Some companies I've talked to are interested in the digitiz- ing capabilities of the Amiga. Their vision encompasses a wide vanëtv of fields, from indus ir y and the militafy to video and art. I am aware of several pfojects irt the works üsing the concept of ârdfldal intelligence on the Amiga to drive expert Systems dédicated to very spécifie tasks, us ing the Amiga as ëithef a single workstation or as part of a large network. Unique forms of entertainment software are being developed for you àhd ÿôtif Aîftigà* ihCëfpofating sophisticated sound and animation, unbélièvâbly realistic simulai ion s and advehcures and intfiguïng interactive fiction, just to naine a few. Sïncc we ai AmigaWofld are able to contact and wofk with these devéïopers earîy, in some cases du ring the conceptual stages of their ideas, we are able to foresee what is in store for you as these ideas are deveî- oped and hrought to thé maf- ketpiace as Products. Thé world of Amlgâ at mis point in tirne is infused with a flurry of àetlvky, whefe ideas are hatchëd and ex changed, scrapped and reborn, finally shaped and ihen pains- takîngly refined inio ilrtished Products. Many of thèse ideas are now réàdy for you to share and pue to use on your Amiga, but many mofe are yet to corne. ÀmigaWfarld will be bringing you up to date oh these new Products and developments through- ôui each issue, sometimès bringing you right into the development process as weîl. When we think it’s important, we’U give you an opportunity to meet the developers and sharc in their cxcitemcul and itK K ivalion. Kxcitcment and enthusiasm are contagious arnong those who are working with die Amiga. I have read the charters nf inany neu Amiga nsers groups thaï have heen forming across the countrv. Vve have rc- ceived téléphone calls and Ici ters from inany enihusiasiic groups in Nordi America and in Kurope as well. Several online services have already intro- duced Amiga spécial interest groups. Collège professors are recomrnending Amigas to iheir stridents, and inany peuple who have never owncd or used a computer hefore are planning to makc the commitment and purchase an Amiga. One vonng musician wrole to us of lus plans to coniputerize his local recording studio with the Amiga. He lias convinced the studio's owner to invest in Amigas. And both individuals are ex- cited ahout the new and advaneed record ing environment they're créai ing. Vve ail know thaï the Amiga is a very strong persuader. Amiga World will serve as a focal point for tliis enthusiasm and créative energy, channcling the manv diverse streams into a central forum and serving as a source of valuable information to you.
Click image to download PDF
USA. $ 3.95 Canada $ 4.50
Add a powerful 1MB multifunction expansion! Module, 20MB hard disk, 20MB tape backup, and 2400 baud Hayes® compatible modem. Expand your processrng, filing, and communications with our peripheral famjly. They’re ready for you now. Great Products. Great support. Great prices. Check us out at your nearest Amiga dealer. The best can be yours!
Multifunction Expansion Module
T-cardT“ snaps on your Amiga to give you memory up to 1MB, clock calendar with standby battery, serial port, parallei or SASI port, buffered bus expansion port, and built-in power supply. Power peripherals don't get any better. T-card is awesome!
20MB Hard Disk
T-diskf“ sits on your Amiga taking no valuable desk space to provide almost unlimited file capacity. Inside its sleek package, T-disk houses a 31 2 inch hard disk with controller. A shielded cable connects T-disk toT-card’s SASI port. Lights show you the disk's power, select, and write status. T-disk is simple, powerful, and best of ail low cost.
20MB Tape Backup
When you move beyond floppies to Tecmar’s powerful 20MB T- disk, you'll want a fast, reliable tape backup system. T-tape™ backs up T-disk's 20MB’s in just a few minutes. And, if power loss or operator error accidently erases your most treasured data, you get sélective file restoration. T-tape's handsome package interlocks with T-disk. Lights show track number and tape direction plus read, write, door, and power status. T-tape is truly state-of-the-art with a unique single reel cartridge, exceptional performance, and a very low price.
2400 Baud Modem
T-modem™ brings fast and simple communications to your Amiga. Hayes compatibility with selectable 300, 1200 and 2400 baud rates makes the world a little smaller and a lot easier to talk to. T-modem provides tone decoding, off-hook détection, and interface to Amiga's audio circuits. The high-styled package interlocks with T-disk and T-tape to make a single unit.
Hayes is a registered trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products Amiga is a trademark of Commodore.Amiga, Inc T-disk. T-tape. And T-modem are trademarks of Tecmar. Inc. *1985 Tecmar. Inc Ail rights reserved.
Call us at 216 349-1009 for the location of the dealer nearest you.
THE POWER BEHIND THE PC
6225 Cochran Road Solon, Ohio 44139
Circle 5 on Reader Service card.
16 Àndy Warhol: An Artist and His Amiga
By Guy Wright and Glenn Suokko
Andy Warhol bas becn into everyiliing from soup cans to MTV, and now he’s using thc Amiga computer. AmigaWïrld had the chance to interview him at his New York studio and get his feeïingS about this newest Creative tool.
24 Computer Art: Is It Really Art?
By Vinoy Laughner
We tac kl e what may be the biggesi question confronting artists in the computer âge.
28 Artists and the Amiga
By Abigail Reifsny(1er
Four artists get their First look al the Amiga computer and we get their reactions.
36 The Personal Art of a Personal
By Scotl Wright
Professionals won't bc the only nues using the Amiga’s graphies pote mi a!. The Amiga hrings art (small “a”) to the resl of us.
By Bob Liddil
Slmrpen your broad sword and polish your magic crystal you are about to enter into die battle of your life!
The Wizard of Wishbringer
By Brian Moriarty
Adventure game author Brian Moriarty of Infocom agreed to be interviewed, provided thaï lie ask the questions.
Programming on the Amiga: Cambridge Lisp 68000
By Daniel Zigmond
For serions software developers, the computer language Lisp is much more than just artificial intelligence.
TLC-Logo for the Amiga
By Peggy Herrington
While the hare slept. The Logo turtle came a long, long way.
Challenging the Mind: Mindscape’s Commitment to the Amiga
By Shawn Laflamme
Mindscape’s top priority is créaiivity, in everything f’rom software design to office design.
The growing excitement froin developers.
Balance on the Creative edge.
The Amiga and a modem can instandy put your business in touch with on-line Financial services.
Refleçbôns of a Mac user.
Lctters from readers
A List of Amiga’s Régional Représentatives
Where to fitul ont about Amiga dealers in your area.
This issue featlires the work of free- lance artist Roger Goode.
Quick sketches of prnducts from Activi- sion, Kurta, Synapse and Tecmar,
Questions about the Amiga, answered by the experts.
Corning Next Issue
Editor-In-Ch ief Guy Wright
Managing Editar Shawn Laflamme
Assistant Editor Vinoy Laughner
Associa te Editor
Con tribu t ing Edi tors
Marilyn Annucci, Harold Bjornsen,
Dennis Brisson, Margaret Morabito,
Advertising Sales Manager Stcphen Robbins
Sa les R ep resrn ta tive Ken Rlakeman
Ad Coordinator Heather Paquette 1-800-441-4403
Marketing Coordinator Wendie Haines
West Coast Sales Giorgio Saluti, manager 1-415-328-3470 1060 Marsh Road Menlo Park, CA 94025
Design: G tenu A. Suokko, using A-Squarcd Systems’ Aniiga-Livc! Digiti cr Séparations: ImageSet and Ultra Scan Printing: lirawn Printing
Presiden t CE O
James S. Povec
Vice-President Fi nance Roger Mur pli y
Vice-President Plann ing and Circulation William P. Howard
Assistant General Manager Matt Smith
Executive Creative Director C h ri s t i n e D es t re m pes Circulation Manager Frank S, Smith
Direct & Newsstand Sales Manager
Raine Wirein 800-343-0728
Director of Crédit Sales Ùf Collections William M. Boyer
Art Director Glenn A. Suokko
Editorial Design Glenn A. Suokko
Production Advertising Supervisai- Rosalyn Scribner
Graphie Design Assistants Anne D il Ion, Karl a Whitney
Graphie Services Manager Dennis Christensen
Film Préparai ion Snpervisor Robert M. Villeneuve
7 ypesetting Supervisor Linda P. Canal e
AmigaWorld (ISSN 0883*2390) is an independeni journal not connected vviih Commodore Business Machines, Inc. AmigaWorld is published bimonlhlv by CW Communications Peterborough. Inc., 8b PineSi., Peierborough, NH 08158. U.S. subscription rate is $ 19.97, one year. Canada and Mexico $ 22.97, one year, U.S. funds drawn on U.S. bank only. Foreign Surface $ 39.97. Foreign Air Mail $ 74.97,
U. S. funds drawn on U.S. bank. Second class postage pending at Peterborougb, NH. And at additional mailing offices. Phone: 603-924*9471. Entire contents copyright 1985 by CW Communications Pc- terborough. Inc. No part of this publication may be printed or otherwise reproduced without written permission froin the publisher. Poslinaster: Send ad- dress changes to AmigaWorld, Subscripiion Services, PO Box 954. Fanningdale, NY 1 1735. Nationally dis- tribuled by International Circulation Distributors. AmigaWorld rnakes every effort to assure the accuracy of articles, listings and circuits published in the magazine. AmigaWbrld assumes no responsibility lor damages due to errors or omissions.
AmigaWorld is a member of the CW Communie»- lions lnc. Group, the world’s largest publisher of computer-related information. The group puh- lishcs 57 computer publications in more than 29 major countries. Nine million people read one en more of the group’s publications each inonth. Meiu- bers of tlie group include: Argent ina's Compatir- wo rl d A rge n t i na ; Asia’s The Asian Computerworld: Australia’s Computerworld A us t ra!ia, Australian PC World, Macworld and Direr taries: B raz ifs DataMews and AficroMundo; China's China Computerworld: Den- mark's (xnnfmterworld Danmark, PC World and RUN (Commodore); Finland's Mikro: France’s Le Monde Informatique, Golden (Apple). OPC (IBM) and Distrib utique: tiermany’s Computencoche, Microeompulenvelt, PC Welt, SoftwareMarkl, CW Edition Seminar, Computer Business, RUN and Apple's; Italy's Computerworld II ali a and PC Magazine: Japan’s Computerworld Japon: Mex* ico’s Computerworld Mexico and CompuMundo: The Nelherland's ComputerWorld Bénélux and PC World Bénélux: Norway’s Computerworld Marge, PC World and R UN (Commodore); Saudi Arabia’s Saudi Computerworld: Spain's Computenoorld Espaha, Microsistemas PC, World and Corn modo re World: Swcden’s ComputerSweden, Mikrodatorn, and Svenska PC: the Uiv's Computer Management, Corn fut ter Meurs, PC Business World and Computer Business Europe: the U.S.’ AmigaWorld, Computerworld, Focus Publications. IlOT CoCo, inCider, Info World, Mac World, Micro Marketworld, On Communications, PC World, RUN, 75 Magazine, 8(1 Micro: Venez.ucla's Computerworld Venezuela.
Manuscripts: Contributions in ihe form ni manu- scripts witli cliavvings and or pholographs are wel- eonie and will be considered for possible publication. AmigaWorld assumes no responsibility fur loss or damage to any material. Please enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope with each submission. Payment for the use of any unsolicited material will be ruade upon acceptance. AU contributions and éditorial t on espondence (lyped and douhle-spaccd, please) slionld be directed t » AnugaWorl l Editorial Offices, 8(1 Pine Street. Peter borough, NH 03458; téléphoné: 603-924-9471. Advertising lnquiries should be directed to Advertising Offices, CW Communications Peterborough, Inc., F.lm Street, Peterhorough. NH 03458; téléphoné: 800-441-4403. Subscription problcm.s or address changes: CalI 1*800-227*5782 or write lo AmigaWorld, Subscription Department, PO Box 868, Farmingdale, NY 11737. Problems with acivertisers: Send a description of the problem and your currenl address to: AmigaWorld, Fini Street, Peterborough, NH 03453, AI I N.: Barbara Marris. Cusiorner Service Manager, or call 1*800-44 I *4403.
Kissyourearthbound buddies goodbye and travel the solar system in the most exciting space program everenvisloned.
The Halley Project: A Mission In Our Solar System™ s history's first real-time space simulation,
by the stars from planet to planet.
Complété ail ten missions and be invited to face the ultimate
' challenge: the încredible
secret eleventh mission.
So take off to a software dealer and join an elite group of space explorers. As for your chums.tell them you’ll wave as you fly over.
Its challenge provides out-of- this-world stimulation.
Lightweight space ,
jockeys need not apply, this one's for qualified star pilots.
A rigorous temmission training program will test your knowledge and skill as you navigate
Software that challenges theX mind.
The Halley Project s available on: Apple? A tari® and Commodore®
Mindscape, Inc. 3444 Dundee Road, Northbrook, Illinois 60062,1 -800-221 -9884 (Jn Illinois 1-800-942-7315)
Copyright 1965. Mmrlscape. Inc. Ail Rights Reserved. Apple. Atari.and Commodore are registered Irademarksof Apple Computer. Atari Inc..and Commodore Business Machines
Circle 3 on Reader Service card.
Earth will be destroyed in 12 minutes to make way for a hyperspace bypass.
Should you hitchhike into the next galaxy?
Or stay and drink beer?
Hand, you décidé to:
EXIT THE VILLAGE PUB THEN GO NORTH
In that case vou’ll be off on the most mind-
bogglingiy hilarious adventure any earthling everhad.
YOU CET DRUNK AND HAVE A TERRIFIC TIME FOR TWELVE MINUTES» ARE THE LIFE AND SOUL OF THE PUB» TELL SOME REALLY TEERIFIC STORIES» MAKE EVERYONE LAUGH A LOT»
AND THEY ALL CLAP YOU ON THE BACK AND TELL YOU NHAT A GREAT CHAP YOU ARE AND THEN THE EARTH GETS UNEXPECT- EDLY DEMOL ISHED» YOU WAKE UP WITH A HANGOVER THAT LASTS FOR ALL ETERNITY* YOU HAVE DIED.
The Hitchhiker s Guide to the Galaxy cornes complété with Péril Sensitive Sunglasses.aMicroscopic Space Fleet. A DONT PAXIC Button, a package of Multipurpose Fluff and orders for the destruction ofyour home and planet.
You communicate - and the story responds-in M sentences. Which means that at every tum, you have literally thousands of alternatives. So if you décidé it might be wise, for instance, to wrap a towel around your head, you just say so:
WRAP THE TOWEL AROUND MY HEAD
And the story responds:
THE RAVENDUS BUGBLATTER BEAST OF TRAAL IS COMPLETEL Y BEWILDERED* IT IS SO DIM ITTHINKS IF YOU CAN'T SEE IT ITCAN'T SEE YOU*
But be careful about what you say. Or one moment you might be strapped down, forced _ to endure a reading of the third worst poetry in the galaxy; the next you could be hurtling through space with Marvin the Paranoid Android aboard astolenspaceship.
And simply staying alive from one zany situation to the next will require every proton of puzzle solving prowess your mere mortal mind can muster. Even simple tasks can put you at wit’s end:
0PEN THE DOOR
And the stoi-y responds:
THE DOOR EXPLAINS IN A HAUGHTY TONE THAT THE ROOM IS OCCUPIED BY A SUPER-INTELLIGENT ROBOT AND THAT LESSER BEINGS (BY WHICH IT MEANS YOU) ARE NOT TO BE ADMITTED* "SHOW ME SOME TINY EXAMPLE OF YOUR INTELLIGENCE "
IT SAYS "AND MAYBE JUST MAYBE I MIGHT RECONSIDER* "
Circle 50 on Reader Service card.
But dont panic. You’ll be accompanied every light-year of the way by your trusty Hitchhiker’s Guide, which you can always dépend on for up-to-the-nanosecond information. Well, almost always:
CONSULT THE HITCHHIKER 7S GUIDE ABOUT THE MOLECULAR HYPERWAUE PINCER
And the story responds:
SORRY THAT PORTION OF DUR SUB-ETHA DATABASE WAS ACCIDENTALLY DELETED LAST NIGHT DURING A WILD OFFICE PART Y*
So put down that beer, take that towel off your head, open the door, hitchhike down to your local software store todav and pick up THE HITCHHIKER’S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY. Before they put that bypass in.
Still not convinced? Tyy our Sampler Disk which includes portions of four différent types of stories for a paltry $ 7.95. If it doesn’t get you hooked on the addictive pleasures of Infocom, retum it for a full refund. If it does, you can apply the prtce toward any Infocom stoiy. You can’t lose!
Other interactive science fiction stories from Infocom include PLANETFALL," in which you’re strancled on a mysterious deserted world. STARCROSS," a puzzling challenge issued eon.s agoand light- years away. SUSPENDEP," the race to stabilize an entire planet’s life support Systems. And A MIND FOR E VE R VOYAGING, a radicallv new work of serious science fiction in which you explore the future ofmankind.
For more information call 1 -800-262-68(58. Or write to us at 125 CambridgePark Dît, Cambridge, MA 02140.
©1985 Infocom, Inc. THE H ITCHHIKER’S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY is a trademark of Douglas Adams. PLANETFALL, STARCROSS, SUSPENDE D and A MIND FORE VER VOYAG1NG art- trademarks of INFOCOM. Inc.
for thé actuah
s urne, ail m varymg of readiness. The introduction of rhe Amiga has iniuated a fluïty of ekcitêmenî and aétivity
? ~ v
amohg hardware âhd software devéïopers,
The firsi Amiga development Systems afrived with the most complète set of software development tooîs of any new micro- computer to corne to
Ai the lime oi ïttiS wridng. Amiga computers are shîppîng to dealers throughout die coun- trÿ and being pufehased bÿ ih- spired compare fists, both
• es and advanced usersi of thé éfMacts thaï vou
* - j
will soon he able 10 purchasë are in rhe development stages at
to large, fforti uncusc êfàê té wëlbèst&hilshëdi Manÿ of thèse devel opéfs will sèîl théif pfodücts to làrger flrms for marketing and distribution, and màny will start their own new companies to produce and màrkei their pfodücts.
Rions and microcomputer usage, companies range from
Sevefâl pfogfàmming languagêï àhâ utilities wèft made avail-
on to a wi
f* = î-,-
seo compames witn new
y source oi energy is motivating these éhthuslastîe new vîsîonafies. Thàt energy is excitement! Excitemem is a strong motivating force thàt can propel its possessor to âccom- plish à gfêàt deàl vèfy quicklw ït can bé resDomlb
ization of ideâs that, ih ceptual stages, appear impossible. When one is truîÿ ex* an idea, evervthing
* ay «*9? A oacR seau anyone m- volved in computer pfograrh- ming knows whàt I mèan. Mânv of thé pfodücts either now corne pieied or in the development stages hâve been labofed over round-the-ciock for months.
Rnipanies see in the a vefy strông mâinstream computer with the potentïal to
as wora process ing, spfeadsheets, database ma nage- menu présentation graphies and télécommunications; Some corm panîes afë àt wofk dëveloping educàrïonal Software, recoghi ing die opportunity to enhanee
cise (including sieepîiiff and eau
ations verv oui &
large volumes of data and carrv
on a vàriety or criticài tasks si-
will advànce the auâlitv and
the leafniiig process and pion eer neW tiaching techniques through interactive video, artifb cial intelligence and audio vis- ual juxtapositions.
Some companies I've talked to are interested in the digitiz- ing capabilities of the Amiga. Their vision encompasses a wide vanëtv of fields, from indus ir y and the militafy to video and art. I am aware of several pfojects irt the works üsing the concept of ârdfldal intelligence on the Amiga to drive expert Systems dédicated to very spécifie tasks, us ing the Amiga as ëithef a single workstation or as part of a large network. Unique forms of entertainment software are being developed for you àhd ÿôtif Aîftigà* ihCëfpofating sophisticated sound and animation, unbélièvâbly realistic simulai ion s and advehcures and intfiguïng interactive fiction, just to naine a few.
Sïncc we ai AmigaWofld are able to contact and wofk with these devéïopers earîy, in some cases du ring the conceptual stages of their ideas, we are able to foresee what is in store for you as these ideas are deveî- oped and hrought to thé maf- ketpiace as Products. Thé world of Amlgâ at mis point in tirne is infused with a flurry of àetlvky, whefe ideas are hatchëd and ex changed, scrapped and reborn, finally shaped and ihen pains- takîngly refined inio ilrtished Products. Many of thèse ideas are now réàdy for you to share
and pue to use on your Amiga, but many mofe are yet to corne. ÀmigaWfarld will be bringing you up to date oh these new Products and developments through- ôui each issue, sometimès bringing you right into the development process as weîl.
When we think it’s important, we’U give you an opportunity to
meel the developers and sharc in their cxcitemcul and itK K ivalion.
Kxcitcment and enthusiasm are contagious arnong those who are working with die Amiga. I have read the charters nf inany neu Amiga nsers groups thaï have heen forming across the countrv. Vve have rc- ceived téléphone calls and Ici ters from inany enihusiasiic groups in Nordi America and in Kurope as well. Several online services have already intro- duced Amiga spécial interest groups. Collège professors are recomrnending Amigas to iheir stridents, and inany peuple who have never owncd or used a computer hefore are planning to makc the commitment and purchase an Amiga. One vonng musician wrole to us of lus plans to coniputerize his local recording studio with the Amiga. He lias convinced the studio's owner to invest in Amigas. And both individuals are ex- cited ahout the new and advaneed record ing environment they're créai ing. Vve ail know thaï the Amiga is a very strong persuader.
Amiga World will serve as a focal point for tliis enthusiasm and créative energy, channcling the manv diverse streams into a central forum and serving as a source of valuable information to you. No matter what vour in-
teresl, if it bas to do with the Amiga. Wc are interested. We’re interested in your cxcitcmeni and sen.se of discovery as you explore the featiircs and capa- hilities of your new Amiga.
We ll hring you stories about unique uses of the Amiga and let you .sharc in the discoverics of diosc who have brought new meaning to the practice of computing hy using their Amigas creatively. And in many cases, competitively.
AmigaWorld will cnntinualiv suive to providc you with more inhumation and ideas relevant to your new computer. Wc'll hring you articles thaï will help you use your Amiga and get more performance ont of it than any manual or documentation can provide. AmigaWorld will he as exciting as the market thaï il envers, and il you kcep the feedback Corning oui' wav, we’ll he ahle to respond hetter to your needs. So, enjoy this is sue on Amiga créâtivity and
sharc the excitcment of AmigaWttrld. I
fmugr of Dcbomh Hum digitiznl with A- Sffttarrd A migti-Ltvr!. A dur ni b A nd Warhol.
A message from a leading software publisher.
"The Amiga will révolutionize the home computer industry. Les the first home machine that has everything you want and need for ail the major uses of a home computer, including entertainment éducation and productivité The software wc’re developing for the Amiga will blow your socks off. We think the Amiga, with its incomparable power, sound and graphies will give Electronic Arts and the enrire industry' a very bright future.
Trip Hawkins Président. Electronic Arts
S COMMITTED TO THE AMIGA.
In our first t vo years, Electronic Arts has emcrged as a leader of the home software business. We have won the most product quality awards over 60. We have placed the most Billboard Top 20 ritles 12. We have also been consistcntly profitable in an industry beset by losses and disappointments.
Why, then, is Electronic Arts banking its hard won gains on an unprovcn new computer like the Amiga?
The Vision of Electronic Arts.
We believe chat one day soon the home computer will be as important as radio, stereo and télévision are today.
These electronic marvels are significant because they bring faraway places and expériences right into your home. TtxJay, from your living room you can watch a championship basketball game, see Christopher Columbus sail to the New World, or watch a futuristic spaceship batde.
The computer promises to let you do much more. Because it is interactive you get to participate. For example, you can play in that basketball game instead of just watching. You can actually be Christopher Columbus and feel firsthand what he felt when he sighted the New World. And you can step inside the cockpit of your own spaceship.
But so far, the computers promise has been hard to see. Software
has been severely limited by the abstract, blocky shapes and rinky- dink sound reproduction of most home computers. Only a handful of pioneers have been able to appreciate the possibiliries. But then, popular opinion once held that télévision was only useful for civil defense communications.
A Promise of Artistry.
The Amiga is advancing our medium on ail fronts. For the first time, a personal computer is providing the visual and aurai quality our sophisticated eyes and ears demand. Compared to the Amiga, using some other home computers is like watching black and white télévision with the sound tumed off.
The first Amiga software products from Electronic Arts are near complerion. We suspect you’ll be hearing a lot about them. Some of them are games like you've never seen before, that get more out of a computer than other games ever have. Others are harder to categorize, and we like that.
For the first rime, software developers : X
have the tools they need to fulfill the ~
promise of home computing. I
Two years ago, we said,41 We See Farther." Now Farthcr is here.
For détails about availabüiry sec your Amiga software dealer or call us at 1415» 572-ARTS Fur a product catalog send 5.50 and a sramped. Self-addressed crwelope to: Electronic Arts. Amiga Catalog Offer. 2755 Campus Drive. San Matco. CA *>4405 Amiga is a trademsrk of Commodore Business Machines Skyfnx. Seven Cities of Gokl. Deluxe Video Construction Set. Arcticfox. Retum to Atlante and Electronic Arts are rrademarlcs of Electronic Arts Marble Madness is a irademark of Atari Games, Inc
Circle 2 on Reader Service card.
By Guy Wright
So what is the spirit of the limes, this time? Creativity, art, design, personal art, profes- sional art, business télécommunications, interactive Fiction and a screen or two of video.
If AmigaWorld were just an- other computer magazine and the Amiga were just another computer, then we would call this, our third issue, a graphies issue. There would be articles on screen dumps and algo- rithms for drawing shapes. Per- haps a short program that displays a Christmas tree while playing S il en t Night. Graphics issues are popular in the computer magazine field. But AmigaWorld is, as you have al* ready guessed, not your standard computer magazine. That is why, if we had to put a naine on it, we would call this an art
or creativity issue.
As the software is developed, we will follow it, doing reviews, offering suggestions, evaluating products, even publishing tips and techniques for getting the kinds of graphies resuit s vou
12 famiary February 1(JS6
need oui of the Amiga. In this issue, however, we liave tried to address larger questions like, what is art? What are the profcs- sionals, like Andy Warhoi, doing with the Amiga? What will the people who own the Amiga be doing with the graphies? How do “traditionaT artists feel about computer art?
Is AmigaWorld trying to be an art magazine? In this issue we are. We had artists and illustra- tors working with the Amiga and writing about il. We imer- viewed designers, prinlinakers, papennakers, painters, pro(essors, video engincers and oth* ers. Some of them were enthusiastic about the Amiga. Sonie were lukewarm. Some didn't like the computer ai ail. Hi some cases, we asked more questions than we answered, and perhaps we bit off more than we could chew. Who in their right mind would try to define art in the first place? Is it a reflection? A hobby? An amor» phous manifestation of the limes? A journeyman's skil 1 that can be learned by almost any- one with désire and a steady hand? A window on the soûl?
And then there are the people, (lu* artists. Inspirée1, by the possibilités or llirealened by the technology. A careful rcatl will show a nurnber of portraits. World-fainous Warhol using the Amiga for (is it even proper to give a naine to a kind of art?
Pop art? Computer art? Personal art? Profcssional art for h ire?) Dolly Parton portraits and MTV videos, illuslrators who sell commissioned draw- ings for S175 a shot, and chil- dren adding more love to birthday t ard s.
The reason that we took such a long step in this direction was that the Amiga is advanced enough to warrant a serious look into the nature of creativity. Before the Amiga, the only computer-generatcd art was ei- ther done on very, very expensive equipment (more expensive than your average “starving art- ist” could ever hope to affbrd) or of a quality that could be re- produced with a sheet of graph paper and four différent col- ored magic markers etch-a- sketch art. When computer mu- sic came along, it was usetl as a gimmick, a strange noice glued onto the side of a song. Only re- ccntly have nmsicians begnn to intégrale computer music into their works. The sanie will be true of the Amiga in visual art.
It will, at first, be used as a gimmick and later as an intégral part of the artisfs work, another type of brush, another color on the palette.
So, where îs the hotiom line? How is this issue of AmigaWorld going to improve profits in vour business? We have a few things here and there that might be worth your while. Some on-line business services are explored, vvhich might just influence your télécommunications décisions. Some hard-core hardware from Tecmar is dis- cussed. The Software Group, de- velopers of the Enable inte- grated package, talk about their product line.
We also venture into the fan* tasy worlds of interactive fiction. And the video-interfacing wizards at A-Squared cast a few digitizing spclls. We talked to the people at Mindscape, pro- ducers of the Amiga Tutor pro- gratn, about creativity in software design. There are articles about Lisp and Logo, from turtles to artiftcial intelligence. Sign on QuantumLink, a new Commodore network. Confessions of a Mac user, letters from ieaders and Digital Can vas.
If you are looking for the Wall Street outlook or how to design your own analog-to-digi tal couverter circuits, then you will have to stretch your imagination quitc a bit (perhaps ail the way to schizophrenia), be- cause we just didn't cover those topics. And if you think that art isn’t a business, just like widget manufacturing and networking, then perhaps your imagination could stand a little stretching,
because Dolly Parton, MTV,
Andy Warhol, video digitizing and illustration may not be tra- ditional ÇJ-to-5 business, but they certainly put food on someone’s table.
If this issue doesn’t help you design a more efficient spread- sheet, at Icast it will make you think about the Amiga as another kind of productivity tool for those people whose business is creativitv. H
just bought a copy 0 Amiga- World It’s incredible to me thaï people could put oui a première issue about this computer and not even give a hint of its price range. Does it cost about a hundred dollars? A thousand? Ten thousand? Nor is there a hint of where it can be bought.
At the lime we put together the première issue, priées had not been set, nor had dealers been signed up. By now you probably know the answers to your questions, but in case you baven t heard, the price for the basic Amiga with mouse, built in 3.5" disk drive, keyboarcl and 256K computer (without moni- torj is S 1,295. The Amiga moni- tor is $ 495, the external 3.5" drive is $ 295, the external 5 ff' drive is $ 395 and the 256K expansion cartridge is S195. As to where you can buy an Amiga, you will find a list of factory dealer représentatives in this issue who you can call to find a
retail outlet in your arca. Or vou can try the main Commodore number 215-431-9100 Editors
Everytime a new computer magazine cornes ont, EVERYBODY (espe- cially advertisers) rush le tiers to the editor to congratulate them on hav- ing been able to get that first copy to the printers.
thought it might be somewhat refreshing to dispense with the congratulations. I bought the magazine on the ïiewsstand and shortly there- after mailed a card to enter my sub- scnption. That is about the best I can offer you.
Now, get to work!
If you didn’t write the letters congratulating us, then we would just hâve to write them ourselves. Editors
(Congratulations an making Big Blue blush! P.S.: Peterborough is a beautiful little toum.
That’s whv we've here.
First, let me tell you that AmigaWorld's première issue was excellent. Truly, AmigaWorld is a first class act. As I read about the pro- grams corn ing, got excited.
Then. .. Wowzah! The graphies!. . .1 realized I had to get this phénoménal computer.
A few suggestions so your magazine will be perfect when I finally get my Amiga.
First this is dumb, because it will probably be solved by next issue a letters page! Ahh, forget it!
By the time this get s to you, you'Il have tons of mail coming in.
Second, why not set up art Amiga bulletin board system (maybe free to subscribers)?
Ehird, how about some programs that we can type in and monthly disks with the programs on them?
Christopher Shieh Houston, TX
Thirdly, we just might do that. Secondly, we are working 011 some BBS ideas and will keep you informed. Firstly, as to a letters page in the magazine, we have no plans to put a letters section in AmigaWorld. Now or ever. What a dumb notion! Editors
Wow! I was hop ing that AmigaWorld would be similar to Mac World It is. But it’s even bel ter.
So far Eve purchased five copies of the Première issue of AmigaWorld to share with friends, and to send to software developers who I am trying to encourage to move their software over to the Amiga.
When trying to get someone to share my enthusiasm for the Amiga,
I mer eh have to put a copy of AmigaWorld in front of them.
That 's ail il takes.
People who have seen the Amiga perform and then express doubl about iPs success in the marketplace are unbelievable. The Amiga is the présent and the future of computing.
1 es, will buy an Amiga. Life is worth living. Fun bas arrived on the computing scene!
Rich Kevin O'Brien Renlon, WA
Don’t be so reserved. Rich.
Try to show a little enthusiasm.
It tsn’t good to liide your feel- ings. Mac who? Editors
Down here in Texas, pardner, we aims to call it Amig-o-World. None of that there feminist stufffor us cowpokes. Now, for the had news, read my first copy of AmigaWorld and also had to go oui and buy my first pair of glasses. For gosh sakes, don’t you have a little bigger print?
Now for the good news. I can 7 wait to get my first glimpse oj the Amiga. We are root ing for Commodore to have as mue h success with the Amiga as the 64.
We are ail wait ing anxiously to get our hands on your new brain child, and I have the seven million pesos in a sack ready to go. So lots of luek to AmigaWorld and Commodore.
Larry T. Killen
San Ange h, TX
LARGER PRINT' = FEWER WORDS Editors
Congratulations on y our new magazine. My subscription is in the mail. Amiga promises to be an idéal "studio" computer as well as an office home computer.
If you could just say "studio" once in a while, it [Amiga] would appeal to architects, designers, artists, media persans, would be artists, etc. . .. With ail the 68000 mot fier boa rds being put ont, it [Amiga] mast be port ray ed differently. If commercial, semi-commercial video and audio interface hardware and software is not fortheoming, I will just stick to my Apple.
Conclusion: The high-powered studio features enhance the use of the Amiga for business and home. How is that for PR? You want business and éducation to identify with the information power of the media, even if it is strict ly Symphony or Jazz or whalever.. .. threw these in to make a point. The ads and pic- tures [in AmigaWorld] portray "studio," but y ou use the words of fice home or business education. The veiulors and photographs say one thing, but the articles themselves are oriented to a pre-Amiga computer environment.
Gene L. Porter
Multi-media Spécialist San Francisco. CA
Studio, studio, studio.
The Amiga is the computer for right-thinhing people. It will never let you down (notice the cursor keys illustrated on page 23 of AmigaWorld's première issue).
Once tipon a time sold my PC to buy a Macintosh. I nui y switch again if the Amiga takes off but Tm not convinced yet.
John J. Seal
Picky, picky, picky, Your guess is as good as ours, Didn’t you look al the cover? Editors
Maxell Corp. of America, 60 Oxford Drive, Moonachie, NJ 07074 Circle 11 on Reader Service card.
FLOPPY DISKS THE GOLD STANDARD
“The thing that I like most about doing this kind of art on the Amiga is that it looks like my work.”
Photography by Edward Judice
16 fanuary February 1986
Andy Warhol: An Artist and His Amiga
A conversation about art and the Amiga with artist Andy Warhol
By Guy Wright and Glenn Suokko
Warhol Studios. New York City. Info the front to shake h ( nuls ail a round. Managers, producers, art dealers, and, in the bnck of the crowd, Andy Warhol Small, black jeans, sneakers, hright pink glasses, ivh de hoir. He shakes hands with a quiet “H if then disappears somewhere into the large building wkile the rest of us are taken up, two at a time, in a very small Otis elevator to a second or third floor dining rotm for lunch.
The cozy affair is fi lied with edi tors from Interview magazine, art ni tics, Jriends, managers, us (Glenn Suokko, AmigaWorlcTs Art Direct or, and myself), and others ail talkhig, drinking wine, sit- ting at some unheard command and eating. Andy drifts in quiet ly, sits and eats at the far end of the table. Monosyltabic answers to questions asked by others at the table.
ask an editor of'Interview what questions l should ask Andy. “Is there anything he likes to talk about?"
“That's a hard one," he says. “Andy duesn't do interviews. Tnt just glad that because he is the publisher [of'Interview] I will never have to interview him. 1 dont know what would ask. You should ask bis manager."
Earlier; I asked jeff an engineer from Commodore who has been working with Andy for weeks on his new video for MTV, the sa me question. "I don't know," jeff said. "He doesn't talk much. He doesn't talk at ali He doesn't do interviews, as far as I know. You gttys are really Ittcky to get an interview with him."
Finally, î ask the Commodore exec who set up the interview in the first place. “Maybe I should ask the questions," he says. “Andy doesn't talk much, and I have no idea how it will go.''
Our photographer arrives and Glenn goes up to the video studio to help set up lights. Lunch ends and I follow Andy upstairs to the studio.
“So, you don't do interviews?"
“No " Andy says abrupt ly, He disappears again.
The video studio, where the MTV video was put together; has chairs, equipment rocks, moni- tors, video editing decks, caméras, lights and two Amigas. Some paintings are brought in. Four by four foot Dolly Parton. Punching bags. Things. Vince Freemont, Producerfor Andy WarhoTs T.V, has iveryone sit and we preview Andy WarhoTs Fifteen Minutes (More or les s) video for MTV. The portions doue on the Amiga are pointed out. Tilles and spécial effects. Andy has drifted in to watch.
When it is over, most of the people in the room either leave or move or remain seated. A video caméra is connected to a digitizer ronnected to one of the Amigas, and Andy sits before it. Lights are ad just éd. The ramera is turned on. The software is loaded.
Our photographer begins shoot ing al most non- stop. He uses a ramera with an auto-unnder so he can click-zhhh, click-zhhh, click-zhhh as fast as he can point and fonts. Ile moves around the room quickly us ing up roll a fier roll of film.
No one is sure who is supposed to be there and who isn't. People wander, people sit, people talk. The engineer plugs in cables, types on the key- board, moves and clicks the mouse, changes set t ings.
And Andy Warhol sits before an Amiga that ts soon alive.
Images of what the video ramera sees are fed into the Amiga and onto the screen. At first there are flickers of color and interférence. The ramera is pointed at nothing; and then (more for some- thing to focus on than anything et se), the engineer points the caméra at the pain ting of Dolly Parton leaning against a rock jilled with video tapes.
It doesn't really start anywhere. Al some point tape recorders are turned on. At another point the software is working. Throughoul there is the click- zhhh, click-zhhh, click-zhhh of the photographer's 35mm caméra. Andy begins play ing with the mouse, and the color s on the screen change with each move and clirh. He is intrigued with the ehanging col ors and weird effects caused by the camera-light-suftware-mouse-peojde combination.
While watt ing fm the intn~view to begin, the intewiew began. Mur ' as a conversation thon au intervint!. Andy play ing with the computer image, peuple roming in and gomg out. Many peuple ask- ing questions, n’en Andy ask ing questions. The photographer shoot ing from every possible angle in the ruom. The engineer constantly adjusting equipment. Peuple doing uuthing but wntehing the screm as the culurs change or the video ramera is muved or the lights are moved or as Andy tries something else.
A color point ing of Daily Parton is. At first, shades of hlack. White and gray, but suon is illu- minated, replacing the original color s with électron ic Amiga color s.
An interview with Andy Warhol, who doesn't do intendews an artist at the Amiga launch, an artist long before Amigas. Puhlisher of Interview magazine. Involved with video, MTV, rock, films, peuple and things like Amiga computers.
Glenn: When did you do t h is poitrail of Dollv?
Andy: Last week.
Glenn: l lmnim. Look at thaï color.
Andy: Il would he great to just drop tins color in. Oh yeah. Sn, do you want to ask me anv questions?
GSW (Guy Wright): What do you want tu talk ahout?
Andy: C )h, 1 don t know.
Andy: Well. This friend ol mine, named Jean-Michel Basquiat, goes lo the xerox machine and puts xerox ail uver lits paintings. Su. Il wc had a primer right hete I could do it this wav and just sign it as a print.
But, I guess if printers ever get rcallv big, like a twenty bv thirty or thirtv hv Idity, ilien it would really he great.
GSW: So you don t see any problcin? Something you do on the computer eau he recre ated pixel for pixel, an exact duplicate? Andy: Well, in prints they are supposed to he exact duplicates. So. . .
GSW: But therc is a finite numher, like print numher fiftv-six ol One hundred. Andy: Well, you eau stop at whatever uum* ber you want. Etchings usually stop at a certain number.
[The motorized film advancer on the photographcr’s caméra is furiously click- lihliing, click-zhhhing, click-zhhhing while peuple tnove around the rooin and Andy taps the buttons on the mousc.)
Glenn: Could you ever imagine monitors sunk into walls in muséums or galleries? Andy: Kids have been doing it already. The
Paladium bas two big square TV sets going ail the rime, with ahout 2A to 50 sels on each sidc. Thev haven’t clone anv art vet. But it would he great to do that.
GSW: Like the Limelight with their hank of
Andy: Well yeah, aciuallv. When I worked on this at Lincoln Venter [the Amiga launch], it was like a muséum, hecause we had a couple thousancl peuple and 1 was working with it on the stage. It was like a muséum hecause you could show vour work.
GSW: Instant muséum in a finite time period.
GSW: So it’s not a st at ic art?
Andy: Jack [Haegcr, Art and Graphics Di- rector at Commodore-Amiga], who was working with me before. Uses it more like brushes and paint.
GSW: Do you like working with it?
Andv: I love it.
GSW: Are you going to buv one?
Andy: Well, we already have two, so we are going to buy the primer.
GSW: You are talking ahout the high-quahtv primer?
Andy: Well, they had the one ai the launch, which was this big [measuring four square inches in the air with lus hands]. Il was really eu te. Very prêt t y.
[People waruler ahout the room. Therc is conversation in the background. The engi- neer adjusts cables. The photographer loads IIIni, shoots, moves. Shoots sonie more. The image on the Amiga vibrâtes with the changing room lighting and with the pass-
Glenn: Is this the greatest ihing since sliced bread?
Andv: Oh veah, it is.
Glenn: How do vou see this work being dis- plavcd? How would vou show something that vou create on an Amiga to the général public?
Andy: Well, we could gel a printout. I could just print this out if we had the primer. GSW: Would you sell the prints or distrib- ute the disk itself?
TV sets along one wall.
Andy: Veah. But actually Private Eyes is a video bar. [To Glenn] Have you been therc? Glenn: No.
Andy: It used to he right around herc. So il vou have a video you want to scrceti down there for a partv. You can. It's not a dancing place. It's just a video bar.
GSW: Do you think that might he the new wave muséums?
Ing of people in front of the video caméra. The engineer, finished with cables for the moment, goes to change the video caméra angle.]
Glenn: I like the movement.
Andy: Well, it’s not.. .oooh [as the engineer moves the video caméra, sending elcctric streaks of color across the Amiga's screen], , .it is usually still. I guess the cycle is on. Oh, that stops it. Oh yeah, that is nicer.
[The image seules down to a crimson po- larized wash of the day-glo Dollv Parton
paint ing, leaning crooked behind a batik oi video production equipmcnt,]
GSW: Do you see this as more video ori- ented, as opposed to computer-oriented? Andy: 1 think everything. . . Anvotie tan use iî.
GSW: Do you think dierc will be a i ise in personal art?
Andy: That too, yeah. [Criinson changes to mauve to orange to fusia as Andy nioves and clicks the mouse.] Well, I've been tell* ing everybody about the machine, but they havcn't been ablc to get one yet,
Glenn: Ilave any of your artist friends seen the stul’f that you've donc?
Andy: We bad somebody corne down the other day. And people bave read in magazines about the stuff we did at the launch, Glenn: F low cio your friends fecl about computer art generally?
Andy: They ail like it. They have been using the xerox, and they can’t wait until they can use this, hecause there are so many people into xerox art. You do it and then take the stuff to the xerox store and do the princs there. Jean-Michel Basquiat uses xerox. So, if he could be printing out on hîs ovvn machine, he would he using tliis.
Glenn: Jean Michel was the artist who worked with you on th is? [An illusirated punching hag]
Glenn: Have you been doitig anything with the nuisie capabilities?
Andy: Not yet. We were just trying to learn the art part of it first. [Anolher color change on the digitized video image of An- dv’s photographie painiing oi Dolly. Wliere there were réels are now bhie-blacks, where there was flesh-pink there is now yellow* green.] Oh. This is great.
GSW: Do you think the computer bas a lim iting effett?
GSW: Do you think it is open endcd?
Andy: Yeah. [Andy is distracted constantly by the ehanging colors on the Amiga screen. The Dolly Part on portrait is color* animatcd with each mouse move and click.] Gee, if we had a primer now, I could just print these out and send them to Dolly Par- ton in ail these différent colors. It would save us a lot of trouble.
Glenn: lias she seen the protrait?
Andy: No, we were going to send it ont. This woulcl be great hecause 1 could do it in green and another color.
Exec: Like you clicl with the Deborah Harry thing?
[At the Amiga launch, Deborah Harry, singer for the group Blondie, posed before a video caméra. A single black-and-white grains have a lot of différent capabilities. Andy: What are they? What new things have corne uj) in the last few mont lis?
Exec: I havcn’t even seen them myself. Everyone bas been working on their sepa- rate piece of the puzzle. But the last time 1 spoke with Jack, he asked when he was Corning back here. So 1 know that he is cager to corne back.
[Another option of the paint program is activated and the colors cycle through the spectrum on their own with a light and color strobe effect.]
Andy: Oh. Veah. Oh, that’s weird. Oh. Look at that.
GSW: Is there anything that you don t like about the Amiga?
Andy: No, no, I love the machine. Eli move it over to my place, my own studio. That way Eli be able to do the colors. It’ll he really great, and if we can get a printer, Pli do this portrait in four différent colors and send them oui to Dolly.
GSW: Then you see yourself using it as a major tool?
Andy: Oh yeah. It would save a lot of time.
I woukln’t have had to do ail these portraits ail at once. I could have just picked out the colors I wanted and sent them out, and then picked the one I wanted.
Glenn: Do vou think that it will have any
GSW: Do you like the machine hecause it is so quick?
Andy: I think ifs great. Ifs quick and everything.
GSW: What influence do you think this will have on mass art as opposed to liigh art? Andy: Mass an is high an.
GSW: Do you think it will push the* artists? Do you think that people will be inclinée! To use ail the différent components of the art. Music, video, etc.?
Andy: That’s the best part about it. I guess you can. . .. An artist can really do the whole thing. Actually, he can make a film with everything on it, music and sound and art...everything.
frame was frozen and transferred to a paint program where Andy filled in colors, added lines, drew with the mouse and fmished in ten minutes what would have taken weeks in a studio.)
GSW: I low inuch time have you spent with the Amiga?
Andy: Just the few weeks that Jack [Haeger] was here. We are wait ing to get the final software. And then we need Jack back again for a couple of weeks. Has Jack discovered any new techniques?
Exec: fin sure he has, because the new pro-
effcct on the value of an ‘Andy Warhol original’?
Andy: No, it would just be a sketch. Cal 1 it a sketch.
GSW: Do you ever see that as becoming an artvvork in its own right?
Andy: Oh yeah. Well, actually, Sleven Sprouse really did most of h is artwork this way. He did bis last print, 1 think, with the planets and stuff, in this way. Reautiful geeze!
Glenn: Would you evcr think of sending them ont as finished pièces?
Andy: Well, we are doing that already. Aftcr I did that and Steven saw them, he showed me some of his things and they’re just great.
GSW: The great thing is that you can play with ail the color combinations, take a pic- ture of the combination or make a printout and then décidé which combination works best.
Andy: Well, maybe 1 could take the painting up there and I could do the color variations on it. There must be a printcr wc could gct, even the small one.
Exec: Actually I think we have a larger printer.
Andy: How hig is it?
Exec: Eight by eleven.
Andy: Oh really? Could we do that maybe this week?
Exec: Next week.
Andy: OK. If I hroughl this picture up, could I just do différent colors of this?
Andy: [To Guy] And then you could use this in your article. You could show how I could change the picture. Do you know what dav next week? Early next week?
Exec: They’re around. Ifs just a maiier of picking one up.
Andy: Oh. OK.
[More adjusting of the caméra and painting of Dolly. The photographer is begin- ning to slow clown, but his caméra continues to click-zhhh, click-zhhh, click- zhhh.]
GSW: What are the things that you like the most about doing this kind of art on the Amiga?
Andy: Well, I like it because it looks like my work.
GSW: How do you feel about the fact that everyone’s work will now look like your work?
Andy: But it docsn’t. You just showed me other artists' work in the magazine [AmigaWorld]. It looks like the work that I started doing. I still think that someone like a deco- rator could use it when he wants to show somebody how their apartment would look ail in bluc or ail in white, or. . . They could just do it so easily. Change a chair or a color.
20 January February 198 6
GSW: Would you evcr consider using the Amiga for ‘traditional* uses?
Andy: The kids from Interview magazine [Andy Warhol is the publisher of Interview, whose offices are clownstairs] want to steal it already. We just haven’t given it to them. Glenn: Do you think that you might ever use any of the pictures gencrated on the Amiga in the magazine [Interview]?
Andy: Oh yeah. This would be a really good thing for our covcrs.
GSW: Do you ever play computer gaines? Andy: I'm not fast enough.
GSW: There are some slow ones. Interactive fiction. Electronic novels.
Andy: Oh really? [To exec] Are the ad agen- cies getting the machine yet?
Exec: You got yours way ahead of schedule. Andy: Oh great!
GSW: How do you feel about using the mouse instead of a paint brush?
Andy: I thought that I would have the peu [light pen] by now.
GSW: Do you fine! The mouse a little awkward?
Andy: Yeah, the mouse is harcl. Why isn’t there a pen around?
Exec: Kurta is working on one right now, and we thought that we would have it bv now, but. . .
Andy: Would a pen work the saine way? I mean. It could even be a square pen. You could put the bail clown here [indicating the corner of the mouse], just holding it clif- ferently. If you had a bail at the tip, you could hold it differently.
GSW: A bail point mouse.
Jeff: T he one we are working on doesn't even have a cable.
Andy: You mean just like a pencil?
Andy: Oh, how great. That is going to do so much. You could trace over a picture and stuff like thaï?
GSW: With something like this [the mouse], do you miss getting your hands in the paint?
Andy: No. No. It’s really great not to get your hands in paint. I don’t know. They al- ways sav that plastic paint is had for you. Is this bad for you?
GSW: Nowadays they say that it is the way you sit in the chair in front of the display. Glenn: Coulcl you cio a self-portrait?
Andy: Oh sure.
[The video caméra is moved to point at Anclv, and his face appears on the Amiga display. With Andy on the monitor and Andy in front of the computer and Dolly in the background, there is photographie temptation.]
Photographer: Could you lean lorwardr I want to get botli you atid Dolly in the saine shot. [Andv leans.] That's excellent. That’s gond. OR. Thanks,
Glenn: Did Dolly Parton coine to you to do the portrait?
Andy: I did it when 1 went out to the Ma-
[Back to the self-portrait. The engineer adjusts colors. Levels and gray scales unti! Andy is satislied.]
Andy: There, that one [indicating a straight black-and-white video image oi liiinselH- jeff: 1 .ike that?
Andy: Uh luth. [Already working on color- ing in the on-scrcen image oi 11 is lace] God. Isn’t that funny?
GSVV: lf there was sonielhing thaï you could add to the Amiga, what would you addr Andy: The only thing that 1 would add would be the pencil [ligin peu]. That’s the only thing.
GSW: What about working on ihe .screen ii- selh with a touch screen?
Andy: Well. That would be great. That would be good with the pencil, because you could add in the color ancî stufl like that, but with a sharp point, you could get the lines casier.
GSW: Hâve von evet donc anything with computers belore?
Andy: No, this is the first time.
GSW: VV'hv haven’t you used computers before?
Andv: Oh, I don’t know. MIT called me for
about teii years or so. But I jtist never went up. . .maybc it was Valc.
GSW: You just never thought it was interest- ing enough?
Andy: Oh no. I did, uh, ifs just that. Well. This one was just so much more advanced
than the others. I guess thev started ail that
there. Ail the kids from collège who went to California. Wcrcn’t thev the inventors?
GSW: Do you think that computers will play a larger and larger rôle in art?
Andy: Uh. Vcah, 1 think that aller graffiti art, thev probablv will. When the machine cornes oui fast enough. It will probable take over from the graffiti kids.
GSW: You like graffiti art?
Andy: Oh vcah, l do. I think ifs reallv
4 J 4
[Andy becomes absorbed in the seli portrait. Adding colors, lines, filling in areas, changing things. The rnouse is nioved and
clicked and clicked, but lus eyes never Icavc the screen. Pcoplc continue to move around the room. Some lcave. Some enter, most just stare at the Amiga screen while the black- and-white Warhol changes from a digitized video trame displayed on an Amiga computer into a lu 11 color self-portrait, a War- hol-painting-Warhol original. I lie itérations of Andy Warhol painting on an Amiga an Andv Warhol painting of Andy Warhol sit- ting at an Amiga doing electronic painting become too confusing to follow. Vince Free- nioni, producer of Andy Warhoî’s TA'., en* ters and stares with the test of us.]
Vince: You want some air comlitioning in here?
Jcff: 1 turned it off, because of the fan. Vince: How about opening the door?
Jeff: Fine, thanks.
[Squeak.. .door opening. . .crash, ruin- ble rumble-rumble, métal door l ises.]
Vince: [Stepping outside onto the roof] I love these skylights.
Andy: [Rising for a moment to look outside. T he image of lus face on the screen, par- tially colored, stares al an unseen mon itou] Thev were supposed to be party tables. Vince: Those skylights are being knocked clown now.
Andy: Are thev? [Ile steps outside.] Again? Vince: Peuple from the other buildings throw stuff on iliem, and since thev put in the wrong weight of glass, thev have a ten- denev to break.
Andy: 1 haven’t seen the back in a long time.
Vince: OK. F.verybody go outside ancl take a break for five minutes. Is that mil up still there? Andy? Andy?
[Andy returned and the self-portrait was fmished. Peuple wandered off. We had to leave. Other interviews. Other. . .]¦
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Computer Art: Is It Really Art?
By Vinoy Laughner
Can a computer, austere and logical, be a tool for Creative personal expression?
Modem technology lias infiltraied and transformcd just about every area of human activity, including the Visual arts. After centuries of relative continuity in the materials and processes of two-dimensional visual art, the last century and a half have brought about a révolution in this area. Thèse new melhods, offsprings t)[ the dramatic l ise in applying modem science through tech- nology, have caplured the imagination of those in the créative fields, as well as the général public. Since Louis Daguerrc popularized the process of capturing “real” images on sheets of copper coated with silver nitrate (the daguerretype), which led to modem photography, how we view ourselves and visually represent our world can never be the saine.
In this article I will give a brtef overview of these new visual technologies and then foetts on computer art and its potential use for personal artistic expression.
With the advent of motion picutres, another wa- terslied in the history of visual technology was reached. (Where would we be today without good old T homas Edison in the dark?) The march of science made it possible for niaity artists, practilioners of the ancient craft of aetîng, to walk tmo the lives of their audience in a dramatic new way, and to préserve their acconi- plishments on film for us to see décades later. We also could now document our history on film: war, progress, présidents.
By the time I was growing up, my world was inhab- iied by Popeye, Zono and the Mouscketecrs. Once again technology opencd a new window into a land of créaiivity and imagination (some would say also a land of médiocrité and dccadence). It is impossible to imagine America in the sixties without the tube. Our perceptions of the world changée! From our living roonts. One minute we were on Gilligan’s Island. The next in Vietnam; we rode front the Ponderosa to the streets of Montgomery in a flash. Our opinions changée!, we changed, our culture changecl. Our knowledge of world events liinged on signais that fired électrons at the back of a fluorescent screen.
Ttïdav. Video is the rage. VCRs are the newest “must have” machines and many childrcn spend more time with MTV than ABC. (And I dorft mcan the TV Network!) We have much to gain from this new technology, regardless of the potential abuses. The achievements in film, télévision and vour own “home movies” arc now comfortably and conveniently accessible right in your own home. Why wait for film to he developed when you can view hoinemadc movies immediately, with sound?
You can tape over those embarrassing parts. Many people now only go to the movies because the entrent box office fare isn’t on videotape yet.
Finally, we have computer graphies, or if you will, computer art. This new fielcl, based upon what so many consider an austere, cold technology, is a radically différent world of images. Il doesn’t have the same kind of appeal as a familiar face on the TV screen, but aloug with the technology it rides on. It is surely going to change the now and future of what we see and how we see. Whether you know it or not, TV today is filled with the products of this new and revolutionary form of art, and the hottest new movies often dépend upon the kinds of effects only computer graphies can make feasi- ble. What we see is being changed by computer art.
How will the traditional art comnnmity accept computer art? This is not, after ail, just another form of electronic entertainment; it involves personal créative input. Where will il fit in? Thèse are very significant questions. Two things are for sure, its here to stay and it will dramatically influence visual art in the future.
Art of Distinction
T he modem visual technologies are usually associ- atecl with their use in “popular culture.” The people who create in these fields are considered artists we would consider the producers or vvriters of a film to be artists of a kind; we refer to artists of screen and télévision nevertheless, we have becomc accustonied to classing those artists in “traditional" fields of two-di- mensional visual art in very separatc and spécial catégories from those in the ncw-tech médiums. We have an area cloistered for them called Fine Art. Ifs obvions ?
That they do différent things and yet the Creative spirit is still the saine; but ofien the division amounts to, la- nientably, an elitism snobbery, Today, this High Art snootiness often bas a distinct rarified smeil: Monev. Upon what grounds can we continue to maintain this distinction? The question should be one of quality (whether computer art or paint), shouldn't it? What vaiid measure do we enlist to sanctify certain médiums? History of Security
Artists working in the traditional médiums of two-di- mensional visual art (i.e., painting, printmaking, draw- ing) have the comforting benefit of long and rich
This is not just another form ofelectronic entertainment; it involves Personal créative input.
Historical traditions. Precious few, yet monumental, ad- vances have corne about in the materials and procédures of two-dimensional art. Beyond the “inventions” of painting or drawing themselves, it isn’t hard to rec- ognize the pivotai points in art history. (I am focusing on Western art.) The development of oil paints, usually attributed to the late médiéval Flemish school associ- ated withjan Van Evck, the use of highly sophisticated perspective accomplished by Renaissance rnasters, and the véritable "discovery" of color by the Impressionists, especially Claude Monet, qualtfy as such truly révolu* tionary and historic advances. Western art, its materials. Methods and powerful traditions, make it a very con- servative discipline indced; artists have benefited greatly from the perspective and security provided by such a tradition. Ail of us are richer because of their accomplishments. Accepting a new medium, especially one coasting on baffling technology like computer art, could prove traumatic.
Even the Modem art movement, in ail its supposedly radical glory, was and is conservative in this regard.
The différence in a work by Picasso lies in the message or subject inatter, not the medium.
Now to place the invention of computer graphies on a level with the l ise of oil painting would be for most
artists sacrilege. 1 would tend to agree. Yet, 1 don't see computers threatening the hallowed shrine of Art, for I view the popular notion of art as some sort of mystical vocation as répugnant.
An artist s gift is in seeing a différent way, in insight, not in having some channel to “Truth.” Artists have a rôle and responsibility just like anyone else; what they do is necessary and important, no matter what some say about artists being in the business of making things people don’t need. Every culture has produced and cherished artwork. That's a pretty good argument for its necessity. Maybe we have a problem understanding the necessity of art today because we have fostered a High Art dedicated to producing objects solely for passive contemplation in antiseptic shrines (muséums); eso- teric objects for a cultural elite.
It is feared that the artwork produced on computers will rob us further of our personality and humanness. The hallmark of art has been the mark of individual creativity. It is a valid [joint. (Still, oil paints and lithog- raphy are technologies too.) A good argument could be made that the more complex and larger the thing you place between yourself and your art, the less of yourself will end up there. Powerful argument. However, the de- gree of control and immediacy between you and what you create on an Amiga is astonishingly high. A computer is just a thing; we control it, it doesn’t control us or hold us as its slaves. (If you want to get the best of a computer sometime, turn it off.)
Are we less human because we put tires, nuts and bolts between ourselves and the road, instead of just oui humble feetf If you want to see cold, impersonal artwork, look at some of the stuff being produced by some human artists today. So much of it is shallow, banal and empty. You may strongly disagrce, but my point is that impersonality is not intrinsic to computer artwork; you’U only lose as much of yourself as you al 1 ow.
If you're willing to rise to the challenge, a computer can be a fascinating tool (albeit awesomely sophisticated) for your personal Creative expression. After ail, you don’t have to know the chemistry behind oil paints to use them, why worry about what’s going on inside that forbidding little box? The knowledge may prove interesting, but it definitely isn’t essential.
True, you will not get dirty creating artwork on a computer. You will not notice those old familiar smells, like that from turpentine or poppyseed oil. (If you do smell something, I‘d turn the computer off soon.) Still, you can create marvelous things on that screen. They are not paintings in the traditional sense, but they can be complex, beautiful, vibrant. You can make things move, sparkle, colors pulsate or shift, or simply corne up with original stationary designs. The object is to master this thing’s capabilities to use it to say what you want to. The Amiga doesn’t create graphies or artwork, but with one, you can.
Does Computer Art Exist?
If computer artwork is compared to traditional médiums, it is easy to find fault. No computer screen resolution can equal the nuance or suhtlety of oil paints, for example. Yet, is the object to mîmic another medium? Isn'i it something spectacular in itself? If I want to do a
watercolor, l’il use (that’s right) watercolors. I woukl rather use the computer for its unique features, not to trv to feign another medium.
To be fair, and to approach ajustified perspective, the radical différence and newness of computer art has to be considered. It falls into the général category of electronic visual technology, but also shares much in coin mon with tradilional two-dimensional art: line, composition, color in short, design. You can combine artwork and video material, save, aller and duplicate works and create animation. The medium is radicallv différent; the future appears to be the limit.
Tt’s also more than just a spectator sport, like TV; it is an activity that demands involvement. Your imagination will not be at the mercy of someone elses’. You can’t sit back and just vvatch it happen; you have to take the initiative and make it happen. Creating art is always like that.
The fact that computers will soon be a common fea* ture of everyday life that we take for granted (for many they already are) is reason enough to demand that they be Creative tools. Why should we seule for a computer that only satisfies a narrow aspect of what we are when these machines are becoming so involved with activities we have previously associated with ourselves, and par- ticularly our minds. We aren’t made of only logic, business, electrical impulses and mathematics; we are also made of feelings, creativity, ideas, play. Why in the world shouldn't we bave holistically concieved computers?!
Fil submit what I consider to be one major advantage of artwork created on a computer, One which I feel alone makes computer artwork worth pursuing. It has light. The Iinpressionists lamented the fact that, no mat- ter how bright and pure the pigment, light cannot really be captured in cils. This thing glows! In a dimty lit room, I find myself marveling at the illuminated colors on the Àmiga’s screen. Tve spent well-loved time before a canvas, but this is something différent, it’s unique, The challenge of this iighted screen, I believe, opens up a vast range of Creative possibilités.
I have written this as an artist. I have a deep respect (love) for our great artistic past. I’ve spent a lot of time in those “antiseptic” muséums. I also know that this is the twentieth century; computer art can’t be brushed aside or simply dismissed.
The artist you will sec with this new technology won’t be sonie glossy movie star, and it won’t be a bunch of plastic, glass and electrical components (the computer), il will be you. Computer art does exist, as soon as you make it. Our challenge is to direct this medium to its most meaningful and expressive application.¦
Address ail aulhor correspondance to Vinoy Laughner, do AmigaWorld éditorial, 80 Fuie St., Peterborough, NH 03458.
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Socrates (speaking to Protarchùs): “Now -, ' does it occur to you.. .that the rnajority t of the arts, as also those who are busied therewith, are in the first place * * f 5 V concerned with opinions and pur sue y f their energetic studies in ,thé realm of opinion?”
Four New York artists gathered at the B-Side Gallery in Manhattan to discuss their views on Amiga artwork. From left to right: Rick Prol, Caren Scarpulla, Daniel McDonald and Paula Hible.
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Opposite page; from top to bottom; “Going Shopping With Baby,” by Caren Scarpulla; “Lux- ury High Rise,” by Daniel McDonald; “Florida by Paula Hible; “No Black Cals For Sale” by Rick Prol.
By Abigail Reifsnydei
Virtually everybody agréés that the graphies capabilities of the Amiga are technologically incredible. Yet, do graphies capabilities lead to artistic possibilities? Webster’s dictionary defînes graphies as “the art or science of drawing a représentation of an object on a two dimensional surface according to mathemati- cal ndes of projectionSounds kind of cold and impersonal the kind of thing many artists would reject out of hand. Even if this is simply a case for semanticists, though, the question remains: Just hecause you can draw on the Amiga, does that znake it an artistic tool?
Taking the words of Plato to heart (if perhaps out ofeon- Atext), I sought out four artists to gather their opinions, using, Vof course, the Socratic method (albeit without Socrates'great Aw sdom and sense of hurnor to aid us in our search for the truth of computer art). None of them had used a computer before, and each responded differently. With only four artists, nwe still managed to run the gamut of opinion, from one who dismissed it immediately and irrevocably to another who Jbeljeved it opened up a wide variety of possibilities not achieva- ble through other media.
7Fhc four artists were Paula Hible, Daniel McDonald Rick Prof and Caren Scarpulla. Paula Hible works with a technique r calied gum bichromate, a process that combines photography s and painting in a unique way. She mixes the émulsions herself ajid- her portraits and still lifes are washed in soft colors. She r 'alsû does freelance work as an illustrator and artist for u magazines.
C vr Hariiel McDonald’s paintings draw on the influence of Piet ' Jmpndrian, using grid forms but adding circular and diagonal shapes: The répétitive qualities of h is paintings reflect nature’s eyqcicontinuing cycles. He is also the art director for two maga- a zineSrj Audio Times and Autosound 8c Communications,
‘ iqhfclp-plays a major rôle in kis painting. His works have been j n v a v aexhiijtëd in varions group and solo shows in New York City,
t s (ind 'Several hang in privâte collections.
Trnàçiated victims of urban violence populate Rick Prol ’s t ' - v > paintings and installations. Paintings mounted in düapidated
- 7 v r a f rgihdojy frames with shutters let you know you are looking in
u at someone’s private experience. In spite of the bold, dark colors
depiçting often gruesome scenes, they are not without humor, sHts works have been shown in many solo and group shows in w New,York, San Francisco and Europe.
V c Caren Scarpulla s neo-pop paintings feature scarred women with beehive hairdos and spiked heels. Her cartoony, hard-edged 1style is reminiscent ofTV cartoons of the ’60s, but despite its playful quality, portrays women as victims of life. Caren also runs a gallery on the Lower East Side oj Manhattan and does freelance illustration for magazines. Her works have been shown in New York, San Francisco and Montréal.
I spoke with each artist individually and as a group as they doodled on the computer. Following are excerpts of those discussions.
Pau la Hible: Il [creating art on the Amiga] doesn’t seeni honest because you can’t see what’s been donc. You’re not mak- ing real décisions anymore: there’s no heart in it. If there’s something you don’t like, you can just blot it out and nobody can know you’ve donc it. With an artist like DeKooning. You can see, if you care to look, where he erased or covered up stutf.
Daniel McDonald: I think that’s a good point, but I feel as though this is a totally différent medium. I feel as though this will never replace any other medium or he the final thing in art. I think ifs one interesting variation and a lot of great things can he donc with it.
Paula: I mean, the stuff this prints out 011 is horrible. Surface is important, and there’s no surface with this.
Caren: You know what 1 could see: you could mix something that was printed out on a computer with oils like a collage. You know, you could do something 011 a computer, have it printed out and slap that 011 a canvas some people use color xeroxes that way.
Rick: 1 can sec a whole room of these a big sort of installation and then you’re really using it. Like 20 of these on a wall with weird heads on them. In other words, using the thing as something other than just the limited image playing around with the whole thing.
Paula: If you could get 20 computers together, that would be a statement in itself.
Rick: lis strength in a way is its limitation; it’s kind of ready-made. It's like the limitations of video. 1 use Nam Paik as an example because he did that a lot. He really stretched video in a sculptural way. He made a totem out of video, like chambers where you would go in and lie clown and you’d look up to the screen. The resuit with this is still going to be pretty much the sanie, but not as surprising. Film is still more manipulatable. This is still a limited kind of thing.
Caren: 1 think it's good for commercial artists.
Caren Scarpulla: You can put ail your accounting on it. Do ail the stuff a régulai* computer would do. Plus it has this. So if artists are going to buy computers just to do their bills and accounting, they inay as well go and buy this then they can fool a round with it. So not only would you have
a computer to do business, but you’d have one to clraw 011. I mean, I’d dcfinitely buy one because I need to buy a computer, and I dcfinitely wouldn't buy a stupicl ordinary computer.
Daniel: I think this thing is probablv more of a breakthrough technologically than artis-
ticallv. Ifs not like the discoverv of canvas
or oils. [Looking at pictures in AmigaWorld] Why do this? These pictures would look better in oils, whereas what you can draw on this computer has a new, though primitive, look. Thcrc's still a consistency in what I do here with my work, but therc's no rca- son to do the saine thing on a computer it’s not using the medium the way it could be used.
Daniel: 1 think ifd be a nice idca to use this and then paint on top of it like a collage. I mean, if you wanted to do an illustration, you could illustrate it with the computer and then sharpen it up with paint or ink.
Rick: T he thing is. This is basically drawing with color. So ifs just a drawing medium, really.
Paula: What gets me is what do you get for your trouble after this? You get this thin pièce of shitty paper with a printout on it. I don’t respond to that.
Daniel: Ifs almost like color forms. But who knows what could happen, it might eventu- ally become more sophisticated. It’s rela- tively new and in a way it’s just sort of easy to laugh at it and say “Are you kidding?” I guess I’m fairly open to it. I was talking to this one guy at a group show I had last month and he said, ‘Did you ever think of looking into computers?’ And 1 said, ‘Well, not really. Why would I do that?’ And he said. ‘Well, because of your répétition, your patterning. You could get so much more oui of it.’ But I feel as though it’s really not the same as getting yourself dirty and getting into the paint. There’s just something about working on a two-dimensional surface, dcal- ing with the paint and getting your hands and feet dirty and just generally getting into it. Then he said, ‘Well, maybe you could just use the computer and then jump into a tub full of paint.’
Caren: Ifs definitcly not a case where you could just switch over from paint to computer.
Daniel: Yes, if 11 do things I wouldn’t con- sciouslv do. You couldn’t do this just once or twicc; it would have to be a commitment. It's not like switching from etching to wood culs. But anybody could create art with it especially if vou're into color field work, laying on of colors and patterns.
The pictures 1 drew on this definitely had a much louder palette because the colors are so much more electric on this monitor. But I spent time trying to adapt to something that I might possibly do if I was to use this as a medium. And I enjoved it. I wouldn’t use il as the final thing and just work on computers the test of ni y life, but I think to be fair to it. You’d have to spend a fair amount of time and really get involved in it. It’s like learning to walk again or writ* ing for years with your right hand, then switching to your left hand. You’rc doing something you know how to do, but you re more self-conscious. You can still use your basic training, exploring colors and interaction between colors, like using compléments to get an impressionistic look.
Give it créent oecausc it ther words, it’s not medium or tem- eakthroughs because this. You’ll learn ing and that*s games: once you
il. I made the hess. Ifs also like uses the fluorescent bulb.
• is, well, a sculptural thing; it is pletely it. I mean, you
• something, but he doesn’t,
Rick: There’s something différent about this than painting. I think it guides you more. Drawing with a pencil is a more sponta- neous thing, but images arc images. The thing that distinguishes them is the signs and symbols that you use; it’s the concept behind them. I mean. A rock is a rock, but you wouldn’t really think that a Gucci and Michelangelo’s David were made of the same thing. The computer seems so concrète and set, but how you use it could become very personal.
I thiitk I like its inhérent quality more than its drawing capabilities. Il you look at that [pointing to monitor] and consider it vistiallv. That’s really beautiful. L mean,
there’s nothing in the room that’s more.. .well, it s really got something.
Paula: But part of that is because it's illuminatcd.
Rick: Yeah, it's a beautiful stained-glass kind of thing, but these are more interest ing [pointing to paintings] in a h uni an sort of way, a psychological way, where you know what the person really mcans. It’s not as mechanical. This [computer] is not as personal. It’s just a différent quality. Too. It doesnTt mean it’s any worse or anything, it’s just that visuallv this [screen] is very striking.
Daniel: Yeah, well, it bas a mechanized feel to it. Whereas if you look at a painting like this 4)ne here, you can definkely see the strokes, you can imagine what kind of émotion and sweat and muscle went into it.
Rick: The thing is, though, you could paint picturcs that have complété arionymity in them. A lot of pop art is like that. Some of Warhol s silk screcns are like that, though they still have a human quality to them.
F. vcn Lichkenstein’s stuff, which is very mechanical, still lias a human feel to it.
Who else? Well, even photo-realism is that wav.
Paula: Well, 1 think if you were in a room with this [screen] and that [painting], you could live with the painting a lot longer titan you could live with the screen. That would become iuteresting to you, whereas you’d lose interest in tliis.
Rick: Yeah, I alinost feel like they’re just iwo différent things. You can’t put it on the samc lcvel.
Daniel: Yeah, it’s like coinparing apples to doughnuts, you know, etching to a painting.
Rick: Painting’s also an historical thing; it’s got such a legacy. This is a new thing and tcchnological, though the medium is still drawing.
Amiga artwork by Rick Prol
“I notice that the things in the magazine look kind of dead.”
Caren: Woulcl it be possible to buy a disk that had a whole sériés of work by one art- ist, so that if you had one of these computers, you could just slip iti the disk and look through ail of that artist’s work? I can see that wnrking: somebody buying it as art. They could go into an art gallcry and buy a disk by some art ist, if the art ist did a sériés on computer, and then take this disk home and put it on their computer and keep it set up in front of their minimalist couch and say [to guests], wcll, there’s art, there’s Keith Haring, thcre’s Jean-Michel Basquiat. Then they could change it; they wouldn’t have to worry about iiving with it forever. 1 could sec that happening.
Paula: That’s like buying a f]replace tape for your video recorder. S
Daniel: You know. If T did a piclure on this, a painter might appreciate what I did, but a computer pet .son would know that I just pressed a couple buttons.
Paula: Well. That’s always true. If you’re a painter. That always takes some of the mystique ont of tt because you know how it was doue. Itte saine thing could hold truc for this.
Caren: People always say that the computer will replace such and such. But the corn- “Painting’s also an historical thing; it’s got such a legacy. This is a new thing and tech.no- logical, though the medium is still drawing.”
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puter is a computer; it’s a thing in itself. It could have ail kinds of possibilities just as a computer.
Paula: For somebodv who’s serious, I guess this is a great scratchpad. Maybe Fm just being snobby because I’m involved in some- thing that’s more tactile, but Fin not sure we have anything in common with this just because it has colors and a palette.
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Caren: Well, I like it. I would buv one and once I learned how to do everything with it, I would do everything with it. I would act like I was making a painting, right? I would keep it in memory, store it, and then do a painting from il. Still the act of doing it on here is différent from the act of doing a painting. You actually see it happening quicklv in front of you.
“Would it be possible to buy a disk that had like a whole sériés of work by one artist, so that if you had one of these computers, you could just slip in the disk and look through ail of that artist’s work?”
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Rick: And no mess.
Daniel: No muss, no fuss. You don’t have to mix anything to get that green or orange or whatever. You can change the colors by pressing a button, but there’s something différent about physically dropping in colors and mixing things up and stirring and test- ing and putting il on the canvas.
Caren: I wouldn’t miss that getting dirty. That’s a chore.
Paula: That’s the fun part. Ifs part of the process. The rest is just an excuse for mixing paints.
Rick: It is the fun part.
Caren: It is, but ifs a pain, in the long run.
Rick: You should have this here for an art- isfs opening, and the artist could be back here working on it. That would be neat. Because if people liked your stvle, they could find it on the computer here.
Caren: Yeah, and with a primer, they could buy it.
Paula: But it’s lousy paper.
Rick: So couldn’t they make one so you could use 100% rag?
Paula: Ifs got to be a paper that can be fed through the printer. When color xerox First came ont ten years ago, I reallv wanted to do color xerox on paper that I could stick through an etching press so I could texture the paper later. And color xerox was useless to me because you couldn’t get it on decent paper, something you could work with later, something that would last. And that’s my suspicion with this too. One would question the archivai value of, well, lots of things today, but this is something you couldn’t even manipulate. The paper’s awful. You vvet it, it falls to pièces. What you can do with it is so limited that it almost means that what you see is what you get it can’t stand to be han- dled. So it's really questionable if paper would allow it. That’s why I think it’s good for reproductions, like for an illustrator, because that’s not the final product, it's going to go into print somewhere.
Caren: Well, then it would be a temporary thing, like a post carcl. I could see it on cheap paper being sold cheaply. And it makes the art more accessible to your average person. You sell it for $ 1 it makes the art available to anyone who wants it. They can tack it on their refrigerator or whatever.
Rick: It’s "state-of-the«r ,” right? Right! I think it’s great.¦
Address ail author correspondence to Abigail Reijsnyder, 217 E. 85th St., Suite 396, New York, NY 10028.
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miga Software Scrambleî We’ve been working feverishly to compile this up-to-the-minute list of out~ standing Amiga software, The courier is waiting for our ad manager to place the very latest discoveries in this ad so she can deliver it mere nanoseconds ahead of dead- line. Yet, we know that no matter how close we eut it, we'll have found many more by the time you rcad this ad over two months from today! Isn’t there some way we can cell you about these fantastic discoveries?
Icon Rcvicw and MindWork Software arc iradcmarks of MindWork Enterprises, Inc.
Amiga is a trademark of Commodore International.
There is! Ail you have to do is call our toll-free lines and ask about currcnt prices and availability. If you sec
a promising software producc mentioncd or advertised in this issue of AmigaWorld, call us today. If it’s cur- rently available. Chances are we'll have it in stock at a close-to-incredible low price! It always pays to call Icon Review for the latest scoop. We’ll make you glad you did!
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Illustration bv Stcvcn Lyon s
The Personal Art Of a Personal Computer
By Scott Wright
Once upon a time there was no art. No art at ail. Nobody walked around saying, “Hey, look at this great work of art on this cave wall.” Nobody waited for the price to reach a million bucks for a work of art by the anonymous sculptor of the exquisite deer’s head from the Key Marco culture. The people who built Stonehenge had no certificates from any school of architecture. And, of course, because there was no art, there were no artists.
Now don’t misunderstand. There were beautiful objects, designs, buildings, paintings and sculptures in those ancient days, and those works were made by man, but the works were not considered art and those who made them were not known as artists.
In certain primitive societics there is still no Word for artist. Maybe tbat’s why thcyVe called primitive. Maybe that’s why they still sit calmly hacking logs into magic totems or decorating the sails of their ships to gnaran- tee returning to their families. Their art is real, it's just not known as art.
But snmewhere along the path of history, the world of the man inade began to hc dividecl. And the works of man that dealt with magic and svmhols and décoration wcrc assignée! To separate catégories. Works of high culture were set a pari and attributed to the “artists," while the rest works of ordinary life and practical usage remained with the masses.
This notion spreacl with civilization, and the gap hetween the work of artists and the work of ordinary men grew witler. Art schools were developed, and even unions (guikls) to assure that no intruders got into the sacred halls of art without credentials. Artists hecame magicians, instead of what had been, originally, the other way arouncl.
But as the world of art and artists hecame more tightly organized. The grcat works of ordinary man went underground. Or overground, as in the case of cities. For. While individual architects were designing individ- ual buildings to be admired by individual art critics, the ciliés in which those building were being bu il t were growing into some of the greatest works of art of man. It's just that nobody can see them as such without the label “art." (And as partial proof ol this, note that ihc astrotiauts reported thaï tlie only work of man that can he seen from outer space is the (beat Wall of China. Now that’s nonsen.se. If you can see a wall that’s only a few yards wicle. Surelv you can see Miami. Or Tokyo. Or Shanghai, which is the rnost populated citv in tîie world. But nobody astronauts included ever thinks of cities as grcat works »f art.)
Much of man’s imrecognized art went hig, like Tth of July parades, steam locomotives, fire engines and tnov- ies (until the intellecluals caught up with them. T lie art had to slip ont the side door ol' the movie house and sneak into the TV studio, where it found a home in commercials) and the rest went small.
SmalL as in personal. Personal art.
For the People, By the People
Personal art lias always been the propertv of’ordinarv people, but even that lias suffered from the tyranny of how we think of art. Believe it or not, in some societics it even reached the point where people were afraid to send a home-made hirthday t ard to soineone in the familv, or buy and place the furniture in their own homes, You may have heard ol such a culture it’s our own,
Our greeting caïds are created hy artists. Our homes are decorated by them, Our dothes are désignée! By them, and the designers* naines are now considérée! So superior to ours t liât we wear them openlv displayed across our cliests and runips. So rigidlv are our picto- i ia 1 images shaped hv artists that for a while we painted hv numbers to fill in their works. Wc don’t do that much anymore. Instead. Wc buy full kits for traits, which tell us everv step to take to make a (Tiristmas décoration. Or a pillow cover. Or whatever.
Mosi of us don’t have an artist’s union card, which would let us frecly take a hrusli or pen or pencil, clav or wax or plasticine. Cloth or thread or colorcd varn, just about anything. And use il to express ourselves.
Why don’t we? Because we know thaï art’s too liard. W’e know that art’s for artists. Art takes talent. ‘Tve got a nephew who had real talent. Went to art school. Tried teaching for awhile, but now he's sel)ing. Something to do with computers, I think. Makes good money. Don't think he paitits much anymore. Had a real talent for it, DoesuT run in the familv, though. I could never draw a straiglit line with a ruler, know what 1 mean?"
1 aient doesnt corne in straiglit lines. In fact, nohodv
knows what talent is. Other than a intense and focused interest in whatever art form is availahle. Talking about a lack *>1 talent is simplv an excuse for not trying, which means that it is not too late to take back what is ours our “personal art," created as a part of living, not accorcling to some school or trend or theory of aesihelics.
T his spécial kind of personal art lias ils own history. It’s the sampler ou the wall clone hy grcat grandmother some SO years ago. Not the first try that nsually fol* lowed the traditional old patterns but the ones clone later, the ones that she désignée! Herself. Or lier quilts. Or lier ncedlepointed chair seats. Or décorations throughout hcr house. A mvriacl of touchings through a lifetime.
1 he image of Beatrix Potier decorating lier letters with tiny walercolor paintings sccms dated, like something from a lost past a small rabbit iti a small garden behind a quiet cottage in England. Unrelated to our tontemporary world. But designing one’s own staiion- cry is quite possible, including kceping the décorations up-to-date. It doesn t take much to make this world more personal.
Art and art
OR. So what's ail this got to cio with computers? Spe* cifically, wliat’s il got to do with the Amiga?
Well, nothing. Or a little. Or a lot. Il ail dépends on who and what you are, and how and whv you use your new Amiga. If you are a businessman who wants a computer just for spreaclsheets and the like. You probable have not even read this far. If you are a programmer who wants to design new spreadsheets, likewise. If plav- ing games is ail you bought the Amiga for. You’re busy right now aiming your guns at the alien invaders in their super-hyperstarships, or jumping your little ani- mated plumher from the first floor to the second before the plaster falls off the roof and mashes him fiat.
But. If you arc more than a single-fucus user of Amiga, if you make time for fooling around with the computer every now and then. If youTe curions and wonder what this thing might du. If you’re wilüng tu go beyond the man ual and experimem with tlie machine, including linking it to others such as a VCR, vou might,
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Portability doesn't mean sacrificing protection or quality either. The Easel is made of heavy-duty, water-resistant (and anti-static) nylon, and reinforced to guard against impact. Velcro closings keep diskettes safely in their individuel pockets no matter how rough the transport. And The Easel is available in five super cofors: silver-grey, burgundy. Blue, red and lavender.
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just might be interested in the but thaï you have acccss to a way into ihe world of an.
Not “An ! Not Art with a capital "A ". I mean “art’’ with a small ‘‘a” no fri Ils, unglorified, inconsequen- tial II[AI art.
Now, the Amiga isn’t going to build cities, create parades or build locomotives or fire engincs. Nor is it (piite up to créât ing télévision commercials for the net- works (although it is quite possible to use the Amiga lot less ex pensive, less tcehnically sophisticated TV commercials on the local level). But the Amiga may be the ultimate personal computer.
I he key word here is “personal.” The Amiga computer gives you access to the world of personal art. Not the work of an artist, not the work of a painter or sculptor or prinimakcr who sirugglcs with lus vision and his medium, conqucrs il, then has his work interred in the mausolcum of an art muséum. It is rather the personal art that is born in and gets its life force from the personal world of the ordinary person and is then reflccted hack into his world, to reveal what was and to affect what will be.
What about a birthday card inade, not with clumsy crayons, but with Amiga graphies? Not designed by someone elsc, but something that the child built step by step. What about a card that’s custom inade for Grand- nu h lier? What about Christmas cards designed by the whole family and printed in full color right at home?
Or is Mallmark somehow better at love than we are?
George Kaslman invented one of the greatest of ail personal art media when lie came up with the Kodak caméra and its snapshots to record the family's time. Most récent ly, the video recorder has held the greatest promise ofbecoming the art medium of ordinary people, but it hasn't really caught on yet. Maybe it will.
N’ow the Amiga is here, with its remarkable graphies capabilities and ils unic|ue capacity to superimposc computer graphies over video images. It is disticily possible that Amiga will replace many of the media used in the past and présent for personal art before it’s through. Maybe that’s the most important point: Amiga may be the appropriate medium for personal art in the Electronic Age.
But ail this cloes seem far from the image of Beatrix Botter with hcr gentle watercolors, or a child holding a crayon tight, with tongue sticking out of one corner of the mouih, working on a birthday card for Grandma. Where is the humanity in a computer s keyboard, moni- tor and printer?
The humanity is in the mind of the person using it. The computer, regardlcss of its miraculous technology, îs just another medium, just another tool. But it should he remembered that there is no more humanity in grouiid pigment mixed with gum arabic to make Miss Bot ter s watercolors than there is in a plastic keyboard, glass picture tube and métal printer. The medium has never held the human élément. Rocks are rocks and wood is wood, and people make them tell of fear or dreams or loving.
Miss Potter’s tiny paintings of Beter Rabhii were to illustrale lier letters to lier niece and nephew. It is not suggested that we can ail write so well, but the station- erv that we write 011 could be designed to reflect something of who we are. Such designing can be donc by professional artists. At high cost both in money and in feel ing. Or stationery could be designed and printed on the Amiga, one shect at a time carefully, beautifullv and personally.
If one considers tlie child and the birthday card, the images ol working with a crayon or working on an Amiga keyboard are not really in conflict. In fact, the keyboard may be closer to the child’s world now. A place where lie or she feel.s comfortable. Our children are learning how to survive in the 2Ist centurv, and crayons may not be much help.
1 he greatest danger lies in sonie clown’s coming out with a program called “Greeting Card For Ail Occasions” for only S39.95. This will convince half of our génération that we were right when we passed on the job of telling someone else we loved them.
I util then, there is still hope, and good things will be donc.
In the past, personal art lias induded fabric designs and designs with fabric. People dyed their own mate- rials, chose color, texture and even patterns, if they knew the tricks. Some of this is still alive in work like quilting, needlepoint and embroidery. But again, unfor- tunatcly. Most of tfie designing has been turned over to the artists, and their work is now in kits for an voue to buy.
The kits aren’t needed. The designs for these fine crafts can ail be done on an Amiga yes and even though these crafts have corne down through the centuries, they arc here now. And they will gain new life if they are integraled into this âge. They should not be récréations of the past, but créations of the prescrit for the future.
“Computer-designed” sounds wonderfully technologi- cal, and it may help to sell cars or stéréos. But “computer-designed" sounds cra y for a quilt or needlepoint. But it isn’t. Computer-designed mcans simplv that the design for the pièce was done on a computer using a graphies program to make designing faster. The conception is the designers, not the machine’s. The trials and errors belong to the human, not the micro- chips. The beauty and the mean ing belong to the person, not the machine.
Yirtually any pattern can be created and printed with the Amiga. As Amiga graphies can be repeated very simplv to form cotnplex designs, il makes such things relatively easy. The priniout can contain the notes for colors or stiiehery that may be needed latcr. Further, the ability to store the design, then go back and change any pari that nceds it without having to do the whole thing over again encourages experimenting and allows for painless altering and correcting.
These arc techniques available in our world, techniques that great grandmother would have given lier taise teetli for. And thev should be used.
CW Communications, ComputerLand and The Computer Muséum invite you to send in your early personal computers, software, and memorabilia you could win a free trip to The Computer Muséum in Boston
Your old, dusty “thinker toy” may now be ready to become a treasured muséum piece.
The Computer Muséum in downtown Bos- ton an international muséum dedicated entirely to computing is searching for the very best and most unique relies of the Personal computer révolution.
ComputerLand, CW Communications, and The Computer Muséum are gether to these early relies out of your attic and into the collection of The Computer Muséum. The muséum is es- pecially looking for kit machines, prototypes, programs, output, newsletters and memorabilia of early computing from around the world. A sélection of the finest items will be used to create an exhibit on the
évolution of personal computers and a cata- log highlighting the Museum’s collections. If your sub- mission is accepted for addition to the Muséum collection, you will be invited to the grand open- ing of the exhibit and will receive a bound édition of the catalog. If your item is selected as one of the five best “finds”, you will also receive an ail-expense-paid trip to Boston for the grand opening party.
So, get up to the attic, down to the cellar and into your closets, and tell us what you find! Call or write the Muséum for an official entry A M JL. Sl form, or send a photo
licyV y fs and description of your
items by March 1, 1986 to: The Computer Muséum, Personal Computer Compétition, 300 Congress St., Muséum Wharf, Boston, Massachusetts USA 02110, (617) 426-2800, Telex: 62792318.
Lntries will be judged on signif icance, raricy, date, completness and condition. Items parricularly sought include pre-1980 machines, early serial numbers (get those number l’sout), machines made for purebase oucside of North America (even modem machines are sought in this eategory); first releases of software sucli as first releases of operacing syscems, languages and mass-marketed and original applications; and pre-1980 photographs, newsletters, manuals and other records. The Computer Muséum is a private non-profit educarional institution. Ail donations are tax-deducrible according to the provisions of the Internai Revenue Service. Thinker Toys is a registered trademark of George Murrow Sc Murrow Designs. Inc.
Manx Aztec C68k Am The C for the Amiga
Manx Software Systems will soon release an incredibly powerful, portable, and professional C Development System for the Amiga microcomputer:
Manx Aztec C68k Am
THE FIRST CHOICE OF PROFESSIONALS
Manx Aztec C Software Development Systems are used widely by professionals to produce software for business, educational, scientific. Research, and industrial applications. Manx Aztec C is the first choice of professional C developers because Manx Aztec C Development Systems produce high quality code, are unsurpassed for portability, are bundled with powerful time saving utilities like make and vi, and because Manx Software Systems provides timely technical support.
NATIVE AND CROSS DEVELOPMENT
Manx Aztec C Software Development Systems are avail- able as cross and native development Systems. Manx Software Systems has provided C cross development Systems since 1980. No other C cross development System offers the complété, professional cross development environment provided by Manx. Every cross development System includes the optimized Aztec C compiler, an assembler, linkage editor, an object file librarian, a full set of UNIX and général utility libraries, and in some environments, such as MS-DOS and the Apple Macintosh, an array of time saving UNIX utilities like make, diff, and vi,
Manx also provides différent levels of Aztec C to meet the différent demands and budgets of a wide range of software developers. The commercial System, Manx Aztec C-c, includes an optimized C compiler, assembler, linker, object librarian, général library routines, library source, and extend- ed library- and utility routines. The developers System, Manx Aztec C-d, includes an optimized C compiler, assembler, linker, object librarian, and général library routines. The Personal system, Manx Aztec C-p, includes a less optimized C compiler, does not have an assembler, and has fewer library and utility routines. Each system is unbeatable for price- performance, Each system is upgradable.
Manx Aztec C68k Am-c ..$ 499
Manx Aztec C68k Am-d ..$ 299
Manx Aztec C68k Am-p ..S199
Manx .Aztec MS-DOS to C68k Àm Cross ... $ 500
To order or for information call 1-800-221-0440,
1-800-TEC WARE, or 201-530-7997. Orders can be payed via check, COD, VISA, MASTER CARD, American Express, or net 30 to qualified customers.
Portability: Manx Aztec C is also available for the Macintosh, MS-DOS, CP M-86, CP M-80, APPLE II, TRS-80, and Commodore 64 128.
Birthday cards, stationery, even fabric and stitchery designs are typical of die personal art of the past that can be brought up to the présent by the Amiga. An cxiended list of similar Creative activities might include designing holiday décorations, gardens, interiors and even exteriors the possibilité that varions colors could he tested on a stop frame image of your bouse before you invest in the paint is really quite exciting, and quite possible using the Amiga, a VCR and Amiga’s
- 1.096 colors. (Who'sjob was it to count them?) And the design of displays for collections of siamps or coins or vvhatever tends to get collected in your housc. And the création of a modcl railroad lavout, and. . .
And that's enough. The idca of using an Amiga with a graphies program to create the designs for aluiost anvthing that neecls designing is not dilficult to under- stand. Whafs difllcult is to stop thinking of the computer as just a calculator, wortl processor and a fil ing system and accept the idea that the Amiga can corne out of the office and into the life of the family in ways we h a vend thoughi of before.
Taking It Personally
For ail this to happen, two things must occur. The hrst is that the ordinary person must start thinking ol the computer as a normal part of h is or her existence, not just something to be used for “serious” business, or a machine for kids to play gaines on.
When caméras were massive boxes using glass plates and stinkiiig Chemicals, few ordinary people used thern. When George Eastman came along with h is small, sim- ple-clicking, no-chemicals-nccded box caméra, the people of the world became photographers. A similar situation is happening with computers.
Most people in our society don t own a personal computer, and many of those who do have not inte- grated it into their lives in the saine way as their caméras, TV sets and microwave ovens. When they finallv
do, they will find that the computer’s graphies capalhl ity can become a part of the way they solve their every- day design problems.
The second thing that must happen inay well he even more important. People must put aside the perception that art is something just for “artists,” something the average person has no business messing with. They must discover that therc is a whole universe of personal art. Available to vinually everyone a world of art where they can express their ideas, their visions and their feelings.
Lhe Amiga will not change the average persorfs world ail by itself, but. With its incrediblc potential for graphie design and visual expression, the Amiga cet- tainly points the way to the future of personal art. With the help of the Amiga, the word “personal” in "personal computer” is growing bigger and more mcaning- ful every day.H
Address ail authar correspondence to Scott Wright, 54 Vly Rond, Albany, NY 12205.
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Aegis Images aWows you to create amazing pièces of computer art ox add detaWedback* grounàs to your animations made with Aegis Animator. Designed to meet the needs of pro- fessionai artists, Aegis Images supports both "520x200 and 640x200 graphies modes with up to 22 eoiors tout of a possibie 40%i on the screen at a time. Avariety of artisttoois are inciuded with the System, inciuding a choice of 20 brushes, airbrush with variable nozzie and spray, giow, wash, smear, gradient fi and dith- ering, single and multiple coior cyciing, and much more'. Once you bave created an image, you may move it, magnify it, rotate it, eut and copy it. Aegis Images a so supports structured sbapes such as hues, curves, circies, points, arcs, triangles, poiygons, paraiieiograms, and text. Both Aegis Animator and Aegis Images use the Amiga standard FF fiie format for easy data transfer to other programs.
There s no hmit to the oumber of effectsyou can now create using Aegis
Aeg is Animât or they mahe adynamie team', hlith a combine puceun er . Animator or Aegis
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Amiga’s Régional Représentatives
l'he folhnoing is a list of official Amiga représentatives and the territories they cover. Contact the appropriate représentative for information on the availability of the Amiga in your area.
A B 8c T Sales Corporation
2000 Valley Forge Circle 121*122
Ring of Prussia. PA 19406 215 783-7011 215 783-7228
Marketing Link, Inc.
7 100 E. Belleview Fnglewood, CO 80111 303 773-6700
1544 Sawdust Road
Plie Woodsland, TX 77380
2845 Temple Beach Long Beach. CA 90806 213 424-0061-
Norman Yohav Associates *
8 Bond Street
Great Neck, XV 1 1021
Virginia. Maryland. Delaware, New Jersey (north lo and in- cluding Mercer and Burlington Counties), Eastcrn Pennsylvania (east of but not including Cam- bria. Centre, Cameron, Somerset and McKean Counties)
Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico. Utah. Wyoïning, Montana (west to and including Blaine, Fergus, Wheatland, Sweet Grass, Still- water and Carbon Counties), Idaho (west to and including Fermont, Clark, Butte, Custcr, Blaine, Camas, Gooding and Fwin Falls Counties), FI Paso, Texas
Oklahoma, Arkansas. Louisiana, Texas (cxcluding El Paso)
Hawaii, Southern California lin- ci uding Impérial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernadino. San Diego, Ventura, San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara), Southern Nevada (only Clark County)
Northern New Jersey (south lo and including Huntçrdon, Somerset, Middlesex, Monmouth and Océan Counties), New York (including Rockland, Westches* ter, Nassau and Suffolk Counties), New York City (including Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, Bronx and Staten Island), Con- tiecticut (Fairfield County only)
2002 Teall Avenue Syracuse, NY 13206 315 437-2992
Promark Sales, Inc.
7334 NW 5th Street Plantation. FF 33317 305 584-0844
Tech Plus, Inc.
35 Marsh Road Needham, MA 02192-0212 617 449-5429
155 Chesterflckl Industrial Blvd. Chesterfield, MO 63017 314 532-6133
7 Nash Street Greenville, SC 29601 803 235-0291
501 Archdalc Drive, Suite 218 Charlotte, NC 28210 70 1 527-6816 (NC)
221 1 Lakeside Drive Bannockburn, II. 60015 312 234-591 I
505 South Iligh Street Columhus, ()11 43215 614 464-1506
New York State (cxcluding Long Island, West Chester, Rockland and the 5 boroughs of Nassau and Suffolk Counties)
Florida (west to but not including Jackson, Calhoun and Gulf Counties)
Vermont, Connecticut (exclud- ing Fairfield County), Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire and Rhode Island
Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas, lowa and Southern Illinois (up to and including Madison,
Bond, Fayette, Fffingham, Jasper and Crawford Counties)
Tennessee, North Carolina. South Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama and Florida (west to and including Jackson, Calhoun and Gulf Counties)
Illinois (south to and including Jersey, Macoupin, Montgomerv. Shelby, Cumberlarid and Clark Counties). Wisconsin (west to and including Ashland. Price, Taylor, Clark, Jackson. Monroc, Vernon. Crawford and Grant Counties), Michigan (upper Pen- insula only)
Indiana, Kenlucky, Ohio, West Virginia, Pennsylvania (east to and including Cambria, Centre, Cameron, Somerset and McKean Counties)
Unique applications, tips and stuff
1 1200 W. 781 h
Eclen Prairie, MN 55344
4415 Cowell Road Suite 2020 Concord, CA 94518 415 674-1175
Richard Reeves 8c Associates
6415 S V Canyon Crt.
Portland, OR 97221 503 292-3585
Richard Reeves 8c Associates
2775 152nd Avenue, NE Redmond. WA 98052 206 881-8778
Jay Schude 8c Associates Michigan (lovver Peninsula only)
215 North Fifth Avenue Ann Arbor, MI 48104 313 665-6222
North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Western Wisconsin (as far as and including Bay* field, Sawyer, Rusk, Chippewa, Eau Claire, Trempealeau and La Crosse Counties)
Northern California (south to luit excluding Kern, San Berna- dino and San Luis Obispo Counties), Nevada (excluding Clark County)
Washington, Oregon, Montana (east to but excluding Blaine, Fergus, Wheatland, Svveet Grass, Stillwater and Carbon Counties), Idaho (east to but excluding Fremont, Clark, Butte. Custer, Blaine, Gainas, Gooding and Twin Falls Counties) and Alaska
You may be using your Amiga at work, you may be using it at home, or you may be using it in the back seat of your car, but in some way or other, you are going to be using your Amiga in a slightiy différent way than anyone else. You are going to be running across little things that will help you to do something faster or easier or more elegantly.
AmigaWorld would like to share those shortcuts, ideas, unique applications, programming tips, things to avoid, things to try, etc., with everyone, and we'll reward you for your efforts with a coiorful, appetizing, official AmigaWorld T-shirt. (Just remember to tell us your size.)
Send iî in, no matter how outrageous, clever, obvious, humorous, subtle, stupid, awesome or bizarre. We will read anything, but we won't return it, so keep a copy for yourseif. In cases of duplication, T-shirts are awarded on a first corne,
first serve basis.
So, put on your thinking berets and rush those suggestions to:
Hors d’oeuvres AmigaWorld éditorial 80 Pine St.
Peterborough, NH 03458
We occasionally make our mailing list available to other companies or organizations with products or services which we feel might be of interest to you. If you prefer that your name be deleted from such a list, please fill out the coupon below or affïx a copy of your mailing label and mail it to:
CW Communications Peterborough AmigaWorld PO Box 868 Farmingdale, NY 11737
Please deiete my name from mailing lists sent to other companies or organizations, AmigaWorld
Roger halls from Port Washington, New York. He studied at the Stevenson Academy of Traditional Painting in Sea Cliff. New York from 1973-75 and at the Art Students League of New York from 1977-79. His work has been exhibited with the Allied Artists of America, the Knickerbocker Artists Association and others. He has received several awards, prizes and scholarships for his work.
Digital Canvas is designed to be a showplace for Amiga artists. This issue features the work of free-lance artist Roger Goode.
Over the years, Roger has clone pen-and-ink drawing and both realistic and impressionistic oil painting. In the past few months, he has been doing free-lance illus- trating for magazines.
Roger was just recently introduced to the Amiga, and he spent two weeks experimenting with its graphies capabilities, using it to imitate traditional art forms and to create unique, computer-generated effects. Prior to this, he had no expérience with computer graphies.
The work clisplayed here is the resuit of that expérimentation.
Roger is thinking of using the Amiga in his free-lance work. He feels that the Amiga lends itself to doing illustrations, since it gives the artist flexibility and allows him to experiment with palettes, brushes and patterns.
“The Amiga has opened new possibilities for me as an artist,” says Roger. “When I first thought about computers and art. With ail the hype about it being the wave of the future. I was disdainful about the whole idea. But after seeing the Amiga, 1 realize that it’s another legitimate medium for an artist.”¦
can t tlo
t you 11
désignée! For AMIGA
Lutice® recognized as an innovator in software development, has clone it again. Only this time, Lattice is unveiling a full line of software packages for the new personai computer that gives you a Creative edge The Amiga by Commodore.
The revolutionary features of Amiga have drawn second looks from just about everyone. But while evervone was looking, Lattice was busy at work créât - ing programmer tools and applications software that will give the word versatility a whole new meaning.
Programs like the Lattice Screen Eciitor™ with a unique multi-window environment for preparing and editing text. Or Lattice Make 17 7 0'™ for rebuilding compîex svstems at a single command. 1 here s also Lattice MctcUbraiy™ with more than sixty C func- tions for those who feel close to Mac.
But these are just a few of the programs that have been created bv Lattice for Amiga. Also available now are là t ica le® dBC ™ and lattice Text Utilities.™ And many more on the horizon.
Its onlv a matter of time before Amiga rides to the top. And when you use Lattice software, you 11 find that its only a matter of saving you time.
Amiga's 4 channels of stereo give you a sound advanîage
AMIGA's 4,096 colors give your business graphies a visible a ci van race.
Learning on Amiga is higher éducation.
¦ Amigc is a trcdemar of Commodcre-Amgc. Inc ’ Macintosh is a trademerk hcensed to Apple Computer inc.T IBM is a registered traderrerk of international Business Machines, inc lotus is a registered tredemark of Lotus Development Corporation & dBase is o registered trademark of Ashton Tate inc © 1985. Commodore Electronics Limited
l LOT OF COMPETITION. JNFAIR ADVANTAGE.
Nobody ever said it was going to be easy. But it just got easier. Now, there's Amiga.™ The first and only computer to give you a Creative edge.
Amiga makes you look better, sound better, work faster and more productively. It can be your number cruncher, filing sysfem, audio-visual department, graphie designer, print shop and faithful workhorse.
You can't buy a personal computer at any price that has ail of Amiga's features. Nor can you find one fhahs easier to use. Amiga lefs you point at symbols instead of learning compli- cated commands.
Amiga is friendly but it's a power- house, too. !t has twice the memory of Macintosh™ or IBM® PC. It costs less than either of them and can do everything they can do, better, because Amiga is more Creative.
No other personal computer gives you over 4,000 colors, stereo sound and incredible dimension. Imagine the advantage of preparing business présentations with color graphies and sophisticated animation righî on your computer.
Need to make Creative use of your time? Amiga can do as many as four or five things at once in separate Windows on the screen. Not just display them. Work on them. No other personal computer can.
Amiga will print the cover mémo while you're working on a spread- sheet. And there's probably enough power left over to receive a phone message or a stock quofe over a modem at the same time.
Amiga is iBM-compatible, too. A simple piece of software teaches Amiga to emulafe the IBM operating System, so you can run most IBM programs. You'll have instant access to the largest library of business software in the world, including favorites like Lotus® 1,2,3 and dBase®
And since Amiga is the last computer you'll want to buy It was onlÿ fait to make it endlessly expandable and adaptable. You can plug in print- ers (almost any kind), joysticks, your video recorder, video caméra, modems, musical keyboards, drawing pads, extra disk drives. You can even expand the memory to a whop- ping 8 megabytes.
Amiga will talk to you, read back what you write, answeryour phone and compose music like a profes- sional synthesizer. It can add new creativity to your lîfe and bring new life to everything you create.
See an Authorized Amiga Dealer nearyou. Now that Amiga is here, the question isn't whether you can afford a computer, it is whether you
can afford to wait.
Amiga by Commodore
AMIGA GIVES YOU A CREATIVE EDGE.
Telecommunicating in the Small-Business World
By Margaret Morabito
The business and professional world is on-line around the clock and around the world. Small busi- nesses can now afford to participate in computeri ed télécommunications activity, whcreasjusi a few years ago the cost of computer and modem equipment would have been prohibitive. With an office computer such as the Amiga. Your business will not only be able to com- pete with larger. Weahhier, computerized businesscs, but Vf)ii will actuallv be in the forciront of business télécommunications technology and will be able to participait* 111 ail of the new télécommunications aelivities now being developed.
I he Amiga's multitasking, fast processor speecl, graphies and speech synthesis will work togelber to produce télécommunications activities whicb bave not vet been availablc to the office environment. Thcse will include video image transfer, svnchrnnized audio-video transfers and bigli-iesolution business graphies transfer. Ail accomplisbed while running other computer applicai ions.
This article will iiuroduce you to the traditional ways in which télécommunications activities have been help* ing businesses and the professions. The on-line net* works summarized here are providing opportunities in three broad areas for increased productivity in the office.
Information gathering, communications and transac- lional activities are the three areas into which ail télécommunications activities fall. Eacli area is tapped with the same equipment: a pcrsonal computer and a modem; however, each provides a differeni focus. The underlying goal in ali cases is to promote a faster. More efficient exchange of information which resu Its in increased productivity and increased profit.
Information gathering is important to tnost professions and businesses. With today’s fast pace and “smallcr world, this job becomes barder without elec- tronic communications equipment like a computer. Across the nation and across the world, business (rends, politicai news events and even the weather are areas which can affect business décisions on a dailv basis.
Professions, such as law and other research fields, requirc dailv access to huge amounts of information.
Much of this information is archived and unchanging; however. There is so much information that a logical and quick search process is necessary. lost profession- als don’t have the time to spend days in libraries locat- ing case historiés, rulings and other information. Using the personal computer to access existing on-line information services is a logical and necessary requircmcnt for the speed, cotnprehensiveness and accuracy requit ed in serions research.
Communications is the second area which is at the heart of tnost business activity. Let's face it, the mai! Services we have to work with are often too slow and ton unreliable. Proposais, information transfer and discussions are ail wound into the process of running an active business, lmmediacv becomes important when the work How of a business dépends upon décision makers having the facts in hand.
If you have to wait four to five days for a proposai to corne in, or even wait overnight, the delay could prove unworkahle when deadlines have to be met, or when a competiior is sitting on instant information exchange via computer.
Electronic mail and teleconferencing are two major business communications activities. Business reports, proposais, mémos, business graphies, letters, articles and updates can be sent and received with a computer and modem. You can even reserve a private workspace on a netwnrk whcre you can store important information, liâmes, addresscs and phone numhcrs for use at the press of a key.
Your pcrsonal computer allows fast transfer of information. And not only to others who have computers (although this is idéal). You can also send batch mailings and individual correspondcnce to anyonc in the world whether or not they have a computer. You can ?
Lotograph by Edward (udicc
: migfi Yurtd 57
choose (rom four-hour to ovcrnighi delivery, depcnding on your needs. Your clectronic mai] service will send your communication electronically to a cily close to your destination, print oui a hardcopy and then have a courier hand deliver the paper mail to the récipient, Teleconferencing becomes important when vour business fias branches in différent locations across the continent. The business trip has been the mainstav of business communication; however. Transportation of personnel is not necessary in many cases. Your ideas are most important, and ideas can be quite easily shared in a group setting over the on-line networks.
The business trip has been the mains tay of business communication; however, your ideas can now be shared in a group setting over the on-line networks.
With the new audio-video transfer abilities now being developed for the Amiga, a group will actually be able to be seen and henrd via computer, with no one having to leave their offices.
The third major télécommunications activitv involves transactional services. These activities traditionally involve the exchange of producis, services and money.
Xo longer is it necessary to buy a plane ticket in person, You can log onto one of several networks, check out the flight schedules and rates, and make the réservation while on-line. This applies as well to hôtel réservations, automobile reniai and other sen ices traditionally tied in with business traveï.
Banking is becoming more prévalent on-line. Your business could set up its accounts on a vidéotex net- work and actually have ail money transfers donc via personal computer. Rather than physically handing over vour monetary transactions at your bank, the shuf- fling of money can be done electronically. Bank state- ments are already generated by computer. The advantage to on-line banking is thaï you can see the statc of your accounts any time you want, and you can transfer funds anvtime.
If you have a personal computer and manage a busi ness, or are in a professional field, your computer can he much more productive il you use a modem. You wi discover that certain aspects of your work load can be significantly reducecl, freeing your time for other important tasks.
What follows is a summary of ten on-line networks which are likely to appeal to business and professional users. Ihese are just a sampling of the networks and topics available within each network and arc provided to help introduce you to the wide variety of business services available on-line.
CompuServe's Executive Information Service 5000 Arlington (-entre Blvd.
Columbus, OH 43220
CompuServe is one of the most well-known on-line information networks aniong ail types of teiecommunb cators. Many valuable business services are available on CompuServe through ils Executive Information Service (EIS), E1S provides a combination of communications oppommities, business information and transactional services. EIS lets you send and receive électionic messages to and from your business contacts who also use EIS.
Through an électron ic conferencing section your business can set up an on-line conférence with participants from across the continent. Additionally, professional forums are contiuually being offered. These forums are headed by experts in a chosen field and are a valuable method for exchanging the latcst information on topics affecting your business.
In addition to communications, EIS offers a large ainount of news and information. News from the Associated Press is available. You can take advantage of the EIS news clipping service, which will collcct articles from around the world on your chosen topic and store them in your private electronic file area. (The Washington Post provides an electronic newsletter on CompuServe.)
Additionally, a large amouni of iiivestment information can be fourni on CompuServe. Standard and Poor’s, Value Line, Disclosure II and Money Market Services are some of the offerings,
Transactional services include travel services for air and ground travel. You can gather information on-line and then make réservations.
Dow Jones News Retrieval Dow Jones and Company, Inc.
PO Box 300 Princeton. NJ 08540
The Dow Jones News Retrieval (DJN R) is primarily known for its business and fmancial information. Fivç large arcas exist within DJN R. First, you can get compréhensive and fast access to The Wall Street Journal. Rar- ron’s and the Dow Jones News Service. You can browsc through The Wall Street Journal by readiug highlights, headlines, the front and back page feat tires, market pages and éditorial columns. A review of the week's
économie cvcnls is also availahlc*.
The Dow Joncs Text-Search Services Ici you read ihe complété stories that have been in The Wall Street Journal since January 1984,
For communications, DJN R offers free access to MCI Mail (détails later in this article). You can send electronic and hard copy mai! Worldwide.
Stock and investment information ahoutid on D|N R. Dow Jones cjuoies, company earnings forecasts and detailed information of U.S. and international compa- nies is available.
In addition, the Official Airline Guide lets you galber flight information on-line.
1616 Anderson Road Mc lean, VA 22102
The Source offers businesses a wide variety of services. You can get recent news stories and continuai updates on business news. United Press International, the Associated Press, The Washington Post, Scripps-How- ard News Service and Financial Market Reports are atnong the news offerings.
Business and investing services includc STC SSI Investor services, investment data and analysis, financial market reports and news, Financial services index and a business bulletin board.
Communications services are also available on The Source. SourceMail lets you send and receive business corrcspondence to other subscribers. Conferencing is available. For furtlier corrcspondence, ifs possible to send Mailgram messages on this network.
Transactional services include air scheduling, hôtel and restaurant information and travel agency services.
General Vidéotex Corporation 3 Blackstone Street Cambridge, MA 02139
Delphi is a large on-line network which provides a good deal of business related information and service. Delphi provides electronic mail senices for subscribers, but il also lets you send mail to non-computerists by Western Union Telex. Furthermore, through Delphi you can gain access to ÜLVLOG, one of the most sophisti- cated collections of on line databases.
Airline scheduling and réservations, appointaient and scheduling facilities, on-line conferencing. Commerce Business Daily on-line, a 20,000-ctitry encyclope- dia, mailthrough to other information networks such as CompuServe, newsletters, sccurities transactions and prices, travel services, typesetting, wire service news and word processing are sonie of the varied services available through Delphi.
BRS Information Technologies 6 So. Bryn Mawr Ave.
Bryn Mawr, PA 19010
BRS offers many bibliographie services and is aimed primarily at public libraries, universities, collèges, spe- cille business and professiona! Users. If you need information, BRS is the service to look into. You can searcli for topics of need on a wide variety of .subjects in the following areas: science and medicine, business and finance, refcrence, éducation, social science and humanities, and energy and environment.
L'hese aie broad catégories, each containing many snbtopics. You will also be able to seaicli prolessional journals, abstracts, indexes and a full gamin of référencé malerials that you would otherwise have to locale in a large reference librarv.
DIALOG Information Services, Inc.
3460 Hillvicw Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
DIAI.OG is also aimed ai large information users: libraries, collèges, professional services and businesses. Most of the databases in DIALOG are bibliographie. Subjects include agriculture and nutrition, chemistry. Medicine and bioscience, energy and environment, science and tcchnology, materials science, patents, business and économies, law and government. Current affairs, social sciences and humanities, éducation, foun- dations and grants.
Also included arc directories such as the Electronic Yellow Pages and Books in Print.
954 Haverldrd Road Bryn Mawr, PA 19010
NewsNet provides business news and information through on-line newsletters, A wide varietv of newsletters in a full range of subject areas are produced in electronic éditions. L’hese newsletters are updated on a régulai* basis.
Newsletters can be read in full, or they can be scanned by headline. NewsNet lias a versatile search feature that will match your input words and phrases with ail the newsletters in their databases.
NcwsXcfs subjects include advertising, marketing, automotive. Construction, chemistry, communications, éducation, clectronics, energy, entertainment, environment. Farming, food, finance, accounting, business, government, insurance, investment, management, public relations, publishing, real estate, taxation, télécommunications and retailing. Plus more.
Mcad Data Central PO Box 933 Davion, OI1 45401
LEXIS is aimed at corporatc libraries, public relations cornpanics, commercial banks, brokerage firms and speeifically, law firms. Lawyers use LEXIS as a source of information for ongoing légal rcsearch.
QuantumLink: Commodore’s New Network
By Margaret Morabito
QuantumLink (QLink) is a new on-line Network avail- able for personal compuicrists. At first, iis services and information will be aimed primarily ai C-64 and C-128 owncrs. Next year. Other computers will be serviced through Qlink. Including the Amiga. Qlink will be one of the first on-line networks to provide Amiga-spe- cîfic software and information targetcd at Amiga owncrs.
Qlink made its début in October and has been de- vcloping toward complet ion since then. The entire concept behind Qi.ink is différent from most of the on-line networks available because this is the first network to be marketed and supportée! By a computer manufacturer for owncrs of its computers.
Qlink is produced by Quantum Computer Services, in Vienna, Virginia. Being softwarespecific, Qlink sub- scribers will need spécial terminal software for access- ing this new network. The software is already available for the C-64 and C-128; Amiga software is under development now and will be available in the spring of 1986.
One strength behind Qlink is its color graphies ca- pahilitîes. The NAPLPS protocol for graphies transférai has been in use on videotext services such as PlayNei and Viewtron for scveral years. Qlink will use this communications protocol to send oui colorful graphies scrcens as well as text displays.
What Does Qlink Offer?
Qlink provides a forum for discussion about computers; it holds software and hardware reviews and the opportunity to download public clomain programs into your computer.
Light major arcas exist within Qlink: Commodore Software Showcase, Commodore Information Network. People Connection, Just For Fun, Shopping Center, Learning Center, News À: Information and Customer Service.
In the Commodore Software Showcase, you can pe* ruse a catalog of commercial programs. Currently over
2,600 programs are in this database. Also, you can ac- tually preview commercial software before you buy it. Through the Software Previews database.
In Qlink's Software Exchange, you can upload and download public domain software. Furthennore, you can uploacl lengthy private messages and programs from a File Transfer section.
I lie Commodore Information Network, formerly on CompuServe. Holds a wealth of information. The Commodore Computer Tutor will let you ask questions about your computer and receive answers on-line. You can view a weekly synopsis of the happenings on CIN in the Commodore Exchange Weekly. Also, you have access to a user group center, Commodore Helpline, and a public message hoard.
T lie People Connection is the social center of Qlink. Ielegaming and on-line chatting are the focus of this section. N hen soltware becornes available for the Amiga, you will be in for a treat. Gaines for the Amiga will be more interactive and detailed than those that have been available on networks iike this for other computers, such as the C-64 and Apple II.
Qlink is not providing information and services just for Commodore computerists. It is compiling a large général interest hase that will in rnany respects resemble what you may have seen on CompuServe and Delphi.
For example, in the Just For Fun section, you will be able to access movic reviews, soap opéra summaries, a Hollywood Hotline report, RockNet Music news, trivia qui . .es and contests.
In Qlink’s Shopping Center, you will flnd Comp-U- Store, an electronîc newsstand, a book store, a music store and a software store. You will also flnd a Learning Center that holds the American Académie Fncyclope- dia, plus the Electronic Univcrsitv Catalog.
For news and information, USA Today evening updates are available in addition to on-line discussion forums. These forums are not Commodore-specific, and will cover a wide variety of topics.
Final]y, the Customer Service Center on Qlink offers accouru and billing serv ices, subscription information, pricing and new service information.
Qlink software is being bundlecl with ail of Commodores new modems, so if you don’t already bave a modem, you won’t pay anything to gel going on this new network. You will also get one month of free access. Il you already have a modem, you pay only S9.95 for the Qlink terminal prograin.
Once you have your software, you pay a monthIv fee of $ 9.95. T his will give you access to most of the services. The First hour of access each month is included in the monlhly fec. Some services will accrue an addi- tional charge of 6 cents a minute; these value-added services will be clearly marked for you.
Along with Qlink’s coinmitment to producing Amiga software, it is also working on adding many new services. For example, national banking, investment services and Financial planning services are being planned for the future.¦
For more information on QuantumLink, contact: Quantum Computer Services 8620 Westwood Center Drive Vienna, VA 22180
(800) 838*9400 for on line registration
(703) 448-8700 for voice information
Information is providecl in full-text f’orm. LEXIS includes a sériés of law libraries and also a full text patent database. The libraries include tlie topïcs of Fédéral law, laws of ail of the fifty states, United Kingdom law and French law.
You can also gain access to DIALOG from within LKXIS.
Instant Yellow Pages
A Division of American Business Lists, Inc.
5639 So. 86th Circle PO Box 273-17 Omaha. NE 68127 (-102) 331-7169
The Instant Yellow Page Service gives you business access to a database of over 6 million U.S. bus in esses. Ovcr 300 différent Yellow Page listings are available.
MCI Mail Box 1001 1900 M St. NW Washington. DC 20036
MCI Mail is one of a growing number of electronic: niail services tailored to personal computer usage, l hrough MCI Mail, you can do more than conimuni- cate with other subscribers. You can send lettcrs and reports to anyone, regardless of whelher the recciving party has a computer or not.
MCI Mail has laser jet printers in major citics across the nation. Your correspondencc can arrive in letter- quality print with your own letterhead printed and even your signature. You can set up a database that holds naines and addresses of your customers. This per- sonalized database makes your correspondent quick and easy.
Like other electronic mai 1 services currently available, you are not limitée! To continental corrcspon- detice. Worldwide Telcx service is available as well as international Courier delivery in over 80 countries.
The large information networks gather databases and services from a wide range of sources, Often, you will f ind that the particular database or service that your business neecls is available oit several large networks. You should check into the offerings of these large networks and décidé which ones (111 most of your business needs. Then you will be better equipped to make a décision as to which networks you wish to join.
For a detailed listing of commercial databases available topics, descriptions and networks from which von can access these databases consul! The Computer Data and Database Source Book, by Matthew les ko, pub- lished by Avon Books. Another source for help is the Information Sources: Annual Directory, edited by Hencler- son. Rosenau and Googins, published by The Information Industry Association.®
Address ail author correspondence to Margaret Moral)ito, ch AmigaWorld éditorial, 80 Pine St., Peterborangh, A7 03458.
PLUG INTO THE WORLD AND EXPAND YOUR UNIVERSE
Your AMIGA is extremely powerful in its own righl. However, if you have noî iinked yourself to the outside world with your AMIGA, you are keeping yourself in the stone âge. These products can help.
AmigaTERM dala communications is the key lo enhancing the power and usefulness of your computer, enabling you lo open doors to a multitude of new resourccs. You can transform your AMIGA into a terminal that will interact with minis and mainframes, exchange information with other computers, news, and timesharing Systems. You can send telex messages and electronic mail worldwide. It can tell you ihe weather in Ft. Worth, the latest quote on TANDY stock, the time of the next flight to Chicago and even reserve a seat for you. You can keep abreast of the latest news in any areaof business, locate the that product you have been searching for, or download a demo version of a new application you want to try out. There is none finer, at only S69.
AmigaMAIL is a powerful electronic bulletin board program that transforms your AMIGA into an online information network. With AmigaMAIL, other computer userscan call your computer and read messages you have left them, leave messages for you, send you a file, or lake a file you have left for them.
Electronic bulletin board Systems have been gaining a tremendous amount of popularily recently as an excellent method for computer users to share information about common interests. There are bulletin boards dedicated to almost every areaof interest or hobby known toman. Mucb of what can be accomplished with a bulletin board, however, dépends on the quality of the software. AmigaMAIL is unequaled in its sophistication. The uniqueness of your bulletin board is limited only by your imagination.
AmigaMAIL was written to make efficient use of the very cuttingedgeof today's tcchnology. It will easily interface toa hard disk or keep up with a 2400 bps modem. Wheïher you want to run a friondly neighborhood bulletin board orbecome the next CompuServe, AmigaMAIL will conform lo fit your needs. Wilh AMIGA's multitasking, you even have the ability to answer the phone while in ''background'’, leaving your AMIGA free for other lasks. You could be writing the next great American novel while your AMIGA answers the phone and takes messages for you. Sophislicated software for your sophisticated hardware, at a down to earth price of S99.
To list the feaîures of these two excellent programs here would require more space than we have. We'd be happy to send you additional literature with complété détails, and ail you need to do is ask. To request information or place an order, contact:
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(800) 327-8724 National, (305) 391-5077 FIorida
AMIGA, CompuServe, AmigaTERM, and AmigaMAIL are trademarks of Commodore-Amiga, Inc., CompuServe, Inc., and Micro-Systems Software, Inc., respectively.
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Here s the deal. You write an article and we buy it. Simple enough? And you thought that it was going to be tough to become a world- famous author. Oh sure, there are a few détails that have to be taken care of first, but they are minor, almost trivial things that we can just skim over.
Typewritten. (You can steal a typewriter or word processor for a few hours, can't you?)
Double spaced. (What could be easier?)
Clean paper. (Who would send us an article on unclean paper? Surely not you!)
Send it to:
80 Pine St.
Peterborough, NH 03458
Self-addressed stamped envelope. (If you can't manage this one, then you don't de- serve to have your manuscript returned.)
Cover letter with name, address, phone number, social security number and description of the article. (You can wing it if you aren't sure.)
And that is it.
Pop it in the mail. Put your feet up and wait those six to eight weeks. From there on in ifs ail gravy. Tons of money. Thousands of fans and admirers writing you letters. Asking for au- tographs and locks of your hair. Guest ap- pearances on network talk shows. Sandwiches named after you. Personal managers. Book and movie contracts. Accountants. Product en- dorsements. Commémorative stamps with your picture on them. Tax shelters. Hot tubs and polo pomes. Jetting to the islands. Nuisance suits. Ribbon cuttings. Contract negotiations. Tax audits. Hours and hours of travel, eating out of vending machines. Riot control. Libel suits against muckraking scandai sheets. Pa- parazzi invading your privacy. Expensive security Systems. Boayguards. Union dues.
Yep. That’s ail there is to it. So, write us a great article about the Amiga computer and, in no time at ail, we will have your name up in lights. But, if you are the least bit hésitant, then send for a copy of our author’s guidelines be- fore you start enjoying.. .the good life.
A Guided Tour Through The World of Interactive Fiction
By Bob Liddil
Advcnture. The very word conjures up visions of bat* tling swordsmen and night créatures swooping low over warriors crouching around a cainpfire. Exotic lands and exciting times entice green youth as well as trav- eled rnen of the world. The key to treasure and con- quest is struggle, against the odds, against defenders and against the nearly impossible puzzles and traps in the path ol those who would rise above themselves.
Adventure is a chronology of ail these elemems in the time llow of Iifc. It pits the imagination of the author against the raw intellect of the player. An apt nickname given to the computer adventure in its inlancy was "comp-u-novel” an appropriate description for a unique style of interactive fiction that weaves a story from beginning to end while încluding the player al the keyhoard in ils scénario.
To understand how to play an adventure on a computer, one inust know a little about the framework cre- ated bv the author. A well-balanced adventure bas six
things that hold it together: a goal, puzzles, dues or puzzle parts, barriers and traps, diversions and rewards. Lefs dissect an adventure and see what makes il tick.
Oui* adventure is called Fear oj"the Beast and is written in a fantasy “swords-and-sorcery” style. Though an adventure can be in any genre or on any theme, this is bv far the most popular. The first thing we do is to read every scrap of documentation provided with the program. Often this includes a dctailed description, in storv form, of tiie world of the adventure and is most
likely chock full of dues that can make the différence between success and failure.
In the folder that cornes with our game is a legend delivered by an ancient bard. Which hints strongly that the Beast is an otherworldlv créature who descended
from the skies on a bail of flame to the castle he now occupies. Our job is to take control of his castle and kill him, to save the world over which he reigns with ruthless and bloody absolu te power, There is some mention of Alabastrian flight soldiers, so we nnist be on the lookout for armed résistance. The bail of flame suggests spacc technology of a sort, so il is possible thaï the trap barricr level will be particularly deadly.
I he goal of this adventure is a simple one: Kill the Beast. We are required to gain cntrance to the castle, successfully journey through a dangerous multilevel maze to eventually (hopefully) put oursclves in a position to deliver a deathblow. We cannot defeat the Beast bare-handed. And no equipment is provided before the game. Therein lies the puzzle,
Inside the adventure. The puzzle takes multiple forms. Knowing what the ultimate goal is leads us to explore in an effort to discovcr the détails of the game environment. In the case of graphics-based adventures, dues may be pictorially displayed on the screen. More often, the pictures are for show and the méat lies in the verbal passages provided.
So the opetiing description reads: "You are in the desert outback. In the distance you see an unguardcd tower rising into the sky. Available directions are north, south, east. West and down." This is followed by a terse question: "What now?," and a blinking cursor inviting your response.
Well, in order to get there, you have to go there. Enteriug the command: GO NORTII elicits a quick reply: "You arc lost in the desert.” GO SOUTH brings us back where we were. East, south again and west ail produce similar resulls; being lost in the desert is driv- ing us crazy. The solution; an elcmentary adventure author trick that we might label GO [OBJECT]. Type GO TOWER and the screen responds "You are at the base of the tower. Icv mist partially obscures the closed door, but you can plainly sec three glowing jcwcls: t iiby, emerald and sapphire, embedded in the wall beside the door."
The author lias chosen to describe his scenes as they would be interpreted by a barbarian or adventurer of bis world, who would see glowing lights or lighted buttons as jevvels. PRESS RED opens the door (that was smart), but the screen informs us that a narrow red beam of light, hotter than the sun, passes through our player cliaracter’s upper body, killing him instantly. Well, somebody forgot to turn off the laser, red is the wrong color to push game’s over. Welcome to the deadfall trap.
Traps and barriers are the author's way of giving you your money's worth in a game. Who’s smarter, the author who devises or the player who defuses? The jew- els are an example ol a barrier that is a trap and a puzzle in one stroke. Pressing red is death by laser. Pressing blue activâtes a truly nasty sub-zero niist that also kills. Pressing green gives no initial response and now the player is back to pounding on the desk again. The correct sequence is green (no response), red (no response), blue (door opens, entrante gainecl). If this is the entry puzzle, just imagine what the goal puzzle is going to be like!
Who’s smarter, the au• thor who devises or the player who defuses?
cxt to the true entrante is a ladder leading up the side of the tower. We type CLIMB LADDER, thinking il might be a less violent way in, which leacls to a ledge. GO LEDGE and EOLLOW LEDGE resuit in several trips around the outside of the tower with the ladder coming into sight about once every three times FOL-
L. OW LEDGE is typecl. Diversions nmst sometimes be explored, but they can be a pain (or worse). No amount of coaxing will get the player character back onto the ladder. Ulnmately, only two ways of cscape can be found: DOWN andJUMP, and both resuit in screaming, bouncing death. Needless to say, we soon abandon the ladder as merely one of the author s practical jokes.
Photograph by Edward Judice
1 lie* rnmrd for ail thaï aggravation and dying from |)iisliing those jewels is entrancc to the tower, but the saine formula applies to any trap barrier scénario. At the end of the hall bevond the entrante door is an upright cabinet with cryptic writing on it. Any time a player sees writing he automatically should type READ. But it doesn't help here. The player character can’t read the alien writing. (I.ater, elsewhere, a bock in his native language is crucial, and il hc’s carelcss and skips it, he will end up in dire trouble.) Opening the cabinet is a breeze. Inside is a jeweled flûte (author's description), decorated with a rubv and a sapphire. (It’s really a hand laser. Red for kill, blue for stun what a prize!)
I lie cabinet is booby ti apped. And il' ifs not reclosed by a spécifie command. CLOSE CABINET, a deadly gas is emitted when a command to move is typed. Nasty. Right? The flûte is the rewarcL the gas is the trap. Clos- ing the door solves the puzzle. Onward and upward,
I he adventure player is far from being at the mcrcy of the author. Although the author has descriptive phrases and cryptic puzzle-weaving at his disposai to make things tough, he rnnst use logic in everything lie does. A suecessful player employs tliis fact and his own
logic to solve the puzzle. T he author must always leave a way oui, except in the case of a deliberate deadfall, and the player needs only to match wits to succeed.
Knowing that our swords-and-sorcery character is dealitigwith a technology situation in Fear of the Reast allows us to employ intuition in différent situations. We may discover after a frustratmg hour of blowing through a flute-shaped liand laser trying to muster a magic tune that POINT FLUTE followed by PRESS RED will cause a beam of red light to atomize a squad- ron of Alabaslrian flight soldiers, or we might suspecL technology (based 011 previous expérience with colored jewels) and [joint it at a wall, melting some obscure unit of furnishing. We may discover that POINT F ELITE and PRESS BLUE will stun the saine group allowing us to SEARCH BODIES to obtain a very important key, or we might stun our player character by pressing blue while he's playing the flûte. The possibili- tics are almost endless.
Each of the éléments of an adventure is interlocking in that the program cannot progress beyond a certain point without a missing élément. For example: The
Ten Golden Rules of the Victorious Adventurer
. Look for dues, hidden or obvions, in the documentation and in the verbal descriptions offered on the screen. Watch for plays on words and puns, or things that look ont of place. Examine everything! Sometimes an innocent rug can hide an important trap door.
2. Explore every nook and cranny. Go in every direction and to every object large enough to be important. Don’t for- gct the directions LTP and DOWN, even though they may not be listed in the officiai command set.
?. Pick up and carry anything movable. Get every- thine you can carry. Store the overload in easy to find
places. Mazes can be conquered by dropping things and moving. If what you’ve dropped disappears, you’ve moved; if not, try a différent direction.
4. Lise or manipulate any object you can. Attempt to gain superiority over whatever you can carry or move.
Il it looks like it does something, chances are, it does.
So try it! Shoot, open, close, push, pull, throw, bend and use are ail verbs that apply action to an object, such as a lever extended from a stone wall. GET could make the lever corne off in your hand. Make things happen.
5. Establish a pattern. Extrapolate the relationship between what is on the screen and the ultimate goal of the game. Tvv to think like the author; use his logic, then apply your own. If something or someone in the game déliés the laws of the universe, look for other laws being broken. Soon it ail becomes clear.
6. Don’t get frustrated. If things aren’t working, go drink a cold lemonade or call up an old friend and talk for a while, Calm down. Remember that you’re paying the author good money to drive you crazy and he’s just doing his job.
7. Employ as much vocabulary as you can muster. Some really obscure things can become perfectly clear by knowing the double meaning of a noun or verb. Look out for those words or phrases that mean one thing to you and another to the player character. With the language of the text being used as interactive communication, wording is the author’s best tool for trickiness.
8. Get into the game. Put yourself in the world of your player character. If you wouldn’t stick your hand in acid. Probable he wouldn’t either. But be bold; climb ladders, swim rivers, enter caves. Learn by doing. When your player character dies, he can be resurrected with the reset button.
9. Make and keep a map. You’ll sleep easier knowing it’s there.
10. Share the adventure with your friends. Sometimes two (or fïve) heads are better than one. Above ail, never givc up there’s no such thing as an unsolvable adventure. Onlv those vet to be solved.
Ilight soldicrs cannot be succcssfully cngagcd without ihe llule. So bypassing the cabinet after it kills you once or twice simply results in deatb up the road. Àtomizing the flight soldicrs destroys the key, which assumes no importance uni il you try to open a weap- ous room without it or get torn to shreds attacking an armored beast with a hand laser vvhen mueh heavier weaponry is rcquired.
Aller slogging up and down corridors, engaging in laser duels with major and minor beasties and accurnu- lating the necessary tools needed to gain access to the Beast's chamber which suspiciously resembles a space- shïp conttol room). The final combat begins. Uaving inastered the riddlc of the weapons room key and being armed to the tecth, wc at last begin to anticipate winning, Wc know that the hand laser docsn'i work, but we’re confident that the beavy laser (author's description: “jeweled hcavy short lance, two jewels, emerald and ruby") will do the job.
PRESS RED knocks him down and he doesn’t move. “Ile looks dead” savs the screcn. We shoot him again Idr good rneasure, then takc a couple of trcasurc items and leave. When we get up on the hill the screcn says, "You hear a roar like thunder. The Beast is awake and waiting for you!’’ The author bas thrown us onc last urve, We have to kill the Beast twice, and the second time wc have to stab him with the jeweled kniie, which is a conttol chamber trcasurc item. If we press the hlinking emerald on the control panel and go straight to the hill in the shortest possible number of moves, “The tower roars into the sky on a billowing hall of llarne, bearing the Beast back whence he came." We’re a hero, and corne ont alive with sonie gold to boot (if we look what we were supposed to).
Words to the Wise
When confronting the adveitture of your choice, temember to applv logic to the situation: think like the author. Use ail available resources. Documentation, word- ing of descriptions and the laws of logical progression as they exist in the world of the game. Try things, han- dle things, open things, manipulate things, take and attempt to use things. Explore everywhere you can go and take nothing for granted. Reniember that you're paying the author to he hartl on you. Things may not always turn out to be what you expect, but like the pièces of a puzzle, they will almost always fit together.
If vou solve a $ 29.95 adventure in two hours, ihen you probably haven't gotten full value for your money, whereas if you’re still discovering new things after six inonilis and getting “close" to solving it, you’ve made out like a bandit (entertainment wise).
Adventure can he challenging, descriptive and as engrossing as a full-length novel. The différence is that vou are never a passive bystander. The player makes it happen and he’s loving it ail the way.B
Address ail author corresfmndence to Bob Liddil, PO Box 66. Peterhorough, A77 03458.
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The Wizard of Wishbringer
A totally objective, highly critical and unbiased interview with Infocom game designer Brian Moriarty, by Brian Moriarty.
At first was elated when the edi tors of AmigaWorld asked me to review my new Infocom story, Wishbringer. Here was a chance to side- step the jaded critics and hland press releases, and tell the world the truth about the thankless life of a game designer! Eagerly sat down and coin- posed a long, flowing tribu te to myself backed up by a detailed autobiographical sketch, flatter ing color portraits and lengthy examples o " Wishbringer's deathless prose.
“Too biasedcomplained the editors after ancra ting my manuscript,
“Of course it's biased," I snapped over the phone. “What did you expert from a designer re- viewing his own game?"
After a heated exchange and many threats, I agreed to ditch the revïew and allow myself to he interviewed, but only on the condition that I ask the questions fis well as give the answers,
Q. ‘ How did y ou become a game designer at Infocom? Did you foin the company as a programmer in the microcomputer division, hacking in machine language on A taris, Commodores and TRS-80 Color Computers, until one day Marc Blank, vice président and co-author of Zorh, touched you with his magic wand and mode you one of the feu the proud, the Implementors?
Brian Moriarty: Yes.
Qj Wishbi ingcr is your first game for Infocom, right? Where did you get the idea?
BM: The design started with the game package. I was trying to think of something neat we could include in the box, a magical item that would tie in well with a fantasy theme. It coukln't cost too much, maybe a quartcr tops, and il had to bc easy to mass- produce. At first it was going to be a magic ring, but ihat's been done so many tintes before Wagner, Tolkien, Donaldson, et- cetera that I decided to make it a rock in* stead, The story emerged from that.
Ç)j Describe the story in excruciating détail,
BM: [.% (] Oh. Ail righl. You play the
part of a mail clerk in a small seaside village called Festeron, Your mean old hoss, Postmastcr Crisp, orders you to deliver a mysterious envelope to the Magick Shoppe on the far side of tovvn.
When you get to the Shoppe, you meet an old woman who asks you to reacl the envelope. It tut us out that lier pet cat’s been kidnapped by somebody called the Kvil One. The rartsom is Wishbringer, a magic stone famous in local legends, Your mission, should you choose to accept it, is to rescue the car without getting turned into a furry toilet seat cover.
When you retum to the village, every- thing is scrcwcd up. Ail the familial' land- marks are twisted into sinister new lorms. The streets are patrolled by giant artny boots. Trolls, vulturcs, hellhounds ancl grues make your life difficult, and everything's under the all-powerful eye of the Kvil One.
Fortunately, youYe not completely alone. Friendly pélicans, platypuses and sealtorses will help you if youYe nicc to them. And il you really get stuck, you can invoke the power of Wishbringer, the Magic Stone of Dreams.
Infocom is famous for its clever packaging. What do you get when you buy Wishbringer?
BM: Bcsides the glow-inthe-dark magic
stone, you get a facsimile of the mysterious
The Second Annual RUN Spécial Issue This is simply the most incredible all-in-one Commodore reference library you can buy. It’s the idéal gift for everj- C-64 C-128* enthusiast, and the perfect complément to last year’s hot-selling spécial édition. In fact, last year’s Spécial Issue was so popular, ail 200,000 copies were sold within a matter of days.
And this year, there are even more reasons to order early. In this excit- ing Spécial Issue, you'll get:
¦ An in-depth look at the new C-128... step-by-step information that leads you through ever)’ extraordinary C-128 fea- ture: graphies, music, télécommunications, and programming. Plus, an introduction to CP M, and a C-128 programmées aid.
500 “Magic" hints and tricks for the C-64 from Louis Sander.. .ever)’ entry pub- lished in RUN in 1985, plus more than 100 never-befm-pub- lished tricks for the C-64 and C-128.
Afree pull-out wall chart even
bigger than last year’s con- taining vital reference material for C-64 and C-128 users... keywords, commands, programming codes.
I Learn-as-you-go tutorials for newC-64 C-128
users,. .everything from graphies to maintenance.
I Commodore Primer... a gios- sary of nearly 125 commands and terms.
¦ A complété, up-to-date list of Commodore clubs and user groups.
Remember, this limited édition of RUN will be in big demand. Hurry and order your copy... and order one for a friend. Simply return the coupon, or call S 1-800-258-5473.
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the ‘right stuff!”
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* ComnKxlore 64 and Commodore 128 are regwttrrd trademarits of Commodore Business Machines. Inc.
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Canada & Mexico $ 450, Korrign Surface $ 7.15, US tunds rirawn on l'S barik. Foreign AirmaiL please inquire. Ordm will be shipped Decembcr, 1985.
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RUN SPECIAL ISSUE. 1 am endosmg $ 3.95for each copy that I order. ? Check Enclosed ? MC ? VISA ? AE
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PC MS-DOS, AMIGA, MACINTOSH ATARI 520ST, CP M, COMMODORE 128
Explanatory books with professional compiled software; the new standard for statistical use. The influential Seybold Report on Professional Computing has this to say about Lionheart "... our sentimental favorite because of rts pragmatic approach to the basic statistical concepts... The thinking is that the computer merely facilitâtes the calculations; the important thing is to be able to formulate a problem correctly and to détermine what type of analysis will be most valuable." Let Lionheart help you get ahead of the compétition!
special dclivery envelope from the Evil One, a fold-out color map of Festeron and a booklet, The Legend of Wishbringer 7 that expiai ns the origins of the stone and how to use it to make wishes. Oh, and you get a disk, too,
Qj Wishbringer is billed as an Introductory Level gaine, fs it really just for beginners, or can vétéran adventurers enjoy il?
BM: Most of the problems in the story have two or more solutions. The easy way oui is to use Wishbringer. If a beginner gets frustrated, he can whip ont the magic stone. Mumblc a wish and keep on play ing. Expe* rienced players can search for one of the logical solutions a bit barder, perhaps, but more satisfying. It’s possible to complété the story without using any of the stone's seven wishes. In fact, that’s the only way to earn the full 100 points.
The puzzles are highly interconnccted.
Once you start wish ing your problems a way, it’s very hard to continue plaving without relying more and more on the magic stone. The impotence of idlc wishing that’s the moral of Wishbringer. Ail really good stories have a moral.
How long did it take y ou to write this moral taie?
BM: 1 started coding in Septcmbcr of
1984. In December, I deleted most of what Ed written and started again. The disks went out for duplication on May lst. So I guess it took nine months altogether. Thal's fairly typical for an Infocom title.
Q. How is an Infocom story developed, any way? What kind of computer do you use?
BM: G lad you asked. Infocom’s 7 Development System is based on a DECSyslem-20 mainframe, a machine that resembles a lleet
Tour of a Dream Factory
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P. O. Box 379, ALBURG, VT 05440
By Bob Liddil
THE EXPLORER A tool, a pas- time, a îanguage, a reference guide to the AMIGA. This machine language monitor makes the old style debug tool as obsolète as the old style computer. THE EXPLORER will guide you through the AMIGA with screens and text. As you become expert, you will write new commands to enhance THE EXPLORER and save them on disk. THE EXPLORER lets you debug programs, read and write disk sec- tors, load and save files, examine and change memory and internai registers, and do eut and paste opérations on memory.
Price: $ 20 plus S3 shippirvg and handling.
To order call (612) 871-6283.
Interactive Analytic Node 2345 West Medicme Lake Drive
Minneapolrs, MN 55441
Near a busy thruway, on the second floor of a large multi-story building, is a place that manufactures drcanis: Infocom, Their new location, a carpeted art deco suite of offices and cubbyholes, is vvherc adventures are created and produced for an eager public.
It is whisper quiet here. I am introduced to Brian Moriarty, the author of Wishbringer. Who interrupts bis new project to welcome me to Infocom. Mis tiny cubicle is personal* ized to the taste of a highly créative writer and programmer who has been around computers since before micros. He's an ani- mated speaker, and talks in glowing praise of what it means to write an Infocom ad vent urc.
“We don’t clutter up the programs with pictures,” he says, referring to the graphics- style adventures that mainstayed the mai- kets of other micros in the past. “We let the words and descriptions tell our stories.”
It's true. Hitchhiker's Guide to the Gal- axy, a new Infocom offering for the Amiga, is a rollicking compliment to British author Douglas Adams’ wry wit and général dis* taste for the mundane. Not a single byie is given to graphies, but the "pictures” are as cloquent as murais.
The computer in Brian’s office is actually a terminal connected to a climate-con- trolled traditional mainframe covlv referred to as “Motlier." The gaines are written in a sort of universal interpréter, which in turn writes the machine-speciflc coding that be- cornes the adventurc.
“Each adventurc is its own universe," I am told. As we stroll the corridors, popping in on assorfed authors in varions stages of their work. “Sometimes it takes more ihan
one disk to tell the whole story, like Zork,
Zork was originally written as a hacker's improvement on the concept of the original adventure, a noun verb affair that offered little true interaction. It evolved into such a huge program that it had to be divided into three épisodes of one complété disk each. Zork for the Amiga is ultra streamlined and sentence sensitive, as in "Get the ax and kill the dwarf.” or “Roll up the rug and raise the trap do or."
Ai the end of the corridor is an ctnpty, silent room. An old computers' home and a graveyard for “dead" computers. There is a Dragon (i l from T'ano, which never made it to général use, a couple of TRS-80 Modcl Es and a Model III, sonie Sinclairs, an early
of red refrigerators. Ail of the game designers are connected to it, so it’s easy for us to share code and ideas and to play each other's games.
The programming language we use was created expressly for writing interactive fiction. Ifs callcd ZIL (for Zork Implémentation Language). ZlL“knows” about concepts like rooms, objects, characters and the passage of time. It has instructions the designer can use to manipulate these concepts in very sophisticated ways.
ZIL itself is written in a LISP-likc language callcd MDL, or Muddle, which was developed al MITs Laboratory for Computer Science. Be- cause ZIL and its utilities operatc in a high- level environment, ifs relatively easy for us to tinker around with things and make incrémental improvements.
Q. ’ Infocom games are available on every home computer can think of. Il must take a lot of programmers to do so many conversions!
Apple, assoried Commodores and Ataris, even a Tandy Color Computer. Infocom ad- ventures are compatible with ail these machines and a few more. Across the hallway is a rooinful of IBM Pcs and their clones, a “McApplc” and a sparkling new Amiga. The Amiga is surrounded by enthusiastic Info* coin stalfers trying ont a new game. Need- less to say, with ton minutes of hands-on expcrience and a screenful of Wishbringer,
I was hooked.
In my brief visii to Infocom, I discovered the secret to their quiet yet phenominal suc- cess: The people of the company, from the woman at the front door who answers the phone, to the MI L hacker alumni who prowl the corridors and depths of Mother’s memory core, They are the soul of each ad* veinure thaï bears the company logo.
1 heirs is a pride born of ability and the refusai to market anything but excellence an attitude that carries over to the consumer who plays each gaine knowing lie is not being looked down upon.
In the Infocom dream factory's quest for the consummatc adventure, il is the consumer who is, ultimatelv, always the
RM', Naw. The Z System produces ma- chine-independent code that can be exe* cuted on just about any computer with enough disk space and RAM. Ail we have to do is write a single machine-language interpréter for the computer in question. Once the interpréter is running, ail of oui* présent and future titlcs become available for that machine.
The Amiga interpréter was relatively painless. We simply downloaded the 68000 Kernal developed for the Macintosh and Atari ST Systems and changed the I O to make il work with the Amiga s operaling System.
Qf One of the Amiga 's bigsellingfeatures is its graphies. Whydont Infocom's games use graphies?
BM: Why aren’t ail books illustrated?
[Pa us ing for effect] Should we succumb to the temptation to throw in lots of cartoony pic- turcs and spécial cffects, just hecause the hardware is capable of il? We'd radier in* vest oui* development time in writing better stories, more evocative prose, making the user interface as transparent as possible, and getting rid of every bug we can fincl.
We think these efforts resuit in a better interactive expérience than what has been achieved with “graphies advemures.” Oui* sales suggest that we’re right.
That’s not to say Infocom will never do graphies. We've been actively working on some graphics-oriented ideas for a couple of years now. But if the clav cornes when we offer a graphics-entertainment product, you can he sure it won’t be Zork With Pictures.
Q: What about Cornerstone} Infocom a power
ful, yet oh-so-easy-to-use database System for the IBM PC? Will there be a version for the Amiga?
RM: It’s technicaily possible. Marketing- wise, I suppose it dépends on how many machines are bought and what types of people bu y them. You never know.
Q,’ What about y ou? Got any more game ideas?
RM: Lve started work on a big science-
fanlasy game that will be relcased sometime in 1986. The story lias an interesting histor- ical angle. That’s ail I can say about il now...exccpi that it will dcfinitely not be for beginnersîB
Wishbringer author Brian Moriarty, 28, is the newest member of Infocom's team of interactive fiction authors. He brings to the medium the stem morality of a rural New England upbringing and a lifelong passion for the fantastic. Write to him or he’ll write to himself) cio Infocom Inc., 125 Cambridge Park Drive, Cambridge, MA 02140.
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Programming on the Amiga: Cambridge Lisp 68000
By Daniel Zigmond
For a computer to become truly successful, it needs both well-designed hardware and quality software.
The Amiga clearly has the former, but many skeptics still holdthat it is lackingthe latter. Cambridge Lisp
provides us with some potent against
Although Lisp was one of the first programming lan- guages. Il lias only reccntly received much attention from the pcrsonal computer world. The recent public- ity about Lisp lias both helped and huit the language. Articles about Lisp bave ccrtainlv encouraged manv new people lo learn it. But in some cases, they have also spread misconceptions about the language.
One of the most comnion misconceptions is that Lisp is dilfieuh to learn. On the contrarv. Lisp’s interactive programming style makes it among the easiest languages to master. In fact. Logo has its roots in Lisp. And its phénoménal success among young people and hobbyists has been dérivée! Largcly from features inherited front Lisp. Lisp is alreadv used in imroduetorv computer courses at schools such as Carnegie-Mellon University and MIT. Even non- computer science majors al these universities have found the language easy to learn and cnjovable to use.
The second most harmful mytli about Lisp is that it is uscful only for obsc ure applications in artificial intelligence research, At one time this was largcly true, but because of the pnvver and flexibilité of modem versions of Lisp, it is currently used 10 write everything iront gaines to word processeurs to operating Systems. Lisp is
still used in artificial intelligence, but it is also the language of choice for virtually ail other applications.
Introduction to Cambridge Lisp
Lisp is an interactive language. This means programming itt Lisp is much like having a conversation with the computer. The user types some Lisp code, the computer reads it. Processes it, prints a respnnse and waits lor the user to type some rnoic. The proeessing of the code is called évaluation and is often abbreviated mal.
I h us. This conversai ional cycle is often called the read- mal-print loop and is the heart of ail I.isj? Systems.
To start Lis]) on the Amiga, simply type LISP. You should see something like:
Cambridge Lisp 68000 entered in about 380 Kbytes Store image was made at 18:15:35 on 23-Apr-85 Lisp version-Vex X image size = 79856 bytes
Stanecl at 15:10:41 on 1 O-Jul-85 after 27.00
• 55.2% store used
For the time being, von can ignore evervihing except Input:. Input: is Lisp's way of tclling you that it is ready lo begin a conversation. We can ask Lisp to cio some simple addition by lyping
Input: (plus 3 4)
to which Lisp will respond with
to signal that it is ready for us to type something elsc.
Therc are a few things you should notice about the above conversation. First, vou can see that Value: is always lypcd before the computer’s part of our conversation. Second, we used a somewhat strange notation in Lisp. The word plus was typed insiead of a plus sign» and we put it before the nuinfïers instead of between
dicm. Third, we put our expression within a pair of parenthèses.
Of course, addition is not the only thing 1 -isp can do for us. Sonie other words we can use in its place are différence, quotient, reniai rider, and limes. These ali use the saine format as plus. For example:
Input: (différence 150 1 )
Value: 140 Input:
More cornplicated problems can be solved by com- hining Lisp expressions.
Input: (limes 3 (plus 2 l))
Value: 0 I nput:
One of the reasons for Lisp’s success is that it is not limited to thèse sorts of mathcmatical problems. In fact, Lisp stands for list processing, which is considered Lisp’s most powerful feature. In Lisp, a list is anv scquence of data in parenthèses, and list processing is simply t lie manipulation of lisls. Our first expression, (plus 3 4), is a list of three éléments: plus, 3 and 4. Ail three of these éléments are callcd atoms, because they cannot be bro- ken down into any simpler form. Atoms that are words like différence, limes, or even more Creative ones like cindy or schoolhousc, are callcd symbols. The spécial symhols like plus that we can use to tell lhe computer how to fiandle data are callcd mictions. Lists can contait! Any kind of data, including other lists. In the above example, there are again three clcments, but this time they are the symbol times, the numher 3 and the list (plus 2 1).
We can build lists with a function appropriately callcd list. To make a list of two numbers we just type:
Input: (list 42 149)
Value: (42 149)
Taking lists apart is just as easy. Vve use two functions callcd. For antiquated reasons, car and cdr.
Input: (car (list 42 149 305 7))
Input: (cdr (list 42 149 305 7))
Value: (149 305 7)
As you can see, car returns the first élément of the list and cdr returns evervthing clse. To compare two lists we can use the function equal. If the lists look the saine, we get the value ; if not, we get nil.
Input: (equal (list 1 2) (list I 2))
Input: (equal (list l 2) (list 2 1))
Value: nil Input:
Functions like equal that return only t or nil are usually called prédira tes.
Another important feature of Lisp is the ability to customize the language by writing new functions. For example, to write a function that returns the second élément of a list, we need only type:
Input: (de second (x) (car (cdr x)))
Input: (second (list 1 2 3))
Value: 2 Input:
Using de to write our own functions is callcd unction définition. Vve use the atom .v to mean whatever piece of data cornes after the symbol second in an expression. When we type (second (list 1 2 3)), Lisp évaluâtes (list 1 2 3) and substi tu tes the value (1 2 3) for x in our définition. It then évaluâtes the expression (car (cdr (1 2 3))), which returns 2, and prints the value.
Ail of this is only intended to give you a taste of Lisp. There are several good Lisp tutorials available.
Howevcr. There are sonie prohletns with using these tutorials to learn Cambridge 1 .isp: these will be described later in this article.
Cambridge Lisp in Détail
Cambridge Lisp for the Amiga was dcveloped by Mcîacomco (201 H off m an Ave., Monterey, CA 93940). It requircs at least 512K and retails for S 199.95. It is an incredibly rich Lisp implémentation and includes many features that are quite rare for microcomputer Lisps. Cambridge Lisp allows for bot h single Word and inii- n i tel v précisé in légers, as well as standard floating point numbers. Also, Cambridge Lisp has rational numbers, These numbers are of the f'orm x y, where x and y are intcgers. This allows for very accurate arithmctic opérât ions.
To go along with ail these types of numbers, Cambridge Lisp provides a large collection of mathematical lu net ions that perform everything from division and square roots to 24-bit binary shifts, arc cosines and nat- ural logarithms. I here are many numeric predicates thaï covcr ail fonns of comparison and type checking.
I hree fimctions are availahle to couvert hetween types. For example:
I il put: (rational 1 3)
Value: 1 3 lnput: (float 49)
1 nput: (float (rational [ 3))
Value: 0.3333333 lnput: (llx 32.0)
Value: 32 lnput:
Cambridge Lisp lias ail the list processing functions you would want. Tncluding the usual ones like car, edr, cons, list. Append, name, r plaça, rplacd and consp, and some very advanced functions for dealing with lists as sets or trees, association lists, property lists, dotted pairs and circular list structures. It is one of the most complété sets of list processing functions you are likely to llnd in any Lisp implémentation. T he symbol manipulation functions are similarlv diverse.
While Cambridge Lisp lacks both do and let, there are many of the standard control structures, like cond, prog, progn and the mapping functions, and some more pow- ei ful ones to facilitate dynamic non local exils, condi- tional branching and complicated itération. There are many functions to combine these structures and create ail kinds of functions. User-defined functions can have a fixed or a variable number of arguments and can take these arguments either cvalnated or not. 1 here are also functions for botli macro définition and macro expansion.
The stream- and buffer-based input output functions are very impressivc. These include many more than the usual print ing and rcading functions antl additional functions for prettyprinting. The user also lias complété control of the readtable through a large set of charactcv functions and predicates.
Cambridge Lisp bas many more functions that are cxtreiiiely rare among microcompuier Lisps. Il includes an interface to AmigaDO.S, support for général vectors and strings, 266 différent error codes and both normal and 11 nid variables. One of its niccst features is the degicc to wliich Cambridge Lisp can be cusiomizcd.
J he user can change the ainouni of memorv I.isp uses, redeflnc the wav Lisp handles errors, fine tune the compiler and debugger or even modify the two basic prompts. Boih the editor and the trace function are included to simplifv the writing of long functions. And the compiler can increase the speecl of the final product code. For sioring code, there arc functions for saving eut ire core images as well as individua! Functions. Functions tan he collected inio modules that are loaded oiilv when the functions are needed.
Ail of these features make for one of the most advanced Lisp Systems I have ever seen. Ilowever. Cambridge Lisp make s little aitempt to be usable by a novice programmer. Altliough one can certainly learn Lisp
The History of Lisp
Lisp is one of the oldest programming languages, second only to Fortran. It was invemed by John McCarthy in the latc I950‘s. Lisp was quickly implementcd on many machines, and virtuallv ail versions of Lisp were compatible with each other. The First version of Lisp was known as I.isp 1.5 and was the basis for practically ail other dialects.
During the next decade, however, several distinct families of Lisp began to appear and were soon avail- ablc on a number of computers. There was no guaran- tee that a program written with a particular version of Lisp would run on another version. Furthermore, in cases where programs could be transported from one I .isp to another, the programs often yielded completely différent resu h.s. These prohletns not only existed hetween computers, luit hetween versions of Lisp on the saine computer! Programmeurs had to keep track of wliich Lisp they had used and take detailecl notes on exactly what the program was supposée! To do,
In 1966, a standard Lisp was finally proposée! By a group at the University of L tah, T he main purpose of this standard was to allow the REDUCE computer algc- bra program to be used on inanv computers. This hecame Standard Lisp.
Standard Lisp underwent many changes until the final spécifications were published in 1979. Cambridge Lisp is based on this final standard, altliough it also borrows sonie important features from two more modem dialects, callcd Portable Standard Lisp and Coin- mon Lisp. Both of these are widely used in computer science today. This combination makes Cambridge Lisp powerful and flexible, as well as compatible with Lisps on many other computers.¦
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using this software, for several reasons, it’s not as easy as it should he.
First, Cambridge Lisp was originally writtcn for large mainframes to provide an environment for computer algehra research. This mcans that the system is not tai- lored for the Amiga and is missing some of the niceties that Amiga users might expect. While this does not detract from the system as a powerful software development tool, it does make it less friendly than it could be.
Second, the documentation leaves something to be desired. As a reference manual, it is fair, but il makcs no effort either to teach Lisp or to give references to good tutorials. The index is poor and the descriptions of individual functions make far too much use of cross referencing, forcing the reader to constantly llij) hack and fort h between sections.
Fin ail y, Cambridge Lisp is not compatible with many other dialects of Lisp. It is quite différent from the most popular dialcct, Common Lisp, and thus can not he used with the many Common Lisp-oricnted tutorials (see reference •!). It is instead based on Standard Lisp, and is therefore somewhat compatible with Portable Standard Lisp. Although some notes on compatibility are given, transporting large amounts of code f rom other dialects would he diff 1 cuit.
Despite thèse few faults, I like Cambridge Lisp very much. For expericnced users, it is among the f inest versions of Lisp available, and patient novices will find
their time and effort well rewarded. Cambridge f.isp will certainly help popularize the Amiga as an advanced programining tool as well as increa.se the diversity of Amiga sof tware by giving serions devel- opers an innovaiive environment in wliich to work.B
1. Marti, J.B. et al. Standard Lisp Report, SIGPLAN Notices 14, 10 (October 1979), 48-68.
2. Melacomco (1985). (Cambridge Lisp 68000 Manual. Frenchstar Limited, Bristol, United Kingdom.
3. Steele, (7ny L. (1984). Common Lisp: the Language, Digital Press, Billerica, Massachusetts.
4. I he Utah Symbolic Computation Group (1982). Lhe Portable Standard Lisp Manual, Computer Science, Uni vers ity of Utah, Sait Lake City, Utah.
5. Winston, Patrick Henry and Berthold Klaus Paul Horn (1984). LISP, Second Edition, Adison Wesley Pub- lishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts.
Address ail author correspondence to Daniel Zigrnond, Carnegie-Mellon Univers ity, Computer Science Dept.f Schenley Park, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
Spécial thanks go to Dr. Scott Fahlman for his help in the préparation of this article.
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Unique applications, tips
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LISP, Parties and Artificial Intelligence
Logo, long recogni .cd as one of the most powerful programming languages to corne along, was dcrived from the interpretive mainframe language LISP (an ac- ronym for List Processing) in the late 1960s. Although LISP is still widely known for its artificial intelligence capabilities (along with a somewlial inscrutable syntax), a good dcal of ifs powcr and flexibility was captured successfuliy in the Logo distillation, evidenced by the lattefs sweeping popularity in classrooms and homes alike.
Yet despite this widespread acceptance, John R. Allen. Renowned Logo LISP programmer and co-author of a delightful little book callctl Thinking About (TLC)
LOGO (CBS Collège Publishing. S 17.45), daims that Lo- go‘s potential as a gateway to artificial intelligence and its general-purpose programming excellence are largely unknown to the community-at large. This, Allen ex- plains, is the result of compromises made by early pro- ponents of Logo as they sugar coatecl the wonderful introductory powers of the language when translating it to varions Systems, modifying, and in some instances leasing oui, internai structures nccessary to access Lo- go’s higher levels of power.
The Turtle Elite
As président of The LISP Company (“TLC”) of Los Gatos, California, Allen is taking steps to revitalise Logo through the implémentation of TLC-LOGO for the Amiga. Not onlv cloes this new, more powerful version of the language take full advaniage of the Amiga's multi-processing and superior graphies and sound capabilities, it incorporâtes two fondamental LISP concepts that are missing from traditional versions of Logo: the abilitv to use functions as building blocks and the han- dling of first-class ohjects as data. Although traditional Logo looks te the novice like an abbreviated LISP without parenthèses, the fact that noue of Logo’s popular versions (including those for Commodore and Apple) retain this LISP connection bas made Logo synony- mous with the Turtle Graphics dcvcloped by Seymour Papcrt and bis team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. F.vcn though TLC-LOGO features the ubiq- uitous turtles, Mr. Allen is quick to point out that ail turtles were not creaied equal.
The Big Picture
Bcidre the intricacies of an ariificiallv intelligent Amiga can be fullv apprcciatcd, however, ifs important to sec Logo and AT s position in the overall schcme of things.
The methodology (or language) by which man coin- nnmicates with computers still lias its roots deep in matliematical soil. The three général “families” of programming languages ail owe allegiance to their inathe- matical precursors:
? Procédural High-level, general-purpose languages such as Pascal, Basic, Fortran and traditional versions of Logo.
? Relational Logic-based languages like Prolog; Systems that are vaguely similar to spreadsheet programs.
? Functional LISP and thus Schcme, Smalltalk, and in theory, ail Logos.
True relational languages areifl available for per- sonal computers yet, which leaves us with the procédural and functional types. For our [im poses, the primary distinction between the two lies in how they address problem-solving.
The Power of Functions
Procédural languages like Basic are binary-based nnmber crunchers that requirc ali data to he reduced to nutnerical forrn. They itisist upon being provided with a method an algoriilnn for solving any given problem each lime it is presented; a way of doing things thaï experience bas shown to he perfectlv acceptable for business and scientifîc applications. However. When intelligence is required of a machine, when it
contes to emulating the organization of thought, to problem-solving and achieving goals, in short, to adopt* ing the charactcristics of the huinan brain, procédural languages fall short oi the desired mark.
T his is not because "intelligent" behavior is not at ail understood te> a large extent it is. The problem has more to do with the data iisclf. The patterns, grou])ings and classifications that constitute our intcllectual ahility to impose order 011 chaos (which turns ont to he the key to abstract thought). And the difficulties encoun- tered with getiing data like this into the numerial form required by a procédural Ianguage.
liy tri triplement ing certain IJSP techniques, fi,C.-L()(',() provides a learning pat h from tradi- tional l ogo ( > small- scale Al programming.
Radier than dealing in numbers, functional languages like LISP and I LC-l.OGO use objccts. Relationships and patterns. Although this side-stepping of numerical in- [un is an intégral part of Al. The real reason for LISP's success is functional relationships. Ponctions? Yep. Re- member struggling with them in high school alge- bra . . . Plotting points on x and y axes 011 graph paper? Well. Unless you want to, thcrc’s noue of that in Amiga TLC-LOGO, but perhaps you remember that a function is the relation of one item from a set. With each item from anotlier set. This meatis that functional languages including Amiga TLC-LOGO can feed the resulis of one com])utaticm dircctly to anolher with 110 external intervention. This feature, absent from tradi tional versions of Logo, is an implémentation of LISP. Working with functions as building blocks, freelv passing parant- eters and computational results hetween them is one of the cléments that distinguishes TLC-LOGO from the “electronic elch-a-sketch" Logos critici ed by Allen.
The goal of artificial intelligence is to get machines to "think,” and that process is now thought to be largely a matter of visualizing a problem. Planning action and breaking the problem into small, manageable pièces. One of" the greatest scient i fi c mincis of ail time, Albert Einstein, was slow to talk as a child. In later life, lie came to see this "handicap” as an advantage because he visuaiizcd problems and their solutions in ternis of shapes and images rather than words and symbols. Ile attributed much of" his contribution to physics to this technique.
A programmable "turtle” is usecl 10 cubante visualization in Logo, and it is to this little intelligent cursor that instructions are directed. An arbitrarv number of independently functioning turtles may be “hatchcd" in Amiga I LC-LOGO although having more than ten in simultaneous processing notïceably reduces the machines operating spccd. Still. The Amiga’s multi proccss- ing capabilities make it possible to have dozens of Images of processes at once, each with its own set of turtles. As Allen points oui. Thèse Amiga turtles are a breed apart from those residing in traditional Logo.
F. ach and every one is treated as a flrst-class object be- tween which pararneters may be freelv passed (which means there’s no need for GOSLBs or RLI l’R ' state- ments), a relurn to the power of LISP which far ont- reaches the simplistic* (by comparison) capabilities of traditional Logo.
The power and llexibility of TLC-LOGO turtles be- cornes more ap|>aren( when you realize that they need not live oui their lives in that form. Turtles can be anv- thing you want them 10 be and in TLC-LOGO are often referred to as "fïrst-dass objccts.” An object is sitnplv a collection of data, for example, a list ot the characteris- tics that distinguish a chair from. Say. A table; or the pattern which makes up a formai ru le of logic.
Logo provides an environment for combining objccts and constructing complex routines without the need to redefine anything that was previously established: it is simply called by name. Rather than making the programmar supply the method of solving a given prob- lem. TLC-LOGO (because it is a truie functional Ianguage) will try to solve it from these previouslv de- fined patterns and routines. These combinée! Feattires have a svnergistic effect: the whole is somehow more than the sutn of the parts. By reimplementing the miss- ing LISP tcchnic|ucs, TLC-LOGO provides a continuons learning patli from the tnarvelous introductory turtle graphies of traditional Logos to the power of small scale AI programming.
The Fifth Génération
lu his book Thinking About (TLC.) Logo John Allen re- minds us that “the home computer is not just an electronic typewriler, a low-quality stereo, or a game machine: it has the potential 10 change the way the world thinks.” The Japanese are at work 011 an artill- cially intelligent flfth-generation computer, their efforts transversing ail social, économie and géographie bounclaries. They have further vowed to complété the project prior to the end of the ccntury. Mat bines en- dowed with AI arc sure to change the way we think, even if they take over only mundane tasks like trouble- shooting and scheduling. Still, imagine the unitjue and sophisticated ideas that could corne from the combincd efforts of inan and thinking machine.
Shortly after the Japanese made their pronounce- ment, artificial intelligence projetas were launched in the United States and Europe. Ilowever. Not only are these ef forts 011 a much smaller scale than those of the industrious japanese, but the prime henefacior is our defense establishment. We inust tlt) more than that. Like the Japanese, we must tap into ail available talent: inde- pendent parttime programmers, third-party developcrs, professors, private. Along with government-sponsored, researt hers and students alike.
Putting lools such as TLC-LOGO running 011 power- ful Systems like the Amiga inio the hands of resourceful Americans and Europeans may he the means through which the West can meet the challenge of, or surpass. The rescarch being donc in Japan. Whatever the mu* corne, the advances in tliis area will surely change the way we view the relationship hetween maii and computer, the thinking machine.¦
Address ail author correspondence to Peggy Iierrington, 1032 Forrester St. A U’ Albuquerque. SM SI 102.
For the serious Amiga user, a variety of low-cost, quality graphies tablets for graphie arts, business graphies or CAD CAM applications from Kurta.
The ergonomically sloped Sériés ONE tablet, with resolution of up to 200 PPI and a built-in power supply, is available in three sizes: 8.5" x 11", 12" x 12", and 12" x 17"
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Challenging the Mind: Mindscape’s Commitment To the Amiga
By Shawn Laflamme
Software developers who jump on the Amiga hand- wagon will fincl thaï creativity and imagination are as indispensable to the development of Amiga software as tcchnical expertise and marketing ski11. One company that has been successfully meeting this challenge ail along is Mindscape.
Mindscape's philosophy is ideally suited to the demand.s of Amiga software development. Their pur- pose is to produce “software that challenges the mind.” Mindscape's software offerings for the Amiga can be called educational, stimulating, entertaining, even bizarre anything but mundanc.
L. ocated in Northbrook. Illinois, Mindscape was cre- ated in ItkSS as the computer software subsidiary of SI (annpanies, an educational puhlishing, information and communications company. Mindscape's focus is on the home and school markets. With software titles in the educational, entertainment and productivity util- ity areas. Fn addition to the Amiga. Mindscape has developed software for the Apple II, Macintosh, IBM PC, Commodore and Atari Systems.
Vvilh ait emphasis on llie Creative rallier than the cor- porate, Mindscape’s 70 employées are houscd, appropriai el y. in a building that once served as an art gallery. Lnstead of the cubicles and partitions of the typical office building, the atmosphère hcre is ultramodern and futuristic, with a heavy emphasis on natnral light and ])lenty of free space. I he intention behind this freer design was to create an environment whcre people would feel comfortable so that they could do iheir best créative work. The effort has been acknovvledged with an interior design award from the American Insti- tute of Architects.
Roger M. Buov. Président and Creative Director of Mindscape, is confident about the Amiga’s future and 11 is companv’s rôle in supporting the machine, His enthusiasm (or the Amiga reflccts the prevailing opinion at Mindscape. "I was excilcd about the Amiga from the first dav that 1 saw it,” savs Buov. “It offers so much, Irom animation, to sound. To graphies, that we will be
able to do things in the.se areas thaï we have uever been able to do before. Ips like liaving many new dimensions added to the ones we’ve been workin with.”
Buoy brings to Mindscape over 20 years of profes- sional expérience, primarily in electronic publisliing and marketing. Ile was previously an executive vice président at Sc'holastic, Inc. before joining Mindscape in October 1983.
Mindscape's programs and projects are conceived b people who work directly for Buov or bv himself. The “Creative function" at Mindscape consists of three groups: a Tcchnical Group, Creative Design and Art. Which report to Buoy. As Creative Director, Buoy makes the final décision on whelher an idea should reach the development stage, and lie gives final apprnval to art. Screen layouts and packaging.
Mindscapc publishcs lour lines of software: Sprout, Pixelwerks. Alert and Folio. Sprout prograins, for âges four throngh eight. Are designed to help kids develop carlv learning ski Ils and discover their creativity. Pixelwerks. For âges eight and older, encourages further créative development. Alert is Mindscapes line ol recre- ational software for teens and adults. Designed to be both entertaining and challcnging. Folio is a line of productivitv utility software for home use.
The Amiga Commitment
Mindscape's commitment to the Amiga and its own- ers hegins on the ground level with the Amiga Iuîor. A tutorial program on using the Amiga. Commodore ini- tially approached Mindscapc and asked them to prépare the tutorial, which is being provided to ail new Amiga owners with purchase of the machine. The program illustrâtes the Amiga s graphies capabilities and inttoduces the machine's major features. It gives the first-time user an overall understanding of the Amiga il self, AmigaDOS, its operating environment and its compoiients. H makes very littlc use of the keyboard. Since inost of the information provided is accessible with the inouse. The tutorial is intended as a supplément to, not a replacement for, the Amiga manual. But it does help to relieve the new owners iteh to put the manual asidc and get lus hands and eyes on the machine.
Lu their support of other computer systems, Mindscapes emphasis lias alwavs been on éducation and entertainment, and they intend to continue ou thaï course with the Amiga. In the educaïional field, the tra- ditiona! Drill-and-practice varietv of software is as alien to Mindscapc as office cubicles and time clocks. Even in the drill-ot iented activity of learning to type, Mind scape's Kevboard Cadet (S39.95) turns the proccss into
a game as it teaches users to touch type on the Amiga kevboard. T he program recently received a Parent s Choice Award from Parent magazine.
The A rt of Simulation
Buoy and bis associâtes al Mindscapc reali .e lhe edu* cational el'feciiveness of simulations, and il is in this area that ihey will concentrate their developinent efforts. One of their First educational programs lbr lhe Amiga, The Halley Project: A Mission in Our Solar System ($ 44.95), is a real-time simulation of the solar System. This is a new version of the program that was originallv relcascd for the C-64, Atari and Apple II. And il exploits the Amiga’s advanced graphies and souncl capabilities. It is a game-based introduction to lhe solar system for âges ten and up. Players must complété a sériés of rigorous lests; along the way, they're required to inaster facts ahout gravit y, orbital motion and navigation by the stars.
The Alert Line
Eveil Mindscape’s Alert line ol récréaiional software is designed to provide an intellectual challenge. I licy are avoiding the arcade-tvpe shoot-Ym ups and conccn- trating on adventure, mystery and luimor, attenipting to attract a more sophisticatcd audience.
Their First offering in the Alert line for the Amiga is Deja Vu: A Nightmare Cornes True ($ 49.95), a graphie text adventure scheduled for release in the first quaner of 19K0. The program makes use of the mouse, window- ing, hi-rcs graphies, font styles and icon capabilities of the Amiga. Allowing players to see the characters, props and action.
Mind.sra tc's hmdquarters in Xmtftbrttok, Hlinois.
Developed by TMQ of Buffalo (irove, Illinois, Deja Vu incorporâtes the characters, props, intrigue and suspense of a 1940s Hollywood mystery. As the central character, the player, suffering from amnesia, is accused of a rnurder. He must solve the crime and f i11cl lus truc identity before he is arrested. He could tliscover that he has been set up, or, that lie actuallv did commit the murder in h is foggy past.
The program romains faiihful to the 1940s thème in botli the graphies and the lone of the text. With the windowing feature, several aspects ol the game can be seen on-screen simultaneously. And by using the mouse, props can be moved from one window to another. Die- hard text adventure purists might scoff at the graphies (even the Amiga’s graphies), but this graphics mouse windowing System docs eliminate some of the frustrât- ing language barriers encountered in text-onlv adven tures.
.4 rtificial Insa n ity
Spcaking of language barriers, Mindscape is also making a bold, or rallier, bizarre attempt to bridge the language gap betueen humans and computers. Racler ($ 44.93), short for raconteur, is designed to let you have a spomaneous conversation (of sorts) with your computer, Developed by Thomas Etter and William Chamberlain, Racler will be released for the Amiga in early '86. The program was recenily placée! On display at the Boston Computer Muséum.
Mindscape's Amiga Tutor
Racler may fall short of artilicial intelligence, but it’s a fine example of artificial insanity. With a 2,800-word vocabularv and a knowledge of Lnglish grammar. Rat- ter responds to your questions in complété, though not necessarily logical, sentences. Lach conversation is différent; ifs unlikelv that Racler will ever respond to the same question in the same way.
During the course of a conversation, the program stores some of your own words and phrases and then reinsens them latcr in the conversation. Racter's intel- lectual prowess is not unlimited, but if a topic baffles him. He will adroit lv change the subjcct.
For a démonstration of Racter's capabilities, look into The Policeman's Heard Is Half Construeted (Warner Books, S9.95). a title derived from Racter's unusual conversa- tional style. I his bock is a mix of poems, dialogues, limericks and simple siatements. Demonstrating Racter's language ahilities, literary talent and lunacy.
Racler has also spawned a rallier unusual users group. Called the Institute of Artificial Insanity, open to ail users who complété and send in the Institute's application fonn along with "before Racter" and "after Rac ter" photos of thcmselves that depict how their experience with ibe program has changée! Them.
According to the Institute's tongue-in-eheek brochure, onlv the first one million applieams will he acceptcd.
An optional yearbook is available to applieants for $ 15. It inc lu des, among other things, each applicanfs pic- turc, name, hometown and philosophy of life in ten words or less. Allowing Racter groupies to get to know each other, The honor of class valedictorian will he bestowed on the applicant whose photos and application best rcflect the influence of Racter.
hen asked how lie feels about ail this attention, Racter replied, “Lin maniacal. Unhinged and enraged."
Developing software for any new computer ts a gamble. Mindscape has invested a lot in the future ol the Amiga, and Roger Buov feels that their faith in the machine is justi- fied. He secs the educational market as one area where the Amiga might emerge as a strong competitor. "It is possible on the Amiga to turn out very realistic simulations and to do lots of things in areas w here we have been limited with the Apple II," says Buov. “1 think it’s going to take a while for the Amiga to get into schools, but once again, it has so much to offer that it must be a very attractive purchasc for a school that wants to do a multitude of things with it."
As for future software development, Buov stresses that our cognizance of what is possible changes with events. “We'vc always been constrained.” he says, “and no douht, in time, the Amiga will constrain us. I see t lie Amiga as the next link before we encounter even more sophisticated, Disney-type animation in a consumer appliance."
L’ntil thaï happens, Mindscape will be using the Amiga to entertain, stimulate, and above ail. Challenge you in some pretty imaginative wavs. After ail. Creating challenges is what Mindscape is ail about.H
Address ail author correspondence ta Shaum La flamme, ch AmigaWorld éditorial, 80 Bine St., Peterboruugh, SU 03458.
Begin using the full power of your multi-tasking Amiga with 15 GIZMOZ™ desktop aCpesSO[,aDout?he old one (or more) of the GIZMOZ™ and begin using it, when done just close the win. 0WVjJ( r7M0ZTM function methods of using computers and start using the added power of your new machine. AU « with the Intuition workbench and with the Command Line Interpréter (CLI).
4. Black Book
1. Calendar ÏahiiaeSZ
3. Mémo Pad
Powertul nüts-year caterûai package Somethrg r.o ore «r be withoul Ircfudes ren nder System to rtcrm you o» everts or each oa,
Tt-.ro* away the ore on y our desk ard use this po ert- erterded irdejmg Tool Oti y Ou' Amiga
A Super notepad that (ets you bave uri'iwttd notes ali m a smg'e rotet -
.QRfi Corning Kt
A aüatte January and re
,nlr°ducing eas __
Atnigg to Pr** bansler and communicaihns.
¦ ar>d Amiga to Mac "
5. Calculator Set
A sel oi 3 calcula»*. Soerrtc. Fraroal. Ar.o Programmer
6. Hot Key
Tired cl ryorq tre same things over ard cvçO Hot Kç, a ow$ you to record rvjtp'e x»y strc es arc * I play them back for you at de touch cl a kêy Hot Key store up to 20 ot tnese cusfon ke» defmWtt
7. Free List Display
8. Cookoo Alarm Clock
A htgniy ar nated old *cr;c cfocx to add to your desktop Who sa a c!cc*s r al to oe bar.gi
A dean graphie dispay o! «bat tasks are vn memory and no* môch memory they are usmg Lets you se'iectvîiy charge pronty et taste so you car betta control your mu't-taskmg environment
anthin9w°hr Maê to yo'rT and data Puickiy and an IBM and h an IBMpq 1. Miga> and back- D° the
larV *09 ÿ0u wii?C'ntoshl ThesaU Anrnga (also bet*een ComPüterS neeb to com 0 Packa9e$ include
Send informât mun,cate with these popu-
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9. Terminal Package
Advarced terminal émulation accessyy Supports ali major terminal types Keep yojt session >n a Me lcr later revie*
11. Graph Package
A simple graphies package tnat will aid m makirg chahs Create pie. Bar. And exploCinq chahs Hom me lainbow ol cofors on your Amiga
12. PopUp Cards
Hardy relererce carüs that pop-up over me worXber,ch ircludes Abasic relererce card. AmiqaÛos Relererce caïd ard note Plus you make your own'
G> Mail, Delphi and
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15. Data Encryptor
Accessory to er.crypt and cecry-pt your lata Piotect mVormation a-,d >rsure mat your data temairs sec-re 5>nÿe. Easy aropowedu'1
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T>«s accessory will compress ard decompress your ûata Mes Very handy when ïarsm-ftrg Mes liom, ore oorrpu'.er to arolher
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Activision has announced the release of two "living" novels for the Amiga computer, called Hacker and Mindshadow. The two gaines arc a combination of transitional interactive tcxi adventure and graphies that make full use of the Amiga’s capabilities for producing high-quality visual images. 1 he gaines also make use of the Amiga’s win- dowing, menus and mouse-driven interface features as well as keyboard entrv of instructions.
A "living novel" takes the lexl and plot structure of a novel and adds animated illustration and player interaction.
In Mindshadow. Vou awaken on the beach
iSS fanuan I'cfu iam' 1986 of a désert island. You have lost your incm- ory. From there you must scarch and cjucs- tion and explore your surroundings. Looking for your lost identitv.
Hacker lets you enter the underworld of computer crime. The instructions are minimal. "Insert disk, load, the rest is up to you." From there you are met with the screen prompt "Please Logon”, and you are left to explore the unknown computer the saine way that a real “hacker" might when breaking into sonie eompany’s mainframe.
But who’s computer have you entered? Who is running the svstem? There seems to be something strange going on in the System. But can you even be sure that there is a mystery?
Both games take interactive fiction a few steps further than just words on a screen, and Activision is working on many more.
2350 Bayshore Front âge Rd.
Mountain View, CÂ 94043 415 960-0410
Electronic Novels, Text Adventures and Fantasy
Traditional adventure games for most computers involve simple descriptions, simple actions and simple options. Adventure games have gone through a number oi changes and advancenients in the past few vears. Hecoming more sopliisricated in bodi their scénarios and the way in which they opérât e.
Synapse Software is releasing différent tvpes of adventure games for the Amiga that they are calling "electronic novels."
T he différence between a traditional adventure game and an electronic novel is an ac- companving book sold with the pmgram.
The book serves multiple functions in the plaving of die game. First, it’s good reading in itself. The stage is set. The characters are de- scribed. And before you load the software, vou are already involved with the storv.
Second, the book acts as a lonn of copv protection. T he disk can bc backecl up as many times as desired. But in order to play the game, you are askcd to enter différent words out of the book (e.g.. fifth worcl. Lourth line, page 57). This means that in order to use the game, vou need the book.
( l’he eost of photo-cnpying a one-hundred- page book should prevent most piraev.)
Synapse has also ehosen sonie non-standard scénarios for their games. Radier than the tvpical haunted castles or clesert islands, games like Mindwheel. Brimstonc and Esscx offer new challenges, setlings and bizarre locations. Combined with their imaginative writing, the games stand apart. Kach of the gaines is a collaborative effort, with the au- thor of the storv and a team of programmer who integrated the storv’s contents into a computer game. T he results are dis- tinctly unusual, amusing and entertaining.
In Mindwheel by Robert Pinskv (author).
S. Haies and W. Malaga (programmer*), vou must travel through the tniuds of four de- ceased geniuses. Ail psychically linked through time.
In Brimstonc by James Paul (author), D. Bunch, W. Mataga and B. Darrah (program- mers), you plutige into the underworld of l’Iro through the dreams of Sir Gawain, Knight of the Round T able.
In Essex bv Bill Darrah (author), B. Darrah and W. Mataga (programmer*), you arc on an intergalactic search-and-rescuc mission aboard the Starship Essex.
These are t lie kinds of worlds you can expert to explore in the Svnapse electronic novels for the Amiga. I'hey are well-written, intriguing, difflcnll games for more than just kids. They are longh and fi ustrating and funny and différent.
5221 Central Ave.
Richmond. CA 94804 415 527-7751
Kurta Releases the Penmouse +
What looks like a pen but opérâtes as a mouse or graphies tablet? The Penmouse+ from Kurta Corp. The Penmouse + is a lightweighl, cordless, two-button, pen graph- ics tablet combination input device. The tablet is 8J T x 1 I” x %" thiek. With an active graphies tablet area of 6" x 9". H weighs onlv two pounds. The pen itself is batterv powered. Lias two side-mounted buttons and a “pen down" fonction.
The advantage of the Kurta Penmouse + is that il can act as a graphies tablet with absolute positioning, or like a mouse with relative positioning, This combination re- sults in freedom of movement. You can sim- ply point to a menu sélection instead of rolling to it; the Penmouse will display position even when the pen is not touching the surface of the tablet. It will operatc at any angle for a right- or left-handed person.
The Penmouse + also offers greater accu- racy in drawing and trac ing or when used as a control device (200 ppi when used as a tablet or 100 ppi when used as a mouse).
The Penmouse + offers Amiga users an alternative to the mouse, incorporating the best features of other mcchanical input de- vices. Kurta is also working on a tull line of professional graphies tablets for the Amiga, We will be taking a doser look at the Penmouse + and other input deviccs from Kurta in future issues of ArnigaWorld.
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Phoenix, AZ 85040 602 276-3533
Tecmar’s Family of Peripherals Expands Amiga’s Capabilities
Tecmar lias introduccd four products for the Amiga tliat will give you more power and allow you to communicate with other Amigas (and, just to be sociable, IBMs, Ap- ples, or anything else equipped to "talk" with another computer).
Expanding with T-Card
Tecmar’s multifonction expansion module. Named T-card, snaps on the right side of the Amiga’s main console to expancl the capabilities of vour machine. The T-card gives vou:
• A dock and calendar with a standby batterv so you will only have to set the time and date once in the lif'e of your computer.
• A built-in power supply giving you time
10 save whatever data you have in your computer when the electric company or an errant foot cuts off the power to your Amiga. (If yoifve ever had a whole day’s work wipecl oui, then you know the importance of this feature.)
• A parallel primer port so you can con* nect such standards as Epson prlnters to your Amiga.
• A serial port and bus expansion port for Amiga add-ons. Including other Tecmar products.
The T-card costs S799. But can also be purchascd with a whopping 1,000,000
11 MB) extra bytes of memory for $ 999.
Twenty-two Disks in One
T-disk, Tecmar’s 20MB (twenty million bytes of memory) unit is a hard disk for the Amiga whose magnetic media is the sanie 3J(» incites in diameter as a floppv disk's, yet il holds the équivalent of twenty-two régulai diskettes. The 4-disk costs $ 995 (and hooks up to the T-card, which you’ll also nced to purchase), but it virtually éliminâtes the need to mess around with regular disks, since vou can store ail of your programs
and files on the hard disk. In addition, T- disk is much faster than the regular disk drive, which is important when you are dealing with large amounts of memory.
Il the data vou are saving is very valuable, vou mav want to spend the S595 needed to buy T-tape, which is a tape backup system that can hold the 20MB of the T-disk. Even though the hard disk is phvsically very safe, operator error or a sudden power loss can zap sorne or ali of the contents of your T- disk; with T-card, however, vou can selec- tively restore files within a matter of minutes.
Tnt il recently, most modems for personal computers ran at about 300 or 1200 baud.
I he latter was relatively quick since a person usually couldn’t read the data appear- ing on the screen faster than that. Tecmar’s T-modem, however. Works not only at 300 and 1200, but also at 2400 baud, which means that transferring a lot of data from the Amiga (“uploacling") or getting a lot of data from the téléphoné line to store on the Amiga (“downloading”) doesn't have to take long ai ail. In addition, the T-modem costs a relatively modest $ 695 and can interface with the audio circuits of the Amiga.
0225 Cochran Road Solon. OH 44139 216 349-0600
Reflections of a Mac User
By B t'y ce Wray
It isn’t easy to write tins. No one, particularly a native Texan, likes to admit that he has been oneupped. But this Macintosh user has seen the future, and it's the Amiga from Commodore.
As 1 write this, it is barely 13 months after that mémorable day in Julv 1984, when I first plunked clown my hard-won loan money (groveling does the trick every time) at a local computer emporium and g]celuily car- ried out four boxes full of Macintosh stuff: the Mac itself, an external disk drive, an lmageWriter primer and a primer interface cable. Back then, it was a half- hour’s drive from that store to my home, and I could barely contain myself for wanting to gel into ail my treasures.
During the next several weeks, I got little sleep as 1 MacWrote ancl MacPainted myself silly. And, when the fall came, my Mac was every bit as useful as 1 had hoped that it would be in helping me wade through the complexities and headaches of my new job as Assistant Professor of Radio Television Technology at Texarkana (Texas) Communitv Collège. Incleed, I would have been absolmely doomed if the Mac hadn’t given me cxactly what 1 bought it for: mighty computing (primarily word processing) power without my having to dévote many hours I couldn’t spare to burving myself in manuals, tutorials, eteetera.
Even so. I knew it wasn't perfect. After ail, it was quite slow in doing some of the magic even a simple word processing program such as Mac Write demandée!. (I was in for a real shock the following summer when I got hold of the far more complex Microsoft Word!) It was obviously strain- ing hard to work with only 128K RAM, although the extra disk drive helped somewhat. At least I wasn’t swapping disks lcft ancl right, the way many a “Skinny Mac” owner with no extra drive was forced to do.
Then Apple made available an upgrade to 512K, which supposeclly would make the Mac 11 y. Fine. F.xcept that they wanted SI.900 for it, and at a time when the “Skinnv Mac” 1 had bought for $ 2,495 was already being sold for well under $ 2,000 hither and yon, and the new 512K Macs were being sold in some stores for not much more! I seethed, but décidée! I would do
it.. .only later. I needed to pay off some of the old debt
As already mentioned, I bought Microsoft Word for the Mac recently, having been persuadée! Of its excellence by at least two glowing reviews. However, I soon learned that one particular selling point made in one of the reviews, that it "works perfectly well in I28K,” was a bunch of Boolean bull. It works, yes. But “per- fectly well”? Well, maybe. Dépends on what you call working "‘perfectly well.” I, for one, do not give such praise to a program that prints only four to eight pages an hour in high-resolution mode an excruciating thing to vvatch, as if my poor primer were constipated!
Nor do I consider pitifully slow screen updating, which doesn’t always zip lo where I am typing, working ”per- fectly well.” However, I figured, surely I could put up with some slowness to achieve good results.
Finally, I décidée! It was time to upgrade my over- worked Mac from 128K to 512K. Fortunately, the price had corne down to $ 700. Then I learned that I had finally succeeded in getting a crédit card to use at one of the two authorized Apple dealers in town and could use it in just a few days. It seemed that, finally, I would have, as Danny Goodman described the 512K “Fat Mac” in the November ’84 issue of MacWorld, “a super-fast, state-of-the-art computer” hum ni ing on my desk. Except for one thing.
That same day, 1 went to the grocerv store and, as usual, pickcd through the computer magazines to see what was new. Three of them had the Amiga on the cover.
I took them home. I read them. The amazing détails they conveved were, for a Mac-backer such as I, hard to swallow. (fin still a Mac-backer; l just no longer like the Mac best!) But, as the hours, then days, wore on, I came to a somewhat sad realization: My trusty Mac was obso- ?
Illustration by Paul Mock
lete. Yes, obsolète. And only a year and a half after ils introduction. Why? Well, as one Amiga aficionado.
Steve Dompier of Island Graphics, put it in the August ’85 issue of Personal Computing, “Apple's in a cavern with the Mac: the [Motorola] 68000 [microproccssor chip]’s doing ail the work.”
The Macintosh uses t lie (>8000 not onlv for munber- crunching and other such tasks, but for just about everything else, including time-consuming graphies and disk-access duties (not to mention I O in général), which could slow down Halley’s Cornet. However, the Amiga’s three custom chips (Agnes, Daphnc and Portia, in case you’ve missed ail the hype about this cutely- named trio) take care of ail that and much more, leav- ing the 68000 to lope along at 7.8 Mhz. I liât, quite simply, is whyjohn Pandaris, in the Première issue of AmigaWorld (p. 28), deseribed the Amiga as “blazing fast, eerily fast, [and] preternaturallv fast.” This method • along with AmigaDOS, to be sure also allows the Amiga to perform multitasking, which the Mac can't do for real (spare me any mention of the Switcher, which is useless to my “Skinny Mac” anywav) at any speed. Its moribund sister. The Macintosh XL, nee the I.isa, could. But only rather slowly, and with some fairly buggy software, if what l’ve read is accuratc.
My tmsty Mac was obsolète. Yes, obsolète. And only a year and a half after its introduction.
"So what?” you ask.
Well, so this: As a Mac user of over one-yeaf s standing, I have a staternent to make, and the proverbial three wishes for the way I would like to sec the inévitable industry-wide support of the Amiga corne ahout.
The Staternent: Sorry, Apple. There is no other conclusion: You have been bested. By a Commodore-financed product. By a Commodore product that costs far less than yours does, and probably will cost even less than that a couple of years from now, if not sooner. And, since I know now that there is an alternative not onlv to you but to Big Blue, fm going to buy it as soon as I can. It’ll take some months of saving my coins (the coins I would have spent on upgrading my turtle-like Mac), but I will make the switch. Ifs as inévitable as the sunrise over West Chester, Pennsylvania. And the sunset over Cupertino, California.
Now, the Wishes.
1. Adaptation oj the bel ter Mac products to the Amiga. Yes.
I know that some companies are already doing this.
But, blast it, some isni good enough. 1 want lo he able to use Microsoft Word on the Amiga in, of course, a much-improved version, worthy of the Amiga itself. (Version 1.0 for the Mac is only barely worthy of the Mac!) I want to be able to use a Copy II Mac-like ulilitv on the Amiga. I want to he able to use a version of Airborne on the Amiga. I want.. . Get lhe picturc? And, of course, most businesses would want a 1-2-3 Syin* phony Jazz-like product. The cotnpletecl Enable package from The Software Group probably will be nice, but there needs to be more than one fish in the Amiga business océan. I agree with John Pandaris that multitasking makes integrated programs utmecessary just run a worcl processor in one window, a spreadshect in a second window, a graphies program in the third, and so forth. But I'm sure he would concur with me that. Il Amiga wants to have a serions shot at the IBM suck- lings, it must offer things with which they are familiar.
(More on the siren song of lamiliaritv in a moment.) Once they are converted. Then show ihem the better wayï
2. An ImageWriter pria ter driver for the Amiga. I have found my ImageWriter to he a marvelous, easv-to-main- tain machine that does just about anvthing I could ever ask. Must I part with it at lhe time the Amiga replaces my Mac? I can’t believe thaï il would he difficuli for an industry that could croate the Amiga to make it able to use the ImageWriter. I rarcly would want to print color graphies: text and black and-white diagrams will do just fine for me.
3. Conversion of Mae files for at least limited use on the Amiga. After ail, the two computers use similar user interfaces (i.e., icons. The mouse, etc.), lhe sanie central microprocessor and 3.5" disks (althougïi the Mac uses just one-sided ones). Is it too mueh to ask that we repentant Mac users. Upon switching, have some wav to preserve the text. Graphies and other files we have amassed other than simply priming them al! Out? With either MacWrite or Word, that could easilv take davs or even weeks in my case, and I'm onlv a home user! That would be a heck of a pricc to pav for having needed an easy-to-operate-yet-powcrful computer before the Amiga was ready. After ail. The Mac NL Lisa ran (and runs)
Mac software through use of an Apple software product called Mac Works. Is there not some wav to make something like that for the niuch niore-powerful Amiga?
A caiitionarv note: There are rumors that lhe soine- what similar Atari SI will, through some similar ivpc of software fix, he able to handle Mac files in at least a rudimentary l'ashion. If this is not simply more smoke being blown from Jack TranmTs reborn Atari, it will provide his company with a serions compétitive edge against the Amiga. Incidentally, let’s he straight about this. Friends: The Amiga is superior to the ST in a nuin- ber of ways, althougli Tramiel & Sons obvioush would clisagree strongly. But a simple wedge in the markei such as Mac-files compatihiliiv could make a loi more différence than demonsti able superiority. If vou don't believe that. Please note that it remains much safer in this crazy industry to make a c lone of the IBM PC than it does to make a truly better, but non-IBM-compatible. Computer. American business prefers safeiy lo innovation (another reason why thejapanesc arc beating the hlazes out of us in so many fields, but don t get me started on that one!), and those businesses that alreadv have been brave enough to go with the Mac and. Rightiy, thumb their noscs at Big Bluc’s Pork Chop and its imitators won't want to take an even riskicr route bv going with a system lhat can't even try to read the files they’ve accunuilated on lhe Mac. ‘Nuff ' said.
Indeed, 'nuffsaid about il ail. I will now print oui mv article on my ImageWriter, which. Of course, will take plcnty of time as the Mac switches info hack and forth between RAM and disk. As the priming takes place, tying up my Mac for several long minutes (I'm using hi- res, after ail), I will dreain of the day. Perhaps not too many months away. When. My Amiga ai ihe ready, I can print a wordv article like ihis and gt*i started on wriiing mv next one. Al the senne time. Ah. BlissîB
Address ail author correspondence to liryce U'ray, 302 West Creenfield, Wake Village, TX 7 5501.
And space stations, Martian colonies, and intersteliar probes might already be commonplace. Does that sound outlandish? Then bear these facts in mind:
In 1946 ENIAC was the scientific marvel of the day. This computer weighed 30 tons, stood two stories high, covered 15,000 square feet and cost $ 486,840.22 in 1946 dollars. Today a $ 2,000 kneetop portable can add and subtract more than 20 times faster. And, by 1990, the average digital watch will have as much computing power as ENIAC.
The collective brainpower of the computers sold in the next two years will equal that of ail the computers sold from the beginning to now. Four years from now it will have doubled again.
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We also offer eight personal computer publications. Info World, the personal computer weekly, is a général interest magazine for ail Personal computer users.
The other seven are monthly magazines that concentrate on spécifie microcomputer systems, PC World, the comprehensive guide to IBM personal computers and compatibles. InCider, the Apple II journal. Macworld the Macintosh magazine. 80 Micro, the magazine for TRS-80 users. HOT CoCo, the magazine for TRS-80 Color Computer and MC-I0 users. And RUN, the Commodore 64 & VIC-20 magazine. And one is bi-monthly. AmigaWorld, exploring the Amiga from Commodore.
And we have similar publications in every major computer market in the world. Our network of more than 55 periodicals serves over 25 countries. Argentine Àustralia, BraziL Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, India, Israël, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, The Netherlands, Norway, People's Republic of China, Saudi Ara- bia, Southeast Asia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom. United States, Venezuela and West Germany,
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Congratulations to those of you who fourni oui Help Key lnd* clen mistakes. We surreptiiiously placed them there to sec just how sharp you are. Well, we have to hand it to you, vou’re good. We can't get away with anything around here! You earned ihern, so here they are the right answers.
Page 86, column one, question threc: the answer should read simplv "Motorola 68600"; there is no "7.8 Mhz" version.
Page 86, column four, question two: in line 10 of answer. RTV should he RC»B.
Page 88. Column three. Para, two: first sentence should read "15 colors plus transparent if sprites are attachecl. Three colors plus transparent if used individuallv."
Page 88. Column four, question two; answer should read “with the power on il is ail right to plug or unplug the mouse and game port accessories, but SOT ail right to attach or detach anv other peripherals."
Q: Is it possible to send the four sound channels séparately or simultaneously into a couventional audio mixer?
M. Claude Giroux
Ahimtsic M I L Québec. Canada
A: The Amiga merges its four audio channels into two sépara te stereo outputs with two channels on each. You can con- trol boili the frequenev and volume of each of the channels independently, and the custom chip merges them together for you, You can think of this as having a buih-in mixer for the Amiga audio.
Q: Is the total eight-octave range, available with the C-64's SlI) chip (with ail digitally imaginable tun- ings), likewise available on the Amiga?
Arthur S. Wolff Wichita. KS
Help Key is the place to find answers to those nagging questions about Amiga computing. Answers are provided through a genuine expert in these mat- ters, Rob Peck, Director of Descriptive and Graphie Arts at Commodore-Amiga. If you have any questions about the Amiga that you can’t find answers to and that just won 't go away, send them to us, and we’ll see what we cari do. Direct your frustrations to: Help Key, cio AmigaWorld éditorial, 80 Fine St., Peter bo rougit, NH 03458.
A: Yes. However, the Amiga uses digital-to-analog converters to produce its sound output. In- stead of being limited to what* ever a special-purpose sound- gencrator chip could produce, the Amiga can take either digital ly-generatcd wavefornis or sampled sounds and reproduce them faithfullv. So sounds that other computers can’t generate with their soimd-generator hardware are easily produced by the Amiga as a simple play- back fonction.
Q_: Can I plug speakers directl into the Amiga, or do I need to ruti them through an extenial amplifier?
John Radcliffe Scarcy, AR
A: The audio output from the Amiga must be directed through an amplifier in order to drive speakers.
Q; Will the Amiga be abte to support multi-user terminais through its 68000 bus expansion port?
Paul R. Rattray Lenton Cove, CA
A: The Amiga is a muhi-tasking, rather than a multi-user, syslem.
This means that one user can do many things at once. The spécial purpose displav chips produce one displav. Split into Windows and screens, for whom- ever is viewing that screen. It is certainly possible that some manufacturer might consider adding external terminais to the svstem, and adding tasks that would cnmmunicate with those terminais, but the display that an external user would see would dépend purely on the software being run and the ilis- play capabilities of the external terminal.
Q; How dues one become a software developer for the Amiga? How can l obtain documentation for the Amiga System software?
David Levner Président, Sabaki Corp.
Rego Park, XY
A: Developers deal with Com- inoclorc’s software support group in West Chester, Pennsvl- vania. Basically. Commodore wants to know what kind of products you wish to implemenr and what you have done in that same area prcvtously, for other computers. We are interested iu seeing a diverse range of applications for this machine. You can write to Paul Goheen ai Commodore for an application form and more information.
System software documentation, incltidiiig applications ex- amples, will soon he available in bookstores and computer stores.
It is the sanie materîal that is bundled with the dcvclopers’ packages. Titles are: ROM Ker- nal Manual, Hardware Manual. User Interface Manual and three AmignDOS manuals, spe- cificallv a Users Matinal. Dcvcl- opers Manual and Technical Reference Manual.
0; I noticed in your f ternietc issue the sla tentent that the spriles and ld i t ter cnn rnove low-res abjects, ('.an high-res abjects be animated likewisc? Would you need to use assetnbly lan- guage to do this?
Robert Sommer Colgate. YVI
A: The svstcm animation soft-
ware support moves data, orga- nized as objects. ït doesn’t disiinguish whether this data is being drawn into a low-res or a hi&h-res area. Once the data
structures are defined for the animation svsteni, whether by assemhly code C, or Basic, the system can handle the animation on its own. You sce, when you ask that animation occur, the controlling prograin (per- haps Basic) needn’t be very fast, since it will wait for a time interval, tell the system to rnove the data, tlien wait again. I bus, animation can he controllecl from a liigher level language.
Q: Hoiu fast is the transfer rate oj the disk drives? Will loading a pro- gram be a long affair as with the C- 64? Are the ester nal drives ",intelligent?"
Richard A. De Lay Bolling AI B
A: Program loading is qui te fast. For exainple, a word processing program that consists of over
120,600 hytes of code loads in less than 30 seconds. Extcnial drives are not intelligent. They are dircctlv controlled by the Amiga and transfer their data via direct memory access (DMA). That is what makes the disk transfers so fast. The System can actually load data faster if the DOS is not used (kick- start loads 256K in less than 20 seconds); however, most people need DOS to provide a filing system and its commands.
Q: Will the Basic bundled with the Amiga provide full access to ail of the Amiga's Jeatures (i.e„ hiAow bitmap resolutions, graphies, color, sound. Animation and speech synthesisf?
A: Amiga’s Basic is full-featured and shows off the capabilities of the machine.
Q: Will the Amiga initially not have ROM? I was told that the first Ami- gas will have 256K of RAM. Plus 256K of protected RAM into which the opéra ting system will be loaded.
Will the opéra ting system become a permanent part of ROM in the future? How will the upgrades be handled?
Rich Kevin O'Brien Renton. WA
A: Your information is correct. When you turn on the Amiga currently, it requests a “kickstart" disk which cou tains the opéraiing system. It is loaded into a RAM space which tlien beconies the e(|uivalent of ROM when Kickstart is donc. Should it become necessary to upgrade the operating system prior to committing it to ROM, regis- tered owners of “RAM ROM" machines will receive a replacement Kickstart disk.
Q: Will the Amiga allow you to print test, followed by mouse-draum artwork (or disk-stored artwork), fol- lowed by more test, on a single piece of paper?
Sun Gily West, AZ
A; Text is simply another fdrm of graphies. You can intermix text with graphies in any mail- ner vou wish.
(L What is the tilde key for? Also, of what use are the two ALT key s and the two "A"keys next to the space bar?
David Simanoff Cobham, Surrey England
A: Tilde ( ) is simply one of the légal ASCII characters found on computer terminais.
T he ALT keys perform a simi- lar fonction to the SHIFT and CTRL keys. They let sonie applications redefine keys to have Aoernate meanings.
The “A" keys are the "Amiga"
keys. Under Intuition, they rc-
spond as suhstitutes for the mouse and ils buttons. ALT and Left-Amiga together give you a left-button mouse event. AIT and Right-Amiga together give you a right-hutton mouse event. Either Amiga key with a cursor key moves the mouse cursor in the correct direction. If you hold down the cursor combination longer, the cursor moves faster. So, if you don t want to take vour hands off the key- board. It isn’t necessary. But the mouse gives you more conveni- ent control.
Q: Can the Amiga sense if there is a printer connected to its Centronics port or a modem to its serial port? How about a hard disk or a second floppy drive? Does AmigaDOS have an autoexec feature. Like MS-DOS?
A; The Préférences menu tells the Amiga what kind of printer should be expected and what baud rate to use for a modem. AmigaDOS does provide an autoexec feature. Known as a start- up-sequcnce. This is a script-file, which is executed ont of a System file and can be modified bv
the user. Additionally, under the CLI (command line interface). You can perform other script-f iles, with parameter substitution, using the AmigaDOS Exécuté command.B
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Corning Next Issue
! Hc next issue ni AmigaWbrld will take the logical sieps from graphies to video and music. What are people doing with the Amiga's video and soiuid capabilities? From laser disks to CD* ROMs to MIDI interfacing. Interactive video for teaching, training and entertainment is an area where the technology is rising and the costs are coming down. With laser disks and CD ROMs, the storage capabilities of your Amiga suddenly jump into the gigahyte range. What are companies doing with ail tliis memory and "instant access”? What will you he doing with it?
Passive video like MTV won’t be passive very long with sonie of the new programs coming out that let you design your own videos, music and ail. We will step into the world of professional video production and professional music as well as the "do it yourself* music and animation packages available for the Amiga.
We will also have mimerons other features on Amiga related matters. Like languages, spreadsheets and perhaps a game or two. A lot of new things shotild he popjiingup in the next few months, which promise to be exciting. Dif férent, innovative and amusing. So. If you liked tliis issue of AmigaWbrld. Then just wait, we haveivt even startedî
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Amiga Draw !
A Drafting and Design Tool for the Commodore Amiga ™
Aegis Development» Inc. brings creativity to your fingertips! Use Amiga Draw to create accurate and detailed drawings of anything your mind can imagine and then transfer those images to plotters, printers, and other output devices. Amiga Draw was designed specifically for the Amiga and takes advantage of ail the unique and powerful graphies capabilities that make this computer so spécial. You can work on several drawings at the same time using différent Windows. You may zoom in on an image, or open a new window to observe détail while keeping the overall view of the clrawing. Accuracy for the drawing is within -F -2,000,000,000 points! Flexible? Sure! Mark an image and store it
- or delete it, scaie it, rotate it, whatever! Amiga Draw puts you in charge.
Amiga Draw also supports layer-
Circle 12 on Reader Service card.
Ing of a drawing You may break up a drawing into various components allowing ail or selected pièces of the layers to appear. A house plan can be broken into electrical, plumbing, and structural layers. The layers can appear in différent colors, overriding the colors of the individual graphie éléments.
Mouse, Keyboard, or Tabler input with pull down menus is provided. Amiga Draw allows you to set the physical scale for the output device, and create scaled drawings for architecture, engineering, and charts. Plotting can occur in background mode allowing you to keep working on another drawing. Plotters from HP, Epson, Comrex, and others are supported.
Mistakes? Accidentai deletion can be reversed using the UNDO function. Expand your creativity by passing your
Amiga Draw image into a paint system to add flare and solid image fills.
So, if you’re serious about your Commodore computer, don’t you think you owe it to yourself to get the most out of it? With Amiga Draw, your investment can last a lifetime!
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TODAY IF YOU COME IN SECOND, YOU’VE LOST THE RACE.
It may nave been good enough in a Soapbox Derby,® but these days there is no second place.
Forîunately there's a new way to get a jump on your compétition, intro- ducing Amiga:'’ The first Personal computer that gives you a Creative edge.
Amiga makes charts and grephs with more color and dimension thon any other personal computer (and fasterthan most of them). But rhahs just a start. You can préparé présentations with stereo music and animation, sliae shows, create package designs, instruction manuals, brochures.
Amiga can not only do many more tasks, it can do more of them at once. And work on ail of them simultaneousiy. While youYe preporing rhe spread- sheet, Amiga will print the mémo.
And there's probably enough power left over îo receive a phone message or a stock quofe over a modem at the same time.
You won't find a computer that's eas- îer to use, eîîher. You point at symbols with the mouse or use keyboard com- mands if you prefer. Only Amiga is built to give you a choice.
Amiga has twïce the memory of an IBM® PC. But although it can run rings around IBM, it will also run IBM pro- grams. You have instant access to the Îargesî collection of business software in the industh , inciuding old standbys like Wordstar® and Lotus® 1,2,3. Amiga is more powerful than Macintosh,’" too, and more expandable. With an op- tional expansion moduie you can add memory up to 8 megabytes. And while if can do much more than Macirrosh or IBM, Amiga cosfs less rhar eitherof them.
See on Authorized Amiga Dealer neor you. Now that Amiga is here,
Ihe question isn't whether you can afford a computer, ifs whether you can afford to wait.
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Amiga can help you design Like you, Amiga can do many Amiga's color graphies leave
anyîhing, from autos îo aioms. Things at once. The compétition far behind.