while the Earth journeys around the sun. The viewing screen lets you line up your destination. For instance, if you know that your destination is Saturn, and you know7 that Saturn is currently in the direction of the constellation Cancer, you simply point your ship towards Cancer and rocket towards it.
You’ll be able to recognize that pattern of stars that make up Cancer because the program comes with a Simple Star Map of the Zodiac the constellations that lie upon the ecliptic. (Once you've used the Simple Star Map for awhile, you’ll be able to pick these constellations out of the night sky.) Y’ou’ll knowr that Saturn is in the direction of Cancer by referring to the Radar Screen, the second important display in The Hailey Project. Your position is always at the center of the Radar Screen. Just find the sixth planet from the Sun, look to see which constellation lies beyond it on the line from your position, and you have the direction you have to set at the Control Panel.
Mouse in Space
The Hailey Project for the Amiga lets you use the mouse to control your ship: All controls are at your fingertips. The screens for the Amiga are much nicer than those for other computers. The designers could have done a better job, however, of representing the various bodies in the solar system: Where are the distinctive rings around Saturn?
A complete documentation booklet comes in the package, as well as a handy star map, a briefing about your mission on cassette tape and a Hailey Project registration card. Once you’ve completed your ten training missions, you can send the card to Mindscape and they will give you informa
GRABBiT takes WYSIWYG* to the limit With GRARRiT you capture exactly what you see on your screen in an instant, regardless of what other programs you're running. GRABBiT works with all AMIGA video modes, including “Hold-and-Modify'Mt even lets you capture images from animated programs iike the bouncing ball in Boing1. What's more, GRABBiT runs completely in the background - transparent to your other software. GRABBiT is always ready for you to use, even while you're in the middle of another program As if that's not enough. GRABBiT requires only about 10 K of your precious RAM to operate, and it supports dozens of printers. It's not a game, it's not a toy GRABBiT is truly a productivity power tool for your AMIGA!
We believe powerful software should be easy to use. GRABBiT is one of the EASIEST programs you'll ever use! Every GRABBiT operation is triggered by one of the ' HotKeys', a set of easy-to-rcmember key sequences that only take minutes to learn. Each Hot Key is generated simply by holding down the Control' and "Alt ' keys and pressing one of the designated letter keys What could be easier?
Tion about your final mission. Complete the final mission and you'll join an elite group of star pilots. You’ll also be surprised at howr much fun you’ve had learning about the stars and planets. ¦
The Hailey Project Mindscape Inc.
3444 Dundee Road Northbrook, IL 60062 312 480-7667 $ 49.95
No special requirements
• WHAl YOU S1I own AT YOU GET ArT.Lgd k& j Uj.3riTi.alk
Commodore Butt new Mjchint* l-r.agrj i, i rej s-erei trademark ot AEGIS Orvelcpmerr Ccrp Drlutr PijfM i* a r-grvered triCfmi-A o( Elrcironii Ar
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A m iga World
disk files are saved in the popular IFF format, the emerging graphics standard for AMIGA You can capture any screen to disk fo: slide show presentations or later enhancement with any popular AMIGA graphics editor like AF.G1S Images or Deluxe Paint We even include a specially modified PD utility called 'SEE? Which allows you to view IFF image files quickly and easily. GRABBtT’s disk operations are lightning fast because GRABBiT is written in a hybrid of highly optimized C and 68000 Assembler
Once you start using GRABBiT you’ll want it on every disk You can easily install GRABBiT in your system startup-sequonce. So it will always be there when you need it
With all its features this would be a great package at any price. But we think you'll agree with us that GRABBiT s most outstanding feature is VALUE! You get all the power of this sizzling new software for an unbelievably low
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SOFTWARE
INTERNATIONAL
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(215) 546-1533
29
S5 Shipping £c Handling
TBT
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FT1 1 ccessories. Open
Begin using the full power of your multi-tasking Amiga with 15 GIZMOZ™ desktop j* porget about !ltion one (or more) of the GIZMOZT“ and begin using it, when done just close the windo qizMOZ un methods of using computers and start using the added power of your new machine- with the Intuition workbench and with the Command Line Interpreter (CLI). 4 g|aC| Book
4.
1. Calendar
2. Rolodex
3. Memo Pad
JANUARY
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A powerful tree lormat index system for your prone numbers, addresses or anyfrirg' Includes autod.al feature lor ary modem
* ?u»r notepad mat lets you notes air m a wngie notebook Men10 also i tun featured text th* »;Bwi io edit any text fee
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5. Calculator Set
A set of 3 calculators Scientific. Financial, and Programmer
6. Hot Key
7. Free List Display
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need to comm,?n ITAi UNK*?na aLS0 between an IBM n>cate w f , th’nc>Ude,s everything you e Popular machines.
Package that supports
8. Cuckoo Alarm Clock
Add a tvghly animated old world clock to your desktop Who said docks had to be boring1
Transf,
A cfean graphic display 0* whar. Tasks ate it memory and ho* much memory they are using lets you selectively change priority ol tasks so you car bets control your mufi-ftsking eiwonment
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10. Announcer
A voice announces when a tne consuming tasx is complete Also ‘speak" teit lues as wen as sentences you type m
12. PopUp Cards
9. Terminal Package
Advanced terminal emulation accessory Supports all major terminal types including VT52. VttQQ ADM 3A. Ard TefewJeo 925 log fife feature lets you save you session m a fife tor later revew
11. Graph Package
At easy to use graphics package mat e*ab'es you to make chats and graphs on your Amiga Create pra. Bar and exploding charts hom me rainbow oi colors on your Am»ga
a" maioiZZ's a terminal „ “e poptJlar machines.
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Omputer Bulletin Board
digital link only:
$ 699
Handy reference cards that will pop*up over the workbench includes Abasx ard AmigaDos reference cards, and more To- car also rake your own'
S®9k b3,e 'T’,ro73aooa?y oC io nD%*™c°m-'
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Sying Z p'°'ocols,n.
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Cable required.
Accessory to encrypt and decrypt your data Protect information ard msufe teal your data remains secure S-mpfe. Easy, and pawtrV
15. Data Compressor
This accessory win cor,press and decompress jw data files Very handy when trarantftng fifes from or* computer to arocrer
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California residents add 6% sales tax- A _ gdd 4% H commodore-
unless otherwise specified. Visa MC an trademaj corporat,on’
„„.™* o, Apple W?*5Si •*» ““
Amiga. Inc. IBM PC trademark of inieri |nVned-
Dealer inquiries
fee and accept his answers without question. So why bother with something that calls itself a financial cookbook?
Because it is easy to use and because it can be trusted.
Appetizer
Quite wisely, Electronic Arts decided to open Financial Cookbook with the Intuition Interface rather than the CLI. The natural reaction of an Amiga user, when presented with a screen of icons is, “I can handle this." Quite right. Once the program is running, pull-down menus display your many choices and the financial “recipes" are such that you simply fill in a few blanks.
However, Financial Cookbook is not just another home budgeting program. It will not tell you how much money is left for pizza and beer after you’ve budgeted for gas, electricity and laundry. Instead, the 32 recipes will guide you in selecting the type of savings or investment to give you the best return; the amount of life insurance needed to keep your family in style; whether to buy or lease or repair an automobile; and whether to rent or buy a home. Clearly, these are matters of some weight and importance to your future financial position, yet they are matters Financial Cookbook allows you to handle with ease.
“I have to give Marauder a hearty thumbs up
Entree
Your first selection should be recipe One: Understanding Marginal Tax Rates, for this is a figure that will recur in every other recipe. You’ll be paying taxes on every dollar of interest earned and, in order to give you a “bottom line" that has meaning, Financial Cookbook will take this into account. Simply fill in your taxable earnings and taxes paid, both federal and state, from your copy of your last tax returns and the marginal tax rate is computed for you.
Second Generation Excellence! The Best Gets Even Better.
MARAUDER II is the most powerful copier for Amiga, no other copier even comes close. Copies most advanced copy-protection schemes ON ANY DRIVE with NO ADJUSTMENT REQUIRED, even SkyFox, Arcticfox, and the new Deluxe Series from Electronic Arts. Automatic copying is now fully supported, but Parameter-Entry override is still provided. MARAUDER II even includes new disk analysis utilities
that will allow you to explore disks like never before.
MARAUDER II can also make completely unprotected copies of many of your favorite programs. No key disk is required after these programs are unprotected by MARAUDER II. If you plan to get a hard disk for your Amiga,
then you'll really appreciate this feature!
Don’t wait any longer. Join the thousands of Amiga owners who already rely on MARAUDER and get MARAUDER II today. Still not copy-protected, still only
The resulting figure, as well as current inflation rate and current interest drawn on savings, can then be saved on the Profile recipe. You can save them permanently to disk or use them temporarily; either way, they will be automatically inserted in each succeeding recipe.
You enter the figures in a window that states the problem, then use your mouse to point to a sub-window that says "Compute." Immediately, a second window opens, restating the problem and your input and giving you a “bottom line." For those of us who have used other computers, and have become accustomed to waiting while floppy disk drives moaned and groaned over an answrer, the speed with which the Amiga presents a final tally may leave you with the feeling that you didn’t get your money’s worth. After all, you simply clicked a button and the answer was there: how much con
$ 3995
$ 5 SHIPPING AND HANDLING
sideration could it really have given your needs?
In the Amiga, Financial Cookbook resides entirely in RAM and this accounts for the sometimes zero delay between problem and solution. Because it is RAM-based, Electronic Arts recommends that Amiga users with only 256K unplug external disk drives in order to free memory. This done, it is possible to have two input and two output windows open simultaneously thus multitasking your finances. With 512K, no such limitations apply.
Although Financial Cookbook makes use of such arcane accounting procedures as Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return
and others, you won’t find them mentioned here. Keeping in mind the type of user for which it is intended, the manual remains clear and concise and never descends into shoptalk.
Yet those concepts play a very important role in determining the bottom line. By utilizing figures on your marginal tax rate and the rate of inflation, Financial Cookbook presents you with what is, in effect, two answers to each problem: the amount of real dollars realized and the actual amount in terms of today's buying power.
Dessert
To state a very simple example of how this works, we will use the Single Savings
Circle 121 on Reader Service card.
An mdespensible
(3 DISCOVERY Vhsoftware
I NT CH ATM l A I.
262 South 15th Street, Suite 400 Philadelphia, PA 19102 U.S.A.
(215) 546-1533
The Starpoint Software 256k RAM
card installs in seconds, doubling the
memory capacity of your Commodore
Amiga.
? Expand your Amiga to a full 'h megabyte Display RAM
? Open more windows, programs & graphic screens simultaneously
? Create larger databases & spreadsheets in RAM
? Run many tools faster, with less disk activity
? Use programs and demos that require 512k of RAM
? Create RAM DISKS for super fast file access
? Made in USA with high quality, reliable components
? Fully shielded to prevent EMI RFI interference
? Backed by a full ONE YEAR warranty
? Functionally identical to the Commodore 1050 RAM board
? Fully compatible with all software and hardware
When ordering by mail:
? $ 120.00 + 4.00 s h
? $ 120.00 + 5.00 COD orders
? Shipping costs outside USA $ 6.00
? Calif, residents add 6% sales tax
? VISA or Mastercard accepted
• 'DEALERS INQUIRIES INVITED”
STORPOINT SOFTWARE
(916) 842-6183 122 S. Broadway Yreka, CA 96097
Commodore-Amiga and Amiga are trademarks of Commodore- Amiga, Inc. Starpoint s a trademark of Starpoint Software. 9 out of to celery sticks prefer fibWe metis to other frozen oranges Board made tn the USA with high quality Japanese parts
Deposit recipe. Assume a savings account at 4% interest, compounded daily; a marginal tax rate of 41 %; and an inflation rate of 4%. Since the inflation rate nearly equals the interest rate, we have a standoff: no loss, no gain. But you did earn interest and taxes upon it must be paid. Therefore, although the amount of real dollars shows a healthy increase, the amount of dollars in terms of today’s buying power shows a decrease, If such figures were the best von could get on savings, it would be better to spend the money now. (And that's the kind of answer my wife loves.)
Obviously, both your tax rate and the rate of inflation could change drastically over the course of a long-term investment.
However, Financial Cookbook, like any

other financial package or spreadsheet, works with the best information currently available and thus serves as an easy-to-use
J
guide to the future.
As to whether the program is worth your time and money, the best example I can give is from my own experience.
Plop, plop, fizz, fizz
Left to my own devices. I'd have thought I lacked enough equity in my home to consider refinancing. Yet the recipe was there on the pull-down menu, only a mouse-click
Circle 68 on Reader Service card.
LIONHEART
BUSINESS & STATISTICAL SOFTWARE
PC MS-DOS (PM, MACINTOSH, AM'GA ATARI ST, C64 128, CP M, APPLE DOS 3,3
Explanatory books with professional compiled software; the new standard for statistical use. The influential Seybold Report on Professional Computing has this to say about Lionheart our sentimental favorite because of its pragmatic approach to the basic statistical concepts... The thinking is that the computer merely facilitates the calculations: i the important thing is to be able to formulate a problem correctly and to determine what type of analysis will be most valuable." Let Lionheart help you get ahead of the competition! Spreadsheet compatable.
• BUSINESS STATISTICS S145
• EXPERIMENTAL STATISTICS ....145
• MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS ......150
• EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS .75
• STATISTICS FOR MARKETING ...150
• QUALITY CONTROL & INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENTS . 125
• FORECASTING AND TIME-SERIES 145
• SALES AND MARKET FORECASTING.....145
• DECISION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES......110
• LINEAR & NON-LINEAR PROGRAMMING . 95
• PERT & CRITICAL PATH TECHNIQUES ... 95
• OPTIMIZATION ....110
VISA, MasterCard, AMEX, Check
P. O. Box 379, ALBURG, VT 05440
(514) 933-4918
away, and I decided to give it a shot. The bottom line was this: If I refinance now. I’ll not only gain the cost of Financial Cookbook, but also the cost of a new Oldsmo- bile. I’m going for it!¦
Financial Cookbook Electronic Aris
2755 Campus Drive San Mateo, CA 94403 415 571-7171 $ 59.95
No special requirements
The Talking Coloring Book
An entertaining coloring program for small children.
The Talking Coloring Book from JMH Software of Minnesota Inc. is an entertaining graphics program for small children.
With it a child can draw and color pictures; as colors are picked, the color names are spoken.
Electronic Crayons
The program has four options: a demonstration that teaches colors and their names by displaying colors and saying their names; a practice option that says color names and asks you to choose that color from the graphic crayons on the screen (a wrong choice prompts the program to tell which wrong color you chose, and asks you to choose again); a coloring option, where you color (fill) pictures; and a draw option, which lets you draw with a black line. Unerasable pictures are included in the program and new ones can be drawn and saved for coloring also. This allows you to go back and change a drawing whenever you wish.
This program is very easy to use (no printed documentation is needed) and also very colorful. The speech feature adds a lot to the program; the voice is not very exciting, but also not intolerable. I have some
question as to the value of this program as primarily a color-learning tool; 1 think children old enough to achieve the necessary (though minimal) coordination with the mouse will be beyond the age when color identification is learned. However, as a child’s Amiga coloring book program, The Talking Coloring Book is a very good product, and the speech enhances it.
If you are interested in introducing your child, or children, to the world of the Amiga, through the use of an easy-to-use yet colorful and responsive program, buy The Talking Coloring Book. The price is good, the program is entertaining and instructive, and you won’t have to worry' about crayola murals on your wallpaper.®
AmigaWorld
The Talking Coloring Book JMH Software of Minnesota Inc.
7200 Hemlock Lane Maple Grove, MN 55369 612 424*5464 $ 29.95
No special requirements
Rogue Temple of Apshai Trilogy
Do the Monster Mash through the mazes of tivo graphics action adventures.
Rogue and Temple of Apshai Trilogy are two new Amiga games from Epyx that are best described as a combination of maze, role-playing, arcade and fantasy. The two games are similar in that in each you have a character that explores mazes of varying
difficulty. In both games your character meets and fights numerous monsters, animals and beasties, and collects treasures,
weapons, potions and experience. Your character gets stronger, wiser and better able to survive the successive levels where the rewards are greater and the dangers
more deadly.
.
Different Strokes
The games differ from each other in minor ways. Rogue has 26 maze levels that are randomly generated each time you enter them; although the goal is always the same, the way there never is. It also has 26 different monsters that eagerly wait to do you in. The screens are not as graphically sophisticated as those in Temple (on the monitor, the characters of Rogue are only about an inch high), and it doesn’t employ sound, but you have more fighting options in battles. The number of potions and scrolls that have different effects is also greater.
The Temple of Apshai Trilogy' consists of three separate mazes, each with four levels of difficulty. You wander through 568 rooms and are greeted by 37 different monsters.
The battles, though more graphic than those in Rogue, present fewer options. Maze levels never change, so you should draw maps as you travel. As in Rogue, secret rooms and passages are discovered by searching walls. By returning to the Inn, you can trade your
Diskette Holder
with purchase of Each30 3.5” SONY Diskettes
(Boxed in tens)
A $ 14.95 Retail Value
Because your AMIGA™ Deserves the Best...
Boxed in Tens
3. 5” SS DD ...1.49
3. 5” DS DD (for Amiga) ... 2.29 Minimum order 20 diskettes Quantity Discounts Available
Stores & Files 30 3.5” Disks $ 8.95 Each or FREE with purchase of each 30 SONY Diskettes (Boxed in tens)
1. 79 ea
1. 75 ea
1. 70 ea
50 piece ...1.29 ea
100 piece ..1.25 ea
400 piece ..1.20 ea
SONY
No FREE Diskette Holder with “Bulk Pacs"
TO ORDER: 1-800-351-BEST (2378)
1 -800-451 -BEST (in California) For info call: 408-559-9339
Visa, Mastercard, C.O.O. or Prepaid. (Allow an additional 2 weeks when sending in personal checks). Corporations rated 3A2 or better, government agencies and schools may send In purchase orders on a net 30 basis. Minimum order
525. 00. Shipping charges are $ 3.00 per 100 diskettes or fraction thereof (within the continental
U. S.), APO, FPO, AK, HI and PR Orders add 10% to cover PAL and Insurance. C.O.D. orders add
54. 00, No Sales Tax outside California. Satisfaction guaranteed on all products. Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines.
hard-won loot for better weapons, armor, healing salves and arrows.
Same Old Monsters
Both games will keep you busy for hours (if you wish to play them out to the bitter end), but unless you are very easily amused you will probably lose interest fairly soon. The monsters are the same, the rooms are the same, the treasures are the same, the battles are the same, and once you learn the few survival and exploration techniques, both games become repetitious. Of the two,
I think Rogue is the more interesting, even with the lower-quality graphics. It offers more options and a few more puzzles to solve. Temple has better graphics, and since the levels don’t change, they offer the challenges inherent in real mazes. Both games use pull-dowrn menus and allow use of the mouse almost exclusively, or the keyboard, or both.
If you are a fan of this kind of game, then it is just a matter of deciding whether you want one with a set, definite end like Temple (which probably won't hold your interest once you have mapped all the levels), or a game that you can play over and over without exact duplication like Rogue.¦
Amiga World
Rogue
Temple of Apshai Trilogy Epyx
1043 Kiel Court Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408 745-0700 $ 39.95 each Both require 512K
A Mind Forever Voyaging
Here’s your chance to travel into the future, even if it’s only in your memory.
It is the year 2031 and you are PRISM, the world’s first sentient machine. You have “lived” an artificial childhood, been given an artificial family, artificial emotions and artificial teachers. You did not learn the truth about your identity that you are a computer until your twentieth birthday. “You are a computer, and your life was merely a simulation whose purpose was to instill you with intelligence and self-aware
ness.” You were created, along with a very sophisticated simulation capability, to aid in the establishment of a working plan for the future of society.
Plans for the Future
The mission seems straightforward: You will enter into a simulation of the world as it might he in the future, to see how society will be influenced by the implementation of “The Plan.” You will report your findings to the government and they will decide if “The Plan” is worth implementing. On the surface, the future scenario seems idyllic, but somehow you can sense that there is something wrong, and as time passes you get the feeling you should be doing something more than merely sight-seeing.
A Mind Forever Voyaging is an interactive text adventure with a screen or two of graphics. It is, according to Infocom’s rating, for advanced players. Like all of Infocom’s text games, it is of the highest quality. But it goes beyond that. There is something special about A Mind Forever Voyaging that is hard to define. I found myself spending a lot of time wandering around in the simulation of the future, exploring rather than solving problems. This story’s “highly literary focus” makes it less puzzle-oriented and more of a bizarre journey.
The depth and detail of the simulated city of the future is amazing. For example, in the simulation you have an apartment (if you can find it) with a wife and baby waiting for you. There is a baby bottle in the refrigerator, paper in the typewriter (you are a science-fiction writer in the future) with part of a story you are writing on it, your wife has a half-finished painting on the easyl by the window', and on and on. So much detail is apparent that after wandering through the city, riding public transportation, visiting shopping malls and eating in restaurants, you want to go “home” to your family to rest.
Worth the Trip
Even if you never really solve the game,
A Mind Forever Voyaging will have been worth playing. It is excellent, a very special and different sort of text adventure game.I
A m iga World
A Mind Forever Voyaging Infocom
125 Cambridge Park Drive Cambridge, MA 02140 617 492-6000 $ 44.95
No special requirements
Circle 183 on Reader Service card.
AMIGA FAST 3D SPACE GAME
Fractal Earth Walking Robots Cities Jets Tanks Geodesic Satellites
V
91
9
0
c5
9?
0
91
91
£
£
S
LIGHT years ahead of color organs VISUALize MUSIC with
AMIGA Commodore 64
SOUND ANALYZER module four channels * mouse port input shipped 10 10 86 for S148
AMIGA developer Inquire!
? Demo VCR tapes * available now VHS S20
Let your AMIGA do the talking with THE ORATOR. THE ORATOR takes full advantage of the AMIGA’S speech capabilities; allowing you to compose text in either regular English, or using the Phoneme method (or a combination of both). A complete text editor permits you to change the spelling of words in order to get just the right sound. You have complete control over the Rate, Pitch, Tuning, Voice, and Mode of each individual phrase by simple, mouse-controlled sliding bars and boxes. A phrase can be any length up to 140 characters, and at least 200 phrases can be strung together in a single continuous file. Your story, poem, jokes, or whatever can be saved in a compact sequential file that you can use in your own BASIC programs, THE ORATOR also comes with THE PHONEME TUTOR, a program that makes it easy to learn the Phoneme method of text input. Includes complete documentation and a BASIC LOADER program for use in your own programs. Requires the AMIGA with 512K memory and AbasiC or Amiga BASIC. Both versions are included on the disk.
PRICE: $ 39.95 postpaid, C.O.D. add 54 (Indiana residents add 4% safes tax)
Mall check or money order to:
BOBSHOP
Animator
SOUNDSHOP
Audio Tool SOUNDTRAX
Music
BOBSHOP and SOUNDSHOP TOGETHER for one introductory
price of only $ 49.95
Send check or inquiry to;
REVOLUTION Software West Chester, PA 19381
(215) 430-0412
, THE QUALIT Y COTTAGE 6301 F University Commons Suite 308 South Bend, In 46635 12191 234-4401
AMIGA is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc.
New from
REVOLUTION
Software
THE ORATOR SPEECH PROCESSOR
FIRE
YOUR
EDITOR.
And put Microsmiths' TxEd to work for you.
The Text Editor that should have come with your Amiga is now available.
* Easy to learn, mouse & menus
* FASTEST display updates available
* Multiple windows, cut & paste
* Small; efficient in multitasking
* VI.3 has new WP features
To order send $ 59.95 plus $ 2.50 P&H, VISA MC, Check. Money order, C.O.D. Mass. Residents add 5%. Amiga is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Designed by C. Heath. ASK YOUR DEALER.
MICROSMITHS, INC.
PO Box 561, Cambridge, MA 02140 Z_(617) 576-2878_«©_
Circle 117 on Reader Service card.
Circle 48 on Reader Service card AMIGA”OUTLET
3 1 2’Disks(DS,DD) 10 S29.95 1 S3.15
3 1 2’ Disks (DS,DD) Plain Label Brand Scall
CLASSIC IMAGE INC.- PRESENTS DIABLO - Graphic mind challenge game $ 29,95
DISK LIBRARY Now you can File, Catalog, Update Search, Cross Reference, Report $ 49.95
Amiga System Covers - W mouse LOGO $ 21.95
Amiga Disk Cover - 1010 or 1020 with LOGO $ 7.99 Paper T F-F F White, 9 1 2 x 11,20lb . 150 S8.99
Paper T F-F F White, 9 1 2 x 11, 201b. 1000 S22.95
Paper T F-F F l 2'Greenbar,91 2xl 1,181bIOOO Sl8.99 Index Cards - T F-F F, 3 x 4 500 $ 7.95
Rolodex Cards - T F-F F, 2 1 6x4 500 S8.95
Labels - T F-F F, Address 1000 S5.00
S&H-S2. 50 US M.W. RUTH CO., AMW56
S&H-S4.50CN Visa 510 Rhode Island Ave.
US $ ’s only Master Cherry Hill, NJ 08002
(609) 667-2526
We stock what we sell, for fast delivery.
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Send $ 18.00 US for Charter Membership to:
AMIGA USERS' GROUP 08000 Box 3761 - Attn: Jay Forman Cherry Hill, NJ 08034
CHESSMATE
Introducing the ultimate in computer chess. Chessmate features spectacular graphics and sophisticated intelligence routines written in machine language for maximum speed. Other features include • 2D or 3D display • you vs Amiga, you vs friend, Amiga vs Amiga
* multiple skill levels * game clocks • book moves • displays move list • suggests moves for you • checks for illegal moves • take back any number of moves • invert board • switch sides • replay game • save game on disk
* set up position • solves mate-in-two problems • speaks in male, female or robot voice • master games and problems included on disk • complete documentation
$ 29.95 plus $ 2.50 shipping. NC residents add $ 1.35 tax. Requires 512K and Amiga Basic.
Dark Horse
Dept A9
P. O. Box 36162 Greensboro, NC 27416
(919) 852-3698
Dealer inquiries welcome.
Programmers: Wte can market your Amiga programs. Call or write for details.
Amiga is a trademark ol CommodoreAmga. Inc.
This issue, AmigaWorld presents an abbreviated What’s New. For information about other new products for the Amiga, see “The Amiga Shows Up” on page 70.
Interactive Forth
Multi-Forth is an interactive system designed to help you develop sophisticated applications programs for the Amiga. Unlike traditional languages such as C and Pascal, Multi-Forth contains an interactive mode that lets you see what your program is doing as you’re writing it. When your program is complete, you can easily turn it into a stand-alone application.
Multi-Forth gives you access to Amiga- DOS and all Amiga library routines. Like all versions of Forth, the langauge can be extended by any programmer. The system also includes a 68000 macro assembler so you can optimize your code. Multi-Forth costs $ 179. For more information, contact Creative Solutions Inc., 4701 Randolph Road, Suite 12, Rockville, MD 20852. 301 984-0262.
Heavy Hitter
With a maximum speed ol 60 characters- per-second, the Juki 6500 can handle just about all of your business printing needs. This letter-quality daisywheel printer comes with both a serial and a parallel interface. A 3K memory buffer (expandable to 15K) is standard.
The 6500 has three character pitches (10 12 15) and proportional spacing. Unlike a lot of daisywheels, the Juki 6500 can also handle superscripts, subscripts, boldface and even graphics. The 6500 has a 16" platen and weighs 37 pounds. It is a serious printer for serious applications. The Juki 6500 lists for $ 1,395. For more information, contact Juki Office Machine Corp., Printer Division, 23844 Hawthorne Blvd., Suite 101, Torrance, CA 90505. 800 325-6134 (in CA, 800 435-6315).
Alkaline-powered Amiga
Batteries Included has announced a number of new products for the Amiga. The first will be BTS The Spreadsheet, a fast, compact spreadsheet for people who don’t need to model the entire U.S. economy (although you can do a lot with 1 million cells). Future Batteries Included products for the Amiga include The Isgur Portfolio System, an investment-management program, and I*S Degas Elite, a comprehensive painting program.
BTS The Spreadsheet retails for $ 69.95. The Isgur Portfolio System is expected to retail for $ 249.95 and I*S Degas Elite for S79.95. For more information, contact Batteries Included at 30 Mural Street, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 1B5 Canada. 416 881-9941.
Hardware Number Crunching
Netech Computer Products is producing a relatively inexpensive way to integrate a 68881 math coprocessor into your Amiga system. The Amiga NCP Math Coprocessor is based upon the 68010 chip instead of the much more expensive 68020. By using software to emulate the 68020-68881 interface, the NCP board achieves near 68020 speeds at less than half the cost of comparable
boards. The Amiga NCP Math Coprocessor plugs directly into the 68000 socket of your Amiga. An assembled unit retails for $ 529. For more information, contact NCP, PC)
Box 645, Monrovia, CA 91016. 818 334-
1002.
Talk Back
A-Talk is a telecommunications and terminal emulation program for the Amiga. It features text and protocol transfers (Kermit, Xmodem), a script language for automated telecommunications and ANSI terminal emulation. A-Talk works with many popular modems and supports auto-dial, redial and auto-answer. It retails for $ 49.95. Contact Felsina Software, 3175 South Hoover Street 275, Los Angeles, CA 90007. 213 747-8498.
Filing Files
Disk Library and Diablo are two new software products from Classic Image. Disk Library keeps track of every file and drawer on every disk you own. It helps you Find whatever File you’re looking for with a minimum of effort. Diablo is an arcade game that requires a lot of strategic thinking as you maneuver a ball through a colorful maze of tracks and panels. It features strong graphics and sound.
Disk Library sells for $ 49.95 while Diablo sells for $ 29.95. For more information, contact Classic Image, 510 Rhode Island Ave., Cherry Hill, NJ 08002. 609 667-2526.
Tooling Up
Invotronics of Dallas, TX has introduced M, a package of four programs for the Amiga. Mascii is an on-line ASCII quick reference chart. Mcalc is a programmer’s calculator: It supports any base between (and including) two and 36. Med lets you edit any byte in your Amiga’s memory; you can even alter hardware registers. Mdis is a disassembler for 68000 and 68010 object code.
M lists for $ 59.95.
Also from Invotronics is PowerWindows, a tool that lets you create and edit Amiga windows. You can design windows with menus and gadgets, and have the result output as either assembly- or C-source code. PowerWindows lists for $ 89.95. For more information, contact Invotronics Inc., 11311 Stemmons Freeway, Suite 7, Dallas, TX 75229. 214 241-9515.
High-Flying MIDI
MIDI-Gold from Golden Hawk Technology is an enhanced MIDI interface for the Amiga. Unlike the Commodore MIDI, which features MIDI-1 n, -Out, and -Thru, MIDI-Gold has an extra MIDI-Out and a Sync-Out, MIDI-Gold connects to the Amiga serial port. It lists for S79.95. For more information, contact Golden Hawk Technology’, 427-3 Amherst Street, Suite 389,
Nashua, NH 03063. 603 882-7198.
Desktop Teacher
On the educational side, Speller Bee and KidTalk use speech synthesis to teach spelling and improve communications skills, respectively. Designed for students from preschool to junior high, Speller Bee provides a mix of games, practice routines and tests to improve spelling. KidTalk is an educational word processor. It speaks whatever is entered by the student by letter, word, sentence or paragraph. More advanced students can compose stories and poems with the program also.
Speller Bee and KidTalk both list for $ 59.95. For more information, contact First Byte Inc., 2845 Temple Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90806. 213 595-7006.
Spanish Plus
Kwik-Speak I is a tutorial course in Spanish that uses the Amiga’s built-in speech synthesis. Sold by Eclipse Data Management, it is based upon the Kwik-Speak method developed during World War II (when people bad to learn foreign languages in a hurry). Kwik-Speak I is expected to retail for $ 50.
On the business side of things, Eclipse Data Management has announced For-Trac and Rent-Pro. For-Trac lets property managers track the different phases of the foreclosure process. It is expected to retail for about $ 2,250. Rent-Pro helps you manage rental property. It will list for about $ 2,000.
For more information, contact Eclipse Data Management Inc., 312J(, Lafayette Street, Glendale, CA 91205. 213 602-0516.
Good Software Cheap
T he National Amiga Software Association
(NASA) has established a high-quality, pub* lic-domain software library for the Amiga. Based in Cambridge, MA, NASA is a nonprofit group that utilizes the resources of the MIT student body to maintain and improve Amiga public-domain software. NASA intends to sell disks for under $ 5. For a current listing of NASA disks, or for information on making a contribution to the NASA library', contact the National Amiga Software Association, MIT Branch, PO Box 295, Cambridge, MA 02139.
Newsbriefs
Zoxso has released ZLI for the Amiga.
ZLI is an upgraded CLI that incorporates advanced features like command history, definable function keys and keyboard macros. For more information, contact Zoxso, PO Box 283, Lowell, MA 01853. 617 655-
9548.
Texture, the MIDI-sequencing software (AmigaWorld, November December, 1985, p.
58) that disappeared with Cherry Lane Technologies, has reappeared with Music- soft, PO Box 274, Beekman, NY 12570.
An APL Interpreter is now available for the Amiga. MicroAPL Ltd.'s APL.68000 is being made available in this country by- Spencer Organization Inc. You can contact them at 366 Kinderkamack Road, Westwood, NJ 07675. 201 666-6011.
Chang Labs has announced Rags to Riches IV for the Amiga. The upgraded packages will take advantage of the Intuition interface built into the machine. For more information, contact Chang Labs,
5300 Stevens Creek Blvd., San Jose, CA 95129. 408 246-8020.
Polarware has announced that they are

reducing the prices of all their software products. For Amiga owners, this means you’ll be able to buy Transylvania, The Crimson Crown, The Coveted Mirror and Oo-Topos for $ 29.95 instead of $ 39,95. Contact Polarware at 2600 Keslinger, Box 311, Geneva, IL 60134. 800 323-0884.
Normally, I try to list some User Groups and BBS phone numbers, but space is at a premium this month. For an updated listing of Amiga User Groups and Bulletin Board Systems, send a SASE to Bob Ryan, UG BBS List, AmigaWorld editorial, 80 Pine St., Peterborough, NH 03458. IT1 get a copy of my list to you.®
GOOD STUFF!
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AMO Variety Disk 10 full programs. $ 10.00ppd
AMI IQ Builder 12 programs to test your skill $ 11.95ppd
AM2 Young Folks 1 8 programs for youngsters ...... $ 11.95ppd
AM4 Strategy 1 8 Challenging puzzles ......$ 11.95ppd
AM6 Finance I over 20 financial functions, loans $ 11.95ppd
AM7 Education II Spelling, Math, Reading & more . . . $ 11.95ppd
AM8 Strategy II 8 more puzzles to solve ....$ ll,95ppd
AM9 Adventure 1 4 full text adventures .....$ 11.95ppd
AM13 Real Estate 1 Printing Amortizations, Interest Rate Comparisons, Loan Balance, 25 in all ...$ 14.95ppd
AMMLS Super Mailing List Add. Change, delete address & phone numbers with 8 category flags to select on. Prints lists or labels, sort on name or zip . $ 14.95ppd,
AMDD Dazzle Draw, your mouse is a brush and the screen a canvas.
Save Load your pictures to disk ..S17.95ppd
256k 256k Ram Card, just like Commedores but less . . . CALL
AMPD We have over fifty publlic domain disks and the list is growing
quickly, call or write for latest list. Great value, low cost-
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Call our FREE Bulletin Board at (517) 628-3218 6 pm-8 am EST
300 1200 baud, 7,E,1 protocol.
COMPUTER SOLUTIONS
P. O. BOX 354 _ _
888 S. EIFERT 1 7
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(800) 874-9375 ORDERS ONLY
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ETHERNET® LAN INTERFACE BOARD
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NFS® NETWORK RLE SYSTEM
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PERSONAL FINANCE PACKAGE
• Rudget Management
• Loan calculations
AMERISTAR ECHNOLOGIESinc"
P. O. Box 415 Hauppauge, NY 11788 516-724-3344
Dealer inquiries welcome
ETHERNET* is a registered trademark of XEROX Qnparation. ARCNET* if a registered trademark of DATAPQ1ST Corporation. 'FS* is a registered trademark of SUN MICROSYSTEMS Corporation.
PAR Home I Personal Financial Manager: integrated checkbook and budgeting with comparisons, personal worth statements, "spendaholics exam”, life insurance and college financing planner, lease buy, retirement contributions and annuities, complete loan amortizations, reports and graphic options with barcharts, and much more! $ 69
PAR Real I Real Estate Analyzer: income property analysis, financial statements, "creative" amortizations, balloon and variable payments, loan evaluations, multi-year "what if" forecasting, cash flow, tax benefits, rates of return, depreciation, key ratios, purchase sell agreements, reports, 3-D graphics, speech, and much more! $ 149
TOLL FREE 1-800-433-8433 Outside Washington
COD, MC, VISA, AMEX (Dealer Dist. Inquiries Invited!)
FREE SPECIAL OFFER NOW!! **
Heavy Duty "No-Hassle" disk jackets with any purchase!
PAR SOFTWARE INC.
P. O. BOX 1089, VANCOUVER, WA 98666 (206) 695-1368
We need 3rd parly software submissions!
Hors d’oeuvres
SUPER AMIGA SOFTWARE NOW AVAILABLE!!
Unique applications, tips and stuff
You may be using your Amiga at work, you may be using it at home, or you may be using it in the back seat of your car, but in some way or other, you are going to be using your Amiga in a slightly different way than anyone else. You are going to be running across little things that will help you to do something faster or easier or more elegantly.
AmigaWorld would like to share those shortcuts, ideas, unique applications, programming tips, things to avoid, things to try, etc., with everyone, and we’ll reward you for your efforts with a colorful, appetizing, official AmigaWorld T-shirt. (Just remember to tell us your size.)
Send it in, no matter how outrageous, clever, obvious, humorous, subtle, stupid, awesome or bizarre. We will read anything, but we won't return it, so keep a copy for yourself. In cases of duplication, T-shirts are awarded on a first come, first serve basis.
So, put on your thinking berets and rush those suggestions to:
Hors d’oeuvres AmigaWorld editorial 80 Pine St. Peterborough, NH 03458
BIG RAM EXPANSION @198“iSo,t
(1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 megabyes!) For your AMIGA™
SMALL PRICE
covered by a
5 YEAR WARRANTY*
Our RAM-BOards™ are delivered to you with 1 to 5 megabytes of RAM (memory) installed. Each board is equipped with it’s own power supply and is USER EXPANDABLE to the full 5 MEGABYTES. Our RAM-BOards™ sit comfortably on top of your AMIGA™ computer and cause no interference with other attached devices.
RAM-BOard-1™ 1 megabyte installed $ 499.95
Add $ 280 per megabyte of additional memory installed at the time of original purchase.
RAM-EXP-1™ 1 megabyte of expansion RAM $ 299.95
T-UTIL™ $ 49.95
Disk and file repair utility software for your AMIGA™ computer system
T-MOVE™ $ 49.95
Software to move files to and from IBM-PC™ format disks (either 3.5” convertible format, or 5.25” standard format)
TECHNI-SOFT
P. O. Box 7175 5505 Walden Meadows Drive Murray, UT 84123
(801) 268-4961
VISA
All continental U.S. orders add $ 2.50 shipping handling. COD add $ 5.00 per order.
* 5 year warranty covers RAM installed at the time of original purchase. Your RAM-BOardT“ works for 5 years, or we fix it free of charge.
RAM-BOard, T-MOVE, T-UTIL are trademarks of Techni Soft IBM-PC is a trademark of International Business Machines, Inc.
AMIGA is a trademark of COMMODORE-AMIGA, Inc.
By Bob Ryan
Printer Device Command Functions*
Included this month is a solution for controlling your printer from AMIGA Basic. If you have Amiga problems, we’re here to listen.
Unload them on us at Help Key, Amiga World editorial, SO Pine St., Peterborough, iXH 03458. Take heart. . .someone cares. Chin up, lick that stamp, and march down to the mailbox.
Basic Escapism
Q; I’ve been working with Amiga Basic and I've run into a problem. I am unable to send escape codes to my printer. All my commercial software works fine, but I can’t get my printer to boldface or underline from Amiga Basic. Can you help?
Beverly Tranka
Gansevoort, NY
A: A lot of readers are having problems controlling their printers from Amiga Basic. The problem isn’t so much with Amiga Basic or the Amiga device drivers as it is a problem of documentation. You can control your printer with escape codes from Amiga Basic. You just have to send the correct codes to the correct device.
First of all, the information in the Amiga Basic manual seems to be dead wrong. On page 5*3, it states that you can access the Amiga printer device by opening LPT1: . While opening this file does let you print, it doesn’t allow you to control the characteristics of the printer. The
same is true of the LPRINT and LPR1NT USING commands:
You can print with them, but only in your printer’s default mode.
You can open one of three Files (remember, Amiga Basic treats devices as files) in order to control your printer from Amiga Basic. The one you should use is PRT: . Depending upon whether you have a parallel or a serial printer, you can also use PAR: or SER: .
PRT: is the AmigaDOS printer device. If you write all vour software to use this device, instead of trying to control your printer directly, your program should work with any printer that is listed in Preferences. To control a printer using PRT:, you don't send escape codes that are specific to any one printer. You send codes that are specific to the Amiga PRT: device. Using the printer driver specified in Preferences, PRT: translates the escape codes it receives from your program into the printer-specific codes needed to drive the Preferences- designated printer. The point to this method of doing things is that you (and your programs) need to know and use only one set of escape codes in order to work with any of the printers listed in Preferences. Put away your chart of Epson or C.Itoh printer-control codes. The only codes you have to know are those that control the PRT: device. These codes are listed in the accompanying table.
Cmd
Escape
Defined
Name
No.
Sequence
Function
by:
aRIS
0
ESCc
reset
ISO
aRIN
1
ESC !
Initialize
+ + +
aIND
2
ESCD
If
ISO
aNEL
3
ESCE
return,If
ISO
aRI
4
ESCM
reverse If
ISO
aSGRO
5
ESCfOm
normal char set
ISO
aSGR3
6
ESC[3m
italics on
ISO
aSCR23
kf
t
ESC[23m
italics off
ISO
aSGR4
8
ESC[4ni
underline on
ISO
aSGR24
9
ESC[24m
underline off
ISO
aSGRl
10
ESCClm
boldface on
ISO
aSCR22
11
ESC[22m
boldface off
ISO
aSFC
12
ESC[nm
set foreground color where n stands for a pair of ASCII digits, 3 followed by any number 0-9
ISO
aSBC
13
ESC[nm
set background color where n stands for a pair of ASCII digits, 4 followed by any number 0-9
ISO
aSHORPO
14
ESC[0w
normal pitch
DEC
aSH0RP2
15
ESC[2w
elite on
DEC
aSHORPl
16
ESC[ lw
elite off
DEC
aSH0RP4
17
ESC[4w
condensed fine on
DEC
aSHORP3
18
ESC[5w
condensed off
DEC
aSH0RP6
19
ESC[Gw
enlarged on
DEC
aSH0RP5
20
ESC[5w
enlarged off
DEC
aDEN6
21
ESC[6”z
shadow print on
DEC (sort of)
aDEN5
22
ESC[5”z
shadow print off
DEC
aDEN4
23
ESC[4"z
doublestrike on
DEC
aDEN3
24
ESC[3"z
doublestrike off
DEC
aDEN2
25
ESC[2"z
NLQ on
DEC
aDENl
26
ESC[l"z
NLQ off
DEC
aSUS2
27
ESC[2v
superscript on
+ + +
aSUSI
28
ESC[lv
superscript off
+ + +
aSUS4
29
ESC[4v
subscript on
+ + +
aSUS3
30
ESC[3v
subscript off
+ + +
aSUSO
31
ESC[0v
normalize the line
+ + +
aPLU
32
ESCL
partial line up
ISO
aPLD
33
ESCK
partial line down
ISO
aFNTO
34
ESC(B
US char set
DEC
aFNTl
35
ESC(R
French char set
DEC
aFNT2
36
ESC(K
German char set
DEC
aFNT3
37
ESC(A
UK char set
DEC
aFNT4
38
ESC(E
Danish 1 char set
DEC
aFNT5
39
ESC(H
Swedish char set
DEC
aFNT6
40
ESC(Y
Italian char set
DEC
aFNT7
41
ESC (Z
Spanish char set
DEC
Cmd
Escape
Defined
Name
No.
Sequence
Function
by:
aFNT8
42
Escy
Japanese char set
+ + +
aFNT9
43
ESC(6
Norwegian char set
DEC
aFNTIO
44
ESC(C
Danish II char set
+ + +
aPROP2
45
ESC(2p
proportional on
+ + 4-
aPROPl
46
ESCDp
proportional off
+ + +
aPROPO
47
ESCfOp
proportional clear
+ + +
aTSS
48
ESCfnE
set proportional offset
ISO
aJFY5
49
ESC[5 F
auto left justify
ISO
aJFY7
40
ESC[7 F
auto right justify
ISO
ajFY6
51
ESC[6 F
auto full justify
ISO
ajFYO
52
ESCfO F
auto justify off
ISO
aJFY3
53
ESC[3F
letter space (justify)
ISO (special)
aJFYl
54
ESCfl F
word fill (auto center)
ISO (special)
aVERPO
55
ESCfOz
1 8" line spacing
+ + +
aVERPl
56
ESC[lz
1 6" line spacing
+ + +
aSLPP
57
ESCfnt
set form length n
DEC
sPERF
58
ESC[nq
perf skip n n > 0)
+ + +
aPERFO
59
ESC[0q
perf skip off
+ + +
aLMS
60
ESC 9
Left margin set
+ + -f
aRMS
61
ESC 0
Right margin set
+ + +
aTMS
62
ESC. 8
Top margin set
+ + +
aBMS
63
ESC 2
Bottom margin set
+ -f +
aSIBM
64
ESC[n;nr
T&B margins
DEC
aSLRM
65
ESC[n;ns
L&R margin
DEC
aCAM
66
ESC 3
Clear margins
+ + +
aHTS
67
ESCH
Set Horiz tab
ISO
aVTS
68
ESCJ
Set vertical tabs
ISO
a'l'BCO
69
FSC[0g
Clr horz tab
ISO
aTBC3
70
ESC[3g
Clear all h lab
ISO
aTBCI
71
ESC[lg
Clr vertical tabs
ISO
aTBC4
72
ESC[4g
Clr all v tabs
ISO
aTBCALL
73
ESC 4
Clr all h & v tabs
+ + +
aTBSALL
74
ESC 5
Set default tabs
+ + +
aEXTEND
75
ESC[nMx
Extended commands
+ + +
ISO indicates that the sequence has been defined by the International Standards
Organization. This is also very similar to ANSI x 3.64.
DEC indicates a control sequence defined by Digital Equipment Corporation.
+ + + indicates a sequence unique to Amiga.
11 stands for a decimal number expressed as a set of ASCII digits, for example 12.
* Table reprinted by permission of Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading. MA 01867 from AMIGA ROM KERNEL REFERENCE MANUAL: LIBRARIES AND DEVICES © copyright 1986 by Commodore Electronics, Ltd. Publication date August 1986.
For example, let's say you wanted to print a message in boldface on your Epson printer. The following sequence will NOT work.
OPEN “PRT:” FOR OUTPUT .AS 1
PRINT 1, CHRS(27) "G”
:REM Epson Double-Strike On code PRINT 1, “This would normally be boldface, but it isn't!”
CLOSE 1 END
This next sequence, however, WILL print boldface on an Epson:
OPEN “PRT:" FOR OUTPUT AS 1
PRINT 1, CHRS(27) “[” “I” “m"
: REM PRT: Boldface On code
PRINT 1, “This is boldface!" CLOSE 1 END
Not only does the second example work on an Epson, but it will work with any printer that
1) supports boldface, and 2) is listed in Preferences, In summary, to be sure that your programs will drive any printer, you should 1) send your output to the PRT: device, and 2) use the standard Amiga codes.
If your printer has a feature that isn’t supported by the standard Amiga codes, or if your printer isn’t supported at all in Preferences, you can control it directly by opening the SER: or PAR: devices, depending upon where your printer is connected. For example, if you OPEN “PAR" FOR OUTPUT AS 1. Vou can control your
J •
parallel printer directly using its native escape codes. However, you will lose the flexibility of being able to drive any printer with your program, no matter what its make or the port it’s connected to.
Crowburger Disk Delight
Q: Last issue, you stated that the Commodore 1541 disk drive records on the label side of disks. This is incorrect. Like Apple drives, the 1541 uses the bottom side of disks to record information.
Many Readers
Lots of Places, USA
A: Yeah, (munch) I really blew that one. Thanks for the correction, and my apologies for my mistake (chomp, munch). Since my answer concerning using single-sided disks with the Amiga hinged upon the supposed difference in where Apple and Commodore drives stash information, caution dictates that I retract what 1 said last month about using single- sided disks on the Amiga (chomp). Don’t take a chance on harming your machine or losing valuable data stick with double-sided disks for your Amiga. (Gulp!)B
AmigaWorld is a member of the CW Communications Inc. Group, the world’s largest publisher of computer-related information. The group publishes over 50 computer publications in more than 20 major countries. Nine million people read one or more of the group’s publications each month. Members of the group include: Argentina’s Com- pulnworbUArgentnui; Asia's Asian Computerworld; Australia's Computerworld Australia, Australian PC World and Macworld; Brazil's DataNews and PC Munder, China's China Computerworld and China Computer- world Monthly; Denmark’s Computenvorld Danmark, PC World and RUN (Commodore); Finland’s Mihro; France’s If Monde Informatique, Golden (Apple), OPC (IBM). Theorems and Distributique; Germany’s Com- puterwoche, Infowelt, PC Welt, Computer Business and RUN; Italy’s Computerworld Italia and PC Magazine; Japan’s ComputerworldJapan; Mexico's Computerworld Mexico; The Netherlands Computerworld Netherlands and PC World; Norway's Computerworld Norge and PC Mikrodata; Spain’s Computerworld Espana, PC World and Commodore World; Sweden's Computer Sweden, AM- rodatom and Svenska PC World; Switzerland’s Com- puterworld Schweiz; The United Kingdom’s Computer Neivs, PC Business World and Computer Business; Venezuela's Computerworld Venezuela; the U.S.’ AmigaWorld, Computerworld, in Cider, Info World, Mae World, Micro Marketworld, PC World, RUN, 73 Magazine, SO Micro, Focus Publications and Network World.
Manuscripts: Contributions in the form of manuscripts with drawings and or photographs are welcome and will be considered for possible publication. AmigaWorld assumes no responsibility for loss or damage to any material. Please enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope with each submission. Payment for the use of any unsolicited material will be made upon acceptance. All contributions and editorial correspondence (typed and double-spaced, please) should lie directed to AmigaWorld Editorial Offices, 80 Pine Street. Peterborough, NH 03458; telephone: 603*924*9471. Advertising Inquiries should he directed to Advertising Offices, CW Communications Peterborough, Inc., Elm Street, Peterborough, NH 03458; telephone: 800-441-4403. Subscription problems or address changes: Call 1-800-227-5782 or write to AmigaWorld, Subscription Department, PO Box 868, Farmingdale, NY 1 1737. Problems with advertisers: Send a description of the problem and your current address to: AmigaWorld, Elm Street, Peterborough, NH 03458. .ATTN.: Barbara Harris. Customer Service Manager, or call 1-800-441*4403.
Coming Attractions
Product Roundup A look at all the goodies you can buy for your Amiga.
Hardware Expansion Boxes and boards, pins and slots, auto conftg and addmem what’s going on here? We provide some answers.
Programming Tutorials Fundamentals of C and Amiga Basic Graphics keep rolling along.
AmigaDOS Update Mark and Bill examine version 1.2 of Kickstart and AmigaDOS in the next tnfo.phile.
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Sendee
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175 AbSoft, 73 12 Aegis Draw, CIV 174 Ameristar Technology, 108 29 Applied Visions, 87 AmigaWorld Subscriptions, 16, 17 197 Baudville, 109 58 Best Computer Supplies, 104 57 Bethesda Softworks, 55 101 Brown-Wagh Publishing, 90 42 Byte By Byte, 49 110 Compumed, 39
53 CompuServe, 11
79 Comspec, 84
41 Computer Mail Order, 85
80 Computer Solutions, 108 16 Computer World. 41
60 Creative Solutions, 68 124 Dark Horse Company, 105 172 Data Research Processing, 73
28 Digital Creations, 100
46 Digital Solutions, 011,1
89 Discovery Software, 99 121 Discovery Software, 101 123 Discovery Software, 103 153 Echo Data Services, 40
117 Geodesic Publications, 105 26 Go Amiga, 20, 21
76 Illustrated Images, 31 32 Imageset, 62
50 Infocom, 19
88 Interactive Analytic Node, 34 144 Jenday Software, 42
118 KJ Computers, 41 23 Lattice, 9
68 Lionheart, 102
48 M.W. Ruth Company, 105 31 Manx, 63
180 Megatronics, 43
56 Meridian Software, 59 98 Metadigm, 57
Reader
Sendee
Number
37 Micro Illusions, 45
71 Micro Illusions, 18
95 Micro Systems Software, 47
129 Micro Systems Software, 48
103 MicroBotics, 33
195 Microsmiths, Inc., 105
52 Mimetics, 93
3 Mindscape, Inc., 5
83 Moustrak, 34
38 New Horizons Software, Clll 102 NewTek, 57
44 Northeastern Software, 95 40 PAR Software, 108
78 RS Data Systems, 7
81 Revolution Software, 105 51 Rosetta Stone, 35
91 Rosetta Stone, 35
111 Rosetta Stone, 35
67 Sedona Software, 40
92 Skyles Electric Works, 89 35 Softwood Company, 36
115 Starpoint Software, 102
120 TDI Software Inc, 61
61 The 64 Store, 79
126 The Other Guys. 42
183 The Quality Cottage, 105 33 The Right Link, 61
104 Tigress, 88
62 Transtime Technologies, 69
66 True Basic, 15
97 USA Flex, 98
27 V.I.P. Technologies, 91
55 W.C.C.A., 31
130 Techni-Soft, 109
* This advertiser prefers to he contacted directly
This index is provided as an additional service. The publisher does not assume liability for errors or omissions.
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September October 1986
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September October 1986
This card valid until November 30. 1986.
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NO POSTAGE NECESSARY IF MAILED IN THE UNITED STATES
• AmigaWorld... the only Amiga-specific magazine on the market. It's as fresh and dazzling as the computer itself
• AmigaWorld.. .where expert authors will lead you through the exciting and revolutionary features of the Amiga!
• AmigaWorld... helping you discover and utilize a whole new world of computer graphics and sounds!
• AmigaWorld,. .because creative computing was never so exciting and easy!
Get 1 Year (Six Issues)
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SOM€
charts can be stacked, over lapping1 horizontal. Or displayed iiiAIS .can be exploded or displayed in 3D. You may choose colors, patterns axis polarity. You may
resized. Graphs can be printed or saved as slides. -
Copy. Add. Delete. V
_¦ ¦ ¦.1 ¦ i ¦
SLID€SHOUJ: C ombi
the Slideshow builder. Many types of special effects arc ava eluding Wipe Right, Wipe Left, WipeUp,Wtpe ppvvn,$ pir; Fade In, FadeOut, Random, andTrickje. When creatingt may adjust the length of time that each slide is displayed and J
Shakespeare Wrote
New Horizons
0
T W
R
Imagine what he could have done with the Flow™ Idea Processor
He was a playwrite, poet, novelist, and visionary author. From his pen came some of the most noted pieces of literature of all time. By some estimates, lie wrote w ell over 1000 different works in all.
Now imagine what he could have done if he had Flow, the Idea Processor for Amiga™ personal computers.
Flow makes it easy to formulate vour business and creative endeavors. Enter your thoughts and ideas.
Arrange and re-arrange them. Hide the details or show the big picture.
And Flow gives you the ultimate versatility in idea processing by making vour mouse the command apparatus. With Flow you can formulate an idea and put it in motion
with the touch of a finger. You don’t have to break your train of thought when something new springs into focus, you simply move your mouse and put the idea into play.
Whether your next task is writing a quarterly report or a gothic novel, let your thoughts and ideas flow, with Flow.
New Horizons Software - First in personal productivity and creativity .'"'f
New Horizons Software. RO. Box 43167, Austin. Texas 78745.512 280-0319 Copyright © 1986 New Horizons Software, All Rights Reserved Amiga is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc.
1
Images are not captured by photographic methods.
2
mi III ii III 1111111111 i 111 III ii 11 111 til I lit ill III 111

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Amiga World Vol 02 05 1986 Sep Oct

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  • Technical cookies that facilitate user navigation and use of the various options or services offered by the web as identify the session, allow access to certain areas, facilitate orders, purchases, filling out forms, registration, security, facilitating functionalities (videos, social networks, etc..).
  • Customization cookies that allow users to access services according to their preferences (language, browser, configuration, etc..).
  • Analytical cookies which allow anonymous analysis of the behavior of web users and allow to measure user activity and develop navigation profiles in order to improve the websites.

So when you access our website, in compliance with Article 22 of Law 34/2002 of the Information Society Services, in the analytical cookies treatment, we have requested your consent to their use. All of this is to improve our services. We use Google Analytics to collect anonymous statistical information such as the number of visitors to our site. Cookies added by Google Analytics are governed by the privacy policies of Google Analytics. If you want you can disable cookies from Google Analytics.

However, please note that you can enable or disable cookies by following the instructions of your browser.

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Visite depuis
03-10-2004
Visite depuis
23-02-2014