By the time you read this there will be a few companies selling write-once laser dises with 3.2 gigabytes ol storage. Another company bas an ency- clopedia on CD. You can search the eut ire encyclopedia in seconds for every occurrence of a word or combination of words. You can display articles fasier tban text stored on hard disk. The trick is an amazing sleight of dise technique every key word in the en tire encyclopedia is indexed (think about that for a moment). Wliat it moins is that the index is larger than the encyclopedia. And the CD isn’t even close to being filled! 'erv soon, a digitizer frame grabber will be available for the Ainîga that will Ici you freeze a video image frotn any video input. Color it. Paint it. Print it. Store it, etc. A gen-locking device will be available that will let you feed any video image into the Amiga and superimpose Amiga graphies, text, sounds and music. Interactive video autlmriug program s are being developed for botli laser- disc players and YCRs. H won’t be long before videoware (combination video and software) games. Cducational and business prograins will be available. People who buy computers are used to the iclea that they are on the edge of some new technologies, l he people who buy Amigas (and read Amiga- World) are convinced that not onlv are tbey on that edge, they are leaning over and beginning to conteitiplale jumping. The Amiga laser video svmbiosis should lie a fairly giani step in the direction of a new wav to think of computers. Rallier than buying a computer and then connecting pciiphcrals, people will buy an encyclopedia on CD and an Amiga computer to dis- plav the information, or a laser- disc player, training software, laser dises and an Amiga to run il through. Y'ideoware, interactive video, laser dises and G13- ROMs are ail wiiliin inonths, not years, of being available for the Amiga. Elsewhere in this issue we have articles on music software. Intuition, Basic graphies and our usual fare of reviews (with a new review addendum, Best of Public Domain, wliich will high- light a différent pieee of freeware in each issue), more questions and answers. News- worthv tidbits and enough Amiga info to make the price of this issue palatable.
Navigation texte du magazine
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Exploring the Àmiga
I MU. I
Tecmar’s T-products for Ywtir Commodore Amiga
Tecmar présents five products that give your Commodore Amiga the power todo almost anything...
Add a powerful 1 MB multifunction expansion module, 20 MB hard disk, 20 MB tape backup, and 2400 baud Hayes® compatible modem. Expand your processing, tiling, and communcations with our peripheral family.
Great products. Great support. Great prices.
Check us out at your nearest Amiga dealer. The best can be yours!
Crrçfe 5 on Reader Service card.
T-connect is the iink between your T-disk and Amiga. The compact sidecar conîaining a tiard disk SASI interface quickly snaps to the side of your Amiga. T-disk then simply piugs into T-connect. Later, when you need the features of a multifunction board, you can upgrade T-connect to Tecmar’s T-card.
T-card adds the power that you need to run large application programs to your Amiga. T-card contains an RS232 serial port, ciock calendar, T-disk hard disk SASI interface and up toone megabyte of memory in a compact sidecar. T-card quickly snaps to the side of your Amiga computer and includes its own power supply.
Use T-card’s expansive memory to run large spreadsheet and database programs on your Amiga. Connect a serial printer or modem to T-card’s serial port and the batîery-powered ciock calendar keeps perfect time even when your computer is turned off. Available with 256 KB, 512 KB or 1MB of memory.
Tecmar’s T-products for Your Commodore Amiga
B ' j
T-disk is a 20 MB hard disk housed in a compact cabinet with its own con- troller. The versatile T-disk can be attached to the Amiga via Tecmar’s T-card or T-connect. When attached to T-card, you can have the power of a multifunction board and hard disk without taking up a lot of valuable desk space. If you do not need the features of T-card, you can attach your T-disk to the T-connect, a hard disk SASI interface.
T-disk can store over 20 floppy disks. Word processors and daîabases are much easier and faster to use on T-disk. T-disk wilt help you store ali the software that will soon be available for your Amiga. Easy-to-use software makes installation quick.
Give your Amiga the ability to communicate with other computers through T-modem, a 2400 baud Hayes-compatible modem, T-modem features automatic dialing and answering, téléphoné line status reporting and spécial software to make your personal téléphoné directory appear on your screen anytime you pick up your téléphoné handset.
T-modem quickly attaches to the serial port on your Amiga or Tecmar's T-card. Use the compact T-modem to communicate with information services or other Amiga users.
Protect your data against loss by using T-tape, a reliable backup system, T-tape offers mirror-image and file-by-file backup so you can choose the type of backup that is the easiest and quickest for you. If data is ever lost, it is easy to restore it from T-tape. Menu-driven software makes backing up and restor- ing your data fast and easy.
T-tape attaches to your Amiga through the fioppy interface port on the back of your computer. T-tape also includes its own power supply. The T-tape cabinet contains indicator lights which tell you the status of T-tape during a backup.
Tecmar's products for the Amiga computer ali corne with their own power supply, installation software and easy-to-read manual. T-disk,
T-tape and T-modem stack on top of each other and on top of your computer, freeing valuable desk space. Cail your dealer or Tecmarat
(216) 349-1009 for more information.
Tecmar Inc., 6225 Cochran Road, Solon, Ohio 44139-3377 Téléphoné (216) 349-1009 Telex 466692 Tecmar International Inc., Chaussee de la Hulpe 181 1170, Brussels, Belgium Téléphoné 32-2-672.23.98 Telex 20256
A 18 Interactive Videodisc
By Matthew Leeds
The laser dise and die Amiga are about to join forces and a new world of interactive video eoin]nii ing will be
22 VIVA from Knowledge ware
By Guy Wright
C. reating interactive video software on
lhe Amiga with tlie 'I ’A anthoring | ) r igrani.
26 Success Story: A-Squared Systems and the Amiga Digitizer
By Matlhnü Leeds
How a surall group of peoplc* with an idea dcveloped Iuveh the Amiga video digitizer.
34 Optical Révolution
By Matthew Ijseds
There is more than music going on in the world of the compact disk.
40 Amiga Software Market
By Robert Mitchell
The llood of software for the Amiga is just starting. We put together a list of over 100 titles to whet vour appetitc.
54 Basic Graphics
By (iil Dodgen
Show «.Il a liiik* willi thèse AbasiC graphies tensers.
56 Programming on the Amiga: MCC Pascal
B Daniel Zigmond
Mcre wc take a look at one of the mosi popular programming languages
M( XI Pascal for the Amiga.
60 CD-ROM: The Future of Memory?
By Joseph Rotello
Mcgahytes and gigabvtcs. . .CD-ROM is going le » change ihe wa wc think ahotn incmorv.
64 Amiga Music Studio
By Peggy 11er vingt on
Mimetics Inc. is working on a séries of nuisit modules for assembling Amiga arias.
68 Using Your Intuition
By John B. Fisher
Relaling i » die Amiga should he almosi intuitive, and willi a few pointers, il is.
8 1 Enabling Amiga
By Donald Lahriola and John Meyer
Wc talked wilh people front The Software Croup ahoui their F.nable Write wortl prot‘essor loi du* Amiga.
Bringing ail the pièces together.
Iiow mut h is a gigabyte anyway?
Deluxe Paint from F.lct ironie Arts, I he Video KoomMate Powcred .Speaker System from Rose and MaxiComm from MaxiSoft.
The Best of Public Domain
By David F. McClellan
A new sériés featuring reviews of "freeware” and "shareware” available to the public.
More letters from reatlers.
Sclected Amiga art from sclected Amiga ariisis.
Flashes from tbc Iront liites ni die Amiga produci wars.
Questions aboui die Amiga, answered bv the experts.
66 Corning Next Issue
Editor-In-Ch ief ( »uy Wright
A lanaging F.ditor Shavvn La flamme
Review Edilor Vinoy Laughner
Ter finirai Edilor Robert M. Ryan
Co nlrihut ing Edi to rs
Peggy Herrington, Matthew Ijecds,
Advertising Sales Manager Siephcn Robbins
Sales Representative Ken Blakeman
Ad Coordinator I leather Paquettc 1 -800-441 -4403
Alarketing Coordinatar Vvendie Haines West Goast Sales (iiorgio Salnti. Manager 1-415-328-3470 1060 Marsh Road Menlo Park, CA 94025
Design: Gtenn A. Suokko Photography: Edjudice Séparations: Ultra Scan P rin t ing: lin mm Printing
James S. Povec
Vice-Presidcnt Finance Roger Murphy
Vice-President Planning and Circulation William P. 1 lowarcl
Assistant General Manager Malt Smith
Executive Creative Director Christine Des trempes Circulation Manager Frank S. Smith
Direct & Newsstand Sales Manager
Director of Crédit Sales àf Collections William M. Boyer
Art Director (ilenn A. Suokko Editorial Design (ilenn A. Suokko
3roduct ion Advertising Supervisor
( raph ir l)esign Assistants Anne Dillon, Karla Whitney
Graphie Services Manager Dennis Christensen Film Préparation Supervisa)'
Robert M. Villeneuve
7 ypesetting S u pervisor Linda P. Canale
'Types citer Doreen Means
S us an Cross
AmigaWnrld (ISSN 0883-2390) is an independeut journal nt>t connccied with Commodore business Machines, Inc. .1 miga World is published bimnnthlv hy CVV Communications Peterborough. Inc., 80 Pine St.. Peierborough. NH 03 158. I '.S. subscription rate is $ 19.97, one vcar. Canada and Mexico $ 22.97, one year, U.S. fïrnds drawn on U.S. bank onlv. Foreign Surface $ 89.97, Foreign Air Mail $ 71.97,
U. S. funds drawn on U.S. bank. Second class posiage pending at Peierborough, NU. And ai addiiional mailing offices. Phone: 603*924-9471. F.niire contents copyright 1985 by C V Communications Pc- terborough, Inc. No part of ibis publication may be printed or otherwise reproduced withoui written permission front tlie publishcr. Postinaster: Send ad dress changes to AmigaWorld, Suhscripiion Services. PO Box 951. Farniingdale, N'Y I 1735. Nationallv dis tributed by International Circulation Distribuions AmigaWorld makes every effort to assure the accurac y of articles, listings and circuits published in the magazine. AmigaWbrld assumes no responsibilitv for dam âges due to errors or omissions.
AmigaWorld is a meillher of the (AN' Communie.i- tions Inc. Group, the world’s larges! Publishcr oi computer-related information. The gtoup pub- lishes 57 computer publications in more lhan 20 major countries. Ni ne million people rcad one or more of the group’s publient ions each mon th. M ri libers of tlie group include: Argenliiufs Computer- worldfArgent intr, Asia's The A si an Computerworld; Australia’s Computerworld Australie. Australien PC World, Macworld and Direct or tes: Bra il’s DataNews and MicroMundn; China’s China Comfmtcnvorld; Den- mark’s Computcrworld Danmark, PC World and PCX (Commodore); Finland’s Alikro: I ratice’s le Mande Informatique, Golden (Apple). O Y.'dBMi and Distrih- utique: Germany’s Computerwoche, Microcumputerwell, PC Welt, Software Mur ht, CW Edition Seminar, Computer Business, RCX and Apples Italy’s Computerworld Italie and PC Magazine', Japaifs CornputeneorldJapon: Mex- ico’s Computerworld Mexico and CampuMundo; The Netherland’s ComputerWorld Bmelux and PC World Bénélux: Norway’s Computerworld S orge, PC World and RCX (Commodore); Saudi Arabia’s Sawli Computerworld: Spain’s Computerworld Espaha. Microsistemas PC World and Commodore World; Sweden’s ComputerSweden, Mikrodatorn, and Svcnska PC. the UK‘s Computer Management. Computer Xeu's. PC Business World and Computer Business Europe: the U.S.' AmigaWorld, Computerworld, Focus Publications, Hol CoCo. InCider, InfoWorld, Mac World, Micro Marketworld, On Communications. PC World. RCX, 73 Magazine, 80 Micro: Venezuela’s Computerworld Venezuela.
Manuscripts: Contributions in the form ofmaïui- seripts with drawings and or photographs are wel- corne and will be considered for possible publication. AmigaWorld assumes no responsibilitv for loss or damage to any material. Please enclose a self-addressed. Stamped envelope with each stih- missiou. Pavmeni for the use of any unsolicited material will he made upon acceptance. AU contributions and éditorial correspondente (typed and double-spaced. Please) should lu* directed u> AmigaWorld Fditorial Offices. 80 Pine Street. Peter- horough. NH 03458; téléphoné: 1)03-924-9471. Advertising Inquiries should he directed to Advertising Offices, (AN Communications Peter- borough. Inc.. Fini Street, Petet borougli, N I I 03458: téléphone: 800-441-4403. Subscription problems or address changes: Call 1-800-227-5782 or write t » AmigaWorld, Subscription Department. PO Box SOS, Farniingdale, NY 1 I 737. Problems with advertisers: Send a description of tlie problem and vour current address to: AmigaWorld. Fini Street. Peierborough. NH 03458, Al IN.: Barbara Marris. Customer Service Manager, or call 1-800-441-4403.
Kiss yourearthbound buddies goodbye and travel the solar System in the most exciting space program everenvisioned.
The Halley Project: A Mission In Our Solar System''-' is history's first real-time space simulation.
By the stars from planet to planet. Complété ail ten missions and be invited to face the ultimate challenge: the incredibie secret e lèvent h mission.
So take off to a software dealer and join an elitegroupof space explorers. As for your chums, tel! Them you'll wave as you fly over.
Its challenge provides out-of- this-world stimulation.
Lightweight space jockeys need not apply, this one's for qualified star pilots.
A rigorous ten-mission training program will test your knowledge and skill as you navigate
Software that challenges the A minci. -'J
The Halley Project is available on: Applef Atari* and Commodore*
Mtndscape, Inc. 3444 Dundee Road, Northbrook, Illinois 60062,1*800-221-9884 (In Illinois 1-800-942-7315)
Copyright ç 1985. Mfndscape. Inc Ail Riqhts Reserved. Apple. A tan and Commodore are re istered trademarks ol Apple Computer. Atan Inc.. and Commodore Business Machine
Circlc 3 on Reader Service card
The microcomputer industry held its annual Computer Dealer Exposition, better known as Comdex, in Las Vegas last November. Al the show, computer dealers were able to see impressive displays of the latest hardware and software products developed for microcomputers. After attending ihis latest Comdex, 1 returned with more in* sight into the Amiga's place in the évolution of microcomputer technology. Coincidentally, Comdex 1985 marked the passage of the first year since we ai AmigaWorld had our first look at a prototype Amiga.
As an owner of the new Amiga, you are on the leading edge of the évolution of microcomputer technology, since you now own the most unique per* sonal computer to corne to mar- ket in the history of the industry.
In the évolution of the per- sonal computer, there h ave been two major forces at work. The creators, such as clectronic engineers and programmera whose research and inventions have pioneered the development of the microcomputer, are the first major force propelling micro évolution. Thev are moti- vated bv a search for the most advanced combinations of coin- ponents and new technology in hardware and software development. The force behind techno- logical growth is propelled by a quest for processes or applications thaï reach beyond the ca- pabilities or expectations of current commercial products.
The other force that propels micro évolution is consumer de* mand. Personal computers have changed and evolved because of the shifting needs of you, the microcomputer user.
The microcomputer came into being as a do-it-vourself
electronics project for hobby ists familial with mainframe computers and electronics. The first micros were assembled front kits or frotn scratch; thev had a miniscule ( 1K) mnount of RAM and no kevboard. These early
micros, which had little practi* cal application, were also expensive to build. Next, the 1RS- 80 and Apple II computers were introducecl as interest and de- mand for microcomputers be- gan to grow among consumers. The TRS-80 brouglu increased production and widespread availabilitv of micros to users. The Apple II introducecl the concept of an open system, which allowed a large support market of add-on products and software to devclop and grow.
Next, inexpensive home computers arrivée! On the scene, bringing high-qualitv color graphies and computer-gener- ated sound to users. T h is phase of the évolution of micros is ex- eniplified by the Commodore 64 and Radio Shack Color Com
puter. And was grceted with enormous demand front consumers. At about the saine tinte. IBM introducecl iis PC, combin* ing the open architecture of the Apple II with more memory to create a powerful new micro- computer for the business niar- ket. The évolution of this product lias been propelled by the addition of more and more memory and faster processing speeds in addition to a strong support market for software and peripherals, meeting the needs of power users, who are primarilv involved in large busi- nesses. Eîght-hit processors have given way to 16- and 32-bit pro- eessors in the evohnion of the micro.
The next major leap in the
évolution of microcomputers came about because of the diffi- culty consumers had in trying to master MS-DOS and other operating Systems. A new and more intuitive interface evolved and took its form with the Apple Lisa and Macintosh computers.
The strongest forces in micro évolution have been consumer demand for increased priee per- formance ratios, new and useful applications with partîcular cm- phasis ou high-resolution graphies and sound, and easc of use through an intuitive user interface. Each pre-Amiga microcomputer has been able to address one or even two of these re* quirenteius, but never bave ail three been addressed in one machine.
The Amiga personal computer is 011 the leading edge of the évolution of the micro lie- cause its creators have answeretl and coinbined ail three consumer demands in one product. To describe ail of the Amiga’s feattires is to review the accont- plishmenis of a variety of disparate Systems in the history of micro évolution. Il has the open architecture of the Apple II. The easc of use of the Macintosh and the power of the IBM PC.
As the Amiga began to make its présence felt at last year's Comdex, 1 sensed the energy of micro évolution Corning alive again. ¦
_ Circle 23 on Reader Service card.
designed for AMIGA
Lattice® recognized as an innovator in software development, lias done it again. Onlv this time, Lattice is unveiling a full line of software packages for the new Personal computer thaï gives vou a Creative edge The Amiga by Commodore.
The revolutionarv features of Amiga have drawn second looks from just about everyone. But while eveiyone was looking, Lattice was busy at work creat- ing programmer tools and applications software that will give the word versâtiliiv a whole new meaning.
Programs like the Lattice Screen Editor™ with a unique multi-window environment for preparing and editing text. Or Lattice Make Utility™ for rebuilding complex Systems at a single command. There’s alsoLatticeMctcLibmty'"' with more than sixty C func* tions for those who feel close to Mac.
But these are just a few of the programs that have been created by Lattice for Amiga. Also available now are Vnicalc* dBC rM and Lattice Text Utilities.™ And many more on the horizon.
Its only a matter of time before Amiga rides to the top. And when you use Lattice software, you’ll find that it's only a matter of saving you time.
P. O. Box 30 2. GlenHIlvn, IL60138 Phone (312) 858-7950 1VVX 910-291-2190 INTERNATIONA!. SUES OFFICES:
By Guy Wright
Ifs ail donc with mirrors. Las ers shinc their cohérent light through a séries of mirrors, lenses and filtcrs. A bounce or iwo laler and based on an incident of réfraction, or distor- non or some sort of high-tech, hocus-pocus digital information, video information or audio information some manner of information is extracted and sent ont to be processed or dis- played or listened to. This, by itself, is not thaï remarkablc. Video players, laser-disc players, caméras, etc., bave been around for a while. Records, tapes, 8- tracks and cassettes have been around for a while. Kloppy disks, hard disks, paper and magnetic tape bave also been arouncl for a while. Information is stored on some medium and retrieved somehow.
It is the combining of thèse cléments tbrough the Amiga (or an y other microcomputer, for that matter) that is the interest* ing thing. Plus the fact that laser dises and Cds (compact dises) offer a few ex iras. Video, highquality stereo sound and gigabytes of storage. That last part is worth repeating GIGABYTES of storage.
The Amiga, straight oui ot the box. Lias 256K of memory. Subtract some for the Yvork- bench and you end up with around 160k, wliich is 1 (>0,000 bvtes, or 160,000 characters, or
32. 000 words, or about 75 pages of a book. A megabyte is 1.000K and a gigabyte is 1.000 mega- bvtes. So 10K= 10,000 bvtes = 10,000 characters - 4.5 pages of a book. CD bas over 500 inegabvtes of storage. Or
500. 000,000 bvtes. Or 227,272 average book pages. An eight* inch laser dise could hold 454,544 book pages. A 12-inch laser dise could hold about
1. 454,540 book pages, Amiga- World bas 96 pages, so we could put 1 5,151 issues of Amiga World on one 12" laser dise. 151.510 articles.... Boggies the mind, docsn’t it?
But the numbers aren't every* thing. If those 151,510 articles aren't worth reading then you might as well use the laser dise as a frisbee, (By the wav, laser dises are nearlv indestructible. So you could use il as a frisbee, then pop il in the dishwasher, put it back in the player and still have a working disk.)
By the time you read this there will be a few companies selling write-once laser dises with 3.2 gigabytes ol storage. Another company bas an ency- clopedia on CD. You can search the eut ire encyclopedia in seconds for every occurrence of a word or combination of words. You can display articles fasier tban text stored on hard disk. The trick is an amazing sleight of dise technique every key word in the en tire encyclopedia is indexed (think about that for a moment). Wliat it moins is that the index is larger than the encyclopedia. And the CD isn’t even close to being filled!
'erv soon, a digitizer frame grabber will be available for the Ainîga that will Ici you freeze a video image frotn any video input. Color it. Paint it. Print it. Store it, etc. A gen-locking device will be available that will let you feed any video image into the Amiga and superimpose Amiga graphies, text, sounds and music. Interactive video autlmriug program s are being developed for botli laser- disc players and YCRs. H won’t be long before videoware (combination video and software) games. Cducational and business prograins will be available.
People who buy computers are used to the iclea that they are on the edge of some new technologies, l he people who buy Amigas (and read Amiga- World) are convinced that not onlv are tbey on that edge, they are leaning over and beginning to conteitiplale jumping. The Amiga laser video svmbiosis should lie a fairly giani step in the direction of a new wav to think of computers. Rallier than buying a computer and then connecting pciiphcrals, people will buy an encyclopedia on CD and an Amiga computer to dis- plav the information, or a laser- disc player, training software, laser dises and an Amiga to run il through. Y'ideoware, interactive video, laser dises and G13- ROMs are ail wiiliin inonths, not years, of being available for the Amiga.
Elsewhere in this issue we have articles on music software. Intuition, Basic graphies and our usual fare of reviews (with a new review addendum, Best of Public Domain, wliich will high- light a différent pieee of freeware in each issue), more questions and answers. News- worthv tidbits and enough Amiga info to make the price of this issue palatable.H
Circle 22 on Reader Service card.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE SERIES
THE AMIGA TECHNICAL REFERENCE SERIES
from Addison-Wesley gives software developers and programmers the key to unlocking the power and versatility of the Amiga Personal Computer.
Published with Commodore Business Machines, Inc., the sériés is written by the hardware designers and programmers who actually created the Amiga's hardware, built-in-software, and user interface.
C and assembly language examples throughout provide clear illustrations of Amiga programming concepts. Comprehensive, these manuals are the définitive référencé works for Amiga programmers.
AMIGA HARDWARE REFERENCE MANUAL
Provides detailed descriptions of the graphies and sound hardware of the Amiga and explains how the machine talks to the outside world through peripheral devices.
AMIGA ROM KERNEL REFERENCE MANUAL: LIBRARIES AND DEVICES
Provides a complété listing and description of the Amiga's built-in ROM routines and Systems software which support graphies, sound. And animation.
AMJGA ROM KERNEL REFERENCE MANUAL: EXEC
Provides a complété listing and description of the built-in ROM routines and Systems software which support the Amiga's multi- tasking capabilities.
AMIGA INTUITION REFERENCE MANUAL
Provides a complété description of Intuition, the Amiga user inter face. Numerous examples and illustrations show how to create applications programs that con- form to Intuitionsguidelines.
Al! Four volumes in the AMIGA TECHNICAL REFERENCE SERIES are
available in April through your Amiga dealer, and wherever computer books are sold.
Reading, Massachusetts • Don Mills, Ontario
* '“AMIGA 15 atrademarkof Comrr.odore-Aniga. Inc.
Electronic Arts Présents 8 Good
“The kinds of things painters love and miss in computer programs are ail here in DeluxePaint’’
The most sophisticatcd paint program evcr made for a personal computer. Loaded with spécial features like zoom enlarging, split screen magnification, color cycling, blend, smear, shade, stretch, bend, and rotate. The custom palette mixing and unlimited brushes give you complété control over ail of the Amiga’s 4,096 colors. And it even works in 640 x 400 hi-res mode.
5, Financial Cookbook™
Take control of your finances. Financial Cookbook answers ail your personal finan cial questions and saves you money.
From checking and savings accounts to IRAs and taxes. From variable interest rates to amortization schedules.
Performs like a spreadsheet, a calculator, and an investment advisor, ail rolled inro one. The simple filbin'the-blanks format makes complex financial questions and saving money a breeze.
The action chess game with dragons, magicians, and trolls for pièces. When one piece lands on another, they have to fight a white-knuckle arcade battle for control of the square. The perfect blend of action and strategy, and a classic award winner.
The tank battle simulator. Feel the heat of tank combat as you command your two on-screen hands and their arsenal of heavy cannon. “seeing” missiles, and mines. Face a highly intelligent enemy in a completeiy three- dimensional Arctic battlefield. An accurate simulation of tank move' ment and stratégies, with the bonedarring sound effects and super hot graphies of the best arcade games.
“Game of the Year”
“Most Innovative Game”
Amiga ts a regiscered trndemark ol Commodore Business Machines, Inc DeluxePaint. Skyfox, Dr J and Larty BirJ Go One-on-One, Arcticfox, Financial Ccx kbook. Archon. Seven Cirics of Gold. And Electronic Arts are rcgistered trademarks of Electronic Arts.
Circle 2 on Reader Service card.
Reasons to Own an Amiga:
Jump into the cockpit of a fighter pilots dream. Enemy tanks and jets splash into brilliant fiâmes when you score a hit. You'll hear the shriek of the doppler effect as enemy jets strafe past. Skyfox is the fastest selling game in E. A. history, and a multi-award winner.
3. Dr. J and Larry Bird Go One-on-Onc™
The number-one computer sports simulation of ali rime. The players look real, and the sounds are so detailed you can even hear the squeaking sneakers on the hardwood floor. Feels so real you'll think you’re down on the court with these basketball
“Best ShoonenvUp Arcade Game"
“Best Action Arcade Game"
“Game of the Year”
6. Seven Cities of Gold™
Play the rôle of Columbus or Cortez in this lush simulation and adventure game. Learn history and geography as you explore the New World and face the problems of the Conquistadors. Earn glory and gold, or wind up beached by mutineers.
If you survive, the computer will generate uniimited new continents for you to explore.
“Best Role-Playing Adventure" Family Computing
8. The Eighth Reason?
-- These Electronic Arts products are
'S available NOW, so you can stop
, waiting for the higlvquality
software that will let you get the most from your Amiga.
ELECTRONIC ARTS I'm
How to Order Visit your retatler or cal! 800-227-6703 |in CA call 800-632-7979» for VISA or MasterCard order* To purchase by ma il. Send check or money order to Hlecrronic Arts.
PO. Box 7530. San Marco. CA 94403. Add S5 for s-hipping and handling. Ailow 2-4 week s for deüvery. Ail of the above Amiga products are $ 39 95. Except Financial Cookbook ar $ 49.95 and DduxePaint at $ 79 95 To get a complété product catalog and order form. Serd 30 and a stamped, self-addressed envelope to Electronic Arts Catnlog. 1820 Gateway Drive. San Mareo. CA 94404
Amiga World magazine ha.s the itsual overdose of hype that is to be expected front any une magazine de- voled to a spécifié computer. But some statements in your November December 198.5 issue go beyond mere exaggeratioti, using false and mis- teading information in an attempt to port ray the IBM PC as a slow, uio rthless co mputer.
I am referring specificaUy to thefirst paragraph on page 2.5 ("ht stark Contras t . . . "). The author (juntes a Commodore spokeswoman ‘s explanation for the reasoti au Amiga ivas so slow load- ingLotus 1-2-3: namely, that the Amiga “totally emulates the IBM PC." Includ- ing its speed. I h is romfar ison oj the load time oj Lotus 1-2-3 with an Amiga running nativeprograms was supposed to demonstrate that the Amiga is t remet idously faster than the IBM PC.
The com par ison is obviously un- fa ir. What Commodore or your Amiga World writers should hâve doue is compare a real IBM PC running Lotus 1-2-3 against an Amiga running the identical software in ils PC émulation mode. wtutld bel that Commodore wotdd have had great reason to be embnr- rassed by such a comparison.
The next paragraph on page 25 also daims that the IBM PC is attable to perform true multitasking. This is on y true if you stick to plain van il la MS-DOS. There are a number oj decenl multitasking oper- ating systems for the PC. Indudiug IBM's PC IX (a UiXIX look-atikeh and Digital Research's Concurrent PC-DOS. Bot h of these also support ad lit tonal users on serial terminais. There are also DOS add-on produi ts flikc Quarterdeck's DesQf ’iew or Microsoft s Windows) that add multitasking iti reasonably élégant fashion to MS-DOS. The article déniés the existence of these produi ts, and implies that somehow the PC is inhérent ly incapable oj perform ni g multitasking.
Then, in the first paragraph on page 21 of the same issue ("Plie Right Stufj. . . "). The daim is made that MS-DOS users must "master es- oteric and difficult DOS commantls to perform com mon f mictions fike copying files." What could be so eso- teric a tu tuf a DOS com m and like "COPY A:MYFILE *:"? Using a visual interface like CF.M or the Macintosh to perform the sa tue o ier- atinn in volves steps like these:
Double-ci icking on two différent disk irons to open the disk Windows.
* Rrsizing or scrolling one or two Windows so that the source file can be seen on the Street t together with the destination window.
:,:I)rngging the source file front one window to the other.
H il h h ing un an OK box in a dittlog window to tell the computer to pro- ceed with the copy opération.
Ising the moitse to perform these steps takes more lime than rare to waste. I am tint sa y ing that the visitai interface is u sel es s; it is great for tasks that are i en visual in nature, like drawhtg pictures. But il is un- fai r to dismiss DOS commutais as uufriettdfy because they bivalve typ- ing commantls at a keyboard.
The point am trying to malte is not that the Amiga is a crummy machine. Ht fart, it looks very good. But your magazine should cea.se and t lests t front ntaking false and untested daims a bout the supposed pour performance and difficulty of use oj sut h machines as the IBM PC. Most of the information you publish ahout the PC is obviously based not on expérience but on your own biases.
Mark Alexander Pacifie Grave, CA
! Just thoughf that you wtutld be interested to know that my Amiga bas turned ont to be a real lifesaver in more ways than one.
}bu sec, am currently employed as an ambulance attendant with a service that envers four expandbtg towns and villages. I use my Amiga as a data base with which record data ahout streets, ronds and high- ways. So when we receive tt etdl and am not sure of the exact location, I summon it up using the database. The speed at which the Amiga al- lows trie to do this is ineredible and bas already helped direct ly tu sa v ing lime and idtimatdy saving lives.
I know that this in and of itsdf wotdd not realty ment any spécial attention other than the fart that 1 also use it for com pas ing and serf uni ring my synthesizer and writtng office mémos al the same time.
Brent Moore Quispamsis, A B Canada
1 liai s what llie Amiga is ail abolit. Bravo! Editors
I think it s great that you started a magazine dévot ed ntt i tel y In the Amiga. I Iown>er, Pd like to see some migrants in your magazine in the
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future. AU hnuis of programs would he fine, but more importantly. Senne teleeom tu u nient ions p rogra tus u ui uld be the hest.
Oshawa. Ontario C.anada
I just rend issue 2 (A'ov. Dec.
S5} and 1 atn impressed. Except for the cover, ivhich seemed cold with its rontrived high-rise business srerie and manikin-like s embolie businessman, the issue sparkled with persan- a!ils. You are successfully treading the line between eu cessibility and sophistication. . .like the Amiga itself I can sec how your articles could interest a beginner, yet with a feu> ex- refilants, there avis enough technical information to keep (he attention of experienced computer users. That means the éditais are wurking hard!
Russe II A. Deivey Statesboro, (,A
Would you believe that the cover shot for that issue is the view from our offices in Peter- bnmugh, New 1 Iampshirc?
1 read with pleasure your new publication. I fourni the layont and graphies h be oulstanding. Ihiuuver, in (SovJDec,), “300-word" modems, as well as 472 00-ioord" and “2-tOO- word" modems are referred to. The propre nomenclature is 300 BPS (Bits Per Second). This dors not rven roughly break down to 300 word s a minute. A s there are S bits to a byte (plus 2 or more for the transmission protocol), this is the rate (heu of 30 bytes a minute. This is roughly équivalent to 30 charae- ters a minute ta chu carter may he a blank or other non-vieivable charar- ters). Aiso, it is important to note that the transition protocol s may not be correct for the corn fut ter you plan to commun h aie with. Eherejore, be- fore one goes ont to purchase a modem, he should contact the staff with the other rom fut ter to find ont what that computer nécris. I have found that have stient many hauts on the
¦ ¦ V
téléphoné with someone frying to figure a way of making his software hardware work with our system. Again, I want to thank you for a truly beautifui publication.
Louis P. Kairys A ne ) ork, AT
have read your article fZeit- geist. SovJDec, S5, fi. S) about AiniguWorld and where it is going and l feel like responding. Even though (he Amiga is my first computer. I have been subscribing to computer journals for the last three years.
Eo starl with. Let's not fool our- selves about the Amiga becoming a business computer ovemght. Il prob- ably will one day, but business applications require powerfuî hardware (hard-tîisk drives, file set ver s, net- works, support for daisywheel and laser printers) and software (Word process11îg, spreadsheets, da(abuse management, networking), which is not avai lubie for the Amiga yet, !f it becomes avai table, then let's talk business.
I suspect that Amiga buyers, like rnyself bought their machines liera use they were intriguai by its power (graphies, speed, midtitasking, memory aecess, expandability. . J. Ihey are interested in how their machine works, and they would like to use il for programming and exploration in addition to regutar uses like word processing, graphies, animation and sound.
Af least for me, the pur pose of your magazine is clear. The first y car should be devoted to making the computer work and helpiug users be- corne fa mil ut r uni h their machines.
To accomplis}} this, Amiga World should regularly interview peofde in- volved in the dtvelopment of the Amiga. Il should inform us about hardware aud software problems of the machine. To do this, your magazine should have contact and supply information from Amiga users s groufis, hardware and software de- vélo fiers and possibly a coiumn where exchange of information can take place. Regular cola mus should includr articles on laiiguagrs. Programming, opérâting Systems, eom- mand line interface, MS-DOS émulation mode and programs and Workbench. Articles exfda ning othei hardware and software fonctions intilitiesf and use oj the computer for disk and disk directories. As well as hints about péri plierais su f fort should be iucluded.
Sir far, I bavent sera art ides about (iommodore-Amiga and the pco ile directly involved in the dcvel- opinent of the Amiga. As well as their future plans. This should he the historical rôle of your maga- zint to document the histoty of Amiga. A0 magazine should be with- ont information on services available for comfiuter users (public domain, informât on exchange. Bulletin bannis, (iompusetve. Datahanks, user grou fis. . Bricf news on future
hardware and software develofiment (including ru mors t should be ni- cluded. Hardware and software should be nvirwcd regularly.
On the négative suie, the least afi- preciated information is h y fie. He ail kit oie we bought a good computer, but we don’t need to hear it over and over. If there are problems (and there are. Belitvc me), be sincère about it.
A ter one y car (at least think it will take that long to debug and im- plement the opérât ing sy stem and de- velofi essential hardware and software), let the market décidé what direction and content your magazine will have.
Julius A. Bazan
(lien Oaks. AT
Whew! It looks like we have our work eut oui loi us. Read on in this issue for information on prograin ni ing, using Iiilui* lion, hardware and software re- views. Produit news, computing problems and solutions and more. Editors
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When you use tl»e most sophisticated and exciting computer on the inarket today, you deserve an equally sophisticated and exciting companion magazine.
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Several years ago, Smith Klein Beckman Corporation created an interactive videodisc program that asked physicians to diagnose and treat a hypothetical patient. Based on the responses from the doctor, the patient’s condition either improved or declined. The doctor then receïved advice or praise from the system. So far, no on-disc patients have died.
Interactive Videodisc Technology
By Matthew Leeds
Ford Motor Company recently began using interactive videodisc training centers to cdncate ils repair technidans. The eost of sending instructors to every dcalersliip ha l gone skv higli, and it was not possible to bring techs front every dealersliip to Détroit several times a year to update their skills. Ford prodttccd a scries of videodiscs and supplemental training inatcrials that were spécifie to each automobile niodel. The interactive nature of the training guaranteed that the techni- cians would receive personalized attention, and that the training would be consistent nationwide.
Interactive videodisc technology (IV 1’) is growing in popularity in business communications, training, éducation, promotion, consumer information and entertainment. Lis grovvth can be directly attributed to the introduction of low-cost microcomputers. IVT allows a user to access visitai information at bis own pace, and to view only those portions that are pertinent to bis needs.
The Video Pifs
To understand vvhy IVT lias become so popular, we need to take an in-depth look at how it works. Videodiscs are commonly used to store visitai and audio information, as in commercial movics and CD audio dises. Microscopit pits in the surface of the dise rellect a laser beani back to a read head. Tbese p i t s are the encoded information, and can be read as on or of f bits. New technologies allow for the storage of digital data on the sanie dise as visual and audio information. This mix of motion piciurcs, still frames, audio and data créâtes the potential for a high-powered information tool.
Two types of videodiscs are currently being used: Constant Angular Velocitv (CAV) dises and Constant Lincar Vclocity (CLV) dises. The CAV dise turns at the saine speed regardless of where the read head is on the dise. Each frame of video is written to a separate track. This means a single frame can be read from a single rotation, allowing for freeze frame, rapid search, multiple playback speeds and reverse play, The still-framc capacity is 54,00(1 frames, and the full motion capacity is 30 minutes. A CLV dise does not turn at the same rate at ail limes, and each rotation does not always ton- tain a single frame. This increases the full motion storage time to an hottr, but loses the still motion and variable playback speeds as well as the rapid search capability. Feature movies are usually rcleased on CLV dises, and mosl IVT programs use CAV s.
Interactive videodisc Systems are typically labcled by Icvels of interac tivity. Level 1 is a linear-play program, with freeze frame, step motion, fast and slow motion, automatic pause and chapler-scarch (beginning of new section) capabilities supported by a spécial purposc
M ROM microprocessor built inio the vidcodisc player. Level 2 programs use players that include a RAM section in the on-board microprocessor. This RAM can be loaded with data stored on one of the two audio tracks. In this fashion, it is possible to ‘‘program” the player to allow for branching (non-linear play) and to improve search times. Ixvel 3 programs use a player interfaced to a computer, The computer can be connecled to addi tional peripherals. Touch screens, light pens, disk drives, printers and other devices can be used to enhance the System. The computer is used to control the program flow, with software stored on disk.
Few Level 1 programs are being produced currently. Little incentive exists to create them, since videotape offers the advantage of low-cost duplicating and ready access to players.
Qui te a few Level 2 programs are available, and sonie are still being produced. The advantages of Level 2 Systems, lower hardware costs (no computer or interface needed) and lower production costs, are still attractive. Level 2 Systems have their disadvantages, however, including problems of compatibility. For example, Sony and Pioneer manufacture level 2 players, but their on- board inicroprocessors are not compatible. Sonie Level 2 vidcodisc producers have gotten around this by put- Lïng data for both Systems on dise. The microprocessors are 1K only, and this limits the si e of the controlling program. Also, once you produce the dise, the controlling software is “locked in" on the dise: Fixing bugs or making updates is impossible.
Level 3 programs currently offer the most power and flexibility. The vidcodisc player is controlled by a computer through an interface. The computer is used to handlc the branching, store answers to questions, and can be reprogrammed at any time. Lnput can be through the keyboard, a lightpen, mouse, touch screen, joystick or other device. A Ixvel 1 or 2 program cannot grade a session or store results for an instructor to examine, but a Ijevel 3 program can. With video overlay capability, the computer can be used to display text or graphies on a video screen, pointing to a particular procédure or event.
The advantages of Ixvcl 3 programs are many. Ease of reprogramming of the software, storing of test results, computer-generated overlays, multiple input devices and program complexity arc only some of the reasons why most IVT Systems arc using Level 3 technology.
With the increase in potential gains from using level 3 cornes a concomitant increase in potential problems. Intcrfacing a vidcodisc player to a computer is more difficult than connecting a primer, since no standards exist for either the hardware connections or the software to control the player. Sony players will not under* stand commands for a Pioneer player; an interface for a Panasonic player will not work on onc from Hitachi. Software written to control a Level 3 dise using an IBM will not run on a Commodore 64. You begin to get the picture.
Videodisc interfaces are as varied as the computers they work on. Their levels of sophistication range from simply passing commands to the videodisc player, to overlaying graphies on the video signal and decoding digital dumps from the audio tracks or video frames. Some boards will support more than one brand of jjlayer, and can be controlled by software to handlc future expansion.
Many industrial videodisc players have serial ports for connection to a controller interface. The cabling is similar to standard RS-232 devices, but some units use TTL (5V) voltage levels. Lise caution if you try to create your own interface.
Quite a few companies are manufat tm ing interfaces. Two of the better known are Allen Communications and Whitney Educational Services.
An interface is only the initial requirenient for créai ing an interactive videodisc program. Software is needed to control program flow and branching. Menus need to be created to allow for choices on screen. Data needs to be stored so that, for example, an instructor can evaluate student responses, or so that the program can replay sections that a student did poorly on. Two main types of authoring Systems are available to assist in the création of interactive control software: aids and languages.
Authoring aids are “toolkits" that assist a programmer in producing controlling software. Lsually written in a high-level language like Basic or Pascal, toolkits are a collection of I O (Input Output) routines, text and graphies editors, videodisc player algorithms and other useful subroutines. Authoring languages allow the non- programmer to produce a controlling software program. They began as tools on mainframe computers where they were used to create computer-aided training programs. These languages use menus and simple commands to create finished interactive programs, so they may be thought of as development sof tware for non- program mers. Authoring languages are more user- friendly, but less flexible, than authoring aids. They are designed for spécifie types of applications, and most often cannot be rcconfigured by the user to mect an unanticipated need.
Most authoring languages being created today are being written in (I because of ils portability and speed of éxecution. Regardless of the system used, the création of an interactive program requires more than pro- gramming skills. Training in the production of courseware (educational, subject-speciflc software), understanding the nature of attention spans, command
of the subject matter being presented and an under- standing of the system’s capabilities are ail necessary foi ibe production of an interactive progratn.
Education, Business, Elsewhere
Since 1980, the Videodisc Design Production Group at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln fias been using IVT to eclucatc hearing-împaircd children. These level I and 2 dises were produccd under a grant from the Corporation for Public Broadcasiing. Knovvn as the Vvhrrfs in Motion dises, tfiev cover fingcrspcHing, parent child language skills. Lumbling skills, gaines and 1 itéra- turc. The Design Production Group has becoine a tenter for information on the applications of IYT.
Lnfodisc Corporation is supplying hundreds of high school placement offices with Pioneer videodisc players to assist collcge-bound students with the task of select- ing a university. The package inchtdes a collection of videodiscs with scènes of each collège's campus, cfass- rooms. Dorms and labs. Also includecl is information on faculté, enrollment, financial assistance, curriculum and courses of studv. Stridents can use a keypad to select présentations from each school thev are interested in, and Mit ont a request for more information on indîvid- ual schools.
Point-of-purchase (POP) displavs are one commercial application that has cauglit on big in IVT. Sony has produccd a kiosk for Cuisinai t that allows customers to select short live-action segments on the use of food pro- cessors, WelFknown chefs star in this never ending soap opéra of gourmet delights. A more sophisticatcd use was impletneiited by olan Bushneirs company, By Video. This stand-alone unit included a videodisc plaver. Touch-screen monitor, crédit t ard reader and keyboard. 111is computercontrolled kiosk tlisplaycd siill and motion video calalogs of department store mer- chandise and accepted crédit card purchases to be shippcd to the customer s door. A current system is being distributed by CompuSave of lrvine. CA.
Visual Database Systems installée! An IV i system at the California Academy of Science in San Francisco. The installation used a Mindset computer, two Pioneer videodisc players and a touch-screen monitor. The display was based on one of the Space Archive Volumes from Video Vision Associates. The muséum has fourni the interactive display to be one of its most poputar exhibils.
Sec For Your self
If you want to assemble your own IVT svstem, get oui your c heckbook and start writing. I'H assume vou alrcady liave a computer and a color monitor. A videodisc player will cost you around $ 700-$ 1000. (You can get tlicm for less, but the seek lime tu llnd a given segment gets very long on low-cost un its.) The high-end Pioneer unies have seek times of less then three seconds (worst case) and the low-end unit (B210) takes 17 sec- onds. Lefs sav S1000 for a plaver.
Now vou need au interface. Il you are looking for one that can do overlavs. The cost will be around S 1000. A straight cnniroller starts at $ 130. If you want to cre- aie vour own courscware, the current cost to master a videodisc from lape is S300 for a single unit. This is assuming that you have donc ail of ihc video production alreadv. Haven't started on i lie video yet? Vou might trv using an existing videodisc for your First effort. The Space Archive Volumes would be a good start. Have you picked ont your audioring language? Insight from Wlntncy Educational Services runs just under S1001). And the Quest language from Allen Communications costs lialf that. Il you are proficient as a programmer, you etnild trv writing your own program without using an authoiiiig langitage. Li s siinilar to writing a primer driver and then writing a paint program to go along with it.H
Addre.ss ail author carresfmndena' to Matthno hrds, PO Iiox 210627, San Francisco, CA 94121.
If you are interested in getting more information on IYT, 1 suggest the following sources:
Videodisc Design Production Group
University of Nebraska at Lincoln PO Box 831 I I Lincoln, NE (58501*31 1 I
International Interactive Communications Society
330 Tnwnshend St. 200 San Francisco. (.A 9-1107
Pioneer Video. Inc.
31. 70 East Pacific Coast Hichwa
Long Bcach. CA 90804
The Videodisc Monitor
Future Systems, Inc.
PO Box 26
Fa Ils Church. VA 22046
Whitney Educational Services 1777 Bord Place Suite 416
San Mateo. CA 94402
I 40 l .akeside Plaza 11 3223 Wilcy Post Way Sali Lake City, UT 841 16
Visual Database Systems
614 Beau Creek Road Scott’s Valkv, CA 93066
Video Vision Associates, Ltd.
7 Waverly Place Madison, NJ 07940
VWA: Video Interfaced Visual Authoring from Knowledgeware
By Guy Wright
The VIVA system interfaces the Amiga with video technology, creating a medium for communications, artistic expression and a host of other applications.
Interactive video the terni is intriguing. Images of interrupting Carson with questions of your own, or call- ing the plavs when the quarterhack isn't doing a good job, or warning the détective that a thug is waiting behind the door. Tb a degree, tliis is already possible. There are télévision program s that ask viewers to "vote" by placing a call to a 900 number, call-in talk shows and une or two cable télévision companies that offer instant polling features with a computerlike input device that feeds information back to the company over the sanie cable that brings the progratns to the home. But these are only nominally interactive and are coin- pletely controlled by the network or cable station.
The first interactive video projects were clone in the universities. One project displayed video images of every Street in Aspen, Colorado, heading in both directions. The computer was then used to search and play the scenes in any order that the user desirecl, creating a visual map of the town. The user could “ride" through town, turning down various streets, and the computer would pull up the appropriait scenes.
The next wave of interactive video came with the game Dragon s Lair. It was an arcade game that used cartoon animation scenes stored on a laser dise; the interactive input was through the movement of a joystick. The player could direct the hem through numer*
ous hazards and cartoon bailles. Il die joystick was pushed to the left at the correct moment, then the computer (a dedicated board within tlie machine) would display the appropriate animatcd scquence where tlie hero wouldjump to the left.
Other fornis of interactive video have surfaced in air- ports and hôtels around the couniry. The traveler is shown différent points of interest around tlie city, based on input from an abbrevialed keyboard. Interactive video lias also been used. To a limited degree, in training, démonstrations and présentations. The sim- plest définition is randoni acccss video, where any kind of video information is displaved based on input f rom the user. That input can be a joystick, touch pad, keyboard or whatever, and the resuhing video can be based on a straightforward requesl from the user (e.g., “show me scene tiumher 543" or "show me part num- ber 62554"), or the video output can be organized so that it is presented in a set pattern tied to responses from the user (e.g.. “guess tlie next picture and display it" or "show me tlie video scquences about lunar landings").
The Amiga computer can liandle the processing of input and détermine what scènes should be displaved. Laser-disc players arc fast enough so that any given frame or sequence on a disk can be located quickly. Coinpanies, institutions and schools are producing laser dises 1 illcd with information.
On the computer side of interactive video, there have been interactive fiction gaines and simulations, but the majority of these have been text only, or at best have made use ofcrudc computer graphies. The closest to real interactive programs have been the arcade games, but they also lack the claritv of truc video.
liack to the subjcct of laser-disc players. Truc video image storage exîsts, the ability to connect with an Amiga computer exists, but there is still a missing élément. Laser dises by themselves are only marginally interactive. You can turn them on and off, Ireeze frame, slow motion, searcli and even play the images backwards, but there isn’t much décision making going on.
There are other important problems with interactive video that are being tackled by varions cornpanies, such as read write laser dises, production costs, mixing data, video and audio, standards, intcrfacing, marketing, etc. But perhaps the niost important aspect of interactive video, once the hardware problems have been circinn- vented, is the création of the programs that would allow a user to intcract with their laser dise. Knowledge- ware, a Calil’ornia-based company, will be releasing a program thaï helps people Write interactive programs for use in homes, schools, offices, factories and other environments.
VTVA (Video ïnterfaced Visual Authoring) for the Amiga computer supplies the basic framework for an interactive video program. The program can be used to provide easy access to audio-visual information stored on laser dise. It links the laser-disc player s video and audio capabilities with the Amiga's interactive capabili- tics to create new tools for éducation, business présentations, training, entertainment, artisiic expression, information retrieval, sales, exibits, démonstrations, lectures and more.
The VIVA authoring program consists of three major sections: Remotc Control, Création and Player. The
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Analyze! Is a powerful electronic spreadsheet program. Essentially, this program isa lull-scrcencalculatorwhercyou can organize your data into rows and columns. These rows and columns can be analyzed with simple mathematics or complicated formulas. Rows and columns can beduplicated to avoid re-typing. Both data and formulas can be edited with only a few keystrokes.
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OnLine! Is the fines! Program of ils type available for the Commodore Amiga. You can’t losc when you get "online” with OnLine!. Ail for a down to earth price of only SG9!
2400 bps modems! 2400 bps modems are breaking the speed bamer in télécommunications, and Micro-Systems is breaking the price barrier in 2400 bps modems. Transfer files 2 limes faster than a 1200bps modem and 8 limes faster than a 300 bps modem. Micro-Systems will sell you a Hayes Smartmodem compatible 2400 bps modem, a spécial Amiga serial cable, and a copy of Online!, ail for S429.
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AMIGA, OnLine!, Analyze!, BBS-PC, and Smartmodem are trademarks of Commodore-Amiga, Inc., Micro-Systems Software, Inc., and Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc., respect ively.
Remotc Control section allows die user lo î un ail the standard videodisc player fealures f ront the keyhoard or with the mouse (e.g., searching the laser dise for partieular sequences. Fmding indtvidual frame numbers, etc.).
The Player section plays the program back as it is being written and when il is finished and includes fea- tures such as: randoni access lo any step in the program, auiomatic or mamial play, computer text or graphies with sound from the videodisc and wriling to the screen using the computer as a hlackboard.
T'he Création section is the heart of VIYA. Il is simple and straîghtforward, designed for the non-program- mer. On screen help and défaillis aid in ihe création of the program. Ail that is required of the programmer is the in pu t of essential information, eilher using t lie mouse or single keystroke commands. 1 lie program is created in steps (programs of up lo sevcral htmdred steps can be stored in memory) coiilaining vidcodisc instructions, coniputcr-generated lexi pages, graphies, menus or key-word questions. Multiple videodisc instructions may be combinée! Into a single string instruction. VIYA bas a built-in line parser that lets you spccifv which kev words are important in a user response. This means that if vou ask a question such as "What is the common élément in each of ihe previous three sequences?”. The program can be made to search for up to 24 différent key words, plus a default, no matter where they fall in the response. "Eac h picture was blue", “ I hev wcrc ail blue" and "Blue was the common élément” woukt ail be acceptable responses for that partieular program step. The programmer can change the key words in each step.
There is a built-in worcl processor for creating text, menus, questions, etc., and there is a printer prograni for printing the program.
There are other programming and playhack fealures of the VIVA authoring system. But its primary feature is case of use. Programs can bc created and or edited quickly and easily. VI VA will work wiih anv Amiga (the videodisc player interface is induded), any color inoni- tor and with cithcr a Pioneer ED-700, LD-V4000 or Magnavox VC-8040.
Interactive video is of partieular value to any person, school or organization whose opération cnuld be enhanced with audio-visual information access and organization. A laser dise can hold up to 108,(100 still- color images (télévision broadcast-quality images) as well as motion sequeneed images with higli-fidelity stéréo sound. VIVA offers a way to intégrale the information stored on laser dise with the interactive computing capabilities of the Amiga.H
Address ail author carrespou de are to Guy Wright, ch Amiga World éditorial, 80 Fine St.. Feterhorough, A77 034 58.
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Success Story: A-Squared Systems And the Amiga Digitizer
By Matthew Leeds
This is the siorv of an American Drearn taking a greal idea. Lots of hard work. Tuniing it into a success- fui pioduct, and along the uay meeting inicresting peo pie and luiving adventnres. T his theme runs deep in oui subconcious, surfacing in last suiniiu-r's tnovies about teenage gcniuses. However, some éléments that are missing iu inany of these wish-fulllllment fantasies are the hard work. Attention to détails and just plaîn stubborn belief that not onlv is it possible, but you are just the one to make it happen. Thomas Edison said that genius is I % inspiration and 99% perspiration. This is a storv about sweat.
A-Squared Systems bas dcvclopecl a leal time video digitizer. Called I.ive!, for the Amiga. I spent a day with the three people who are A-Squared Systems, They live and work ont of a bouse in the Hills of Oakland, California. I drove up a wooded canyon, pasl deer Crossing signs and Aframe bouses uutil I rcached a house perched on the side of a ltill, with a view ofThe canyon beîow. Postcd on the front door of the house was a pituite of our galaxy, titled Ttaveler s Advisory. With an arrow pointing to one spiral arm labeled “VOL- ARE HERE." 1 had arrived.
1 was greeted by Wendy Pcicrson. She is a petite, dark-haired woman with an ever-present twinkle of amusement in lier eye and voice. She is the public per- sona of A-Squared. From public relations to business deals to connaît negotiations, Wendy is the glue that keeps the organi alion together.
Arthur Abraham is the programnier for A-Squared. Me reminds one of an absem-minded math prof essor, always looking slighily misplaced.
Oeorge Ellis is the hardware designer. C.eorge gives voit the impression that be could build a télévision set from seratch and it would work the lirsl tinte.
Wendv and Arthur met several ycars ago when they were botli work ing for Sierra On-Line. Arthur was doing some programming for a game called King's Ouest, a 3 1) animated advettture game. Ile had devel
oped a studio environment for the production of software thaï could have revolutionizcd the software production process. Analogous to the wav in which the asscinbly line changed the nature of automobile production. Wendv had workeil for several stnaller software companies before going to Sierra On-Line; when she arrived. She saw tin- utilitv of'Arthur's ideas, llnwever, management didiFl sec things their wav. And frustration forced Wendv and Arthur to Icave. Tlicv moved to the Bav area. Boping to stari their own production company and to inipletnent some of Arthur*s ideas. They inteiuled to produce new and betler software tools for program produi t ion.
1 he San Francisco Bay area is a hothed of software production and puhlishing, and il seemcd to bc die perfecl place to find funding for tlieir concept. Ilow- ever, the industry was beginning to backpedal. Sales werc slowing clown, the video-game business had f’allen off drasticallv and no one was willing to spend inoney on new tools. Tîiey began to take Contran program* ming work in hopes of financing ihcir own opération.
Wenclv and Arthur were still looking for funding for some of their own projects when tliey approached Gen- cral Electric Systems Inc. (GESI), a video production research design distî ibution opération. George Ellis was working for Ci ESI at tlie lime. Altbough Vvendy and Arthur never got financing from GESI. They becanic Inends with George. George bas clegrees in botb phvs- ics and art. Ile désignée! And built bis own video paint system. Built editors for several video production compatîtes, workccl with laser graphies, spécial effccts video ec|ui|)tnent and gendock svstems. They began to see a reas of comtnon inierest and bccanie interested in working together.
Birth of an îdea
In September *84. They were introduced by a friend t > R.J. Mical, Director of Intuition at Commodore- Amiga. 1 hev were seeking funding to develop a gaine called Patadise. A magical simulation of a planel that you crcate. (Look for it tu tlie future.) In tlie process of discussions about the Amiga, Arthur gaiiied some iusighi into the opération of 'tlie machine. In Novem- her, lie atiended a conférence m San Francisco and saw Mac ision, a video digili er for the Macintosh. Ariluir had alwavs wanted a digili er, and when lu1 saw du* insides of MacA’ision and how few componenls weri* involved. Lie decided it mighl lu* possible* to design one sliglulv more complex and get color in real time on the Amiga.
j ft tu right: Wvndy V- terson. Arthur Abraham and Gcor e Mis. Ofj w- site ami fo lmving pages: illustrations were genrr- ateti us ttg Asijuared’s
l. ive! Digitizer for the Aiinmi.
Arthur then began to work on tlie matlieiuattes of designiug a digili er for the Amiga, Ile decided that. In theorv, it was possible u» build the hardware. George and Arthur began to design die* hardware, and in Dcceinber. They approachecl Goinnmclore-Amiga with a proposa] fdr a real time video digili er. Engineers al Amiga had decided that the cost of a digitt er would bc tou liigh and had put efforts to design one on the hack huniers. L‘hev talked with Have Needle, one of Gommo- dore-Atniga's c bief engineers, and Don Rcisinger. Vice- President of West Coast Sales at Gominoclorc-Amiga, and were given a development systetn on tlie basis of iheir proposai and the list of potential ap|)lications it containecl. I h is showed greal failli on die part ol Coin- modo!e-Amiga. Since A Scjuared had m» trac k record in
computer hardware design, and at die time was just a start-up “garage” opération. By January ’85, A-Squared was committcd to developing die Amiga digitizer* regard less of whcre tlie funding came from. Thev were certain that the projcct would be a success.
In April, Vvendy, Arthur and George went clown to Sunnyvale to demonstrate the digitizer for the first time at Connnodore-Amiga. Tliey set up in a conférence room near the centcr of the building. The excitentent was contagions. Programmera and engineers were irying to edge each other aside to gel a beiter view of the Amiga heing used in a way they had never seen beforc. This was the first time A-Squared had shown their work to anyone, and the first feedback they had reeeivcd after months of work.
After thaï first démonstration, Clive Smith. Vice-Pies* ident of Planning and Development at Commodore International, décidée! To adopt the digitizer as his projet’t. Hc instructed Rick Geiger. General Manager of Commndore-Amiga, to put the digitizer on the “fast track.” 1 his gave A-Squared praetically imlimited access to c(|uipment( software .support and the ail-important option agreement (contraet nioney) with Commodore- Ami ga.
The Home Stretch
During the rest ol Apt il and most ofMay, the work lot’Lised on aclding color capabilities to the software and hardware. A cleveloper’s conférence was held in Monterey at the end ofMay; still secret at this time, A- Squarcd could only show the digitizer to a small nuni- ber ol developers. However, rnmors were being passée! Around like hors d’oeuvres.
The second version of ilie hardware prototype nceded to he flnished hefdre the July launch of the Amiga in New York, The new version would have truc color digitizing capability, not just gray scales. Many long hours vvere spenl on the phone, in meetings and in the lab, trying to iron oui ail the little bugs that cropped uj>. Ail the effort, barcl work and sweat paid ofT at the launch when over 2,0(10 peuple were shown the Amiga Live! Digilizer in f'ull color. Andy Warhol digitized an image of Deborab Harry. Sketched in a fcw détails and displayed il 011 the three large video projection screens on stage.
When 1 vîsited A-Squared, they had just finished add* ing a hardware enhaneernent thaï allowed for 16 levels ol gray, supportiiig a 32-colot real time display. The hardware was still in prototype, and il required soine fine tuning and more than one thinnp on the side te> coax a reluctant solder joint to funclion. We hooked up ail the hardware, attachcd a video caméra to the digilizer, and I saw myself on the monitor, digitized in 16 levels of gray. Il was uncanny. I’d seen other digitizers at work; they required you to liold still while they coin- pleled a seau, several seconds at a lime, but this was instantaneous, continuons, reaftime digitizing. Il was like watching a rnovie, willi myself the star, ail the while knowing that I could use the inousc to free .e the pic- turc, store it to disk or dump il to the printer.
Arthur quickly nui ihrough a sériés ol software “tricks" to show me soine of the potential uses of the digitizer. By assigning différent values to the color reg- isters used in creating the image (sec p. 30), he was able to produce falsc color images that would bc useful in cartography, médical photography or image analysis. Dropping ail but one bit plane gave us a higb-contrast black-and-white image that would be useful for digitizing line art or type faces, Storing an image and then masking ont différent bit planes crealed a posterized effet*l. Using a smooihing technique increased the apparent résolution in a still shot of a soft drink can. The quality of the image was astounding.
Ail this was donc with the First prototype that they had built. We shifted over to the second prototype, with the color hardware built in (this is what the production version will be like) and hooked up a VCR to the input port, A video cartridge of a entrent movie was inserted, and we watched John Leone portray an ice âge savage revived in tire 20th cetitury. I was beginning to feel the saine way. I lie color and résolution approached that ol standard hroadrasl I
How the Amiga Créâtes a Display
Pixels, bit planes and color registers. . .the Amiga sers the world a 1 il t le dilferently than you or L When you look al the screen, you set* a complété picture. ! Lie Amiga secs an image hroken up into a 320x200 grid. The normal low-res mode. Kach part of that grid is a pixel, or picture eîemeni. Think of thetn as switches for a moment, either on or olf. It they arc on. That pixel is white; il thev are olf, that pixel is black. This grid. With information on what color each pixel is and whcre it is in the grid. Is called a bit plattc. Notice that we can only have two colors in tins hit plane, since each “swilch," or hit, can only he on or olf.
Though each bit plane is a separate section of memory, they are used by the display as though they were stacked, one on top oj another. The bits in iden tirai positions are cornlnnrd by the display hardware to fonn a hinary number is the color code the pixel.
Lo display mort* colors on the screen, we need to have more hits, This is accomplished bv using more than one hit plane. Kach hit plane is in a separate part of memorv. Think of tliem as stacked. One on top of the next. You could draw a line connecting hits from each plane. This set of hits is used lo select the color for one pixel in the display. By combining the values of each set of bits we can use more colors.
Imagine two switches, either on or off. There are four possible combinations for two switches: on and on, on and off. Off and on and off and off. This allows us to show four colors. The more hits we use. The more colors we can display. Kach grid of hits is a separate hit plane. Kive bit planes will give us 32 colors, the maximum the Amiga can display in normal low-res mode, The binarv value of each hit is used to create a hitntry number. This number is linked to a table called the color registres. Since the Amiga has a palette of 1,0‘Jb colors and can only display 32 of them in normal lowres mode, we need a wav of selccting whicli 32 we will
This bit-plané code selects one of 32 register s to use to display the color oj this playfield pixel élément
use at any one time. The color register table stores a lisi of which colors are being used, and by changing the color stored in any register, we can change the color of ail tlu* pixels on the screen using that register. This kig. I. How bit planes select a color. Allows for a great deal ol control in dispiaving colors.
By changing the value of one bit in one plane, you can change the color of a single pixel without changing anvthitig cIsc.H
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USA 800-525-2226 CALIFORNIA 800-824-6097 SAN DIEGO 619-456-0722 CANADA 416-485-6352
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Our appréciation to ali software publishers and disk manufacturers who supplied products in this ad
Arthur explaincd tliat there arc several signilicant advanlages to the digitizer. One is cosl l here aie 110 other real-time color digitizers available for under $ 500 on any system. I lie second advantage is that it can accept video from any source. Many other digitizers require either a gen-lock or lime-base correcter to accept signais from a home VC’.R. Another advantage is the acccssibtlitv of the digitizer for programmées. A* Squared will include complété programming information in the manual and on disk for dcveloping custom applications usiiig the digitizer. Examplcs in every lan- guage available for the Amiga will be inchidcd.
The key here îs open structure. ( aimmodore-Âmiga lias been work ing with developcrs to crcate a standard 111e structure for graphies on the Amiga. This will allow image Files created with one program to be used by another. The standard nceds to be open-ended, to allow For future expansion of information contained in graphie data files. Several applications are alreadv under development using this standard. Broderbund is creating a version of Prini Shop that will use the Amiga digitizer as an additional source of graphies. Arkironics is developing a word processor that can nicrge graphies files into text printouts.
(ieorge lalked about the digitizer*s hardware capabilities. One possible application would be stereo imaging with two digitizers. By using two video caméras, offset bv just a few inehes, you could achîeve a 3-D efleci. Larger offset s could be used in cartograpliy or geopbysics.
One project A-Squared would like to sec involves using the Amiga, a digitizer and an inf'rarcd caméra in sports medicine clinics. Injurcd 1 issue gcts botter than i t s surrountlings, and this coukl be diagnosed using thermal photography. Ciment Systems are expensive, and 111 aiiv small clinics cannot afford tliem. The Amiga will bring ibis tecluiology within the rcach of just about any sports clinie or liealtb club.
The future looks bright for A-Squarcd Systems. They plan to develop several vertical market applications for the Amiga using their digitizer. They are also think ing about designing other video hardware peripherals. Big plans are in 111 f iiiaking, some of them nothing but dreams. Thafs vvbat it takes to gel starlcd in this business.®
Address ait author correspondance to Malt fine Ireds, cfo AmigaWorld éditorial, SO Fine St., Peterborough, A7 03-158,
Circle 18 on Reader Service card
BUSINESS SOFTWARE FOR THE AMIGA PERSONAL COMPUTER PUTTING YOU YEARS AHEAD.
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Illustration by Stcven Lyons
By Matthew Leeds
A révolution is taking place in the worlcl of information storage. The ways in which we store and retrieve. Distributc and duplicate information are changing and evolving. ('l) ROM and optical read write technology have arrivcd, sooncr than anyone expected, and at a cost that many of us can afforcl.
The recent developmcnts in inf ormât ion storage technology have their beginnings in the introduction of commercial videodisks. Dcrivcd from work in the early ’fiOs by 3M Corporation and brouglit to market by MCA. Phillips and Pioneer, commercial laser-disk players bccame available in quantity in the ’7(>s. They were first used in industrial training applications and soon made their way into consumer channels as an alternative to video tape players. They never becamc as popu- lar as videotape. Since no consumer nuits capable of rccording are available yet. They have. However, caught on in a big way as CD audio. I hese compact disk nuits offer excellent quality stereo sound reproduction, case ol use. Acceptable cost, and will soon offer still-frame visitais. In at least this application, Iack ol rccording capahilitv is not missed.
A new concept is the CD-ROM. This uses technology similar to that of the CD audio disk and stores information that can be read by a computer. Software prograins, books, encyclopedias, dictionaries, almanacs and atlases are sortie of the candidates for storage on CD-ROMs.
The Basic Technology
Ail read-only laser disks, wbether large videodisks or audio compact disks, use the sanie technology. An aluni i ii 11111 plattcr is coated with a plastic layer (called the optical rccording layer) and then stamped by a tnaster plat ter, similar to the way a record is made. Ibis layer is wherc the information is stored in a sériés of pits.
The si e of each pit and the distance between them is the coding technique. The stamped platter is then coated with an optically cleat* plastic, called a seuff coat.
To read or play back the information, a very low-pow- ered laser heam is sent through a sériés of mirrors, prisms and Icnscs through the seuff coat to the record- ing layer. Kach time the beam encounters a ])it, ils polarity is changed. The beam is rcflected and sent back along with part of the original beam to a spécial ?
A rniga World > s
prism, knovvn as a Wollaston prism. And dieu sent to a photosensor. I lie photosensor couverts the laser beam lo an electrical signal that can be decoded.
There are several tcchnical considérations. The disk must be kept cemered, or the beam will wander over rhe surface of the disk. Since it is not possible to keep the disk perfectly fiat, tire laser must have a fbcusing servo mcchanism to follow the up and clown move- ments of the disk as il rotâtes. The drive mechanism that spins the disk must maintain an accurate rate of speed. Dust and dirt must be kept from entering and bccoming trapped in the seuff coat. (A dust particle is riiuch larger than a single track on the disk, and can cause dropouts of information.)
CD-R Oms have several advantages over other methods of s t or âge; the s t or âge media is very durable and the drives are
There is more to think about. Early laser-disk players used tube (helium-neon gas) lasers and top-loading Systems that were prone to dust collection. CurretU players use a front-loading System and solicl staie diode- lasers. These diode lasers give better than 60dB signal to-noise ratios. This éliminâtes ail bit-rcad errors except those caused by defecls in the optical-recording laver. It is possible to design a seuff coat that is thick enough to keep ail surface dust far enough away from the record- ing media to he out of the focal plane of the laser beani, and still thin enough not to distort the beam.
The raw bit error rate (BER) on laser-disk players is around 10 to the 5th or - 6th. Using redundant hits and error checking. That rate can be hrought to 10 to the - 13th. Floppy disks have a corrected BER of Ht to the -9th. Hitachi bas published information on a new chip that will increase the BER to 10 to the -20th.
Cost is also an important considération. There are no signifie ant différences between an audio CT) player and a CD-ROM drive. In fact, it should be cheaper to make a CD-ROM drive since there is no need for a digital-to- analog converter or stereo channel ec|iiipment. CD- ROM drives will be like floppy disk drives; the bare drive will require a controllcr card. It should also be possible to manufacture a drive that could function as both a CD-ROM reader and a CD audio player. Since
CD audio technology is well understood, several manu- facturers exist as sources for both raw disks and as stamping plants for data disks. There is no need for a start-up opération to risk millions in developing a new technology from the ground up. The cost of a blank disk to a manufacturer will be between Si and S2. Until volumes get into the millions, and then they will fall below SI. Mastering costs arc below SU). Drives will start in the S1200 range, and quickly drop below S500. There will be a sirong incentive to subsidize the cost of drives to encourage consuniers to purchase them.
Given the planned retail pricing on CD-ROM data disks, it seems obvions that the profits will be made on software, not on drives.
CD-ROMs have several advantages over other methods of storage. The storage media is very durable. Mag- netic flelds will not accidenily erase data, nor will accidentai formatting, since you cannot write to it. The
drives are verv stable; unlike hard disk drives, tlicy are
not sensitive to vibration or rough handling. ‘There îs no need to “park" the head during transport. Think of the portable CD audio players and vou'll sec what I tnean. The storage capaciiy is in excess of 500 Mb.
I hai s a lot of data.
The first software produced in CD-ROM formai was the Académie: American Encyclopedia from Grolier Electronic Publishing, This inchides the en tire contents of the 21-volumc set, over nine million wortls. The disk will retail for $ 199, a considerblc savings over the $ 600+ cost for the printed and bound version. There are other advantages. The disk also contains a fully cross-referenced index to every unique word in the encyclopedia. This index was crcatcd by Activenturc, Inc., founded by Cary Kildall (inventor of CP M), Acti- venturc located every unique word in the eut vclopedia, which was compilée! On a VAX minicomputer, and indexecl its location. This index was then sorted alpha- betically by word and location. The final resuit was a 60 Mb index for a 58 Mb encyclopedia and the ability to do incredible searches.
The search capabilitics allow for rcmarkable depth in research. Asking for information on Halley’s Cornet will bring références to astronomy. The Norman Conquest. Religion and art. The software allows vou to browse through articles a page, a line or a paragraph al a lime. Searches by tille, key wortls, combinations of wortls or bibliographv are also possible. Ail of this information occupies less than 25% of the disk. Grolier plans to add a diclionarv. Atlas and thésaurus. Other plans include graphies and applications software, sucli as a word pmeessor. Datahase and spelling checkcr.
Erank |. Farrell, groiq> VP for Grolier’s U.S. Référé n ce Group, savs. "We are out in front of the parade on this."
Consider a hook, let's sav a cookbook, stored on a CD-ROM. Nalurally you could search for your favorite recipc, and of course, there would be color pictures of what each dish looks like wlien it is ptepared, along with suggesled side disbes. But imagine also a full tutorial on how to préparé each dish, with short action sequences by fanions chefs ou how to correctlv eut the vegetables, what kind of skillet to use and what it should look like when doue. The ingrédients daiabase
could let you enter what leftovers you have on hand, and then hunt for a suitablc meal that incorporâtes them ail.
Distribution of information in this form leads to con- cerns about copyright laws. Although it would be diffi- cult to duplicate a CD-ROM disk, software contained on it could be downloaded and duplicated. Other concerns over the duplication of information contained in the encyclopedia may worry soine people, but for the most part, the only différence between photocopying a printed encyclopedia and downloading text from a CD- ROM is the case with which it can be doue.
1 he Library Corporation of Washington, D.C. offers BiblioFile, a service that periodically updates the Library of Congress Fnglish holdings catalog in two CD-ROM disks containing ail imcrfïled changes. This information used to be supplied on microfiche film and look several file dravvers to holcl. They also supply Hitachi drives that are plug compatible with IBM Pcs.
Cary Kildall bas suggested selling a single disk that would contain thousands of CP M prograins. Since CP M bas bcen in use for many years, and since it runs on clo ens ol machines produced by différent manufac- lurers, il may be an excellent means of distribnting the large cxisling public domain library of software. A good cross référencé, accurate documentation and debugging would insure interest in such a product.
Several other companies have suggesecl building a computer with a single floppy drive and a built-in CD- ROM drive. This drive would not be accessible to the user, but would contain operaling System software, applications software, a dictionary, an eneyiopedia, maps, a thésaurus and other useful information, such as a svsiem tutorial. You could think of il as a replacement for the ROM chips found in ail computers. Several operating Systems could be stored on a single disk, allowing the end-user to select between Unix, MS-DOS, AmigaDOS, CP M and other operating svstems. The falling cost ol RAM, couplcd with the storage capacity of CD-ROM, could bring about the création of the “appliance computer," as easy to use as a toaster or a TV set.
Other potential uses for CD-ROM text storage would includc: lavv librarics, corporate documentation, poli- ( ies and procédures inanuals, médical texts and parts calalogs. Tu gel a good perspective on the capacity of one CD-ROM, imagine a stack of floppy disks over 12 feet high, or twenty-five 20 Mb hard drives stacked on top of cach other, Any way you look at it, ils a lot of information.
Sony lias amiouneed the CDU 1 drive, with the abil- it to atre.ss 150K ol information per second. Retail price is around S1900. Reference Technology, Inc. is marketing a CD-ROM drive with an interface for the IBM PC for about S1600. Several other computer compati ics are in the proccss of developing either dedi- cated CD-ROM drives or interfaces. Hitachi, Phillips, Pioneer and Denon are ail working on drives for the
consumer marketplace. By the end of this year, we will see widespread use and acceptance of CD-ROMs.
One hitch in the spread of CD-ROMs is the current lack of standards for interfacing the drives to a computer. Although it would be possible to use a high- speed RS-232 port, the current trend to DMA data transfers suggests that a new hardware standard would be bénéficiai. One suggested standard is based on the SASI interface used for hard disks. Known as the Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI), it bas vet to be adopted as an industry-wide standard,
Optical Read Write Capability The one thing missing from CD-ROMs is the abilitx to write to disk and erase rewrite to disk. Imagine that same computer of the future, with ail that information built-in, and room for an additional 500 Mb or so. Ail in one box no add-ons, loose wires or interface prob- lenis. You may be ahle to buv one soutier thati you think.
By the end of this year; we will see widespread use and acceptance of
The main features of an erasable optical disk are reusability, large data capacity, good random access capability and removable replaceablc storage media. The basic concept is a laser disk with a recording laver that is sensitive to a moderately powered laser write erasc beam, but not affected by the subséquent read beam, even over successive reads, The read beam may be either a lower-powered laser or one of a différent wave lenglh. One arca still to be proven is the archivai quality of the recording. There is sonie concern over long-term stability in wrile crasablc laser disks.
Write-once optical disks have already arrived and have been in use for tliree years in video production. The System most commonly used is the Optical Memory Disc Recorder (OMDR) by Panasonic, 'l liis is a video recorder, capable of storing 2-1,000 fiâmes of any NTSC video source, in still frame or motion. However, it lias 110 data-recording capability.
There are two names for this kind of write-only disk: Direct Read After Write (DRAW) and Write Once Read Many limes (WORM). They work by altering the record- able laser disk, either by vaporizing or deforming the disk surface, or by changing the Chemical State of the disk surface. In a DRAW System, the data is written to a buffer in memory as iî is also written to the disk. A second laser reads the information off the disk directly after it has been recorded. It is then compared to the data in the buffer. If it is identical, that block is consid- ered valid; if not, the block is marked invalid and rewritten. The WORM system works in a similar way, but instead of using a second laser, the reflected write laser bcam is read (DRDW, or Direct Read During Write).
The Optical Memory Disk Recorder uses an eight- inch disk coated with a Film of tellurium suboxide, a component of blasting caps. The coating is applied to a polymer base that has been stamped with 24,000 grooves in a continous spiral. The tellurium is sand- wiched between two coats of acrylic. A 12mW diode laser vaporizes the heat-sensitive tellurium coating, leav- ing a dot with a différent reflectivity than the surround- ing surface. This dot can be read at a much lower power level by the same diode laser. The length of each dot, and the spacing between dots, contains the fre- quency-modulated puises that are the video information.
Another technology for write-once is phase change. The disk is coated with a substance that can change its chemical state from crystalline to amorphous. This change of state also changes the reflectivity of the disk surface. Data is also stored as a sériés of dots on the surface. There have been some recent developments in the use of phase-change materials that allow for erasa- ble storage. Energy Conversion Devices and Hitachi have announced réversible phase-change media, Recorders that use these new disks have yet to be devel- oped. There have also been doubts expressed over the lcmg-term stability of phase-change media. Some expérimental data points to reversai of phase during storage, leading to loss of data. This may be resolved in the future through the use of new materials.
Currentlv the best hope for erasable optical media lies in a process called magneto-optical recording. This synthesis of magnetic and optical sciences is based on two well-understood effects: The Curie effect and the Faraday effect. When a magnetic material is raised to a speciFic température, known as the Curie point, and then exposed to a magnetic Field, the material becomes magnetized. The Faraday effect involves the polariza- tion of light reflected from a magnetized surface. Although slight, it can be detected and used as a data record.
An important considération in the use of magneto- optical recording is that the size of the recording head is not critical. Since the only material affected by the head is that which has been heatcd to its Curie point, the size of the spot can be controlled by the diameter of the laser, and not by the size of the magnetic recording head. It is easier to focus a laser beam to a small diameter than to manufacture a small recording head. This reduces the production costs for an erasable drive.
What's Available Now?
There are several write-once optical storage data drives available now, and they are ail very expensive. Alcatel Thomson Gigadisc and the Optimem 1000 offer 1 gigabyte of storage and use the SCSI interface. They are priced in the $ 15,000 range. Hitachi, NEC and Fujitsu have also introduced drives, with prices in the $ 7,000 to $ 11,000 range. If you are looking for a less priccy entry into this arena, Optotech, Inc. is offering a WORM-technology cartridge drive for $ 5,000. (This is the single-unit cost; the price drops for volume pur- chases.) Each double-sided cartridge can store 200 Mb on a side. They currently offer an interface for the IBM, and are developing one based on the SCSI standard. The cartridge cost will be below $ 50. That’s for 400 Mb of removable information storage.
What do you do with ail that storage? If you are a banker, you keep an audit trail for the year on one disk, and you can maintain data security by locking the disk in the vault each night. Hospitals can keep médical records, X rays and charts on-line (optical drives can store visual information; they have for years). If you are planning a computerized educational program, the abil- ity to mix text, video-based visitais and graphies, plus the ability to store 400 Mb on a single cartridge, cornes as a blessing.
There is also a significant cost savings in storing information on optical disk instead of Filing it away in paper form. The average company uses 20% of its office space for storage of company records. Consider the cost of square footage in the business district in your citv, and you can calculate how much you could save doing away with the File cabinets and storage bins.
Sales of optical disk drives are expected to be over seven billion dollars by 1990, according to a study by Freedman Associates. A properly-designed erasable drive will still be able to read CD-ROMs, and is immune to the head crashes that plague hard-disk drives. Cartridges are small enough to Fit in a coat pocket or be mailed across the country.
In 1985, Verbatim, owned by Kodak, demonstrated a prototype 3.5-inch erasable disk and drive. The disk was a pre-grooved combination of thermal writing and magneto-optical reading technology. Its current data storage capabilities are only 40 Mb, but the company projects storage of up to 100 Mb by the official introduction scheduled for 1987. The target pricing is between $ 500 and $ 1000 for the drives, and around $ 30 for the disks. Kodak is a big company, and may become the leader in this field.
Time was when computers had less then 64K of RAM, and used cassettes to store data. We never dreamed of needing more than 640K of memory, and never demanded more than a 10 Mb hard disk. Time marches on, and so does technology.®
Address ail author correspondence to Matthew Leeds, PO Box 210627, San Francisco, G4 94121.
Circle 41 on Reader Service card.
300 Green .. $ 129.00
300 Amber .S139.00
Color 300 Composite ..$ 179.00
Color 500 Composite RGB .$ 329.00
Color 600 Hi-Res (640x240) ...$ 399.00
Color 722 Hi-Res Dual Mode .$ 529.00
JB 1270 .$ 99.99
JB 1275 .. $ 99.99
JC 1460 Color ..S269.00
JC 1410 RGB ..$ 669.00
T-Modem 2400 .$ 569.00
Volksmodem 300 1200 $ 199.00
Signalman Express .....$ 259.00
Lightning 2400 Baud ...$ 399.00
Smartmodem 300 $ 139.00
Smartmodem 1200 ......$ 389.00
Smartmodem 2400 ......$ 599.00
J-Cat .. S99.99
Novation 2400 ..$ 589.00
• MULTIFONCTION MODULES*
31 2” SS DD 5 pack ......$ 17.99
316” SS DD ..$ 29.99
316" DS DD .$ 39.99
5V4M MD-2 DS DD .$ 24.99
3Vz" SS DD Disks (10) $ 29.99
30 Disk Tub 3V6" $ 8.99
» THIRD PARTY SOFTWARE
ZVM 1220 1230 .$ 99.99
ZVM 133 RGB Color ...$ 429.00
ZVM 135 RGB Color ...$ 459.00
ZVM 136 RGB Color ...$ 599.00
« DISK DRIVES *
T-Disk, 20 meg ......
T-Tape, 20 meg backup
• DISKETTES ¦
KX1091 ......$ 259.00
KX1092 ......$ 389.00
KX1093 . $ 479.00
1340 (80 column) .$ 469.00
P341 (132 column) ......$ 999.00
P351 (132 column) ....$ 1169.00
* PLOTTERS •
HEWLETT PACKARD ..CALL
EPSON * HI80 .....CALL
ENTER Six Shooter $ 799.00
• ACCESSORIES *
Master Piece $ 99,99
Primer Stand ....$ 19.99
Diamond SP-1 .....$ 32.99
Emerald SP-2 ....$ 42.99
Sapphire SPF-1 ... $ 52.99
Ruby SPF-2 .$ 62.99
Tilt Base Monitor Stand ......$ 34.99
Safe Strip .....S19.99
Parallel Primer Cable .... $ 19.99
RGB Monitor Cable, .....S19.99
• PRINTERS •
RX-100. LX-80 .....CALL
FX-85, FX-185 .....CALL
LQ800, LQ1000 ...CALL
LO1500, JX80 Color CALL
Homewriter 10. HS-80 ..... CALL
LX-90. SO-2000 ...CALL
DX-20. DX-35 ..CALL
5510 Dot Matrix ...CALL
6000 Letter Quality CALL
6100 Letler Quality .. CALL
6200 Letter Quality ..... CALL
6300 Letler Quality ..CALL
84. 93. 182, 192, 193 .....
The following is a partial listing of software being developed with plans to be marketed by third party software vendors.
Please call for pricing and expected deliveries.
One-on-One ... Archon
Adept ......Seven Cities of Gold
Sky Fox . Marble Madness
Return to Atlantis Video Construction Set
Creative Writer ...Creative Cale
Creative Filer Creative Finance
Roll Call USA ....Personal Musician
Air Defense Trolls S Tribulations
Break Street .. Maze
The Pando Wars ...... Warp
Torpédo Junction Conquest of India
Perfect Writer Perfect Cale
Perfect Filer ...Perfect Link
THE SOFTWARE GROUP
Ensemble Sound Vision
Zork I.Zork II, Zork III, The Underground Empire The Wizard of Frobozz, The Dungeon Masters. Enchanter. Sorcerer, Suspect, The Witness, Cut- throats. Deadline, Seastalker. Infidel, Planetfall, Suspended, Starcross, Mind Forever Voyager, In- visi Clues, The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy
Deja Vu ......The Harley Project
Keyboard Cadet ...Amiga Tutor
SUBLOGIC Radar Raiders SYNAPSE CalCraft ACCOLADE Sundog INSIGHT Financial Time Machine
Rags to Riches
CALL TOLL FREE 1 8
V. .J- J
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS CALL TOLL-FREE 1-800-221-4283
477 East Third Street, DEPT. B903, Williamsport, PA 17701
SHIPPING: Add 3%, minimum $ 5.00 shipping and handling on ail orders. Larger shipments may require additional charges. Ail items subject to availability and price change. Returned shipments may be subject to restocking fee.
The Amiga Software Market
By Rob Mitchell
You saw the ads. You read die reviews. You were impressed by the machine’s animation, graphies, sound and speed; so you bought an Amiga. Now you’re look- ing for the software that will put you and your computer on that “creative edge.”
Amigaworld polled manufacturera to find oui what software is available and what kinds of applications Amiga users can expect to see in the near future. The resuit is the list of software packages that appears on page 45.
This list is not compréhensive since magazine lead times required contacting software vendons in mid- November. By the time you read this, many new packages not announced at press time will be available. As a resuit, the programs listed in the Table arc représentative of whal’s available (and whafs soon to be available) for the Amiga this year.
The Table lists products in seven catégories: Business, Education, Entertainment, Graphics, Home Productiv- ity, Languages and Utilities and Video. Because many coin pa ni es were project ing release dates at press time, the Table only lists as available software scheduled for release by December 1985. Release dates for other programs are specified by quarter.
Over 30 business programs are now available or are currcntly under development for the Amiga. This includes applications for accounting, word processing, spreadsheets, desktop publishing, télécommunications, information management, outline processing, statistical analysis, investment analysis and project management.
Textcraft ($ 99) is a sophisticated, cntry-levcl word processor developed by Arktronics and marketed by Commodore. It features numerous help screens, tutori- als and templates.
Chang Labs' Rags-to-Richcs accounting sériés includes General ledger, Accounts Payable and Accounts Receiv- ablc modules and is available now for S 199.95 per module. Chang I.abs will introduce Sales Analysis, a point- of-sale retail accounting and analysis program compatible with the Rags-to-Riches sériés, in the first quarter of ’86. Also, Sierra On-Line is developing a version of its One Write accounting software for the Amiga. Price and release date were unavailablc at press time.
Integratcd software packages for the Amiga include Maximillian, from MaxiSoft (formerly Tardis Software), and Homepak, from Batteries ïncluded.
MaxiSoft’s Maximillian includes word processing, spreadsheet data base, graphies and télécommunications modules. Ifs available now for $ 195. Modules will also be available separately. Maximillian’s MaxiShare feature allows acccss to program modules from two computers at the saine time. This feature lets persons
across the room or across the country edit the same
document or spreadsheet simultancously.
Enhanccd stand-alone modules, called MaxiGraph Plus, MaxiTerm Plus, MaxiCalc Plus and MaxiWord Plus will be available in the first quarter of this year. Additional programs planncd for release in March include MaxiBase, a database program, MaxiSpell, a spelling checker and MaxiDraw, a drawing program.
Another integrated package, Homepak, from Batteries ïncluded, features a word processor, a data base program, and a télécommunications program, ail for S49.95.
The Software Group lias released Enable Write from its integrated Enable package. Information about the release of Enable Gale and Enable File was unavailablc at press time.
VTP Technologies is developing an outline processor, a word processor, a statistical analysis program, a spreadsheet program, a project manager and a desktop publishing program, ail of which will be capable of sharing files. The spreadsheet program, VIP Profes- sional, is currently available. VIP Freelance, a desktop publishing program (no release date), will feature interactive grammar, a spelling checker and a terminal program.
In addition, Aegis Development is working on a back- ground mail terminal program that will let you send
40 MarchJApril 1986
and reçoive mai] messages vvhile you run other applications on the Amiga.
For those interested in running unmodificd IBM PC software, Commodore offers The Transformer, a $ 100 PC DOS émulation package. The Transformer will let you run Lotus 1-2-3, Symphony, dBaselI, dBase III,
Flight Simulator and most Softsell Pop 20 software.
The Transformer is a software emulator that sets up an MS DOS environment. Unfortunatcly, this puts a burden on the microprocessor so that programs actually run slower than they would on the IBM PC. To gel good performance, you also need Commodore's hardware accelerator. This makes IBM PC software run as fast or f aster than it does on an IBM.
Commodore anticipated that some major software houses in the business market would wait loi the Amiga to establish itself with business users before offering software. Commodore is providing the Transformer to assure Amiga owners an initial supply of standard business software.
It’s no surprise that several developers are introduc- ing graphies and printing programs that take advantage of the Arniga’s unique palette of 4,096 shades of color, high-resolution graphies and custorn graphies chip.
Graphicraft is Commodore’s currently available paint program, which lots you simultaneously display 32 colors selectable from the palette of 4,09b.
Aegis Dcvelopmcnt’s Aegis Draw (S 199.95), is a draw- ing drafting program that you can use with other paint programs. Aegis Draw assists you in generating médian- ical drawings or in drawing pictures and is available now.
Aegis also plans to introduee three more graphies packages in the First quarter of 1986. Aegis Images ($ 69.95) is a menu driven paint program that features object rotation, magniflcation, shrinking and airbrush- ing capability. The airbrush features an adjustable noz- zle for controlling spray size and density. Other spécial effects include color gradiation and a finger-painting option that lets you smear colors across the screen.
Impact ($ 199) is a présentation business-graphies program from Aegis that lets you create a sériés of three- dimensional images (tables, “slides,” charts and graphs) for video présentations or printing.
For users with more sophisticated needs, Aegis is developing Amiga Pro Draw, a computer-aidcd design (CAD) package that will feature auto-rotation and auto- drawing capabilities. Aegis is also looking into developing an as yet unnamed 3-D modeling package for the Amiga. Release dates and pricing were unavailable at press time.
Other graphies products schcduled for release in this quarter are The Print Shop from Broderbund Software and Deluxe Print and Deluxe Paint from Electronic Arts.
The Print Shop ($ 69.95) lets you create custorn type styles, borders, graphies designs, and other custorn work on a dot-inatrix primer. Deluxe Print créâtes cus- tomized printing on dot-matrix printers and intégrâtes with Deluxe Paint, a sophisticated graphies program. (See our review on page 72).
Several companies are developing music software for the Amiga. Cherry Lane Technologies plans to intro- duce Texture ($ 299), a professions] MIDI music sequen- cer, in the First quarter of this year. Texture records music, modifies it and plays it back through an option al MIDI interface.
Scorewriter is a music composition and printing program from Cherry Lane that runs with Texture. Concerterai ($ 79) is a music accompaniment program that follows along as you play through an optional key- board; it can be used with Pitchrider ($ 199), a hardware interface For recording and editing. H will be available in the second quarter. [Concertcraft is the release name of
The Buss Station cornes with a recessed slot whïch allows the user to store his most used popular program diskettes only a fingertip away! The recessed slot can be removed to provide room for the optional DSI "Associate”.
A surge, spike, RFI, and EMI interférence suppressed, five outlet power control center which allows the Amiga computer, and four peripheral devices to be plugged into one fully protected power source. The front panel of the power controller section of the Buss Station, houses six swîtches (one is a master switch), each with an LED which lights when the corresponding switch is in the "on” position. Eliminâtes messy extension card cabling, and allows the user to switch on off his computer and ail other peripherals from one panel.
The Associate is a multiport data switch which provides two fully switchable sériât and paraliel output ports for the Amiga. The front panel of the Associate section of the Buss Station houses six swîtches, each with an LED which lights when the corresponding switch is in the “on" position. The Amiga allows the use of only one serial and paraliel device, however, the Associate increases the utility of the Amiga by atlowing the use of up to two serial and paraliel devices which are selected and controlled by the flick of a switch.
The Buss Station can be ordered with the Associate already installed at our factory or, the Associate can be ordered at a later date and installed at the dealership where the Buss Station was purchased or by the end user at his home.
You can qive your Amiga Smarts m two différent ways. The first method requires a DSI Buss Staton. A Smart 1 Ram Expansion Starter Card and up to three Smart 2 Ram Expansion Slave Cartfs The second method requires a Smart Net. A Smart 1 Ram Expansion Starter Card and up to three Smart 2 Ram Expansion Slave Cards The DSI Smart Net is an EMI RFI shielded métal enclosure which interfaces to the Amiga, provides ports for. And eocases the Smart 1 and Smart 2 RAM Expansion Cards The DSI Smart 1 Ram Exparsion Starter Card prov des incrémental RAM expansion and has the microprocessor circuit™ neçessary to expand the Amiga to an addtional 2 megabytes of RAM Smart 1 also has an expansion port which allows the user to connect up to three additonal Smart 2 Ram Expansion Slave Cards tacn
Smart 2 Ram Expansion Slave Card provides up to 2 megabytes of incrémental RAM expansion for the Amiga A combination of one fully loaded Smart 1 Starter Card, and three fully loaded Smart 2 Slave Cards will mcrease the Amjga's memory to its maximum potential of 8 meqabyies The Smart cards can be crdered with Qk, partial* loaded. Or fully loaded With 2 megabytes
For complété dealer and distributor information concernmg the excitmg new me of DSI products please contact your local représentative or DSI at the following address:
A spécial RAM expansion port which allows the user to plug in the DSI "Smarts" and incrémental increase the memory of the Amiga to its maximum potential of 8 megabytes.
Eight 86 pin card edge connectors, identical to the one on the Amiga, giving it expandability comparable to the IBM PC. The front panel of the slot expansion section of the Buss Station, hcuses eight switches, each with an LED which lights when the correspanding switch is in the "on” position.
INTEREX SYSTEM INTERFACE CABLES The only tatally comprehensive program of interface cables for cannectrng the Amiga to virtually ail of the most popular analog RGB or digital RGB TTL color momtnrs. As well as composite monochrome and color monitors, serial printers and modems, parallel printers. Keyboards. Disk drives and other penpheral deviens
The Director is a surge. Spike, RFI. And Eml interférence supressed 5 outlet power control center for computers and peripherals.
DATA SwiTCH Six Data Switch models allow port expansion and shanng of computer and peripherals.
717 South Emporia Wichita.KS 67211-2307 316-264-6118 Telex: 650-133-4977
the product formerly referred to as Harmony. Pitchrider is the correct mime of the product we called Pitchwriter in previous issues. Eds. ]
Everyware’s Musicraft music synthesizer program, schcduled for release in Mardi, will combine sound and graphies. In the first quarter, Electronic Arts will introduce Instant Music, an accompanimem program that plays three instruments while you use the mouse as your instrument.
Electronic Arts also plans to release a composition program, Deluxe Music Construction Set, in the second quarter.
If you want to makc your own music videos, several
programs for this purpose are available. Electronic Arts' Deluxe Video Construction Set (first quarter release) accepts video input and stores it digitallv. You can then enhance the video images using additional music and graphies programs.
Aegis Dcvclopmenfs Aegis Animator program ($ 139.95) lets you create animation on nine story boards. The program uses tweening, a process used in film animation, which makes an object appear to move across a background. The package is currently available and includes Aegis Images so you can create detailed backgrounds.
In addition to Melaconico's AbasiC, which is bundled with the Amiga, the following programming langnages are available: Amiga BASIC (Microsoft); True BASIC (True BASIC, Inc.); Aztec C (Manx Software Systems); Amiga Forth (Creative Solutions); UBZ Forth (UBZ Software); TLC-Logo (The Lisp Co.); Cambridge Lisp 68000, and MCC Pascal 68000 (Metacomco). Also, Borland International is developing a multitasking version of Turbo Pascal for the Amiga, but no release data was available at press time.
Lattice bas introduced three C-language cross-compil- ers for MS DOS, Unix and VAX systeins. Amiga Programmer’s Library ($ 200), from MaxiCorp, includes utilities for transferring binary and lexi files between PC DOS and AmigaDOS.
MacBridge Library ($ 100), from Lattice, lets you con- vert your C-language Macintosh programs to the Amiga. Other Lattice programs include a screen editor, Lattice Screen Editor ($ 100); a Unix make utility, LMU ($ 115); and text management utilities, TMU ($ 75). Ail four programs are available now.
Only a lew companies had aunounced educational programs l'or the Amiga at press lime. Two typing tutor programs, MasterType and Keyboard Cadet, are currently available from Scarborough Systems and Minci* scape, respectively.
The largest category of software for the Amiga is entertainment. More than 30 games appear in the table. Most are either already available or will be released in the first quarter of this year. Activision’s Mindshadow and Hacker are available now. These are illustrated text adventures featuring colorful graphies screens and mouse interaction with the screens and sélection of commands.
A number of Infocom games as well as Infocom’s Invisiclues are available now. Sierra On-Line plans to release three adventure games on the Amiga by March. Hayden Software is releasing its Saigon III chess simulation in March. SubLogic’s Flight Simulator will fea- ture stereo sound and three-dimensional high- resolution graphies. The program is $ 49.95 and will be available in the first quarter. Synapse’s Mindwheel,
Essex and Brimstone ($ 49.95 cach) text adventures will feature voice synthesis and will be available in the first quarter of '86.
Synapse lias no release date yet for WyndWalker, a graphies adventure of wizards and sorcery heing devel- oped especially for the Amiga’s graphies and sound.
Electronic Arts is offering numerous entertainment packages for the Amiga. One-on-()ne, Skyfox and Seven
Cities of Gold are currently available. Also available is
Arctic Fox. A new tank simulation game designed to use the Amiga’s graphies and sound.
Return to Atlantis is a 3-D underwater simulation that will be available in the first quarter. Adventure Construction Set, schcduled for first-quarter release, lets you program your own adventure games. Also scheduled for the first quarter are Archon and Marble Madness, both arcade games. Ail games will feature enhanced graphies and sound.
In the second quarter, Electronic Arts plans to release the Pinball Construction Set and Software Golden Oldies, a collection of four “original" computer games: Pong, Adventure, Eliza (interactive psychologist), and Life.
The products described in this article comprise by no means a définitive iist of available software for the Amiga. They should, liowever, give you a good idea of what’s available and show that a llrm base of software is growing for the machine.
Developers, many of whom have been yawning over the IBM PC's archaic technology, are excited by the Amiga’s capabilities and are enthusiastic about writing new software For the computer.
Software that takes full advantage of the Amiga’s power, graphies and sound will make current best-sellers on the IBM PC look as obsolète as VisiCalc. The Amiga is setting a new standard from which to judge microcomputers. Its software, and tliose who develop it, will do the same.l
Address ait author correspondence to Rob Mitchell, cio Amiga World éditorial, 80 Pine St., Peterborough, NH 03-158.
1 st Qtr. '86
Créâtes 3-D business graphies using data from spreadsfieets, etc.
Menu-driven spreadsheet program with auto-sort and windowing features. Files are compatible with VisiCalc.
Simple word processing program that inlcudes on-screen documentation and templates for business letters.
Software tranforms the Amiga into an MS DOS machine for running IBM PC software.
Messaging software for the A miga.
The Software Group
The Software Group
Word processor with graphies and window functions.
Investment portfolio analysis and traching System. Will include graphies, icons and télécommunications.
2nd Qtr. '86
Terminal package that includes a word processor and spelling checker.
Business and Statistical Software
A number of statistically oriented business packages including Business Statistics, Multivariate Analysis and more.
Database program that shares files with other MaxiSoft programs.
lst Qtr. *86
Enhanced version of MaxiCorp’s Maximillian spreadsheet module.
1 st Qtr. ’86
Enhancement of Maxim illian s MaxiGraph graphies module.
Integrated spreadsheet, word processor; graphies and terminal émulation software. Multitasking, concurrent data sharing on two computers.
lst Qtr. *86
Enhanced version of MaxiTerm program in Maximillian integrated software.
lst Qtr. *86
Enhanced version of MaxiWord word processor used in Maximillian integrated software.
Sophisticated terminal program.
Sierra On- Line
Sierra On- Line
General ledger accounting using the single-entry systern.
Includes key business ratio analysis, jïnancial statements, loan évaluations and more.
Includes property investment analysis, financial statements, amortization tables, loan evalxialions and more.
Rags-to- Riches Sériés
General Ledger; Accounts Payable and Accounts Receivables accounting programs for small business.
Point-ofsale accounting and sales analysis package.
Terminal émulation program.
Spreadsheet program featuring windowing and program customizing. Compatible with other spreadsheet programs.
Statistical analysis program. Intégrâtes with other modules in VIP sériés.
Project management program; can share information with other VIP sériés programs.
VIP sériés outline processing program can share information with other VIP programs.
Word processor; includes interactive grammar, spelling checker, terminal program. Intégrâtes with other VIP programs.
Lotus 1-2-3 type spreadsheet program.
The Hailey Project
Tom Snyder Productions
A fun way to leam about the Solar System.
Typing tutor program.
Mastering the SAT
2nd Qtr. ’86
Tutorial program préparés high-school students to take the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT).
Typing tutor program.
2nd Qtr. ’86
Educational game in which one or more players make associations between a list of subiects and eliminate subjects which dorit fit.
Ist Qtr. ’86
Program your own adventure game.
lst Qtr. ’86
Three-dimensional arcade strategy game.
Archon ü: Adept
Arcade strategy game.
The Black Cauldron
Sierra On- Line
Sierra On- Line
Graphics adventure game based on Disney movie of the same name.
lst Qtr. ’86
Electronic navel pits you and your Knights of the Round Table agaimt Ulro and the underworld. Uses Amiga s speech synthesis.
This graphies text adventure is a 1940*5 style mystery in which you must overcome your amnesia.
2nd Qtr. ’86
Driving game puis you in the cockpit of a race car.
lst Qtr. ’86
Search and rescue mission aboard the starship Essex. Electronic novel features voice synthesis through the Amiga.
lst Qtr. ’86
Fly a Cessna 182 or a Lear Jet. Stereo sound, 3-D high-resolution graphies.
Fly an attack helicopter.
S trategy adventure in which you must break into a computer.
AU 19 Infocom games plus învisiclues are available for the Amiga.
Sierra On- Line
Sierra On- Line
Animated text adventure.
King’s Quest II
Sierra On- Line
Sierra On- Line
Enhanced version of King's Quest. 3T) graphies.
lst Qtr. ’86
Adaptation of commercial arcade game includes high-resolution animation and sound effects.
In this graphies text adventure, you have lost your memory and must [nid your true identity.
lst Qtr. ’86
Travel through time to save the earth. Electronic novel from Synapse uses Amiga’s voice synthesizer.
Napoléon at Waterloo
Battle at Waterloo simulation in real- time with enhanced graphies.
Larry Bird and Dr. J bring their act to the Amiga.
2nd Qtr. ’86
Design your own electronic pinball game,
Return to Atlantis
lst Qtr, ’86
Underwater simulation in 3-D.
lst Qtr. ’86
Robot warfare arcade game.
Rome and the Barbarian
Real-time strategy game in which you wage war during the fail of the Roman Empire. Play is against opponents on other computers.
Seven Cities of Gold
Text graphics adventure.
Simulation of submarine combat during WWII.
High-resolution combat Jlight simulation.
2nd Qtr. ’86
Original Pong, Adventure, Eliza (interactive psychologist) and Life computer games.
Science fiction space adventure.
The subject is sorcery in this arcade game that takes advantage of Amiga sound and graphies.
Scaled-doum computer-aided design (CAD) drawing program créâtes charts, diagrams and architectural drawings.
lst Qtr. ’86
A paint program with airbrushing, color gradiation, object rotation, shrinking and magnification, image cloning and other features.
Aegis Pro Draw
Com puter-Aided Design
Programmable CAD system running under Intuition, incorporating auto drawing and rotation in high-resolution 3-D graphies.
Paint program lets you display 32 color s for graphies and animation.
lst Qtr. ’86
Paint program that intégrâtes with Deluxe family Graphics, Music and Printing modules.
Drawing program. Files can be integrated into other MaxiSoft programs.
lst Qtr. ’86
Printing program that intégrâtes uhth Deluxe Graphics Construction Set.
lst Qtr. *86
Formulas for home financial planning.
Fifteen desktop accessories including a calendar, indexing, mémo pad, calculators, clock, terminal and graph packages.
Integrated word processor, database and télécommunications programs.
Includes checkbook accounting and budgets, IRA vs. CD planner, loan amortization, personal financial statements, life Insurance and collège investment planners and more.
The Print Shop
A printing program with graphies and text editors for creating custom print styles and designs on dot-matrix printers.
LANGUAGES AND UTILITIES
Macro assembler linker program includes libraries and AmigaDOS Developerfs Manual.
Amiga C Cross-
MS DOS to AmigaDOS cross-compiler.
Amiga C Cross- Compiler Unix
C language cross-compiler couverts between Unix and AmigaDOS.
Amiga C Cross- Compiler VAX
Vax to AmigaDOS cross-compiler program.
Forth language featuring multitasking and real-time applications.
Cambridge LISP 68000 interpréterf compiler program.
ISO validated Pascal programming language.
Program development utilities for the Amiga.
Amiga TLC Logo
The Lisp Co.
Lst Qtr. ’86
Educational programming language.
Aztec C68Kl Am
C compiler program available in three programming levels.
C language utilities for créât ing, accessing and updating dBASE III files.
Lattice C for Amiga
C language compiler program including linkert libraries and “include” source files.
Lattice Make Utility
Unix-compatible, system-rebuilding utility.
Lattice Screen Editor
Menu-driven screen-editor program features multiple Windows and a multitasking mode.
These C-language programming routines include programs that let you couvert your Apple Macintosh programs to run on the Amiga.
Créâtes screen layouts for your programs. Includes a screen layout editor.t subroutine library and utility programs.
Eight programs for examining and editing program or text files.
Borland’s popular high-speed Pascal compiler.
Implémentation of FORTH featuring FORTH 83 word set. IncItLdes source code.
Multitasking symbolic debugger for Amiga Assembly and Lattice C languages.
This is the first full featured nibbler of it's kind. No parameters are required making it automatic and simple to use. This ultra smart nibbler will copy some of the toughest schemes known. No spécial keys or anything required. Just put in the source and go. Will work
with one or two drives and most copies $ QQ95
are done within a minute! - «w
"A Filer" is only one of a sériés of integrated packages that allow you to store and retrieve information in an easy and timely manner. Its flexible design allows you to create a fifing System that will best fit your particular needs. You canfind and print information like mailing labels, client records, inventory lists or purchase orders. Instantly! Its powerf ul yet easy to use features make it an asset in any application.
• Create your own disk files
• Sort the information off any category
* Print out mailing labels
* Add a record, insert a record, change a record or delete a
* Print out a sorted list or a partially selected list.
• Amount of records can be set for your memory capacityl
• 12 fields per record maximum one
• Derno disk available
One of the sériés of integrated packages that allows you to create custom reports and mailing labels from your "A-Filer" data files. Its versatile formatting capabilities and ease of use can give your reports that professional look.
* Sort reports based upon any field in the file
* Create custom report headings.
* Do page numbering of reports
• Create column-type or multiple line reports
• Calculate totals on numeric fields in your file.
• Format the output socustom forms can be used.
• Prints report to the screen or the printer.
• Print-out full or partial records.
A great companion for A-FILER
This is a "2-drive" emulatorfor your Amiga computer that lets you loadand run programs without continually "swapping" your work- bench disk in and out. It is intended for those using an Amiga with a single drive who are tired of constantly changing from your program disk to a workbench disk in order to run a program.
Your "A Disk" is a System disk that reconfigures your system to fool it into thinking that you have two drives on your system; one drive for your workbench and one drive for your program disk. & O flQfï
Tired of Swapping? TL %3
A comprehensive terminal program for the Amiga. This package is guaranteed not to lose a bit, even at a buad of 38400. Full featured with ail the goodies not found on others.
• "Speak on" allows the in coming data to be spoken thru the speaker of the Amiga.
• Data can be printed as it's coming over the line.
• Protocols supported X-MODEM Text, X-MODEM Binary, VT-Amiga.)
* Handshakes available (None, Xon Xoff, DTR CTS)
* 8uad Rates - (300,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400)
* 7 or 8 bits
• Line widths can be set at 88 or 132.
• Automatically keeps trying if phone is busy.
* Answer back message function.
• Connection can be made with modem or computer with out a spécial cable.
• Phone number can be stored for access when auto-
Incrtdible for only
Dealer and Distributor Inquiries Invited,
Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or
Personal Check. Allow 14 days for delivery.
2 to 7 days for phone orders. Canada orders
must be in U.S. Dollars, VISA MASTER
CARD - C.O.D.
X X X
‘3.00 S A H or ail orders
I l'naïWvOTu I
Software Submissions Invited
P. O. Box 1080, Battle Ground, Washington 98604
Phone 800-541-1541 • 24 hour BBS order line • 206-687-5205 Tech. Line & Foreign & In Washington state orders - 206-687-7176
Music composer synthesizer program.
2nd Qtr. ‘86
Music composition program intégrâtes with Deluxe Video to create MTV-style videos.
lst Qtr. ’86
The Amiga accompanies you with the sound of three instruments while you create music usijig a mouse.
Cherry Lane Technologies
Cherry Lane Technologies
Music composition and printing program that runs with Texture.
Music animatüm program.
Cherry' Lane Technologies
Cherry Lane Technologies
lst Qtr. ’86
Professional-level, 8-track MIDI music sequencer lets you record, modify and play music on the Amiga.
Lets you create animated scenes on nine storyboards. Includes Aegis Images paint program for creating backgrounds.
lst Qtr. ’86
Real-time video frame grahber digilizer. Digitizes and manipulâtes video input, lets you use graphies programs to modify images.
lst Qtr. ’86
Input, store and aller video images on the Amiga. Add sound and graphies with additional Deluxe famüy ynodtûes.
Amiga Software Developers
P. O. Box 7286 Mt. View, CA 94039 800 6334263 415 940-6044
Aegis Development Inc.
2210 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 277 Santa Monica, CA 90403 213 306-0735
30 Mural St.
Richmond Hilî, Ontario Canada L4 1B5 416 881-9941
4113 Scotts Valley Drive Scotts Valley, CA 95066 408 438-8400
17 Paul Drive
San Rafaël, CA 94903
Chang Labs Inc.
5300 Stevens Creek Blvd. San José, CA 95129 408 246-8020
Cherry Lane Technologies
110 Midland Ave., Box 430 Port Chester, NY 10573 914 937-8601
Commodore Business Machines Inc.
1200 Wilson Drive West Chester, PA 19380 215 431-9100
Creative Solutions Inc,
4701 Randolph Road, Suite 12 Rockville, MD 20852 301 984-0262
2755 Campus Drive San Mateo, CA 94403 415 981-8696
6220 Owensmouth Ave. 270 Woodland Hills, CA 91367 818 709-1202
650 Suffold St.
Lowell, MA 02135 617 937-0200
125 Cambridge Park Drive Cambridge, MA 02135 617 576-3190
193318 Oak St.
Scarborough Systems Inc.
P. O. Box 3372
55 S. Broadway
Kansas City, KS 66103
Tarrytown. NY 10591
Sierra On-Line Inc.
22 West 600
Coarsegold, CA 93614
Clen Ellyn, IL 60137
Silicon Beach Software
The Lisp Company
1 1212 Dalby Place, Suite 201
430 Monterey Ave., Suite 4
San Diego, CA 92126
Los Gatos, CA 95030
Manx Software Systems
3119 E. Des Moines
P. O. Box 55
Mesa. A7. 85203
S h rewsbury, NJ 07701
713 Edgebrook Drive
28176 Sloat Road
Champaign, IL 61820
Pebble Beach, CA 93953
Synapse Software (Broderbund)
201 Hoffman St.
17 Paul Drive
San Rafaël, CA 94903
The Software Group
120 Lakefront Drive
Northway Ten Executive
Hum Valley, MD 21030
Ballston Lake, NY 12019
10700 Northup Way
Bel le view, WA 98009
395 St. Albans Court
Mableton, GA 30059
3444 Dundee Road
Northbrook, IL 60062
132 Aero C ami no
Santa Barbara, CA 93117
This article was produccd in November 1985. Certain unwritten laws of magazine, and espccially software, publishing should guaiantee thaï sonie of wliat we are presenling licre will be inaccuratc when this issue hits the newsstands. At the time this article was donc, “hard-and-fast” information was not very easy to corne by. We think Roh did a line job considering the mercurial nature of software for new machines; we also believe that this will give you a good iclea of what’s oui there. We will be giving updates and clearing tip inaccuracies in future issues. If you are a developer or a manufacturer with a product we should have mentioned, or if you have a new one, please send us the information.
Using a new machine doesn’t have to mean starting from scratch. Because now there’s True BASIC™ for the Amiga.
It’s the same structured language that BYTE called “superior to Microsoft BASIC.” The same environment that PC Magazine thought was “the easiest-to-learn of ail the BASICs I’ve had the pleasure of reviewing.” Syntax that led Electronic Learning to conclude, “Good graphies have never been easier in a high level language.”
True BASIC is the latest from John Kemeny and Tom Kurtz, the inventors of BASIC. It’s a compiler and editor that understands external libraries, matrix algebra and recursion. A package that Classroom Computer Learning honored among their “Outstanding Software of
1985. ” And now it’s here for the Amiga.
With it, there’s a full range of libraries for things like sorting and searching, or 3-D graphies. And our Runtime Package to produce stand-alone, fully-linked applications.
So whether you’re working on the Amiga, the IBM RPC, or the Macintosh, now there’s a single portable language for you to use. To learn more, talk to your Amiga dealer. Or call us at (603) 643-3882. We’ll also show you the latest in educational software for the Amiga. Because whether you’re writing code or learning calculus, it gets easier when you have the right tools.
True BASIC, Inc. 39 South Main St., Hanover, NH 03755. Software from the creators of BASIC.
True BASIC is a t rade mark of Truc BASIC, Inc. IBM is a registered tradernark of International Business Machines. Inc. Macintosh is a tradernark licensed to Apple Computer. Inc. Amiga is a tradernark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc.
By Gil Dodgen
Experimenting with Amiga's graphies using AbasiC
When 1 bccamc clie proud owner of a new Amiga, 1 decidcd thaï I would see what i coulcl do in Basic, with as iew linos ol code as possible, to exploit the graphies capabilities of the machine. What follows is a set of variations on a random number-generaied graphies program, written in AbasiC.
Listing I shows the initial program. The RND l'une- lion générales a iloating point inimher between 0 and
l. A triangle is formed by specifyitig its three corners (xLyl, to x2,y2 to x3,y3) with the RND resuit multipliée! By the limits (in pixels and scan lines) of the monitor. The Area fonction connects the three points with the outline (penO) color and fi ils the enclosed area with the colors specilled by penA and penB. These colors are also choscn at random within the range permitted for the default color registers. (Notice that nuinbering starts with 0 so that the 32 registers must be specifiecl by RND*3l.) Since the graphies will overwrite the instructions printed on the screen, the Sleep statement gives you fivc seconds to read these instructions, which explain how to exit the prograin and clear the screen. The Cet statement constamly polis the keyboard and terminâtes program éxecution when the space bar is pressed.
When 1 first ran this program, 1 was amazed at the speed with which il executed. In fact, you may ftnd that it results in a kind of sensorv ovcrload.
Listing 2 was my first variation on the concept. In this version, the program output is directed into the window specilled by the Windovv statement. Note line 290: lu order to alleviate the sensory overload problem mentioned earlier, I put this randomizecl time delay into the génération of the triangles. The random-num- lier generator in this statement will create a number between 0 and 3,000. Since the number must fall between 0 and 31. It will try and trv again until it gels
it righl. By changing the si .e of the time delay, you may find il necessary to resi .e or move the window in order for the space bar to have its desired effect.
Version 3 is probably the most fascinaüng. Originally, I set np the For. . .Next loop to incrément the coordi- nates of the corner of the triangles. Unfortunately, this resulted in the rallier un interest ing effect of the triangles gt owing toward the lower right corner of the screen. After this attempt, 1 decided to décrément sonie of the coordinates. This produces a pseudo-3D effect with the triangles twisting and turning while leaving behind theni a pattern in the ouline color specified by penO. Line 54(1 kceps the coordinates from exceeding the limits of the screen. Without this line, the compta- ers memory will flll and the program will crash.
Version 4 randomizes the outline color by placing its RND spécification in the For. . .Next loop. This créâtes the sanie twisting 31) effect. But leaves behind a multi- colored pattern.
These programs shoulcl give you a point of departure to start experimenting on your own. For example, try chaining the programs by substituting the Chain com- mand for the Then End statement. Shapes with more than three corners might he iried, or vou might try ran- domizing the penA and penB colors in the For. ..Next loop. Also, try experimenting with the Circle, Linepat and Pattern commands.
1 he fact that such interesting graphies routines can he written with just a few lines of Basic is a real testimony to the power of this machine. F.qually impressive is the specd with which the computer can displav the images. By liining die exécution of'the For, ..Next loop. 1 deler- miried that the computer is calculating the parameters for. And displaying, al)out 30 triangles jjer second! This means that animation should be possible without sprite grapfiics as long as calculai ions are kept reasonahle.
I ain novv even more anxiouslv awaiting the arrivai ofim Lattice C! Compiler for the Amiga. With the mut h gréa ter speed of compiled C, and the abilitv to cusioin tailor math- ematical functions to calculate only the dcgrce of accuracy that isabsolutcly nccessary, the possibililics are mind-bog- gling. Since the Motorola 08000 is free to pcrlbnn ihese calculai ions without liaving to worry about actuallv générât ing the graphies, the future of animated graphies on the Amiga should be exciting indeed.H
Cil Dodgett is editor of Hang (Oiding magazine. You eau rrarh tiim at 12642 Dot fie Cirele. (iarden Crove, C'A 9264 t.
Listing 1. Triangles t.bas
10 Rem Trianglesl .bas
30 Rem Program to generaîe colored triangles.
50 Randomize - 1
60 Print “Press space bar to end."
70 Print “Type "“scnclr”” to clear screen.”
80 Sleep 5*10A6
90 x1 = rnd'320: x2 = rnd"320: x3 = rnd"320
100 y1 = rnd*200: y2 = rnd'200: y3 = rnd*200
110 a = rnd*31: b=rnd*31: c = rnd'31
120 penA a; penB b; penO c
130 Get A$
140 It A$ = ” ” Then End
150 Area (x1,y1 to x2,y2 to x3,y3)
160 Goto 90
Listing 2. T riangles 2.bas
200 Rem Triangles 2.bas
220 Randomize -1
230 Print “Press space bar to end.”
240 Print “Size wmdow to suit.”
250 Wmdow 1, 100T 100. 80, 80,
260 Cmd 1
270 Get A$ : If A$ = ” ” Then End
280 x1 = rnd*320: x2 = rnd*320: x3 = rnd*320
290 y1 = rnd*200: y2 = rnd‘200: y3 = rnd*200
300 a = rnd*31; b = rnd*31
310 c = rnd*3000: If c>31 Then 310
320 penA a: penB b: penO c
330 Area (x1,y1 to x2,y2 to x3,y3)
340 Goto 270
Listing 3. T riangles 3.bas
400 Rem Triangles 3.bas
420 Randomize -1
430 Print “Press space bar to end.”
440 Print “Type ”“scnclr”“ to clear screen.”
450 Sleep 3*1ÛA6 460 Get A$ : if A$ = ” ” Then End 470 x1 = rnd*320: x2 = rnd*320: x3 = rnd*320 480 y1 = rnd*200: y2 = rnd*200: y3 = rnd*200 490 a=rnd*31: b = rnd*31: c = rnd*31 500 penA a: penB b: penO c 510 For i = 1 to 100 520 x1 = x1 + 1 : y1 = y1 + 1 530 x2 = x2 + 1 : y2 = y2 - 1 540 x3 = x3 - 1 ; y3 = y3 + 1 550 If x1 >319 or y 1 > 199 or x2>319 or y2 1 or x3 1 or y3>199 Then 580 560 Area (x1,y1 to x2,y2, to x3.y3)
570 Next i
580 Goto 460
Listing 4. Triangles 4.bas
600 Rem Triangles 4.bas
620 Randomize -1
630 Print “Press space bar to end.”
640 Print "Type ””scncir”“ to clear screen.”
650 Sleep 3*10A6 660 Get AS : if AS = “ ” Then End 670 x1 = rnd*320: x2 = rnd*320; x3 = rnd*320 680 y1 = rnd*200: y2 = rnd*200: y3 = rnd*200 690 a=rnd*31: b = rnd*31 700 penA a: penB b 710 For i = 1 to 100 720 x 1 = x 1 + 1: y1 =y1 + 1 730 x2 = x2 + 1 : y2 = y2 - 1 740 x3 = x3 - 1 : y3 = y3 -f 1 750 If x1 >319 or y1 > 199 or x2>319 or y2 1 or x3 1 or y3>199 Then 790 760 c=rnd*31: penO c 770 Area (x1,y1 to x2,y2 to x3,y3)
780 Next i 790 Goto 660
ln the last issue, we examinée! The programming tan- guage Cambridge Lisp 68000. This inonth we will look at anolher produel from Metacomco: MCC Pascal. Il too is a developerVlevel language for the Amiga, but there are several kev différences, hotli positive and négative.
Programming on the Amiga: MCC Pascal
By Daniel Zigmond
The first description of Pascal was the Pascal User Matinal and Report, written by Kathleen Jensen and Nik- laus Wirth almost a decade ago. Since then, the language lias met with phénoménal success. Il was the first structured language. Making it iiseful as an intellectual stimulant as well as a practica! And sophisticated tool. Il lias a very readable syntax. L'or example, in Fortran, an If stalement might look like:
100 FORMAT (110)
IF (NUMBER .IT. 305) WRI TE (6,100) NUMBER
while in Pascal this would be:
IF NUMBER 305 THEN WRITE(NU.MBER);
The différence is quite striking.
PascaPs While. Repeat and even For are a joy comparée! To Fortran's Do. Pasc al supports sets and réclusion; in général, Pascal lias signifieantly advanced the fiel 11 of computer science.
Pascal lias become the de facto teaching tool of corn- pu ter science. It is rare for introductory computer courses not to cover Pascal (although this is slowly changing). And a vast majoritv of advanced courses use Pascal as a vchicle to teach complex concepts, Most advanced computer science textbooks are now Pascal- or iented.
Although the industry is beginning to use C as ils primary longue, Pascal is slill used extensively for commercial software development. For a while, Pascal was the only language that Apple supported for Macintosh programming. As is the case with the Amiga. Pascal is typically among the first languages to be implemented on a new computer.
It is impossible for a language to bccomc popular without being available for a vvide variety of machines. Because ail computers have their own strengths and weaknesses and ail implementors have their own likes and dislikes, specialized dialects of computer languages are quick to fonn. While such diversity is somewhai usel'ul and often leads to a graduai inodernization of the language (as is the case with Lisp), it ncccssarily sacrifices the portability of code. Pascal bas been no ex- ception to this rule. Rival versions o( Pascal sprang up soon after it became popular, and mauy more exist today.
To curb the trend towards incompalibilîty, the British Standards Institution began to design a "standard Pascal." The International Standards Organisation pub- lishcd a final report in 1982, which specified exacily how a Pascal oughl te» work. Of course, sut h a standard is only effective if everyone agréés to follow it. Not evervbody did. Howcver, it bas achievcd enough popu- larity to tnake it useful. MCC Pascal makes every at- tempt to adhéré to ISO spécifications. Il is tlocumenied as a tevel 0 implémentation «»f the ISO 7 185 BS 6192 description, and, while this by no rneans implies full compatibility with every Pascal, it is a nice feature,
MCC Pascal is quite complète and therefore quite powcrful. It includes a great tnany data types for repre- senling numbers, charactcrs, lext files and Boolean values. Both real and integer numbers are supported. There arc the usual structurée! Types: énumérations, subranges, arrays, sets and records.
Ail the expected control structures are présent:
While, If, Repeat, Case, For, etc. MCC Pascal contaius ail fonction- and procedure-defining statements. More advanced featurcs include the forward directive, point-
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Ers, dynamic variables, rétorsion and Write and Writeln fonnatting. Of course, the basic arithmetic funetions, conversions and comparisons arc supported. A source at Metacomco daims that it is possible to do graphies and sound in MCC Pascal, but it is verv difficuit. Future versions will provide manv additional procédures for casing this task. In short, the MCC Pascal implémentation leaves very little to be desired.
Code can be transported from another machine through AmigaTerm and compiled as a text file; there are no complicatedfile protocols as there are ivith Pascal on the Apple II. MCC Pascal is a utility, not an environment.
Using MCC Pascal
MCC Pascal is not truly a "development system" in the wav Cambridge Lisp is. Programs must be written using a standard lext editor (KDIT, most likelv) and linked with ALINK, the standard Amiga linker. MCC Pascal is only a compiler. W hile this ohviouslv detracts from the simplicity of the package, it gives the user a great degree of freedom. The MCC Pascal user will have no prohlcm making use of'more powerful edi tors as thev hecome available. Code can bc transported from another machine through AmigaTerm and compiled as a text 1 i le; there are no complicated file proto- cols as there are with Pascal on the Apple IL MCC Pascal is a utility, not an environment.
An added bonus of the system is that Metacomco is wotking on a compatible compiler for the Atari ST.
I bis allows developers to make their products available to users ol that system. Other implémentations current ly exist on a few less popular machines, and more will probable he attempted.
Documentation is not usually a big issue for development Systems. Qualité tutorials are extremely hard to write. And I would not recominend a software manufacturer to even attempt it. Metacomco acknowledges that there are alreadv several qualité Pascal texts, and there* lore cloes not include one of their own for MCC Pascal. It is unfortimaie that they naine no spécifie books, but such works are easy to find.
However, a good référencé manual is an essential for a language, and. Sadly, MCC Pascal cloes not have one. Lu fact, the MCC Pascal manual may be the worst piece of documentation 1 have ever read.
At first glanee, the manual, although faîrly long, is lacking two major things: a table of contents and an index. There is a page labelecl "I'ahle of Contents, but it is a rough, and often inaccurate. Oullinc of the book.
No page numhers aie provided. Leaving it ail but use- lcss. Lu a system as powerful as MCC Pascal, a good
index is an absolute essential, and Metacomco neither provides one nor offers any substitute, such as a glos- sary or quick-refercncc section.
A more detailed look at the manual revcals a horren- dous nuraber of errors, botii technical and tvpographi- cal. And complété disorganization. Spacing, capitalisation, underlining and type faces are used in- consistent!)*, Hcadings and subheadings arc interrnixecl with almost no apparent logic, I he structure (if sentences and paragraphs is very awkward and sometimes just plain wrong. Even major sections of chapters are completcly tnisplaced. Where the text is rcadable, it is often vague or inisleading. Those who know Pascal well can discarcl the manual completelv if they are willing to work by trial and error. Any novices patient enough to work through the text will onlv find themselves frus- trated and confused upon completion.
It is painful to dismiss a good language solclv he- cause it is poorly docuniented. In fact. MCC Pascal is close enough to ISO Pascal to he used without its own reference manual. Still, it is a package that would take great effort to use. Mv advice to Pascal enthusiasts is to hold oui for either a new release of MCC Pascal or Turbo Pascal from Borland. The latter will probable be considerbly less expensivc and possible better, but its availability is still uncertain. Those who simple want to start programming their Amiga should give serions thought to Lattice C. Tt is both powerful and well docuniented.
S uni mary
Don t lniy MCC Pascal.. .yet. The software is good, but its qualité is hidden behind awful documentation. Either hold ont for better Pascals or use a différent lan- guage altogether. At this point, MCC Pascal will only bring you bout s of grief.H
Address ail author correspondence to Daniel Zigmond, Carne- gir-Mellon University, Computer Science Dept., Schenley Park, Pittshurgh, PA 15213.
P0 Box 4313, Garden Grove. CA 92642 Phone: 714) 636-3378
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CD ROM: The Future of Memory?
Your entire software library wouldprobably fit on one CD ROM. This new technology represents a quantum leap over magnetic memory storage.
By Joseph Rotello
Just about everything we see in tlie microcomputer fleld was or is the result of what can only he termed a révolution. First there was the vacuuin tube, thon the solid State devicc, and final!y, iniegratcd circuits. Àlong came the mainframe (more aplly described as the house- frame) computers and the niinicomputcrs. I'inally came the “desktop” micros and tlie laptop computers of loday.
A similar révolution h as taken place in the related technology of data storage and retrieval un ils. First there were punched cards and paper tape, then came the magnetic media and ail was quiet on the inass storage Iront. . .or was it? Another révolution is about to take place, this tinte with the unlikelv naine oI CT), or CD ROM.
More than being just another acronytn in the long historv of computerdom’s abbreviations, the Compact Disc Rcad Only A emory promises to bccorne a signifi- cant catch phrase in the world of microcomputing. You must likely have already seen ihem in use as concert- qualitv audio “records” that produce unheard-of sound quality with the aid of a laser beam. In fact. The only real différence between the CD being used to play back Mozart and the one used to store last vear’s corporate earnings report is in tlie type of data applied to each.
It happens that the same binarv data that represents music on a CD can and does work splendidlv for the storage of computer data. In fact, even the mechanica! Différences between tlie audio and computer CD stor
age units is very minor, leading to the distinct possibil- ity that the âge of floppy and hard disk drives may be swiftly drawing to an end.
What rnakes the CD so attractive is that it represents a quantum leap in storage capacity. Whcréas floppy and hard disk storage capacity bas been measured in megabytes and tens of megabytes, we will have to gel used to seeing CD ROM capacities measured in the hundreds of megabytes, and even with a new computer terni gigabytes. The storage potential for literally billions of bytes now exists, and even the stnall CI) offers over 500 million bytes of data storage on a disk the si e of a 45 rpm record.
This cnormous increase in storage capacity is made possible by a little bit of applied physics. A floppy or hard disk stores data via a magnetic liead that either records or reads the data applied to the magnetic media. The density of the recorded media is mostly dépendent on the fact that the highest quabty magnetic head can be produced only to a limited tolérance lim- ited by the width of the magnetic head itself. In a CD ROM system, the data is written and rcad off'the disk by laser heam. One laser beam can be focused to near infinitésimal limits, thus allowing a great increase in the density at which data is recorded, and a corre- sponding increase in the total storage capacity. Addi- tionallv. The laser in a CD drive never actuallv touches the disk, meaning that a CD can and should last a proverbial lifetime. In fact. You could very well grah a CD. Hold it under water, wipe it off and he verv confident that it will perforni properlv.
With this niuch memory storage available, one would think that the outlook for the CD ROM could he end less. In reality, this outlook takes on a radier mixed suit ?
Photograph hy Edjudice
of ciothes, as there are both pros and tons relating to this new storage medium.
Without a doubt, the software market as it exists today will undergo some very fundamental changes. It is now possible to store not only text, but also large amounts of graphies, bit-mapped (very high-resolution) data and more, on the same disk and at the saine time. Vvhat's more, this storage capacity makes it possible and economical to store many différent operating Systems or versions of the same program on the same CD. For example, one CD would be able to hold such diverse operating Systems as AmigaDOS, MS-DOS, UNIX and OEM ail 011 the same disk. Another might hold the entire three-year records of a medium-sized university or large corporation.
As odd as it may seem, the ability to hold such large amounts of diverse material brings about a problem of its own.
Existing software, measured in présent day kilobyte sizes, pales to insignificance compared to the enor- inous storage capacity of even one CD. It is quite possible that the software to take real advan- tage of this asset might be avaif able only many months after the CD ROM drive itself is intro- duced, if for no other reason than that it might take that long just to develop that great an amount o f code.
Quoting Ijes Cowan, of Optical Memory News, “I can see putting a program like Lotus on a single CD ROM al ong with ten godzillion help screens, complété documentation and still have most ail of the disk lcft over for something clse...
One natural use for CD ROM s may very well be in real estate. One can imagine putting complété descriptions of homes, plus explanaiory text, plus high-resolu- lion color graphies or digitized pictures of same, ail on one disk.
For the business user, the initial CD ROM use may well center on large and diverse databases containing literallv millions of pièces of archivée! Data on a rela-
tivelv small number of CD ROMs. It is no secret that,
already, the Library of Congress stores virtually ail of the seven million plus Card Calalog Records on large optical disks ready for immédiate recall. Plans are already under way to store the great mass of encyclope- dias on optical disks, thus allowing much faster and eas* ier access to this knowledge base via modem-equipped businesses and private individuals. Corporations will have a newfound ability to store and recall massive files dating back years, ail on one or two rather large-capac- ity optical disks. Indeed, the American médical commu- nity is buzzîng with rumors of gathering the accumulated health knowledge of the last one thousand years and storing both it and high-resolution médical pictures and data on optical disks.
Limitations and Potentiai
Granted, this new technology has the potentiai to bi ing about massive changes in our perception of data and its storage. However, one of the présent limitations of CD technology is that it is very hard to make a CD drive that is capable of both recording, eras- ing previous material and re-recording new inate- rial in its place. Hence, aîl présent CD technology is “read only”; once the recording medium is lasered, it remains that way pennanently.
On the horizon, perhaps available by late 1986, is what
has conte to be termed WORM ( W rite Once R e a d Many tintes) CD un its. However, Cds capable of being written to and erased or otherwise modified many limes over are still in the labo- ratory and may not sec the light of
day for years.
Ifs not easy to “throw together” a CD ROM system either. With audio Cds, error rates of a couple bytes of audio data would pretty much go unnoticed. Not so with computer CD ROMs. One miss- ing byte can mean the différence between last month’s sales figures and a collection of numcric mash. Hence, the art of error détection and correction lias to be stud- ied and refined to a higli degree of accuracy. This is a costiy and time-consuming procédure, but one that seems to have been surmounted as far as the read-only Cds are concerned,
Another potentiai item to be ovcrcome is the problem related to the massive quantity of data being stored and eventually searched loi*. With so much data to look through, even the best random data search routines on the fastest drives may take a relatively long time to reach the desired data.
• Sony and Commodore- Amiga are developing an interface that will allow you to connect a CD player to your
Still another area of concern will be that of possible product shortages. Cl) technology is new enougli that there are simply not enough manufacturers (of both the technology and the media) in place yet. With audio Cds becoining more common, manufacturers are go ing to be hard pressed to vamp up production lines to bandit* the cxpectcd interest in the computer CI) ROM arena as well.
The Amiga and CD ROM
The CD ROM situation is a particularly interesting one as regards the Amiga computer. The Amiga’s abil- ity to rnanipulate and display massive amounts of text and numeric data at superior speeds, including graphi- cal data, seems to allow for a rneld of the new CD ROM technology and the likewise new Amiga technology. In fact, the Amiga’s ability to give motion and split-second movement to programs may he preccding the CD ROM s ability to provide data fast enough to make motion happen. As we alluded to above, the présent day CD ROMs will have to decrease the relevant data access and searching titnes in order to unité high-speed graphies with the existant CD ability to store massive quantifies of binary data representing thosc graphies.
Another plus for Ainiga CD niarriage would he in the Amiga’s ability to display and control multiple Windows of data combincd with the placement of multiple related files on a single CD. It is quite likely that applications software will bcconic available wlierc one of these files might consisi ol text mai ter, another a high- resolution digital “pliotograph” or artwork, and a third» another file being opened for access or updating, ail existing and being operated 011 at seerningly the saine time. Such “software hardware interplav” efforts have positive implications for such environments as CAD CAM, engineering research, médical file management, real-timc event analysis and a host of others.
The major obstacle prevenling you from using a CD- ROM player with your Amiga is the lack of a compati ble interface. According to sources in (lie industry, how* ever, this situation could be rectifiée! As early as the first quarter of 1986. Apparcntly, Sony and Commodore- Amiga arc jointly developing an interface that will allow you to connect a CD player to your Amiga. In any event, you can be assured that you will see an Amiga-CI) connection on the market in 1986.
With the arrivai of CD ROM, onc's attention may nat- urally turn to the future prospects of the floppy and hard disk industries. It could be quite a shock to présent media manufacturers to suddenly find that year s of research and ongoing product improvement have been wiped from the boards hy the introduction of a new technology that dwarfs their respective storage capaci- ties. Factors that will go ver n the fa te of the existing storage media include pricing, availability, reliability and, most importantly, the development of a truc read write CD drive. As with ail new technologies, the cost of CD ownership will be great in the beginning, with cosis dropping as user acceptance, mass production and other market dictums corne into play.
Withoul a douht. Floppy technology will continue to exist, although the media may shrink even more in size, having already gone from 8- to 5 l l- to Tô-inch standards. Likewise, hard-disk technology will continue into the immédiate future, but it is very probable that al some not-far-off date, hard-disk and CD technologies will cross paths with only one cincrging as the long- term victor.
The Immédiate Future
Early on, Write Once Read Only (WORO) CD ROMs will have appeal to a broad spectrum of mainly archi- val-type users to whom erasing written data will not be as important as having a treinendous ainount of storage. It is to he expected that most users will not he content to inerely he able to purchase CD ROM data- bases or other information for read-only purposes; after a certain point, demand for Write Read Erase technology, generated by the largest computer use sectors (including business and personal users) will explodc.
By most prédictions, desktop micro and super-micro users will benefit the most. Most CI) ROM industry leaders already admit that this segment will be first to expérience the benefits of this new technology. Indeed, Amiga users, among others, may have their first taste of CD ROM perhaps as early as the first quarter of 1986. When it contes to CD ROM technology, the old axiom "The Sky is the Limit,” may not really be such an exaggcration.H
Address ail author correspondence to Joseph Rotello, 4734 Fast 26th St., Tucson, AZ 85711.
Amiga Music Studio
By Peggy Herrington
Mimetics Inc. is introducing a sériés of modular music products thatform a multilayered Amiga music system.
H's a well-known laci that the Amiga is musically supeiior to ali personal computers on the rnarket today, Ils four-channel stereo sound system makes il a
viable musical instrument in itself, but since it is, aller ail. A computer at heart, the Amiga is also quite tal- ented at controlling eleclronic musical instruments with MIDI, the Musical Instrument Digital Interface standard. MIDI a fiords compatibility between différent brands of eleclronic music-makers ihrough the auspices ol a personal computer. (For an in-depth look at MIDI, see A niiga World. Nov. Dec, '85, p.52.)
I he pcrfect music system for the Amiga would natu- rally take advantage of both ils internai sound circuitry and its MIDI management capabililies and offer instruction and applications for the aspiring as well as the accomplished musician (and evcrybody in-between).
1 lus kincl of ilexibiliiy and power is promised by a sériés of modular Amiga music products built around a hu m of opérâting system ealled SoundScape, which is integrated into the Amiga’s own operating system. Several of the individual modules lo this multilayered System are available jiow while otliers are still iindcr development by its designers, Mimetics Inc., of Palo Allô, (latildinia. Although the company is young, ils menibcrs’ expertise is hased upon a solid foundation in the compulei' music industry.
Mimetics was lounded last year by the lormer senior software engineering and hardware development stalfs of the Syniauri Corporation, the pcople who engi- tieered and marketed the very successful alphaSyntauri MusicSystem for the Apple II sériés of computers, Mimetics’ Dircctor of Product Development, a surpris- ingly unprepossessing fellow named Bob Ifoover, is intimately familiar with the Amiga: Bob assisted Sam Dickcr of the Amiga Corporation in the development of the internai sound kernal for the Amiga. (An upcotn- ing issue of Amiga World will feature an interview with these men on that subject.)
Photograph hy Ed [udice
SoundScape, désignée! By Bob Iloovcr and Todor Fay, retails for $ 89 and is the controlling program for the entire Mimetics system. As such, it is the only module that you mus! Have. Il intégrâtes and coordinates the system modules that comc with il as well as those that are available separately. As an invisible real-lime back- ground process, SoundScape résides simultaneously with AmigaDOS and Workbench, and allows music performance or stuclv ulilizing cither the Amiga’s sound generators and or sounds produced by eleclronic syn- thesi ers under MIDI control. The Amiga’s multitasking environment allows concurrent use of SoundScape and its modules with other programs, cither music or non- music in nature. That adcls up to utiparalleled flexibil- ity. The Amiga can be set up as a frecly operating record- ing studio or as a personalized music instructor, while at the same time allowiug (lie musician to perforai other tasks, such as making notes on a word processor.
SoundScape is much more than a transparent operat- iii5_r system, however. It Controls basic recording and performance tunctions for ail modules wtthin the System and houses a multitrack music sequcncer with a potentiallv unlimitcd mnnber of MIDI-compatiblc tracks (available memory being the only limitation), Each irack has features similar to those lbund ou a standard tape recorder, such as play, record, mute, thru (a f11>I technique) and Match mode (explained below). Some of the advantages of storing music this wav are thaï the individual notes that constitute a sequence can be altered with the résident SoundScape music editor, and the instrument Sound, which is a ltxed part of the music on tape, is digitized separately and can also be altered. In addition, digitized recording tracks, like those on a multitrack tape recorder, can be played against each other until die satisfactory combination is achicved.
Sampling and aitering sounds requires only imagination and a good ear.
SoundScapc's irack dîsplay screen works in conjunc- ticut with other control screens to edit music and select the instrument that is to be played or recorded. Each irack t an receive or transmit 16 polyphonie channels of music information to or from any music periphcral supported by die svstein a MIDI kevboard synthesizety for example, or a drtim machine. A simple time-ori- ented editing system in SoundScape allows eut and* paste with the Amiga mouse, and any event recorded bv the svstem can be examined and altered from this screen. Advanced features sut h as spécial offerts pro- cessing are also available here.
Unique display screens are used in SoundScape to iIlus* traie music and performance parameters that are important to varions applications. Tvpiral screens include a graphie piano kcvboartl that displays multiple tracks inde- pentlently and siinullaneously, and simplilled nuisit: notation screens that show the music as it [days.
Inctn ptnaied into appropriate SoundScape modules, for examplc, are lesson screens that give hints and fin* gerings for a varietx of instruments (guitar, flûte, etc.), and screens that show chord naines and other nomenclature. Note files with scale progressions and spécial* i ed musie exercises ldi many instruments are included. Manv displays are bidirectional in thaï notes may lie selected with the mouse and transmîited to other devices and or recorded by the sequcncer. Abstract graphie displays that varv with the music will provide élégant "light shows" that can be tuncd to the particu- lar music being played at the lime.
Match mode in SoundScape is designed sperilically te> assist an aspiring musiciau in dcvcloping performance technique without the aitl of a human instructor. A musical irack is recorded, perhaps by a more skilled performer, or if ibat’s not possible, by the suident hîm- self at a slow tempo with the aitl of SoutulScape’s huili- in métronome.
This is possible because, unlike records and tape record- ings. Musical pitch is not aifectcd when the tempo of svnthcsi .ed music is adjusted. I he stutlent selccts the tempo, enables Match mode and plavs along live with the recording as il sounds. When perfonned on any of the input devices exactly as previously recorded. The music continues lo play back, but should the student fai ter. The svstem will wait until the music is played cor- rectlv before continuing, I lie varions instrument screen notation displays hclp the student correct any chois. This process may be repeated at varying tempos (usu- ally beginning slowly and speeding up as progress is made) until the pièce can be perfonned at its intended tempo. Since spécifie tracks jf music eau be played back or silenced iu Match mode, ail parts of a nuilti- instrument piece eau be stuclied îndividuallv, or the student can perf'orm one part live with pre-iecordccl accompaniment.
SoundScape’s Match mode is opérable with MIDI syn- thesizers, anv kevboard that activâtes the Amiga sound
system (as well as the computer kevboard itself) and screen displays that accept mouse input. In addition, it will work with an inexpensive note-following periphcral unit now in development that will accept input front a microphone Iront voice, wind or anv other monophonie sources.
Synthesi .cis and other electronic sound-producing devices equipped with MIDI are not the onlv peripli- eral devices that are supported hv SoundScape. I he Amiga*s internai sound-generating systetu may he accessed through the computer kevboard itself, and a piano-type kevboard that plugs into the second game port and activâtes the internai circuitry will he avail- alile, as will the lowcost pitch fotlower tnenlioned [ne- viouslv. A modulât' system such as SoundScape is easily upgraded and programs and peripherals will be integrated as they become available.
One of the most appealing SoundScape modules is Mimetics’ sound-sampling device, which will retail for under S100. [his hardware solIwarc combination mi-
li rs tlie* Amiga's internai sampling cupubilities lo ligi- ti .e sound, making il easy io alter. Sampling is most uminionlv used tc> produce unusual or unique timbres tliat can be nianipulateci tonalh froni an input device sue h as a kevboard ifs simple inventitig vour own iiistrumeni timbre. The pntential sources arc infinité Ijccausc auvibing audible can bc sanipled (reeurded), ail die wav boni a barking dog lo a cocktail partv i > water dripping iti a sink. Aller being sampled, soumis may be aïlered easilv in ail respects (pilcb. Aiiatk, release. Etc:.). Your car is the sole judge of qualily. Vvilb a sampling device. For instance, vou can save babv's llrst babblings
for posteritv or record vour own polyphonie musical perlbrinance to critique later as die Amiga plays it back. Sampling vocal paris requires excessive memory, but a digitized worcl or two could be added to instrumental tracks.
Sampling and aliering sounds requires no urider- standing of the desired resuit ail thaï is necessarv is sonie imagination and a good ear. L’nder development at Mimetics is digital sampling software diat will allow the “mixing” of sounds to produce thosc thaï could not be producetl by any insirurnent and programs diat display and allow nuire sophisticated soinid analysis and synthesis.
Several music theory. Ear traiiiing and musiciansbip courses are being imegrated into the SouudScape System to allow individualized or sell-paced instruction in ibese necessarv music aienas. A sprciali .ed tool and environment development System will be made avail- able lo music eclucaiors wbo wish to retain a particular approacb to teacliing ibese subjecis. Personalized learn- iiiiî svstems diat allow instruclors to laüor courseware lo suit spécifie goals and meibods are easilv incorpora led into die SouudScape pseudo uperaiing systetn. Ltili .ing the screen and lools présentée! Witb varions music éducation modules, il will be possible as well as pradical to use SouudScape as an educalional support sysiem lo normal classroom instruction, or as a free- forin personal learniug guide.
Music To Campute By
Whcther vou long to become a MIDI-maestro or vou si il 1 pl y enjov lisiening lo goocl music, thanks to tbc sophistication and lidelily of die Amiga, SouudScape will iransldrm your computer into a fabulou.sly versatile music sysiem as il plays file aller file in sierco wbile vou manage your business ventures witb coiicurrendy rinining software. Imagine how your producliviiy curve will elimb wben you jazz up your sprcadshcet or rock ’n roll vour clatabase. And. Il vou really want resulls, use
SomulScape lo add a little beavy métal to your aceounis receivable.
For further information, contact vour Amiga dealer or Mimelics, Inc., PO Box 60238 Station A. Palo Alto, CA 91306. 408 7*11 -01 I7.B
Address ail correspondent e lo Teggy llerrington, 1032 Forrester St. ATI; Albuquerque,, A A 87012.
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Using Your Intuition
By John Bfisher
Controlling the Amiga is a simple matter of select ing on-screen images to activatefunctions, or in other words, using your intuition.
One of the hest features of the Amiga is that the user t an inieract with it, with littie or no documentation. It is the Amiga Intuition software, of which the Work- hench is an intégral part, that makes this interaction possible. The Amiga is not the first to take advantage of this approach; howcver. It provides the best user interface prescmly available, both for users and software developcrs.
It is necessary to first “open" the Workbcnch disk. This is doue by pointing to the icon of the disk (by moving the mouse mu il the pointer is over the icon). And thcn quickly depressing and releasing the sélection builon (loft mouse butlon) once to indic ate that you want to work with that icon.
To open the icon. Two methods are available. The first is to use the menus that appear at the top of the Workbcnch screen. To initiale tins, hold clown the menu builon (right mouse builon); thcn. While keeping the butlon depressed, move the pointer to the worcl Workbcnch at the left-hand side of the Menu Bar.
When you point to a menu liante on the title bar, the relaied menu will automaiically drop clown on the screen helow the pointer.
1 lie first option on the Workbcnch menu is callcd Open. I bis can be sclected hv keeping the menu butlon depressed and moving the pointer clown to that option. Once there. Intuition highlighis that option for cas récognition. Rclcasing the menu butlon will select that item. Il iiiight sound complicated, luit with a littie praciice, the process héroïnes, well. Intuitive.
An casier approach is to move the pointer to an icon. Thcn cîick the sélection buttem twice in rapid succession. I bis is callcd "double clicking," and it allows you to select and open an icon in one easy opération. Allhough this is mm h simplc*r. Other opérations req titre the use of the menu system al the top of the screen. So il is important to know both modes of open* ing icons.
Once the disk icon is opened. The Workhench win- clow will appear in the upper left-hand corner oi the screen. A window is a rcctangular area ol the screen.
Which allows communication with and control of the opened icon. As with most other inicrocompulers, there is a combination of programs, files and clirec tories on eaclt disk. (A directory is a simple meihod of grouping together programs and files. The full lisi oi files and programs will not appear nntil the individual directo-
ries are listed. Unlike Systems such as the Commodore
64. Which keep ail cntrics in one single directory.) I lie Amiga provides soine imeresting. And logicak names for these items. Programs are called tonls directories are called drawers. Files that can be nianipulated by tools, and stored in drawers or disks, are called projerts.
Gadgets and Windows
Around the etlge of the window are the gadgets that allow you tu control the window. Thèse inelude (Mai ling tiockwise from the upper left):
? Drag Bar
? Back and Front
? Top to Boiiom Scroll Bar
? Left to Right Scroll Bar
? Disk Gange
The Glose Gadget allows you to close au open window. To do this, move the pointer to the center of the box and press the sélection billion. Intuition does not actuallv close the window. But informs the program controlling it that it should be elosed. 1 bis tlien allows you to save any changes that might have heen macle, or olherwise perform an orderly cleanup. Otherwise, lire Intuition software can autoniatically respond to the sélection and use of a gadget. 1 he advantages arc sev- eral. The first is that the interface is consistent, regard less ol the tool, clrawer or projeta being used. Second, the program that is controlling the display ol the window cloes not have to be aware of changes to the appearanec of the window or screen. By cenlralizing this into the Intuition software, the Amiga developcrs have removed a portion of the work from development of software that nuis on a windowing and niullilasking
systein. Thercforc. Il should bc easier to develop and iranspon software to the Amiga than il lias been for other windowing svstems.
Between the Close and the Drag Bar gadgets is the
o o o
titie of the winclow. This helps you to identify and relate the winclow to iis fonctions. The titie and the Drag Bar gadgets tan alternait' in appearance between “ghosted” and “available” forms. Thev becomc available any lime that the sélection bution is clicked when the pointer is witliin the window. This is an automatic side- efïect of sclecting an icon in the window, or using one of the gadgets along the edge of the winclow. Il the window is not currcndy selecied, then tlie titie and Drag Bar gadget will be drawn with a séries of uncoimected dois, instead of solicl lines. This is the ghost State.
Fhe Drag Bar gadget allows you to move tlie window around on the scrccn. To niove the winclow, move the pointer onto the Drag Bar. Depress the sélection hullon, and while keeping il depressed, move the pointer to the desired location on the screen. An outline of tlie window will follow the pointer, until you release the sélection Inition. When released. The Amiga will update the screen and place the winclow in the new location. 11 manv Windows and tasks are active at one tiinc. This eau
take a couple of seconds, but the lime required is usu- ail y minimal.
Another fascinating set of gadgets are tlie Si .ing and Scroll Bar gadgets. To resi e the window, depress the sélection hutton and keep it depressed, while poiming
*i ihc Si .ing Gadget ai the louer i ight-hand corner of lire window; then. Move the pointer to anotlier location on the screen. An ondine ol ihe new window will be drawn while the sélection billion is de presser!. Once il is relcased. The Amiga will retlraw the window on the screen in the new si e. If the Sizing Gadget is moved towarcl the upper lelt corner ol the window, making the window smaller, a portion of the window will not be visible. To sue ail of the window, Intuition provides the top-to-bottom and left-to-right Scrolling Bar gadgets. By pointing to either of ihese and pressing the sélection billion, these bars can be nioved along tlie edge of the window. Once the sélection billion is released, the Intuition software détermines the distance moved with the Scrolling Bat, and then tuoves the contents ol the window the corresponding distance.
With a Utile practice, using the Amiga, its Intuition softivare and Workbench environment will become second
nature to you.
I he Disk Gange gadget ts not something thaï can be inanipulaied with the inousc, but is used by the Work- bencli software to infonn ihe user ol t lier amount of disk space used and remaining on the opened disk, or “volume" as it is someiimes called. The objective with tliis gauge is to maintain enough disk space for anv new projet ts tu lools that need to be siorcd 011 the volume.
I be Bac k and Front gadgets at the upper righi-hand corner c>f the window allow the user to bring a window to the front or bac k of a stack of’ Windows. This is si ni i - lar to shilling a single piece in a stack of papers from the front to the bac k, or the back to the Iront.
Kinally, eac h open window can have a menu assignée! To il. While the menu button is depressed, window-spe- c i lie menus will appear ai the top of the screen. H 110 menu is available, then a blank line will appear at the top ol the screen,
lu ihe Workbench window, ihe lollowing icons will appear:
? L l il it ies
? I rashean
I hese icons can be grouper! Into diree spécial catégories; lools, Drawcrs and T rashean. Both ihe Préfet- ences and the (dock icons are tools. I lie drawcrs, as expiained earlier, are visual représentations of directo- t ies on the disk. In ihe Workbench window, the Demos. I tililies, System and Kmpty icons are drawcrs that appear in this window. Although noue are in the delault Workbench window, projects may also appear.
Lo détermine it an icon represents a disk, tool, drawer. Trashean or project, you can use the Info option on the Workbench menu, although it’s usuailv not difflcull to guess. A new window will appelai, prn- viding général information about the icon. Ibis inlor- mation utiiitv is well documented in the Introduction to Amiga 111 ai mal.
When you select icons that appear on the Workbenc h window, additional Windows will be opened for each icon selecled, Withiit eac h window. Other icons ma appear to represem new tools, drawcrs and projec ts.
I h lis, to access some lunctions, il is nec*essarv to open the appropriate drawer.
I he l rashean icon is a spécial type ol drawer. Although it is a standard dircctory 011 the disk, the Workbench software allows you lo easilv loss other items on ihe disk into the trashean: Simplv drag the icon of a program you want to toss oui over the trashean icon and relcase. If you latcr discover that you are running short of free space on the disk, you have die opiion ol emptying ihe irashean. Iliis two-step process is an important feature, since the adual deletton ol data is deferred ci util a latcr time. This means that any- ihing tossed into ihe trashean can he retrieved. On most other computers, il would be lar too late ai this point lo stop ihe cleleiion process.
As the last paragraph implied, il is possible to move, or "drag." Icons from one point on the Amiga Workbench to another. I lie movement can be from one point 011 a window lo another point in the same window; or the destination ccmlct be another window associatif! With ihe same disk, or even a window associaied with another disk. To move an icon on the Workbench surface, seled and drag the icon to the new location while keeping the sélec tion bultcm depressed. If tlie icons are associated with the saine disk, the data will be moved lo the destination and removed from the somcc* location. However, if ihe movement was to a location associaied with a différent opened disk icon, the data will onlv he copiée! To the new position, leaving the original alone. I11 lac l. with two disk drives, it is possible- to instrnet tlie Workbench software* to copv ail tlie data Iront one disk drive to another, by diagging the source disk icon over the destination disk icon. Warn- ing: I bis process desirovs anv data thaï might have hccn 111 the destination disk.
One other nice leature of diagging icons is the abil- ii lo tailor tlie appearance of the window to vour own préférence. To do iliis, first resize die window so that you liave enough 100111 to shuffle icons around, then arrange the icons vvliere you want them. You can then record a “snapshoi" of the icon loc ations, as well as tlie window si e and location, by diagging them where vou waiii them placed. Select ail of the icons in the window
using a feature of the Yvorkbench called “extended sélectionThis is dotte by keeping the shift kev depressed while selecting irons in the window. Once ail of the icons are selected. Drop down the Yvorkbench Spécial menu. By selecting the last option on this menu, the Yvorkbench software will take a Snapshot of each selected icon, with the window placement and siz- ing. Once this is done, dose the window and reopen it to test the new delault arrangement uf tlte window and the icons in it.
Vou might also want to try the Clean L'p option on the Spécial Yvorkbench menu. When you select this entrv. The Yvorkbench software will automatically rearrange the irons in the currentlv-selected window. The
new placement dépends upon the window si e and dimensions. This is a quick method of cleaning up the window.
Finallv, with the Yvorkbench menu, it is possible lo rename, duplicate or discurd anv of the icons on the Yvorkbench. One word of warning about the Discard option on the Yvorkbench menu: The Amiga will givc vou one last chance by displaving a requestor that vvarns vou of the clrawbacks to discard. 1 here is 110 way tc> retrieve the data once il is discarded. As a resuit, it might be saler to toss icons into the trashean instead ol using the Discard option.
Vou will soon realize that sonie programs. When run, operaie not withiu Windows, but corrirol the entirc sc reen. One good example is the Preferences program. With Preferences open, vou will notice that there are 110 Resi .e or Close gadgets, in orcler to exit lhe program vou must, in this case, click the niouse on the box containing the word "Cancel.” If you want to see the Work be ne h, or some other window, simultaiieously with Preferences, vou do have the use of the Bac k and Front gadgets, tlms you can put Preferences behind one or more windows. Allowing yourself access to the program icons in anv window. As well as the Préférence screen. The Change Primer and Fclit Pointer programs available through Preferences are also full screens; thev ton-
tain no gadgets and must be closed with the "CanccT boxes if you want to exit tliem.
Yvorkbench itself Controls an entire screen, becoming the backdrop for whatevei windows vou open from il. Workbench. As with other sc reens (though not ail. Préférences being a notable exception), can he “pulled down." Like you would a window shade, to reveal what- ever îs behind it. This is done bv elicking the mouse select huiton on the menu bar and while holding the billion down. Pulling i lie entire screen down. This can look pretty impressive it vou have more than one screen running at once, and easily corners the power ol multitasking.
Il is necessary lor a tool to communicate with you.
I he Intuition software prov ides requestors loi this.
I hese can be tailored to the needs ol the tool. Or the tool can take advantage of a iairly simple yes no type of requestor. As an example, when the alarm on the clock is set. The tool will display a tailored requestor. Which asks you to set the time for the alarm. The simpler yes no requestor is used by the tool, which handles the duplication of disks. When it is time to inseri a new disk, the requestor appears at the upper lefthand corner of the screen, requesting you to inseri the source, or destination, disk. At the bottom of each requestor is a yes no type of response.
Although developers trv to make software “bullet proof," there are limes when soniething will happen that no one ever anticipated. When that happens, it is eut i tel v possible that the Amiga system could crash. When îlie Amiga detects that soniething is not quite riglit. It issues a system alert', this is a flashing warning issued at the top of the screen. There is a chance that it will he able to recuver, as in ihe case of low memory. But not always. If the error is severe enough. The system will reset itself. When the Amiga resets itself after a System alcrt, anv unsaved work will be lost. The Amiga asks you t > wait mit il ail disk ac tivity is complétée! Belote responding to the system alert. I his is v ital, situe fai!lire to lieed the warning can cause loss oi data ou the disk.
One of the most comtuon causes of a system alert is lack of memorv. No other perso nal computer in the Amigaks price range, or even quiie a 11 i t beyond it, of Iers the capahility of truc* multitasking. Most allow only one or two tasks to be active at a time, with a master in total control at ail limes. ïlowever, the Amiga allows many tasks to be active at once, with the user as the controlling élément. As the number of tasks increases, the amount of available memory usually decreases. This drain on memory can rcach a crilical stage. As a resuit, you must keep trac k of the memory meier at the top of the Workbench screen. If the amount ol memory appears to lie getting low, then ît is wise t > close down inactive and unesseiitial windows. This often will provicie the necessary relief from memorv constraint. In addition, it helps to remove some of the demand on the processor.
With a lit lie praciice and a hit of work, using the Amiga, ils Intuition software and Yvorkbench environment will bec'ome second nature to vou. Il provides the ease of use that only cornes with a clearlv and carefullv deflned sel of software.¦
Address ail author corrrsjmndntrr to joint Ii. L'ishn, 117 Crin- kir Ave. A :, Roauokr, VA 24012.
Reviewed by Abigail Reifsnyder
Electronic Arts' graphies program lias enough power and sophistication to please an artist.
When a program is the only one of its kind for a machine, ifs a little tricky estab- lishing whether crédit for its good features should go to the hardware or to the software design. Having seen a preliminary version of another graphies program for the Amiga, however, 1 feel confident in saying that most of the crédit for Deluxe Paint’s surprising capabilities goes to the program s creator. Deluxe Paint oflers more features, more flexibility and most important!)' more nuance than one would expect from a personal computer program. Equallv irn- pressivc is the sensitivity shown in the pro- granfs interface to we humans who will use it.
This is one of the only graphies programs I have seen that recognizes that we have two hands and can use them simultaneously to our advantage. Most of the menu bar commands are accessible from the key- board with single keystrokes so that you can, for example, switch drawing modes
while you draw without dragging down a menu option (a procédure which quicklv becomes tedious if yott’re doing a lot of in* tricate work). Similarly, the program takes advantage of the mouse’s two buttons in the icon sélection area; the left button selects the icon, the right selects options, if any ex- ist, for that lunction.
At first glance. Deluxe Paint looks like just about every graphies program these days a kind of MacPaint clone. Running down the right-hand sidc of the screen are a set of icons for brushes, drawing, shapes and so on, along with the palette of colors. The menu bar at the top of the screen, se- lectable using the mouse’s right button, of- fers additional choices that affect the overall drawing environment and allow you to save and load pictures and brushes, (One quick gripe: I believe that if you’re going to have a menu bar, you should always be able to sce it. Intuition requires that this menu bar disappear unless you press the right mouse button. Computer néophytes espe- cially fmd this awkward, and tend to avoid menu bar options cither because they for- get they’re there or because they press the wrong button ail the tirne.)
The similarities to MacPaint are only "screen deep” though, in part because of the two button approach to the icons. For example, the First icon is a set of paint- brushes: four round, four square and two groups of dots. To select one of these brushes, you press the leit button. If, however, you want a différent si e brush, you select a brush with the right button. The brush appears with the word "si .e" under it. You can then drag the mouse to enlarge or reduce the si c of the brush. And it will remain that si .e uni il you select a différent brush.
The next four icons freehand dotted drawing, freehand continuons drawing, straight lincs and curved lines behave the saine way regardless of which button is used to select them. The curved lines are pat tien- larly easy to manipulate. Rather than set t ing down the three points of a line, you stretch out a straight line, then use the mouse to drag the middle of the line out and around. T his avoids a lot of the guesswork usually involved in creating curves.
I'he square, cîrcle, oval and polvgon icons ail have a slash through them with one sidc empty and the other filled. One icon ihus serves two functions: ciick one sidc of the square icon to draw an empty square; click the other sidc for a filled square. The net ef- fect of using these double-functioning icons is that it requires less "screen real estate" (as software designers call it). That is, since less room is taken up by icons, you have more room in which to draw,
There is nothing extraordinary about the fill lunction except that it is very fast. (Crédit for this goes to the folks at Commodore* Amiga.) On the other lumd, the air- brush function opérâtes more like a spray than any other I’ve ever used, You’re not just drawing with a Ininch of dots; rather, each tinie you press the mouse button, it re- Icascs and spreads a bunch of whatever brush and color you are using. Si .e of the nozzle can be changed using the right but ton.
The sélection tool is used for both cut- and-paste (right button) and copy-and-paste (left button) functions. Any finie you select an area (with either button), you can simply stamp out a copy of what you selected, or you can use that bit of your picture as a brush and paint with it. The program te- members that brush until you create a new one, or you may save it to disk for later use. While it is fun to play around with these brushes, their real power becomes évident when you play around with the différent drawing modes (more on this in a moment).
Text can be entered using the 11 fonts se- lectable from the fonts menu. (There is no word wrap.) The grid icon activâtes an invisible grid that allows lines to be drawn onlv on the grid points. If selccted with the right button, a section of the grid becomes
visible so vou can set the si .e yourself. This
fonction is useful if you are drawing a dia- gram in which you want to he sure objects are propcrly aligned,
The svmmetrv function bas two modes:
Cvdic and Mirrors. The latter, and more fa-
miliar, mode draws ail points in mirror image. In Cyclic mode, ail points move in the same direction as the point you control.
This little twist on a well-known thème means that thincs you draw in Cvclic mode
.J é «¦
don’t always end up looking like the cul-out snowilakes we ail made as children. You can select as manv synmietry points as you want for either mode. The symmetry settings can be selected either from the menu bar or by clicking the right hutton on the symmetry icon. Il you select symmetry with the left button, it will use the defauIt settings (or the last you set yourself).
The inagnifying glass splits the screen, showing the close-up on the right sidc of the screen. By clicking on the zoom icon with the left button, you can zoom in as closely as you want. Clicking the right hutton pulls back.
As in most graphies programs, the Undo function undoes the last thing you clic!.
Clear clears the screen to the current back- ground color, which brings us to another unique feature of this program the color indicator. The dot in the middle of the indi- cator shows the current foreground color, which you select from the palette using the left button. The area around the dot is the current background color, which you select with the right button from the palette. The ability to carry two colors on your brush ap- pears at first to be simply a convenient way to avoid trips back to the palette to select new colors. In fact, it allows for some inter- esting effects since the behavior of the background color dépends on the current drawing mode.
So, what are these modes to which I keep referring? There are seven drawing modes: Mask, Color, Replace, Shade, Smear, Blend and Cycle. They are arguably the best fea- turcs of the program. The first three affect the way your created brushes paint and are best clescribed with an example. Lefs say you’ve been doodling away using green and pink as your foreground colors and blue as your background color. You now take the sélection tool to create a brush from a pièce of your drawing in which ail three colors appear. If you then draw with this brush in Mask mode, the brush will paint with ail the foreground colors (green and pink and black if this was your original background color and you haven’t corn- pletely covered up the black area), making the background color (blue) transparent (invisible). If you switch then to Replace mode, the transparent, or current background, color (blue) will become visible. This only affects the most recent background color, so if you’ve used the background color to draw, then select a new background color, only this last one will become transparent.
Color mode allows you to select a foreground color from the palette to replace ail but the transparent color of the brush.
Thus, the area of your brush that was
green, pink and black will be replaced with this new color. One use for Color mode is to create a shadow for your brush shape. If you stamp oui a copy of your brush in Color mode, then switch to Mask mode and stamp oui another copy on top of, but slightly off, the first stamp, the first stamp will appear as a shadow of the second stamp. Ail this sounds a lot more compli- cated than it really is; the best way to un- derstand it is by using it. The resuit, however, is an incredible amount of control over your drawing tools.
In Smear, Blend and Shade modes, the color your brush produces dépends on the colors over which it passes. These three modes alone are worth the purchase price of the program; they allow for the nuance I memioned earlier. Smear does precisely what its naine indicates: it smears colors to- gether as if you were drawing with pastel crayons, then rubbed them together with
your finger, Thus, if you have a green box next to a blue box, select Smear and rub
with your brush back and forth over the
edges of the two boxes; it pulls some of the blue into the green box and vice versa. If you use a very small brush to do this, you can effectively blend the two together.
Both Shade and Blend operate on a range of colors you select from the palette, so to use them you must first select the palette under control in the picture menu. You select the range by clicking SH, then the first color of the range. Then click on range and the last color of the range. Now, if you go back to your picture in Shade mode, the brush will change each color it passes over with the next highest color in the palette range you selected. (It will ignore colors not in the selccted range.) Lel’s say, for example, you want to shade around a hig blue circle. You would select a range of blues, then shade around the side of the circle.
Blend takes the colors over which it passes and puis down their average. Thus, you could use Blend to make the change between the blue and green boxes you al- ready smeared even more subtle. To do this, you would select a range of colors between the blue and green of each box, then rub your brush in the smeared area. The brush will put down shades of blue-green and green-blue in this area.
Finally, Cycle mode works with cycle colors in the picture menu to create ani- mated effects. If you selected the same range of blue to green from the palette for Cycle mode and drew with them, you could
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KNIGHT’STOUR: Talkinggraphies game.
SHOEBOX: Tamecash flow records.
LURKLEY MANOR; Big graphies adventure.
SUBTERRA: A “radio” adventure.
SARDINE: Compacts AbasiC programs.
WHEREWOLF: Meeting scheduler.
PLUS seven éducation and game programs: CARNEY, MULTUM, WITCH WAY, ANSWER, MAZE- LING, DRAGON, and MUSIC BOX.
To order or inquire: JÜMPSTART Ramella. 1493 Mt. View Ave., Chico, CA 95926
Unique applications, tips
You may be usmg your Amiga at work, at home, or in the back seat of your car, but somehow you’ll be using it in a unique way. You wili discover thmgs that will let you do somethmg faster. Easier or more elegantly
AmigaWorld would like to share îhose shortcuts, ideas, things to avoid. Thmgs to try, etc., with every- one, and we'll reward you with a colorful, aDpetiz- ing. Official AmigaWorld Tshirt, (Just remember to tell us your size )
Send it in. No matter how outrageous. Clever. Humorous or bizarre. We will read anything, but we won’t reîurn it, so keep a copy for yourselt. In cases of duplication. T-shirts are awarded on a first corne, first serve basis.
So, put on your thmking berets and rush those suggestions to
Hors d’oeuvres AmigaWorld éditorial 80 Pine St.
Peterborough, NH 03458
then cycle the col ors from the picture menu, creating the appearance of inove- ment. (The disk cornes with a picture of a waterfall for which cycling was used. Yvhile everything else in the picture remains static, it cycles through the colors used to draw the waterfall. The resuit is that the water appears to be flowing.)
You can not only select ranges of color from the palette, but also create the colors in the palette. If you select the palette from the picture menu, a box appears with six sliding Controls. The first three corurol the amount of red, green and blue in the color; the second three, the hue, saturation and value (luminance) of the color. If you click on a color in the palette, this color will ap- pear in an enlarged box above the palette so you can see how you are changing it. By sliding the Controls up and down, you can change the color by, say, adding more red while taking away some blue. If you want a completely différent color, the easiest way to change it is using the hue control. Saturation will affect the amount of white in the color, while value will affect the brightness of the color.
Thus, if you want a variety of shades of brown, you would first create a dark brown, copy it to another spot in the palette, then, say, ligthen it and add a little more red to it. You can then use the Spread feature to create a range of browns between your original dark brown and your light reddish brown.
If at any time you décidé you don’t like this palette, you h ave several options. You can “restore” the most recent palette (this is like Undo for the palette); you can use the default palette; or you can select the palette that was in use when you created your last brush.
Deluxe Paint allows you to work in two drawing areas at once; you can either draw two pictures or use the second screen to save objects you want to use later in your picture on the first screen. The Swap funotion in the picture menu lets you switch between the two. You can also merge the two screens together (back to front or front to back) with the transparent areas of one being filled with the other.
The brush menu includes a variety of func- tions to modifv your created brushes (as well as save them and load prcviously saved ones). You can stretch, halve, double, double hori- zontally and double vertically its si .e, flip it horizontallv or vertically, rotate it, bend it, sheer it and change its colors. (Most of these opérations can be performed with single key- strokes as well as from the menu.)
The preferences menu lets you remove the menu bar and the control panel from
the screen so you can look at vour picture by itself (and, 1 assume, do a screen tlump of only your picture). The brush-handle feature lets you détermine whether you hold your brush in the middle or at an edge. Co- ordinales adds x and y coordinate readings on the menu bar. The most interesting feature in this menu, though, is fast feedback. People who have used drawing programs
before know that if you are drawing a box, say, with a large brush, the program moves awkwardly as it redraws the box over and over again with the large brush. Fast feedback avoids this by letting you use a normal size cursor to place your box, then drawing it with the large brush only aller you have selected its position. This last feature is typ- ical of Deluxe Paint: though really a very simple function, it makes drawing that much easier so you spend iess time figuring ïhings ont and more time being créative.
There is so much power and flexibility built into this program that it could easily have turned oui to be difficult to use. But the thoughtful interface the use of icons, both mouse buttons and keyboard coin- mands make it really quite straightfor- ward. You’ll probably only need to read the manual to help you out with the modes, but once you understand them, you’ll fmd hundreds of uses for them. Àrtists who see this program will fmd that some of their gripes with computer graphies are no longer valid, since you aren’t Limited to sim- ply overlaying color. The ability to manipu- late background colors, blend and snicar colors, mix “paints” to create a custom palette these are the kinds of things that painters love and miss in computer programs, and they’re ail here in Deluxe Paint.
An indication of how good this program is is how difficuh it is to write a review of it. Any reviewer software, movie, book or otherwise will tell you (if he's honest) that it’s much easier to pan something than give it a good review. This review was incredibly diffîcult to write.
Developer Publisher: Electronic Arts
2755 Campus Drive San Mateo, CA 94403 415 571-7171
Video RoomMate Powered Speakers
Reviewed by Vinoy Laughner
High quality, great sound. . .high price.
The Video RoomMate powered speaker system from Bose Corp. was désignée! For use with Tvs, VCRs, monitors or compo- nents needing amplification to drive speakers from audio output (tape dccks, dise players, etc.). They are also well suited for the Amiga, since the Amiga can produce such high quality sound and stereo output, and requires amplification for external audio output.
The speaker designated as "left” in the set has an amplifier enclosed in its cabinet. The amp générales approximately 25 watts per channel. The speakers have a maximum of 30 watts. (Adapters are available so that the speakers can receive their signais from either mono or stereo headphone jacks.)
The left speaker plugs into a wall outlet for its power and to it, the "right” speaker is connected. Hooking up the speakers is simple; connection to the audio source and to the l ight speaker should be made prior to plugging in the system.
This set is not to be simply plugged into your stereo amplifier a warning on the ownefs manual states, “Never connect your Video RoomMate system to the speaker out* puis of a receiver or amplifier,.they are designed for non-amplified sources, or as mentioned above, with adapters for headphone jacks.
The speakers themselves are 9" wide X 6" high x6" deep. They are enclosed in cabinets of thick, high-impact plastic. The left speaker has a volume control; there is no tone control. (Tone can be controlled from the source of the audio signal.) As usual with Bose products, they are of very high quality. They seem to be very durable; the plastic is not cheap, but heavy and very hard. The fabric covering the speakers themselves is tough, but could be eut or punc- tured if abused. If you spend this much for bookshelf-sized speakers, chances are you won't be tossing them around; they should be securely attached and out of reach (especially il' used in collège dorm rooms).
They sound very good. Even at high volume. The sound is clear and crisp; bass is reproduced well, though at maximum volume, 1 detected some Butter when playing a tom-tom, or kettle drum, sound from an Amiga instrument program.
These speakers are quite an addition to an Amiga system, and impressively reproduce the stereo output. Since the Amiga is usable with video, these speakers would fit in well in such a set up.
The cost of this quality is no small one; $ 279 is more than many people will con- sider laying out for “bookshelf ’ speakers, although the fact that these have built-in amplification makes them much more than meets the eye. If you want to go deluxe, and can afford to, the Video RoomMate System will makc your Amiga sound great.
Also available from Bose for use with the speakers are: Wall brackets, $ 19.95; Mount- ing anus, $ 39.95 (for mounting above a desk, shelf or table); Stereo Mono RUA to
3. 5mm headphone plug adapters; and a Travel bag (for speakers and accessories), $ 39.95.
The Video RoomMate Powered Speaker System
Manufacturer: Bose Corporation
The Mountain Eraniingham, MA 91701
MetaScope gives you everythlng you've always wanted in a debugger:
e Multiple Windows
Open and close, move through memory, display data or disasaembled code.
• Full Symbolic Capability
Read symbole from files, define new ones, use anywhere.
• Powerful Expression Evaluation Use any standard assembler operators or number formats.
• Direct to Memory Assembler Enter instruction statements for direct conversion to code in memory.
• and Morel
Log file for opérations and displays. Breakpolnt and trace exécution, modify search fill memory, etc.
MetaScribe has the features you need in a program editor:
e Full Mouse Support
Use for text sélection, command menus, scrolling or use key équivalents when more convenient.
E Multiple Cjndo
Undo ail commandt. One at a time, to level limited only by available memory.
• Sophisticated Search Replace Regular expressions, forward backward, full Üle or marked block.
• Multiple Windows
Work with différent files or différent portions of the same file at one time.
• Keystroke Macros
Record keystroke sequences or predefine. Assign to keys you choose.
E and Morel
Copy between files, block copy move delete. Set tabs and margins, etc.
A comprehensive set of tools to aid your programming (full source included):
MetaMake Program maintenance utility. Grep Sophisticated pattem matching
Diff Source file compare.
Filter Text üle filter.
Comp Simple file compare.
Dump File dump utility.
MetaSend Amiga to PC file transfer. MetaRecv PC to Amiga file transfert
Metadigm products are designed to fully utilise the capabilities of the Amiga™ in helping you develop your programs. If you're programming the Amiga, you can't afford to be without them.
MetaScope $ 95.00 MetaScribe $ 85.00 MetaTools $ 69.95
(California residents +6%). Visa MasterCharge accepted.
Amiga ta a tradamark of Coxnmodors-Amiga Inc.
Metadi rp, Ipc.
19762 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 300 Irvine, CA 92715
My pur chose of RUN is a better investment than my computer Iget a much higher retum on a much
D. S., Tallahassee, FLA.
Join the thousands ofC-64, Plus 4, and VIC-20 users around the world who enjoy subscribing to RUN every month. They’ve found RUN to be an unrivaled Commodore resource. And they’re right RUN is one of the fastest-growing Commodore magazines on earth!
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“In a remarkably short time, RUN has become the best journal for Commodore computer users...I appreciate the coverage you devote to reader comments and questions (Magic, Mail RUN, and Commodore Clinic), as there is nearly always an interesting hint or tip in one of these columns!” J. O’Hare, Victoria, B.C. Canada. Throughout the year, you II find:
• Exciting tips, Commodore tricks, and programming ideas in RUN’s most popular column, “Magic”.
* Challenging, fun, and educational software.
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The benefits roll on... time-saving programming ideas, no-punches-pulled product reviews, applications to broaden your computing horizon, tutoriais and assistance from reknowned authors in the Commodore field, and of course, great ideas and tricks that have worked for fellow Commodore users.
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Terminal program with Xmodem file transfer
Review by Bob Ryan
Télécommunications allows you to access the rnountains ol information available on bulletin-board Systems and information utilities. Ail you need to gct on line is your Amiga computer, a modem and a software package that Controls the modem computer connection. MaxiComm is a just such a package. Although it doesn’t have inany of the features of higher-priced télécommunications software, it handles the basic tasks of connecting to another computer and downloading or uploading information with ease.
To mu the program, you simply insert the MaxiComm disk when your Amiga prompts you for a Workbench disk. Maxi- Cotmn contains a copy of AmigaDOS. You then select the MaxiComm icon and, after a few moments, you are in the program.
Pressing the right mouse button lots you see the MaxiComm menus. There are five of them: Project, Phone, Serial. Terminal and Transfer. To get on line for the first time, ail you have to do is select Dial from the Phone menu. MaxiComm cornes preset with the phone number of the Amiga Devclopers Exchange, so ail you have to do is click loue or Puise dial from the Dial Requcster. MaxiComm then lias your modem dial the number. If the line isn’t busy, you will conncct with the Amiga Developers Exchange BBS.
If you want to dial a number other than the Amiga Developers Exchange, just click on the string gadget containîng the number and enter the number you want to call. Then, when you click Tonc or Puise, Maxi Connu will have your modem (liai that number.
MaxiComm supports Hayes and Hayes- compatible modems. If your modem docsn't understand the Hayes-AT commatul codes, you will have to indicate this by selecting Modem from the Phone menu. You’ll then have to enter the codes for your modem manually. This can be a chore, so l don’t recommend MaxiComm to anyonc who doesn’t have a Hayes-compalible modem,
MaxiComm doesn’t support auto-redial, nor does it allow you to store more than one phone number at a time. Créât ing log- on macros (activated with the fonction keys) is possible though difflcult in Maxi Connu. If you need these convenience feat ures, you will need a more sophisticated télécommunications package.
Under the Serial menu, you indicate whether you are connected to another Amiga or sonie other computer. You also use the Serial menu to set your communications parameters. MaxiComm supports baud rates from 300 to 9000, and varions combinations of data bits, stop hits and par- itv. You can also choose XON XOFF
The Terminal menu allows you to indicate whether you want full- or half-duplex communications, sirip or add line feeds and carriage rcturns, or ccho files as you send them. The Terminal menu allows you to tailor your computer to communicate properly with many différent types of computers.
The Transfer menu gives you access to MaxiComm’s powcrful file-transfer utilities. MaxiComm supports the transfer of simple text files and of text and binary files using the popular Xmodem error-checking protocol. MaxiComm makes il easy to receive information and store il ou disk or to send one of your disk files to a remotc computer. Using MaxiComm. I had no difficulty downloading public domain software from the Amiga Developers Exchange and Delphi. I didn't even have to read the ducs in order to use Xmodem.
To initiale a file transfer, you use tlie Transfer menu to indicate whether you arc sending or recciving the file, whether the file is text or binary, and if you want to use the Xmodem protocol. If you are connected to another Amiga, you can choose an Extended Xmodem protocol that automati- callv transfers anv .info file associated with
the File you are transferring, MaxiComm makes file transfer casv.
Although MaxiComm acts as an ANSI terminal, it doesn’t emulate spécifie terminais like the DEC VT-200 sériés. MaxiComm also lacks direct support for autoanswer opération. Presemly, MaxiComm supports a siz- able wîndow up to 78 columns wide or a non-sizable, 80-column displav.
Given these limitations, MaxiComm is not the idéal package to use in a business or professional setting. Most people, how- ever, have no need for a télécommunications package more powcrful than MaxiComm. 1 recommend this package to anyone who wants to access bulletin boards and information utilities.
MaxiSoft 2817 Sloal Road
Pebble Beach, CA 93953
Drawing Programs Available NOW from
Tychon Technologies, Inc.
TYCHON UTILITIES: Ready for im- médiate use on your Amiga.
• Print Spooler automatic pagination,
: page headers, user-set top bottom
margins, lines per page.
• Terminal Emulator “Dial-out", plus ASCII file transfer capability.
• HELP Function 20-plus files, user expandabfe.
• Talking Keyboard Educational & Fun.
TAP THE GRAPHICS POWER OF YOUR AMIGA.
• Create, Load & Save drawings, palettes
• Dynamic Palettes with digital read- outs.
• Variable pattern mode.
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EXCLUSIVELY AT YOUR AUTHORIZED AMIGA DEALER
From Tychon Technologies, Inc.,
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Software for the AMIGA computer, TODAY
(AMIGA is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga. Inc.}
Unique applications, tips and stuff
You may be using your Amiga at work. At home, or tn the back seai ot your car, but somehow you'll be using it in a unique way. You will discover things that will let you do something faster, easrer or more elegantly
AmigaWorld would like to share those shortcuts, ideas, things to avoid, things to try, etc,, with every- one, and well reward you with a colorful, appetiz- ing. Official AmigaWorld T-shirt (Just remember to tell us your size.)
Send it m, no matter how outrageous, clever, humorous or bizarre. We will read anythmg, but we won't return rt. so keep a copy t:or yourself. In cases ot duplication. T-shirts are awarded on a first corne, frst serve basis
So. Put on your thinking berets and rush those suggestions to:
Hors d’oeuvres AmigaWorld éditorial 80 Pine St.
Peterborough, NH 03458
Best of PublicDomain
Peuple like bnrgains, lo tlu* extent that they ni ton will spericl more lime and effort looking for a good deal 11 mn iliey save iu cash. I he Amiga is ont* such gond deal. And ifs a good deal oi machine for the monev.
Publie domain software is another good deal. For the price of a long distance call. Or the postage to mail a llopp , some prograins eau be had that rival commercial software in powerand performance. P.D. software is available because programmées enjoy their work. Turning oui odd hits of code for personal use, some of which tliev décidé to gîve awav. In the past. These odd bits have included sut h f ine programs as Ron Cains Small ( compile!. Columbia Cniversitv’s Kerniit file iransic-r mol and terminal emulator, and Crowther and Woods' otigmal adventure game. Also in distribution are "pav il yoiidike it" pièces (“freeware” or “shareware”). Suc h as Andrew Flnegelmaii's PCIALK III.
In diis sériés I will exploit* tlu* full range ol public domain software available for tlu* Amiga. The first lew articles will deal with software ported from other sources, (e.g.. the IBM PC, Applc's Macintosh and Unix machines). Dater, as the Amiga user community matures. I hope ihat programs written expressly for the Amiga will appear Itéré. Civcn the amount of software
Public domain software is a good deal. Whether free or pay- if-you-like, the price is hard to beat, l'his issue we jeu turc a
P. D. program cal lcd Hack; one that will either rouse the bold adventurer in you. . . Or transport you to the fantods.
By David McClellan
alreatlv available. Even being finickv I will have a loi to
tell vou about. In ail catégories. I tiédit aie this sériés to Mie programmers and hackers ont there giving us their best.
The topic of this article is not a compiler or terminal einulamr. Insiead. Fin about to descrihe a Inie-night sleep-waster known to the Unix comimmitv as Hack, It is to atlvenlure games what Pac-Man was to Pong. Warn- ing: It can be seriously addicting. L'm descrihing il in diis lirst article for several reasons: It is rclaiivclv easy to port, fin seriouslv addicted, and I am porting il to iiiy Amiga now. If yoifre not into games. Particularlv cmes thaï lake a lot oiCoffee to solvc, tome hack nexl lime when fil descrihe a différent pièce of software from another genre.
I lack is a screen-oriented adventure game. This means it draws a inap of your surroundings cm the sc reen as vou explore, and you and the other actors in the draina move about on dial map each turn. As the adveniurer, your goal is to retrieve the Aniulet of Yendor front the depihs ofa 39-levcl labvrinth. The labyrinth is full of munsters who are dedicted to stopping you, and coniains the tools to deleal those monstres. (I know, so far il soumis like your standard adventure game.)
Ilack's particular charm lies in the riclmess ol ils simulation. And in the sheer varictv ol tliings that vou can
; r> *
do (and eau have doue to vou). You have weapons, atmnr, magic wands. Scrolls. Rings, potions and other mois to work with. You su fier htmger. Woutuls. Effects from certain potions and scrolls and lbods. And in général have to juggle a fait* number of “rcal fantasvworld" variables to win.
Hack, now al version 1.03, was created hv J a % Finla- son, aided by Kcnnv Wood, Mike Phonie and lion Payne. They stvled Hack aller iogue. Another Unix- hased, screen-oriented adventure game*. Andries Brou- wer. Of the Stitching Mathemaiisch Cenirum in Amster- dam, cleaned il up. Added a lot of new Tentures and bas issuecl several rclcascs of it over USENET, die uscr- driven Unix communitv network. I'm rcvicwiiig a version of bis Unix 1.03, ported m tlu- IBM PC and huilier improved hv Don Kneller of Berkeley. CA.
Joining the Fray
llac k was originallv written for CR I terminais attachée! M Unix hosts. H draws level inaps and repte* sents objects with ASCII characiers, and alinosi ail corn-
mands are .single kevstrokes. Each class of object food, weapon. Tool. C réature) îs representcd by a somewhat înuemonie eharacter. A sample map of a partially explored level is shown in Figure 1, willi a symbol key. (Haek itsclf can identify any symbol for you in plain English.)
Movenreni is always important, in gaines from ehess to Donkey Kong. In Haek. You move for several pur- poses: to go places, to add objects to your pack and to atiaek monsters. You can move one square at a time in anv direction, as well as up or clown on staircases. You usuallv move one space per keystroke, but you can tell Haek to keep moving you in a given direction until you nui inio something iuteresting. This should be used with caution, as each move of one space counts as a tiirn and something can sneak up behind you while vou're involvcd. Another hazarcl is randomly scattered sleeping gas and other traps, so you have to move care- fullv al limes. Téléportation is a quicker way to get around, but you have to gain the abilitv first, and it uses up energy (food) f aster. (Not h ing in Haek is free except a speedy deniise.)
You acquire objects by moving onlo them. When you do so, Haek will attempt to add the item, or rnonster’s corpse, to your pack (if ifs too heavy, it will stay put). Automatic pickup can he dangerous; for example, pick* ing up a cockatrice corpse will promptly couvert you to a low grade of concrète, abruptly ending the game with Hack’s tomhstone. Even il a corpse is too heavy to pick up, you can move onlo something to eat it. (fil get to thaï later.)
G )~oss Encounters
You do a lot of fighting in Haek, along with a lot of running away. The deeper you explore, the nastier the créatures are against whom you must défend yoursclf.
In order to fight a monster, you should be wielding a weapon; you atiaek the beast by atlempting to move onlo its space. You can also throw a weapon or vial of poison at it. If you're into hit-and-run tactics. Often the brute will do you the lavor of altacking first, saving you the trouble ol moving. You theti continue to abuse it until either one of you dies or rutis away. If you run away, the monster will corne after you in hot pursuit,
but running gives you time to heal restoring your hit points to your current maximum, (Hit points measure how much damage you can take; your maximum increases with expérience.) After you’re back up to snuff, you can turn and whack the beastie soine more.
in the hope of doing it in.
Another trick is to get a dog to help you fight. You start every new game with a tante dog. Which will lollow you around and drool faithfully al your feet. My dog bas saved my life more dînes than 1 can count il will attack most ininor monsters (and will happily hring you any parts it dosen't eat). If monsters are scarce, you have to make sure the dog is fed regularly, however, and a dog is no help with Ing monsters (mine hides behind me when he sees a xorn or a dragon).
The monsters in Haek range from the fairytale fare of trolls, hobgoblins, dragons and unicorns, to odder sorts such as armorcating rust monsters and worms straight oui of Dune. Most of them will be familial' to anyone who bas played fantasy role-playing games such as TSR Cames’ Dungeons and Dragons. One of the more whimsical monsters in Haek, and also one of the meanest and harclest to kill, is the nurse. (1 think one ol the game’s authors once dated a particularly Fierce nurse.) Nurses will usually beat you to a pulp, but para- doxically can be helplul if you encounter them in the condition you normally do in the real world (yes, l ani being deliberately vague).
You restore your energy for fighting and running hy eatitig; either by selccting an edible from your pack or by moving onto a monster corpse and digging in. (As in real life, fresh monsters are much tasticr.) The longer an animal lias been dead, the more likely it is to be rotten and make you siek. (As if sieppitig un something before you eat it wouldn’t cosi you your appelite anyway.) One other hint: différent heasts often have spécial qualities or résistances, and eating them can give you those abilities. ?
+ ft tt
% : !
. D k k k -
+ tt U U U
Kev to s vin bols
food, dead monster
You, the ?
Figure 1. A sample I fach map with an expia nation of the symbol.s.
Several potions and ldods can result in your becom- ing confused, after which you stuinbJc about randoinly until your head clears. One side-cffect is that the eiïcct of a scroll spell changes if you read it while cotifused (which is use fui once you know what tlie alternait* offerts ol the scroll is). For example (this is a free liinl), a teleport scroll read under confusion will pop you up or clown several levels rat lier than across tlie same levek
Ilack adcls to this mess by rotating the initial non- sense labels on ali magical ilems for eacli new game.
I liis mcatis you don’t know what a given type oftliing is until you have used al least one of its type. This can make taking a drink very interesting.
To hanclle monsters, and the rigors of'advemurmg, Hack provides you with ail sorts of magical objects, There are mimerons wands, potions, scroll s and rings. W'ancls carry a varying numher ol charges; potions and scrolls are one-shols and rings continue to woi'k while being worn. There are good and had varicties of each: Some wands will damage a monslcr while others will make it st ronger; some potions will heal you while oth* ers will hlind or sicken you. Rings can give you some son of protection or vulnérabilité; had oncs usually weld themselves to your hand. There aie also good and hartnful scrolls oncs that increase the elfcctivcness ol ariiior and weapons or lame monsters, others that tôt your ecjuipment or attacli a hall and chain I*> your leg as “punishment."
Address ail author correspondence to David .' MrCJellan, 104
C. iti'vrou (’.irele, (.ary, NC. 2751L
Hack also provides more mundane lools: ail uianner of médiéval weapoury and armor, pickaxes for digging. Whistles lor calling dogs and “expensive caméras" with which to hlind and confuse an attacking fiend. Tools, magical items and lood rations are fdund scattered ahout in rooms as you wander the labyrintli, along with gold and jewels. You can also purchase them for exorbitant prices in shops, which are scattered randomly ihroLighout the levels.
Shops are moins thaï can contain a bit of everything, or can be devoted to one type of item (hookstores for scrolls, walking-stick shops for wands. Etc.). Shopkeep- ers are polite and obsequious, but they keep a sharp
eve ont for thieves, and they are barder to kill than
almost anythîng else in Hack. ( They must train in New York City.) It is possible to rip olf a shop; this gives you quite a sensé of accomplislimeni for whicli you should be ashamed. Karly on, it is casier and saler to pay for ihe goods; you can al ways rcturn latcr with a pet dragon and do in the manager.
As well as giving you shops, Hack furnishes the occa- s ion al morgue wlierc you are attacked by lise monsters, kilier beehives and magic inonev zoos full of hungrv monsters and lots of cash, none of which you are fore* warned about umil you walk in and gel ambushed. T his is ail to keep your reflexes sharp.
That ’s Entertainment
Il you survive ail this, somewhere in the mid-20's levels you will enter a real rnaze, where you must flght a nlitiolam, find a wishing wand under a rock, and ligure oui how to get down lo ! Lie 39th level (ihere are no more siairs down). At the 39th level. The Wizard of Yen* clor awaits with ihe Amulet (the goal, remember). You must def'eat iiiin and bis dog and climb ail the way hack up to level 1 to get ont. Ail this iu tlie naine of enter- tairiTiienl. Ail in ail. Hack is the best computer adven- ture game of its type 1 have ever plaved.
L’il close this description of Hack with a fcw hinls from the rumors file (you get one every lime you eat a Ivirtune cimkic):
“Quit” is a four-letter word.
Affairs with Nymphs are often very expensivc.
Alwavs be aware of the phase of the moon!
A runior lias it that rumors are just rumors.
Al way s svvecj) the floor hefore engraving important
An elven cloak protects against magic.
Did you know that worms have teeth?
Eat ing a Wraitli is a rcwarcling expérience!
It might be a good idea to offer the unicorn a rtihy. Kicking tlie terminal doesriT luirt tlie monsters. IVIost rumors are just as tnisleading as this one. L hey say that a unicorn may bring you luck. Lu the next inslallment, VU he dcscrihing the version of Kcrmit I will have portcd to tlie Amiga hv dieu, and aller thaï, sonie graphies. Until then. Happy HackinglB
The Software Group was foundcd in January 1983, in Ballston Lake, a rural comimmiiy in upstate New York. In November 1984, they announced their first product, an integrated package for the IBM PC called Enable.
By Donald Labriola and John Meyer
An interview ivith Laura Hoffman of The Software Group, creators of EnablefWrite for the Amiga.
Enable was reccived cnthusiastically, called by many the best of the second génération ol integrated packages. Il imluded a spreadsheet, a database manager, télécommunications software, graphies fonctions and a particu- larlv powerful word-processing module (see p. 82).
Early in 1985, TSG entered into a confidential agree- ment with the Amiga system dcvelopers to port the word processor to the still-embryonic Amiga computer. In a rcmarkably short period of time, the word processor was completelv rewriuen in 68000 assembler, redoc- umented, repackaged and readied for sale for the Amiga as Enable Writc.
We recently had the pleasure of speaking with Laura Hoffman, TSG's channing and aniculate Vice Président of Marketing. Because of hcr unique position, Laura had tlie opporlunity to intcract closcly with Commo- dore-Amiga througliout ail phases of the development effort, lu tins interv iew, she describes lier expériences with the people al Commodorc-Amiga and discusses the Amiga computer and EnableAVrite from her own insider1 s vicwpoint.
Q: Who originallv came up with the idea to port Enable over to the Amiga?
Laura Hoffman: I ihink this came ont of nnitual discussions between Ron Quake, who is the président of The
Software Group, and the chairman of Commodore, Marshall Smith, who is a colleague and former boss of Ron Quake's.
Q: How long has this project been underway?
LH: We’ve been worktng on this since at Icast April. It has been a major undertaking.
Q: There has been a loi of talk abolit the Amiga's open architecture and how it will facilitate the efforts of third-party dcvelopers. How difficult was the actual task of translating EnableAVrite to the Amiga?
LH: At the level at which we did the port, it was not an easy task. What we had to do was couvert 8088 assembler code directlv to 68000 assembler code, line by line. So in our spécial case, the open architecture did not really help us too much.
Q: So I assume you handled the entire rewrite yourself inhouse?
LH: Yes, we did it completely inhouse. The project was highly secret at the time because the Amiga had not yet been announced.
Q: Was the rewrite done by the saine team that deveL oped the original Enable system?
LH: We used some of the people who developed the PC system, The person who was the Senior Project Staff Member on this project was the saine person responsi- ble for the original conceptualization ol Enahle's environment and for most of the design and coding of the 8088 word-processing module that was portecl,
Q: Did you run into many prohlems related to changes in the Amiga’s hardware in the midst of your develop- niental effort?
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LH: Thcrc were a few, We had difficulty flguring out how Commodore-Amiga was going to install software on the machine. Enable is a lwo-di.sk drive product and they were selling the Amiga with one drive. How were we going to load our software once it was written? But they were very coopérative and hclpcd us solve the problem. We can now install F.nable Write on a une- disk system.
Q: How was the development and tesiing actually doue, if you clidn’t have a completed Amiga to work on for much of the project?
LH: Well, we had versions of the Amiga machine in here for quite a while, but they’vc been dcvclopmcntal
lntroducing Enable 1.1
When The Software Group released Enable for the IBM PC in latc 1984, the package was thrust into an alreadv-crowded market populated by heavvweights like 1-2-3, Symphony and Framework. Despile the intense compétition, however, Enable did fairly well. Aideri in great part by virtually unanimous favorable reviews.
Today, the product is building a significatif and enilm- siastic installed base.
Enable 1.1, the îatest révision for the PC, is distin- guished from most other integrated packages by a sophisticated coherency in ils underlying design. Each module employs consistent user interfaces and can pass data transparently to any other module. The word pro- cessor, for example, can exchange data with the Data- base Management, Graphics, Télécommunications and Sprcadshect modules. Enable's intrinsic Master Control Module supports up to eight Windows that can be sized, shaped. Overlapped and zoomecl to full screen. Users can access PC operating system commands directly from the Enable environment. The system indu des a menu-gencrator. A context-sensitivc HELP facility and interactive tutorials. Enable also boasts file compatibil- ity with manv of the most popular PG packages, includ- ing dBASE II, VisiCalc, 1-2-3, Wordstar, MultiMate and EasyWriter I.
The PC's Enable Graphics module can manipulate seven graph types with a plethora of colors, fonts and labeling options. The Télécommunications module provides VT-100 émulation, autoinatic buffering and support for a wide variety of communications equip- ment. The Database Management module is a lull fmiction DBMS with an integrated cotnmand language, far more powerful than the limited 1-2-3-lype database modules. The spreadsheet, although not that large (255 rows by 255 coiumns or adjustable up to 4,095 rows by 15 coiumns), is functionally comparable to the most popular spreadsheets on the market. And is extremelv fast.
Modets. We clicï have to do a lut of the work on other tvpes of machines, using cross-compilers.
Q: The Amiga and the PC are verv différent machines. Were there any functions that could not hc implc- mented becausc of the dissimilarity of the two environments?
LH: Not thaï I know of. 1 beheve we were al)le to transport every feature of the word processor onto the Amiga. Enable runs beautifully with 256K. We obviouslv liad ichange a i’ew of the keyboard setjuences used for certain more sophisticated commands, but for the most part, we did a one for-one conversion. F.nable Write does not take full advantage of Intuition, the Amiga ?
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In Spring lUNh. TSG will hegin supplying Enable Write, the Révision 1.1 Enahle word-processing module, to Coinmodore-Atniga for sale as a stand-alone system. (Ai ilie moment thcrc are no publie!v-acknowledged plans lo put the other loin* modules on the Amiga.)
Alt hou gh the Amiga-hased system will dilfer in a lew miiior instances from the PC version (some kevstroke setjuences will vary becausc of the différent keyboard lavouts), the two versions will be just ahoui functionally idenlirai. The main différence in the Amiga version is the absence of the Mail merge list-|>iocessing tacility. Which could not be implemcnted without the Database .Management module.
Unlike rnany of the word processors found in inte- graied packages. Enable Write functions well as a stand- alone svstem. In fact. It holds its own with the hest of them. Enable Write supports most of the worcl process* ing functions found in the industry standards, and also lias a few unique features of its own.
Some of F.nable Write's capabilities include: adjust- able margin and lab settings, rulcrs, block copy and move functions, positioned headers and footers, auto- matic pagination and footnoting, very flexible search and replace features, a “fast draft" mode that displays edited texl as it will be printed, automatic indexing and table of contents, vertical scrolling, superscripts and subscripls, a variety of character sets, proportional spac- ing. A built-in calculator, sophisticated HELP facilities, and a variety of features that allow you to customize the system to your personal tastes.
In addition, Amiga's EnableAVrite also takes advan- tage of much of the functionality of the Enable Mastcr Control Module. With these added iacililies, users can, for example, display and edit up to eigln files concurrent lv, shuffling windows and moving text among the files at will.H
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end-user interface, but the Enable user interface will ln* virtuallv identical to that of the IBM PC version. En-
able Write will be sclected on the Amiga by icon from the main menu, but once you are in the word proces- sor, it will look like the PC Enable word-processing product.
Q: Did you add any fonctions to take advaniage of the Amiga's spécial feattires?
LH: Yes, we are add ing mouse support.
Q: Who was responsihle for documenting the new soft ware?
LH: TSG, We had to rewrite the documentation for the word processor hecause the existing documentation was written cxpresslv for the entire integrated Enable package.
Q: Apple’s Macintosh lias been on the market much longer than the Amiga and is slowlv building a respectable installed base. Why didn’t you choose it instead of the Amiga for your next system?
LH: I think the Amiga is giani steps ahead of i lie* Macintosh in ternis of features and capahilities. L m sorrv that soine people are even putting it in the same général category as the Mac. There's no comparison. I think the Amiga's a whole new worltl in personal computer machinerv.
Q: Why didn't you go with the new Atari 520-ST. Which didiTt look too différent on paper from the Amiga al one point?
LH: I think it‘s lurned out that the Atari machine doesn't compare with even the Macintosh. Bear in mine! Also that we were in negoliations with the parent corporation of Amiga for soine time trying to arrange a coopérative effort. We have never been interested in doing the same with ihe inanufacturers of the Atari.
Our décision to port to the Amiga was based, not only on the technology of the machine, but also on the organisation behind it.
Q: Why was only the WP section implemented at this time?
LH: It was simple a matter of time, We would not have had enough time to couvert the entire package to tome out in conjonction with the release of the Amiga. The word processor was the obvions choice as the business productivité tool to have available with the machine when it was first shipped.
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Q: Arc you hoping that Enable Wriic will play a kev rolc in helping the Amiga to fnul its targci markct, the wav, sav. Lotus was so important to the IBM PC,*- ?
In another place, in another universe. On a différent ripple or the cosmic void, there exists a worid with people not unlike curselves, with computers not unlike the Amiga and with magazines not unlike this magazine. There is a sun traveling around their planet in much the same manner that our sun travels around our earth, There are wars, cars, Hollywood parties and body lice, just as we know them. There are spreadsheets, databases and word processors. There are printers, modems and hard disks. In fact, everything is pretty much the same as it is here, with a few exceptions.
In that world, someone like you is sitting in something like your chair reading a page something like this one. That person will even- tually finish the magazine and go write an arti* cle about his computer. He will then send it to: AmigaWorld Submissions 80 Pine St.
Peterborough, NH 03458
(Even the addresses are the same in that world.) He will then eat an exact copy of your dinner, sleep in a duplicate of your bed and generally behave the way you do. He will live a mirror of your life and wait the same six to eight weeks that you would have waited if you had sent an article for review. At the end of that time, he will get a notice in the mail saying that his article was accepted and a check for three jillion plingsnarts* will be on its way (not everything is the same there). His money will corne, his article will be pubîished and he will become famous throughout the known universe.
Some time in the far future, a copy of the magazine will fall through a space warp caused by a careless ;anitor spilling his bag of nacho chips into the ventilation system of a charged particle accelerator. And it will cross over the quantum barners of reality where a race of créatures will find it. After years of translating the text, they will become enthralled with the articles and go looking for the au- thors, mtending to worship them as gods, un- aware that they live in another dimension.
They will iand in your neighborhood, look you up in the phone book and corne calling late at mght (you and your counîerpart share identi- cal names ana addresses). However, when they arrive, you will try to explain to the créatures that you have no idea what they are gurgling about. You will vaguely remember that a long time ago you had an idea for an article, but never pot around to writing it. The créatures will become enraged, draw their weapons and turn you into a disgusîing puddle of goo.
So, if you don’t want this to happen to you. Get up from your chair and get busy writing that article. Or, at the very least, send for a copy of our author's guidelines, and perhaps ail this trouble can be avoided.
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R o w i n g a w a y your
You’ve spent quite a fortune on your IBM PC. Enough that yoiTd rather not do it again. But the Amiga’s CPU is différent from the PC's, so you can’t run your programs on it. Can you?
But the Amiga hasgraphies the PC can't beat, power that the PC can’t eventouch. Wouldn’t it be great if you could use them?
But the Amiga has windowing and multi tasking right off the shelf. You pay extra for it on the IBM PC. And what if you don’t have an IBM PC but want to run some of the m a n y thousands of programs that run on it?
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Isn't that better than th
LH: I don’t think that type of market environment exists any more, This has been proven by the wayjazz has not met the expectations of those who thought it would save the Macintosh. In today’s market, I simply don’t think people buy a piece of hardware just because one particuïar software package is available for it and vice-versa. I would hope that the EnableAVrite package helps the Amiga through the door into the business market. T he Amiga is much more than just a home computer and I think that Commodore-Amiga recognizes that they need to have a body of standard business software available to break into the business market.
Q: Who do you think will be buying the Amiga?
LH: 1 think the Amiga is an idéal product for the small- to-medium size business and for a vast array of spe- cialty businesses. Advertising agencies, for example, can use it not only for standard business activities, but also for ail of its fabulous graphies capabilities for design and so forth.
Q: Now that you’ve worked with the Amiga people for most of this year, would you like to continue your relationship?
LH: We look forward to a long, mutually-beneficial relationship with the folks at Commodore-Amiga. We’re very impressed.
Q: in summation. What differentiates EnableAVrite from the many other WP products on the market today?
LH: Enable has consistently been rated very highly, fre- quently coming in first among integrated packages and stand-alone products. There arc any number of features in EnableAVrite that we feel are outstanding. Including its automatic indexing, table of contents, and footnot- ing functions. Ils abilitv to cut-and-paste blocks of text between up to eight files using its own windowing environment, and many, many other features. EnableAVrite uses file formats i dent ica 1 to that used by the PC version. And it can even import files from other word processifs like Wordstar, And the product is unbelievably quick, because il is complctely wriiten in assemblv language.
Q: And this just in the First release.
LH: That’s right. Ifs only going to get bettcr.H
Address ail author correspondence to Donald Labriola or John Meyer, do Aegis Research Corp., Box 802, Latham, NY 12110-0802.
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PAR Home I Personal Financial Management: checkbook accounting and budgets, loan amortization, home lease vs. buy, personal financial statements, "spendaholics" exam, life insurance and collège investment planners, retîrement contributions, multi-reporting and graphie options. 569 PAR Biz I Business Financial Management: key business ratios, présent and future values, loan évaluations and amortizations, breakeven analysis, stock bond analysis, auto lease vs. buy, financial statements, annuities, leverage analysis, graphie and multi-reporting options. $ 129
PAR Real I Jncome Property Anaiyzer: property investment analysis, financial statements, amortization tables, loan évaluations, “what if" forecasting, cash flow, tax benefits, rates of return, key business ratios, purchase and setl agreements, multi-reporting and graphie options. $ 129
Free Order Only Except Wash. 1-800-433-8433
[ Add 3% shipping: VISA MC, check, rnoney order, or COD ] [Wash. Residents add 7.5% sales tax]
Other Amiga and PC cables also avallable 1-800-762-3420
The Rjght Llnk, Ltd.
P. O. Box 724085 Atlanta, Georgla 30339
Professional Automation Resources
Amiga is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines.
P. O. Box 2354 • Longview, VA 98632 • (206) 425-9626
Circle 151 on Reader Service card.
Circle 153 on Reader Service card.
on the Amiga™ with
LoqicVorks is aIso «vjiljbU for th. Applf M*C(htoslï**
Tr. jrm*rki Arrng. - Commodcrr Busin.is Mjchints, Inc Macintoth - Applt Compultr , hc LoqtcWorks - C.pil.Oo Computing Systems Ltd
WHEN COMMODORE NEEDED
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An integrated logic design tool with:
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P. O. Box 8697 I, N. Vancouver, B C . Canada, V7L 4P6
Offtcrs Dprn 8 30 - 5 00 Pjciftc Tim.
Digital Cannas is a showplace devoted exclusively to the work of Amiga artists. If you’re an arlist, or if you aspire to be one, send your original Amiga artwork on disk to AmigaWorld, Attn.: Art Di- rector, 80 Pine St., Peierborough, NH 03458. If your work meets our standards, we'll feature it in an upcoming issue.
Amiga Meets thé 68020
The .MC68000 mlcropfocessor used in your Amiga 1000 computer is one of k ianv i]y of processors hased upon the same architecture. Others include the- 68008* the 68010 and the 68010* Thé 6ÉÉ0 II thé mm powerful me m ber of the 68000 famiiy* Like the 68000* it features Mmt internai régis» terl, Unlike the 68000* howëvéf* the 68020 has a âî*bit ex tentai data path. This allows the processor to fetch and store Si bits of data at one time* as dppdltî tô the l Omit limit of the 68000* Thé 68010 also Support! Virtual-memory addreâsing, al low ing the processor to usé an exterrml storage device td limulate main memory*
Whîle personâl computer Systems hàsed upon the 68020 are still a year of two in the future, Computer System Associates i! Curremly orfering a piggy-hack board that allows you to plug a 68010 into your Ami- ga* Thé CSA mm Soafë cdnîâths à 68Û2Û y PU* à 68881 math fioprocèssor àiid x&Vëè PAL Chips. Since the 68020 is compatible with the 68000, the CSA board should ru h ail of your Amiga Software (what Software there il)* CSA reports a 200% performance improvenient ufiing the 68020 ooàrd in place of à 68000* and a greaïër thàh 500% performance improveinent when running Calculaiionnntensive software writieh to take advantage of the 68881 math coprodes* I'm The CSA 68020 Board is designed tô work at spééds üp to 12*5 MMà. It should have no trouble handling thé 7.1 Mhz dock of the Amiga.
To install the CSA 68020 Board, you have to open your Amiga’s System unit and femove tlie 68000 procesSof* Thé board plug! Difêci!y into the 68000’! Socket.
Because of this* the 68020 can’t take advan- tage of its Sl-bit external data bus. It is Uni» itëd to the 64 pins used by the 68000.
Computer System Associates reeommends thé board for those Who Want to prototype à 68020 system or for anyone who want! To IhCreàéè thé performahc of his or hef sys» tehi. Undôübtedly* 68881 support will he offérèd as ah option in some Amiga software packages* especlally computation» intehsive software like spreadsheets àhd graphies. Amigas equipped with the CSA
êvér ôthef machinés,
Upgfadihg your system with the CSA Board il expënsive. The board costs
SI,875 in single quantities* Fof more information* Contact Computer System Assôeh aies îhéi* 7564 Trade St., San Diego, G A 92121. 619 381-0316*
iputers originâlly broke into the business World as accounting machiné!* and that situation has not changed significantly té this day, Like their mamframe cousins in :hc Fëfnihê S00, péréônàï compiler;, m powérfüi yet simple accounting tools for s mal! B us in esses. With the rlght software* a Personal computer can hèip a small b usiné!! Làckle càlh-flow pfôblèfns* reduce bad dëbt âfid providê m qttfâlïty information nécêsiâry t© keep a business in the blaek* Rags i© Riche! From C-hang Labs is the first accounting system (and indeed some of ihe first software of anv type) reîeased for the Amiga. Rags to Riches cohsists of three modules that may be purchaséd separately or togethéf as ah integrated sysiëm. Thé available modulés are for général ledger* accounts recelvable and accounts payable*
The Ragsuo-Riehes Ledger program Is a double-entry général iedger pâckâgë* ît cari handle 5,000 accounts and 10,000 transactions* Ledger provides a riiimbèr ôf différent reports* including Inëomé Stâtenient s. Balance Sheets, Account journal* Account List and Transaction History. Ledger also accepts input from the Rags»to»Riches Pay» able! And Receivablés niodüks. Lëdger ii available for §199*95*
Recelvables allows you to handle up tô 5,000 customer accounts* it allows you to quickiy iâéntify ovefdue àccounts to beuer m an âge your cash flow* It produces in vol ces and sïatèmenti, and Can prodüéë reports on customer aging and in voice aging* Recëiv-
Pàyabîes also handles up to 5*000 ven.dof accounts. It can schedule payments up to ont year in àâvanëë, print M mâhÿ éhëcks as you like each month* and caiculatë discounts and taxes. It provides reports on cash requirements, vendor and in voice aging and many others* Like Recel vabies* it Intégrâtes easily with Ledger and cost!
Ledger, Receivâbles and Payables are available as a package for §499. For more information, contact Chang Labs* 5300 S te» vens
ilvd** San José*
The mosi frustrai ing thing about buving a peripheral tlevice is the certain knowledge thaï youTI have to search high and low for a cable that will connect the peripheral to your computer. Well, Redmond Cable of Redmond, WA (naturallv) is trving lo take the guesswork ont of huying cahles for the Amiga by offcring 20 différent cahles for your Amiga system. Redmond oifers four parallel cahles, tliree serial cahles and I 1 RGB cahles. The RGB cahles include connections for Sony, Zenith, Panasonic and even IBM digital monimrs.
The Right Connections
Redmond also offers a line of interface products for the Amiga. Niduding serial and parallel switch boxes, smart serial tables and serialto-parallel converters. L ot more information on Redmond products, contact Redmond Cable. 17371-A3 NE 67th Ct„ Redmond, WA 98052. 206 882-2009 (or see your local Amiga dealer),
While on the subjcct of cables, Belkin Gomponents is producing a shielded parai* Ici printer cable *or the Amiga. Designed to work with ail major parallel printers such as Epson. Star Micronics, Okidata and NEC, the cable is available for .82-1.95.
You can learn more ahout Belkin Interface Gables for the Amiga from Belkin Gomponents, 1718 W. Rosccrans Ave., Ilaw* thorne, GA 90250. 213 644-3184. Outside California, call 800 2 BELKIN.
Okidata has a unique wav of selling their color printer. Tlie Okimate 20. They sel 1 it in two pièces: the printer i t sel I and a Plug ‘N Print module. The printer you get is the same that an Apple or IBM owner gels; the différence is in the print module. Each brand of computer has its own Plug ‘N" Print module, allowiug the Okimate 20 to print color graphies produeed hv a widc varietv of computers. Okimate has rccentlv announced a Plug ‘N" Print module for the Amiga.
The Okimate 20 is a thermal-transfer printer; it mclls the rihhon onto the paper using a 24-element printhead. This allows it to print on transparendes as well as régulai computer paper. T he Okimate 20 does not require thermal paper. Although high-quali* tv plain paper is recomtnended.
In Text mode, the Okimate 20 prints at 10, 12 and 17.5 chaructcrs per inch. It has an 80 diaracter-per-second I)raft mode and a 40 eps Correspondencc mode. I he Okimate 20 supports holdface, underlining and italîcs. Et is. Of course, supported directly hv the primer drivers huilt into the Amiga.
The Okimate 20 can print anv Amiga pic- ture in living color. It can produce over 100 distinct colors. Printing graphies is slow (5- 10 minutes per picture), but ihe resulis are very good,
The Okimate 20 costs S149 and the Ami* ga Plug ’N" Print module sells for 899. Black ribbons cost 84.95 and produce 50-75 pages ol text. Golor ribbons cost 85.49 and arc good for ahout 17 pictures. For more information, contact Okidata, 1 1 1 Gaither Drive, Mt. Laurel. NJ 08054. 609 235-2600.
Commodore-Atniga hegari shipping Version 1.1 of Kickstart and the Workbench lo registered Amiga owners in Decembei. If you don t have the new Kickstart and Workbench, bring a couple of hlank disks to your dealer and he'll give you the* update.
Included with Version 1.1 Workbench is Microsoft’s ÂmigaBasic. Hopefully, Amiga- Basic will make people lorget AbasiG. With its bugs, unimplcmented cotnmands, terrible editor and slow performance.
If you re looking for an easy wav to organize and store your Amiga disks, vou have two products to choose from: Disk* Book from MicroStore. PO Box 37, St.
Peter. MN 56082, Tel. 507 345-7179 and The Easel from Innovative Technologies, 5731 La Jolla Blvd.. La Jolla, GA 92037. Tel. 619 456-0722. DiskBook holds 32 .3.5" disks and costs S34.95. I he F.asel holds 20 disks and costs 819.95.
By the wav. MaxiSoft won the Amiga World “riiank Heavens For Some Software"
Award for getting the First conipleted third* party package (MaxiComm) into our greeclv little hands. Second place wetn to Ghang Labs for their Rags-to-Riches Accounting sériés. Third place went to Activision for Hacker and Mindshaclow. Eacli ol these developers will receivc a realh nice scroll from AmigaWorld. (Of course, we can’t make the scrolls until Brodcrhund releases Print Sliop.) Electronic Arts tlnished in tlie mon* ex with Deluxe Paint, (Mavbe we 11 senti 1 rip Hawkins an Amiga World T-shirt.)
Gongratulations to the winners! Now, what’s the matter with the test ol vou guysrfl
¦ Afraid of what you dont know?
Don ’t know where to turn with those persistent Amiga questions? Pack them up and send them off to Help Key, c o AmigaWorld éditorial, 80 Pine St., Pe- terborough, NH 03458. Spécial thanks to Andrew Herrington and Rob Peck from Commodore-Amiga for the answers in this issue.
Q: Will the operating system be put in ROM in future Amigas? How much will it cost for up* grades? This is confusing a good number of people and could anger uninformed pur- chasers. Manv of us are waiting for a clear signal of Commo» dore’s commitment to us con* cerning this question.
Claude F, Bissonet Brattleboro, VT
A: Commodore-Amiga’s intentions in this area are qui te clear: In the fore- seeable future, Read Only Memory (ROM) will not be substituted for the existing RAM-based Writable Control Store. There are no économie advantages for Commodore in making a change to ROM. And there are veiy real advantages to the customer in retaining the Writable Control Store. These advantages are already becoming apparent. 'The re- lease of Version 1.1 of the system software provides new system features for software developers and éliminâtes bugs reported in Version
1. 0, without the user having to open the machine and replace internai components to take advantage of it. As the Amiga gets bel ter, the initial
customers are not stuck with the original system software as they would be with a ROM based system, and Ain iga can provide software developers with extensions to the original software system as they become available and as needed. These advantages ail accrue from the use of the RAM-based Writable Control Store.
There is no cost to the user in proinding the updated system software Commodore will send out the Vl.l software to registered Amiga users, or users can gel updated by taking blank disks to their original Amiga dealer and getting a copy of Vl.l. The new software on the Vl.l disk will replace the old software and will be substantially (t iough not totally) transparent to the user.
Q: Is Commodore-Ain iga planning to release a primer for the Amiga?
W, Los Angeles, CA
A: Commodore-Amiga has no ciment plans to release a printer specijically for the Amiga.
Version l.l of the Amiga system software supports a wide rouge of corn mon printers, as allows:
Alphacom Alphapru 101 Brother HR-15X1 CBM MRS 1000 Diablo 630
Diablo Advantage 1)25 Diablo Cl 50 (color inkjet)
Epson (dot matrix)
Epson JX80 (dot matrix)
HP Laserjet HP Laserjet Plus Okhnate 20 (color thermal transfer)
(htme ljetlerpro 20
Custom Default set t ing to a simple
grneric printer with no character
These printers were chosen be- cause either they represented de facto standards or had particular advantages when used with the Amiga. Since matiy recently manufactured printers can be set to one of the de facto standards (perhaps in addition to a proprietory 'native' standard), the user should carefully review his printer's handbook for information indicating that several standards protocols are supported. If the printer appears to have settings (usually in the form of dip swîtches) for several standards protocols, it is likely that one of the Amiga-sup- ported de facto standard printers will be emulated by the user's printer when it has been set appropriât ely. A call to the printer manufacturer or to the dealer who origiiuilly sold the printer should then tell the user whether one of the printers listed in Preferences can be emulated by the user’s printer, by dip switch sel t ing adjustment. Some- fîmes a close émulation is possible, for exatriple dot-matrix printers that emulate IBM printers work with the Epson setting, but do not have the Epson s italics.
So the suggestion is as follows:
(1) Review the Amiga Preference settings for the desired printer. If it's not listed:
(2) See if the printer can be adjusted to emulate one of the printers listed in Preferences.
(3) See if the printer can be adjusted to be sufficiently close to a Prefer- ence-listed printer to work satisfac- torily (trial and error).
(-}) If these suggestions dont work, the user has to:
A. Cet the printer's supplier to
write a custom driver for the Amiga.
B. Write a custom printer driver! This is a significatif task; it should only be undertaken t)y an expert- enced programmer. An example of such a driver is included iti the new version of the ROM Kernel Manual that will soon become available.
C. Consider another printer.
Q: Is there any way to run C-64 and C-128 gatnes on the Amiga? With a modem, could I commu- nicate and share programs with a C*64 or C-128?
A: There is no way to do this at présent and no plans to make it possible in the future.
Q: Does AmigaDOS have a RAM disk utility?
John Sapienza, Jr.
Associale Editor, Différent Worlds
A: AmigaDOS has a RAMdisk fadlity.
First sottie backgromuL AmigaDOS has things called “Devices.” There are two flavors of these the first handles data stteams (e.g., PR 7 SFR:, the printer and serial devices) and the second, varions kinds offil- ing system devices. These fil ing de- vices have the characteristic that they can create and viaintain a di- rectory structure exactly like that on a floppy disk. One of these fil ing de- vices is called RAM: and it is this device that provides the RAMdisk facility.
AmigaDOS’s RAM: device automat ically créâtes itself when you copy something into it and automati- cally adjusts it’s size to suit the size of what you put into it. You can do anything with RAM: that you can do with any similar directory structure. Thus you could, with sufflcient memory, duplicate an entire disk into RAM: and work with it as if il were a conventional floppy disk. Similarly, if you were doing a large number of opérations using many of the C (Command) directories com- mands y ou could save disk access time by copy ing the entire C directory contents to the RAM: device and then not have to wait for the floppy disk to access each command. At the end of this work you could delete the RAM: device to make room for new programs.
Note that whilst RAM: upsizes itself automatically to accommodate in- coming files it does not necessarily downsize the same way. If for example, you copy three files to RAM: and then delete one of them, the re- sulting memory space will not necessarily be contiguously Consolidated to reflect only the space needs of the two files. To get around this problem copy the unconsolidated RAM: de- vice's contents to floppy disk then delete RAM: and copy the two files back into the (emptied by the delete opération) RAM: device.
Q: Atari is coming out with a 450 megabyte CD-ROM unit for the ST sériés. Will Commodore- Amiga produce a CD-ROM unit for the Amiga?
Interested Pittsburgh, PA
A: Interfacing a CD-ROM player to the Amiga is not a difficult task. However, front the eus t amers point of view it is important that Commodore-Amiga en do r se a record ing format and media accessing protocol that is likely to become an industry standard so that customers get the widest access possible to CD-ROM based materiai This will avoid a situation like that now existing in the VCR industry in which two incompatible media formats exist (VHS and Beta). Commodore-Amiga’s position is to actively review on-going developments in CD-ROM standards and in the availability of recorded materiai on CD-ROM, as new product plans are developed. It seems likely that indépendant vendais will develop CD-ROM players for the Amiga if market demand devetops.
Q: I have just purehased an Amiga with 512K of RAM. I am really enjoying it, especially AbasiC, since I am an avid programmar. However, 1 am frus- trated by the fact that I can’t get a directory of my Basic disk, and there is no new icon shown
in my Basic window when I cre-
ate and save a new program.
Am I doing something wrong, or is it impossible to get a directory or icon of my Basic programs?
Troy Williams Wichita, KS
A: It is possible to get a directory in Abasic. Within AbasiC, simply issue the command DIR or DIRECTX) RY with the appropria te pathname in quotas following the command. This sends a directory listing to the current output device just like the similar command in the Command Line Interface (ClA). Basic programs appear as follows:
* *.Program Name.BAS” In the CL1, the same command is used, produc- ing the same results. See page R-147 in the AbasiC manual for fuil détails.
AbasiC does not generate icons for its programs or data files.
TlBZ FORTH™ jai t&c
* 32 bit stack
* Separate headers Full screen editor
* Amiga DOS support ‘Intuition support
* ROM kernel support ‘Graphics and sound support ‘Complété documentation ‘Assembler source code included
$ 85 Shipping included in continental U.S.
(Ga. Residents add sales tax)
I |R7Sh Wtç
or sencJ check or rnoney order to: UBZ Sofimaïc 395 St. Albans Court Mableton, Ga. 30059
'Amiga is a îrademark for Comodore" Computer. UB7 FORTH
i. s a tndpmqrk fnr UBZ software.
THE EXPLORER is a learmng tool for new AMIGA owners and a debug tool for the program developer. THE EXPLORER is a machine language monitor similar to the ones you have used on 8- bit machines, but it has some powerlul enhance- ments lhat make il more useful. The EXPLORER lets you call up a screen of text thaï descnbes what you're looking at withm the machine. These screens can be changed by the user so that they become a place to keep technical noies on various pans of the machine. The EXPLORER tels you create new commands. Name ihem, and save them on disk. They may be executed by simply typmg the command name In addition, the EXPLORER V2.0 includes a disassembler that will even create a source file. We have a libéral upgrade policy. So as THE EXPLORER gets better you can own the latest version.
Price: S35 plus 33 shipping and handling CODs add $ 4
To order call 1612) 871-6283.
Interactive Anafyt.ii: Notie P34E) West Medieme Lakn Drive Minneapnlis. MN 55441
AVAILABLE RIGHT NOW
The followmg selected standards have been improved and transported to run on the Amiga under menu control
RiOi iC home programme* SucJge!. CnecKDooH) $ 19 95
RiOl 10 Dusmess programs(e« amoMi at-om S24 95
R1Q2 1Û Dos>ness programsle* dépréciation) $ 24 95
Eiûi 10 eaucation pfograms(e* main dnlls) S19 95
T101 10 entertainment programs (ex. Music) S19.95
M1Q1 Tomath uliliiiesle* intégration) $ 1995
SiOi iC scientific routineste* waveforms) $ 24 95
C101 05 System utihtiesie* pnntformat) $ 1*195
G101 20gameste» Startrek) S19 95
G102 20 gameslei Lunar Lanûer) $ 19 95
G103 20 gamesie* Star Warsi $ 19 95
A1Q1 Amiga help file CALL
C102 Modem Communication Software
(Hayes compatible command set) CALL
5 OR MORE SELECTIONS: 10% Discount 10 OR MORE SELECTIONS: 20% DiBeount
MUCH.MUCH MORE COMING. INCLUDING; PASCAL FORTRAN. C Programs ? * ? Get on our mailing list * * *
15 day return unopened policy
Circle 85 on Reader Service card.
NOW the world's finest 68020 Assembler Package Is avallable on the Amiga!
The Quelo family of 68xxx Assembler Packages have been available since 1983. Since that time they have earned an excellent réputation and are being used by programmers throughout the world, including many of the people that have been instrumental in making the Amiga into the best computer on the market today.
Get ready for the 68020 machines from Commodore* Amiga!
Features: • Macros • Produces ROMable code
• Compatible with the Motorola assembler • Structured programming directives • Condi- tional assembly and linking • Superb linker load map and symbol table listings including cross reference information • Produces Motorola S-Records, extended Tek HEX, UNIX COFF, Intei HEX and Amiga object • Option selects 68000. 68010 or 68020 assembler mode
• Comprehensive typeset manua! With index • Portable source, written in C. is readily transported to any computer system that supports a C compiler.
The Quelo 68020 Assembler Package is also available on PC-DOS, MS-DOS, CP M and UNIX.
Includes: • 68020 Macro Assembler •
Disassembler • LinKer locator • Object Librarian • Symbol Report Generator • Image and Split utility • User's manual set.
2464 33rd W., Suite 173 Seattle. WA USA 98199 Phone 206 285-2528 Telex 910-333-8171
Trademarks: Quelo. Quelo, Inc.; MS. Microsoft Corporation; CP M, Digital Research: UNIX. Bel! Labs; Amiga. Commodore-Amiga. Inc.
[ 'nique applications, tips and staff
You may be using your Amiga at work, at home or in the back seat of your car, but somehow you'Il be using it in a unique way. You will discover thmgs thaï will let you do someîhing faster, easier or more elegantly
AmigaWorld would like îo stiare those shortcuts. Ideas. Things to avoid. Thmgs to iry etc. with every- one. And we II reward you with a colorfuJ, appetiz- mg, officiai AmigaWorfd T-shirt (Just remember to tell us your size.)
Send it m. no matter how outrageous. Clever, humorous or bizarre We will read anythmg. But we won’t return it. So keep a copy for yourself. In cases of duplication. T-shirts are awarded on a first corne, firsî serve basis.
So. Put on your thmkmg berets and rush those suggestions to
Hors d oeuvres AmigaWorld éditorial 80 Pine St.
Peterborough, NH 03458
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A COMPANY DEDICATED TO PRODUCING QUALITY SOFTWARE AT AFFORDABLE PRICES, LIKE
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• HAYES MODEM SUPPORT
• SUPPORTS BACKGROUND FILE AND XFER
PLUS 52.50 SHIPPING iFLA RES ADD 5%) VlSA'MC AMEX COD CHK ACCEPTEO CALL 813-786-3247 TO ORDER TODAY OR WRITE T0
2780 COTTONWOOD COURT CLEARWATER, FL. 33519
BUSINESS & STATISTfCAL SOFTWARE
Circle 185 on Reader Service card.
PC MS-DOS, AMIGA, MACINTOSH ATARI 520ST, CP M, COMMODORE 128
Explanatory books with professional compiled software; the new standard for statistical use. The influential Seybold Report on Professional Computing has this to say about Lionheart "... our sentimental favorite because of its pragmatte approach to the basic statistical concepts... The thinking is that the computer merely facilitâtes the calculations; the important thing is to be able to formulate a probfem correctly and to détermine what type of analysis will be most valuable." Let Lionheart help you get ahead of the compétition!
BUSINESS STATISTICS ......$ 145
EXPERIMENTAL STATISTICS .....145
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS ....150
ÛUAUTY CONTROL & INDUSTRIAL
F0RECASTING AND TIME-SERIES 145
SALES AND MARKET F0RECASTING ... 145 DECISION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES .... 110 LINEAR & N0N-LINEAR
PROGRAMMING . 95
PERT & CRITICAL PATH TECHNIQUES .. 95 0PTIMIZATI0N .....110
VISA, MasterCard, AMEX, Check
P. O. Box 379, ALBURG, VT 05440
Mouspad by Moustrak 7.95 The Pocket Pak 9.95 The Easel 13.95 1200 Baud Modems 199
In Texas (512) 473-2604
Vision Technologies Inc. 2200 Guadalupe st ste216 Austin, Texas 78705
Circle 48 on Reader Service card. AMIGA OUTLET ]
3 1 2' Disks (DS,DD) 10 S29.95 1 53. 15
3 1 2* Disks (DS,DD) Plain Label Brand îcall
HACKER - Software game by Activision S44.95
MINDSHADOW - Graphie text adventure S44.95
Amiga System Covers - W mouse LOGO S21.95
Amiga Disk Cover - 1010 with LOGO S7.99
Amiga Disk Cover - 1020 with LOGO $ 7.99
Paper T F F F White.9 1 2 x 11,201b 150 58.99
Paper T F-F F White, 9 1 2 x II, 201b 1000 S22.95
Paper T F-F F 1 2’Greenbar 91 lxl 1,181b 1000 518.99 Index Cards - T F-F F, 3 x 5 500 57.95
Rolodex Cards - T F-F F, 2 1 6x4 500 58.95
Labels - T F-F F, Address 1000 S5.00
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USS’sonly Master Cherry HrlL NJ 08002
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Unique applications, tips and stuff
You may be using your Amiga al work. You may be using it al home, or you may be using it in the back seat of your car, but in some way or other, you are gotng to be using your Amiga in a slightly différent way than anyone else. You are go ng to be running across littie thmgs that will help you to do something faster or easier or more elegantly.
AmigaWorld would like to share those shortcuts. Ideas, unique applications, programming tips, things to avoid. Thmgs to try, etc.t with everyone, and we'll reward you for your efforts with a colorful, appetizing, official AmigaWorld T-shirt. (Just remember to tell us your size.)
Send it m, no matter how outrageous. Clever, obvious, humorous, subtle, stupid, awesome or bizarre. We will read anythmg, but we won't return it, so keep a copy for yourself. In cases of duplication, T-shirts are awarded on a first corne, first serve basis.
So. Put on your thinkmg berets and rush those suggestions to:
Hors d’oeuvres AmigaWorld éditorial 80 Pine St.
Peterborough, NH 03458
List of Advertisers
Reader Send.ce Reader Service Reader Service
12 Aegis Development Inc., GUI 22 Addison-Wesley, 76 140 Akron Systems Developement 82
152 Amiga Mail, 94
Mail List, 96 Subscriptions, 16, 17 7 57 Capilano Go., 87
* Commodore, Amiga, CIV 41 Computer Mailorder, 39 80 Computer Solutions, 57 45 Data Share, Inc., 42, 43 28 Digital Créations, 25
63 Disclone, 83
153 Echo Data Services, 87 2 Electronic Arts, 10, Il
7 Icon Review, 15 21 Innovative Technologies, 31 64 Inova, 57
88 Interactive Analvtie Node, 94 144 Jenclay Software, 59 14 Kurta Corporation, 13 23 Lattice, Inc., 7 68 Lionheart, 95 48 MA V. Rut h Go., 95 11 Maux Software, 57 18 Maxicorp. Inc., 33 7 7 Megasoft, Ltd., 51 98 Metadigm, 75 90 MicroForge, The, 84 95 Micro-Systems Software, 24 3 Mindscape Inc., 5 83 Mousetrak, 59 133 Ohio Valley Softworks, 83 40 PAR Software, 87
85 Quelo, 94 188 Richard Rainella, 74 190 SKE, 94 92 Skyles Electric, 67 155 Slipped Disk, 86 136 Sol team, Inc., 86 130 Techni-Soft, 59 5 Tecmar Inc. G1I, 1 66 True Basic, 55 33 The Right Link, Ltd., 59, 87 99 Tychon Technology, 96 69 UBZ Software, 94 185 Vision Technology, 95
Corning Next Issue
The next issue of Amiga World will cover business and productivity applications ranging from reviews ot busi- ness-orientcfl software to news about eoining products to féal lires abolit the business of writing programs for the Amiga. We will be pointing in the direction of possible solutions to problenis prohletns that most busi* nesses face, as well as the problenis of people who are using their Amigas in non-business atmosphères.
We will also take a close look at the Basic langnages that are (or will be) available for tlie Amiga. Of course, there will be other thitigs of interest in the next issue ot' Atniga World, but in the meantime, you'Il just have to satisfv your hunger by rc-readhig this issue.¦
Unique applications, tips and stuff
You may be using your Amiga at work. You may be using it at home, or you may be using it in the back seat of your car, but in some way or other. You are going to be using your Amiga in a slightly différent way than anyone else. You are going to be running across littie thmgs that will help you to do something faster or easier or more elegantly.
AmigaWortd would like to share those shortcuts, ideas, unique applications, programming tips, thmgs to avoid. Thmgs to try. Etc,, with everyone. And we'll reward you for your efforts with a coiorful, appetizmg. Officia! AMIGAWorld T-shirt. (Just remember to tell us your size.)
Send it in, no matter how outrageous. Clever, obvious. Humorous, subtle. Stupid. Awesome or bizarre. We will read anything, but we won't return it, so keep a copy for yourself. In cases of duplication. T-shirts are awarded on a first corne, first serve basis.
So. Put on your thinking berets and rush those suggestions to
Hors d’oeuvres AmigaWorld éditorial 80 Pine St.
Peterborough, NH 03458
A. Do you own an Amiga computer?
? 1. Ycs G 2. No
B Do vou intend to purchase one?
? 1. Yci ? 2, No D 3- Maybc
C: What microcomputers do you currcntlv own?
C 1. Commodore C 4, IBM
D 2 Radio S hack C 3, Atari
C 3. Apple
D What primary application are you using your microcomputer for?
? I .Word Processing D 5- Communications
? 2 Home Applications ? 6. Develop Applications
? 3 Graphics C 7. Develop Programs
? 4 Music ? 8. Database Management
? 6. Other (Please Specify},
? 7. N'one
CI Mrs. Naine
C 9. Education
? 10. Business
? II. Entertainment
? 12. Other (Please Specify).
? Ms. Address City-
E. What topics would you like to see Ctfvercd in future issues of AmigaWorld? (Please check ail that apply )
? 1. Graphics ? 6. Product Rcmcws ? 11. Databases
? 2 Operating System D 7. Programming Languages ? 12. Industry Profiles and News
? 3. Business Applications d 8. Programming Techniques ? 13, Other (Please Specify)_
D 4. Télécommunications O 9. Music and Sound
? 3. Educational Applications ? 10. Word Processing
Téléphoné ( )
CIRCLE NUMBERS FOR MORE INFORMATION
E Which of the following types of software do you plan to purchase for your Amiga?
? I. Education
? 2 Word Processing
? 3 Utilities
? 4 Database
G What is your âge?
C I. L’nder 18
If What is your éducation tevel? C 1. Grade School C 2. High School
? 9. Entertainment G 10 Other (Please Specify).
? 5. Home Management G 6. Business
? 7. Stock Market Analysis G 8- fax Préparation
G 5. 50-64 ? 6. Over 65
? 3. 25-34
? 5. Some Graduait School
? 6. Post Graduait School
? 3. Attcndcd Collège
? 4. Graduated Collège
I What is your annuat houschold income?
G 7.550-574,999 G 8.575-599,999 G 9. Over 5100.000
G 4. $ 25-529,999 G 5. 530-534.999 G 6. 535-549,999
? I. Less than 515.000 G 2. S 15-519,999 G 3. $ 20-524,999
J. What is your occupation? G 1 Enginrer Scicntist C 2. Middle Management G 3. Professional
C 7.Sludent C 8. Sales L_ 9. Secrelarv
? 4 Top Management
? 5. Technician G 6. Rctired
K. ts this your copy of AmigaWorld?
? L.Yes G 2. No
L, If you are not a subscrtber. Please circle 499.
M If you would likc a one year subscription to AmigaWorld (Six Issues), please circle 500 on the Reader Serv ice Card Each subscription cosu $ 14 97.
(Canada & Mexico 517 97, Foreign Surface 534,97. One year only) Please allow 10-12 weeks for delivery
March April 1986
A Do you own an Amiga computer?
G 1. Y«s ? 2. ,V o
B Do you intend to purchase one?
? L.Yes G 2 No ? 3.Maybe
C. Whal microcomputers do you curTentlv own?
? ). Commodore G 4. IBM
? 2. Radio Shack G 5. Atari
? 3. Apple
D What primary application are you using your mieuxomputrr for? C | Word Procestlng ? 5. Communications
C 2 Home Applications G 6. Develop Applications
C 3. Graphics C 7. Develop Programs
G 4 Music G 8. Database Management
? 6. Other (Please Specify). G 7. None
? Mrs, Name
G 9. Education
? 10. Business
? 11, Entertainment
? 12. Other (Please 5peeify).
C Ms. Address City-
E. U'hat topics would you like to see covered in future issues of AmigaWorld? (Phase check ail that applyl
? 1. Graphics ? Fi. Product Revlcws ? 11. Databases
G 2 Operating System G 7, Programming Language» ? 12. Industry Profile» and New»
? 3. Business Applications G 8. Programming Technique» ? 13 Other (Please Specify)_
G 4 Télécommunications ? 9, Music and Sound
G 5. Educational Applications G 10 Word Procemng
F. Which of the following type» of software do you plan to purchase for your Amiga?
Téléphoné ( )
CIRCLE NUMBERS FOR MORE INFORMATION
G 1. Education
? 2 Word Processing C 3. Utilities
C 4 Database
G What is your âge?
G 1 L’nder 18
? 2. IH-24
H Whai ts your éducation level? G !. Grade School G 2 High School
? 5. Home Management G 6. Business
? 7. Stock Market Analysis G 8. Tax Préparation
? 9. Entertainment
? 10. Other (Please Specify).
? 5 50-64 _ 6 Over 63
? 3. 25-34
? 4 33-39
lj 3. Attcndcd Collège O 4 Graduated Collège
_ 5 Some Graduate School G 6. Post Graduaie School
! What is your annual household income?
? I. Us» than 515.0(H) G 2. 515-S 19.999
? 3 S20-S24.999
? 4. S25-J29.999
? 5. 530-534,999 G 6. $ 35-549.999
8 $ 75-599.999
9 Over S 100.000
J. What i» vour occupation?
? I Engineer.Ncientisi
? 2. Middic Management C S Professional
C 7. Student G 8. Sales G 9, Secretar»
G 4 Top Management G 5. Technician G 6. Rctired
K. Is this your copv of AmigaWorld?
? I Yes C 2 No
L If you are not a subscrtber. Please cifdc 499.
M ff vnu would like a une year subscription to AmigaWorld (Six Issues), please circle 500 on the Reader Service Card Each subscription coïts 514.97
(Canada & Mexico $ 17 97. Foreign Surface 534 97. One year only) Fleaie allow 10-12 week» for delivery.
ATTN: Reader Service Dept.
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ATTN: Reader Service Dept.
P. O. Box 363 Dalton, MA 01227
I want to
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Ifs the lowest subscription offer you‘11 ever find for AmigaWorld. . .the new computer magazine for users oi the newest C()m mode>re coin puter.
• AmigaWorld. ., the only Amiga-specific magazine on die market. Ifs as fresh and dazzling as the computer itselI1.
• AmigaWorld... where expert authors will lead you through the exciting and revolutionary features of the Amiga!
• AmigaWorld.. . Helping you discover and utilize a whole new world of computer graphies and sound s!
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save 25% off the basic rate. Enter my one year subscription (6 issues) to AmigaWorld for the low charter subscription price of S 14.97. ïf I’m not satisfied at any time, I will receive a full refund no questions asked!
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save 25% off the basic rate. Enter my one year subscription (6 issues) to AmigaWorld for the low charter subscription price of $ 14.97. If fm not satisfied ai any time, i will receive a full refund no questions asked!
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It s the lowest subscription of fer youTl ever find for A miga World. . . The new computer magazine for users of the newcst Commodore computer.
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• A miga World... where expert au t hors will Icad you through the exciting and révolutionary features of the Amiga!
• AmigaWorid,., hclping you discover and utilize a whole new world of computer graphies and sounds!
• AmigaWorid.. .because créative computing was never so exciting and easy!
Get 1 Year (Six Issues)
Of Amiga World At The Spécial Introductory Rate Of $ 14.97 That’s25% Off The Basic Subscription Price!
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YOU’VE ALWAYS HAD A LOT OF COMPETITION. NOW YOU CAN HAVE AN UNFAIR ADVANTAGE.
Amiga's 4 channeis of stereo give you a sound advanîage.
“CsSl3 =*- -
Nobody eversaîd it was going to be easy. But it just got easier. Now there's Amiga.™ The first and only computer to give you a Creative edge. Amiga mates you look better, sound better, work faster and more producîiveiy.
You can'' buy a computer at any price that has ail of Amiga's features. Nor can you ftnd one thafs easier to use. Amiga iets you point ot symbols instead of learning complicated commands.
Amiga is friendiy, but ifs a power- house, too. It has twice the memory of Macintosh™ or IBM® PC. It cosîs iess than either of them and can do every- fhing they can do, better.
No other personal computer gives you over 4,000 colors, stereo sound and incredible dimension, imagine the advantage of preparing business présentations with color graphies and sophisticated animation righr on your computer.
Need to make Creative use of your îime? Amiga can do as many as four or five things at once in separate Windows on the screen. Not just display them. Work on them. No other personal computer can.
Amiga is IBM-compatible, too. A simple piece of software teaches Amiga to emulafe the IBM operating system, so you can run most IBM programs. You'l! Have instant access to the largest library of business software in the world, inciuding favorites like Lotus®
1,2,3, and dBase.3
And Amiga is endlessly expandable and adaptable. You can plug in printers (almost any kïnd), modems, musical keyboards, extra disk drives. You can even expand the memory to a whopping 8 megabytes with an opîiona expansion module.
See an Authorized Amiga Dealer near you. And don't wait. Your compétition is gaining on you. Is that fair?
Amiga by Commodore.
AMIGA GIVES YOU A CREATIVE EDGE.
Amiga i$ a tracemark of Commûdare-Amiça inc v Macintosh is a irademark licensed ro Apple Computer. Inc. » IBM is a regisrereü iredemerk of international Business Machines inc Lotus s c regisiered tredemerk of Lorus Develooment Corporation » dBase is a recistereü Trademcrk of Ashîcn-Tore inc £ T985. Commodore Eiecrronics Limited
A Draf ting and CAD Tool for the Amiga "
Aegis Development, Inc. brings creativ- ity to your fingertipsî Use Aegis Draw1" to create accurate and detailed drawings of anything your mind can imagine and then transfer those images to plotters, printers, and other output devices. Aegis Draw was designed specifically for the Amiga and takes advantage of ail the unique and powerful graphies capabilities that make this computer so spécial. You may work on several drawings at the same time using différent Windows. You may zoom in on an image or open a new win- dow to observe détail while keeping the overall view of the drawing. Accuracy for a drawing is almost unlimited with accuracy far greater than 2,000,000,000 points! Flexible? Sure! Mark an image and store it, delete it, scale it, rotate it, whatever! Aegis Draw puts you in charge!
Aegis Draw also supports layering of a drawing you may break up a drawing into various components allowing ail or selected pièces of the layers to appear. A house plan can be broken into electrical, plumbing, and structural layers. The layers can appear in différent colors, overrid- ing the colors of the individual graphie éléments,
Mouse, Keyboard, orTàblet input with pull down menus is provided. Aegis Draw allows you to set the physical scale for the output device, and create scaled drawings for architecture, electrical or structured engineering, and related CAD documents. Plotting can occur in back- ground mode allowing you to keep work- ing on other drawings. Plotters from HP, Epson, Comrex, and others are supported.
Mistakes? Accidentai deletion can be reversed using the UNDO function.
Expand your creativity by passing your Aegis Draw image into a paint system such as Aegis Images “ to add flare and solid image fills. Ail Aegis products use the Amiga standard IFF file format for easy data file exchange.
So, if you are serious about your Amiga computer, don’t you think you owe it to yourself to get the most out of it? With Aegis Draw, your investment can last a lifetime. See your dealer today and ask for a complété démonstration!
P. S. Don’t let your friends use Aegis Draw you'll never get your computer back if you do!
For the dealer nearest you, call 1-213-306-0735
2210 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 277 Santa Monica, CA 90403
Aegis Draw isa trademark of The Robert Jacob Agency DIV The Next frontier Corp
Amiga is a trademark of Commodore 3usiness Machines. Epson isa trademark of Epson America Comrex is a trademark of Comrex International.
Circle 12 on Reader Service card.
miga Software Scramble! We've been working fcverishly to compile this up-to-the-minute list of outstanding Amiga software. The courier is waiting for our ad manager to place the very latest discoveries in this ad so she can deliver it mere nanoscconds ahead of dead- linc. Yet, we know that no matter how close we eut it, we’ll have found many more by the rime you read this ad over two months from today! Isn’t therc some way we can tell you about these fantasric discoveries?
There is! Ail you have to do is cal! Our toll-free lines and ask about current priccs and availability. If you see
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