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I decided to make it 100% Amiga, for and about the Amiga only. A powerful computer like the Amiga deserves a 2400 baud modem, which I am using. After I bought the modem, it took about three weeks to get the extra phone line installed and to properly set up in order to go on line. On March 1 Oth, 1986, I opened my electronic doors and the Amiga Mouse Users Group (A.M.U.G.) was born. It was not long before I discovered that I wasn't alone, there were several other Amiga BBS's already. I was in for many more pleasant surprises from that day onward. Public Domain Paradise There is an amazing amount of Public Domain software for the Amiga and one way to access it, is by modem. You may say, "Public Domain? If it was any good someone would have sold it." This is simply not true. The Amiga presents a challenge to programmers. The attraction to Amiga's features is incredible. Many programmers want to share their accomplishments, so they release their software creations to the Public Domain. There are literally hundreds of useful utilities, games, new Dos commands, and productivity software programs just waiting for you on a local BBS. If art or music is your cup of tea, you can find more picture and song files than you will know what to do with. In addition to all of this software, you will also find new fonts, languages, printer drivers for printers that are not on the Dos disk and exciting demos of soon to be released products. If that is not enough, the educational benefit of owning a modem is highly valuable. If you have a question about anything that has to do with using or programming the Amiga, you will most likely be able to find the answer through a message left on an Amiga BBS. BBS VS. Telecommunications Service When you have a modem you have many choices of where to call. As of this writing there are over 250 Amiga related BBS telephone numbers in the A.M.U.G. BBS list. BBS's are located all over the U.S. and Canada. There are also telecommunication services such as People Link and Compuserve which have extensive Amiga sections.
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A VizaWrite brings desktop publishing to the AMIGA!! Combine pictures from your favorite “Paint" program into a document, reduce or enlarge pictures at any time and then print it!! For high quality presentation of both text and graphics.
¦ VizaWrite supports all AMIGA proportional and fixed-width fonts. 'I rue proportional layout gives instant pixel accuracy to margins, tabulations and justification. Sw-itch fonts at any time - underline, italic, bold, and superscript subscript all show: on-screen as they will print.
¦ VizaWrite is extremely easy to use. We’ve made sure that our software is presented in a logical and natural way. Using pull-down menus, requestor boxes, and mouse selection of activities combine to make document preparation more effective and enjoyable.
¦ VizaWrite is well behaved, allowing you to use the multi-tasking capabilities and run several programs simultaneously.
VizaWrite is broad minded, allowing you to include text from Textcraft. Pictures from Graphicraft, Deluxe Paint ® ami most oilier products.
VizaWrite comes ready to run. No installation of the software is required and will run in 256K of RAM on one or more drives.
Comes supplied with Workbench 1.2 and requires Kickslart 1.2 or greater.
¦ Because VizaWrite is well behaved, it supports all peripherals, such as hard disk subsystems, as long as they are similarly well-behaved.
¦ Automatically sets text into pages while editing. Text is always shown as “What you see is what you get."
¦ Headers and footers show' at the top and bottom of each page; they can be one or more lines and have their own font style and margins.
¦ Ruler lines control page layout. Margins, tabulations, justification and line spacing are all adjustable using the icons on the ruler line. Rulers can be introduced anywhere in the document. Rulers can be hidden from view, if required.
Move between pages instantly: no waiting for disk accessing - select any page to work on.
¦ Copy, cut and paste bv highlighting text with the mouse.
¦ Move around the text by pointing with the mouse or by using the cursor keys. Scroll through the document, forwards or backwards.
Edit and save any standard ASCII file. All character codes above the space character can be used in a document. Supports all international characters.
¦ VizaWrite documents retain pertinent information when saved - such as author, creation date, notes, alteration count etc. ¦ Open as many documents onto the screen as will fit into memory. VizaWrite uses memory extremely efficiently, and works with the AMIGA operating system in the standard way.
S Mail merge from a standard ASCII file with configurable item delimiters.
Alternatively, mail merge from a VizaWrite document, where each name and address is held in its own page.
¦ Optional configuration file permits the varying of many operation defaults, such as standard document size, screen colors, margins, tab stops, etc. ¦ Document history window, used to log author’s name, creation date, amended date, etc. Shows document statistics, such as word and sentence counts.
Glossary' system permits single-keystrokes recall of frequently used phrases. This is inserted directly into the document at the current typing position, instantly.
¦ Supports fixed-width font printing on any preferences-selected printer. Supports proportional printing on certain printer types only (this is a limitation of the printers). Recommended dot-matrix printer is NEC PINWRITER P6 P7, recommended daisywheel is J U K16100 or any D1ABLO compatible. HP LaserJet is the recommended laser printer using the “F” font cartridge. The AMIGA proportional screen fonts are printed in high resolution on supported dot-matrix printers. Daisy-wheel users can use proportional print-wheels to print out documents laid out using the proportional screen fonts.
VizaWrite AMIGA now forms the nucleus of a complete desktop publishing system that Viza is developing for the Commodore AMIGA. Intuitive, simple, fast and powerful software - just what your AMIGA deserves.
WYZK SOFTWARE Create your own hard drive system Buy Components Separately 799* Hard Drive only 20-Meg SCSI Hard Drive $ 999 Full AutoConfig Full Pass-Through out of Amiga expansion port Controller Supports 7 additional devices Internal Power Supply Faster than any comparably-priced drive 299 95 Controller mm" Amiga Laser Printing Software s6995 Works with Hewlett Packard LaserJet1’ or compatible laser printer Hundreds of Fonts available (starter typeface included) Works with Textcraft™ & Scribble™ JetSet Fonts s4995 to s9995 Complete Typeface in each package (e.g. italic, bold italic, bold,
demi-hold, regular in variety of sizes) Selection Includes.. .Times ¦ Triumvirate ITC Souvenir ¦ Old English ¦ Unical Commercial Script ¦ Dorn Casual ITC Benguiat Bold ¦ Broadway Globe Gothic Outline ¦ Borders Symbols ¦ ITC Dingbats ITC Souvenir Greek Math ITC Times Greek Math. And many, many more.
¦ Full AutoConfig Compatibility ¦ Works with all popular Amiga software aMEGA Board ’549 4 195 Million Bytes of RAM Pass-Through for future expansion 6-Month parts & labor warranty Available NOW at Amiga Dealers!
T; Ltd. 723 East Skinner Wichita, KS 67211 (316) 267-6321 TIME LORDS: An immortal race of beings responsible for protect- Play the pan of a Time Lord in this imaginative new ing the temporal balance of the universe from chaos series of role-playing adventures. Alien Fires Part and destruction. 1,2199 AD, is now ready to take you into the distant future, in search of a great man and an awesome Alien Fires uses every ounce of the Amiga’s power device capable of twisting the very fabric of time itself, to create a state-of-the-art visual and aural sensation, with colourful full-screen 3
dimensional For the dealer nearest you, computer graphics, digitized music and a call toll-free: sound effects. It is an experience of incred- .. I 1-800-267-1904 ible realism and sophistication that takes !; rl) Dealer inquiries invited you through time and space to a new ( liP dimension in entertainment.
PH MetaScope $ 95.00 MetaScribe $ 85.00 MetdFools $ 69.95 DosDisk $ 49.95 MetaScope.- MetaScope gives you everything you've always wanted in an application program debugger:
• Memory Windows Move through memory, display data or
disassembled code live, freeze to preserve display and allow
• Other Windows Status windows show register contents and program
state with freeze and restore: symbol, hunk, and breakpoint
windows list current definitions.
• Execution Control Breakpoints with repetition counts and
conditional expressions; trace lor all instructions or
subroutine level, both single-step and continuous execution.
E Full Symbolic Capability Read symbols from fileB. Define ones, use anywhere.
For text selection, common ¦ - - - ¦ n&£ oWaMf svellimited bhlv ‘i glii.,,, portions ofthesamefileatone time.
Metadigm products are designed to fully utilize the capabilities of the Amiga™ in helping you develop your programs. If you're programming the Amiga, you can't afford to be without them.
Ft programthat lets yduaccess PC-DOS MS-DOS™ diskettes on your Amiga. Use it to list file information and copy files . 4 between the PG8QqjN&tfM 1 diskettes and ftndgd s&bttes or : devices. Patterns can be used for file names, and you, can even i operate on all files in a directory at one time. A copy option converts sourcef' “ " the copy is performed.
1 relational, all assembler number formats. ' ' " ’ i.;; ' 1 ¦;. I- ; e Direct to Memory Assembler | Eater instruction statements for direct conversion to code in memory
• and Morel ' ¦ -:'j (California residents,.
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• Powerful ExpressionEvaluation Dealer Inquiries Welcome DosDisH
jta!gais ti MS'DOS le a trodemark of Microsoft, Incorporated ;
¦ Publisher: Joyce Hicks Circulation Manager: Doris Gamble
Assistant to the Publisher: Robert James Hicks Traffic Manager:
Robert Gamble Managing Editor: Don Hicks Assistant Editor:
Ernest P. Viveiros Jr.
Hardware Editor: Ernest P. Viveiros Amicus & Technical Editor: John Foust Music Editor: Richard Rae Art Director: Keith Conforti Assistant Advertising Manager: John David Fastino Production Manager: MarkThibault Amazing Authors Ervin Bobo Bryan Catley John Foust Don Hicks Kelly Kauffman Perry Kivolowitz George Musser Jr.
Steven Pietrowicz RickWirch & The Bandito Special Thanks to: Robert H. Bergwall RESCO, Inc.
E. P.V. Consulting New England Technical Services Software
Supermarket Advertising Sales & Editorial 1-617-678-4200
Amazing Computing™ (ISSN 0886-9480) is published by PiM
P. O. Box 869, Fall River, MA. 02722.
Subscriptions: in the U.S. 12 Issues for $ 24.00; Canada and Mexico, $ 30.00; Overseas, $ 35.00. Printed in the U.S.A. Copyright© 1986 by PiM Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.
First Class or Air Mail rates available upon request.
PiM Publications, Inc. maintains the right to refuse any advertising Amazing Computing™ Amazing Contents Volume 2 Number 3 The Amiga 2000™ by John Foust A First look at the new high end computer of the Amiga™ line.
The Amiga 500™ by John Foust A look at the new low priced addition to the Amiga family An Analysis of the New Amiga Pcs by John Foust John speculates on the Amiga 500™ and the Amiga 2000™ Gemini Part II by Jim Meadows The concluding article on two-player games Subscripts and Superscripts in AmigaBASIC by Ivan C. Smith Screen display of superscripts and subscripts for physics, chemistiy, etc. The Winter Consumer Electronics Show by John Foust New PageSteerwith PostScript, Aegis Diga!, and much MORE!
AmigaTrix by Warren Block Those little shortcuts that make using the Amiga™ easier Intuition Gadgets by Harriet Maybeck Tolly A journey through gadget-land using C lRml®w®aaa Shanghai by Keith M. Conforti The ancient game of Mah-Jongg comes to the Amiga Chessmaster 2000 & Chessmate by Edwin V. Apel, Jr.
Two good chess programs fordiffemt playing abilities Zing! From Meridian Software by Ed Bercovitz A third option in operating environments Forth! By Jon Bryan Get stereo sound into your Forth programs.
Assembly Language on the Amiga™ by Chris Martin The first article of a new AMAZING column on 68000 assembly language Roomers bytheBandito Genlocks are finally shipping, and MORE!!!
AmigaNotes by Richard Rae Hum Busters... "No stereo? Y not?..." Speaking of schematics... The AMICUS Network by John Foust "CES, user group issues and Amiga Expo" From the Editor 3 Amazing Mail 6 Public Domain Software Catalog 90 Index of Advertisers 96 From The Editor: The Amazing New Machines?
With this issue, Amazing Computing™ is witnessing the growth of the Amiga™ line by 200 percent. The addition of The Amiga 500™ and Amiga 2000™ should assure the growth and stability of the Amiga software and hardware support market.
As Amiga owners, the growth of the Amiga is always our best wish and for a very selfserving reason, we have a substantial investment in this machine. Most of us have a financial investment in our hardware and software. However, there is also the considerable emotional investment that every computer owner applies to their machine of choice. Computers are tools, but somehow, computer users tend to become attached to a paticular type or manufacturer and Brand Loyalty becomes the call word.
Commodore Business Machines displayed the new Amiga 500™ and the Amiga 2000™ to a closed group of people at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show (CES). At the time, the few people who were allowed to view the machine, signed a "non-disclosure agreement". This piece of paper promised Commodore that no one would release information about the new machines until Commodore agreed.
This treatment of a new machine is to orchestrate press release information for the most dramatic effect. This is not wrong. It is intended to give the public access to the greatest amount of information available on the new product. Newspapers can show a quick story as soon as the announcement is made and magazines can then follow with a good hard look at the specifications and potential of the new machine.
The reason for allowing some publications access to the information early is to time the "breaking" of the story so that it reaches all readers at the same time. This is the theory.
Our first view of the Amiga 2000™ was at CES. John Foust covered the show because Commodore was there and were rumored to be showing a new entry. John took as many pictures as he could and talked with the representatives from Commodore. Amazing Computing™ later contacted Commodore and were given a great deal of insight and help through the offices of Gall Wellington and David Haynie. We were even supplied with the stock photos of the two new machines.
At the time, we were told that the Amiga 2000™ information release date was to be late February and the Amiga 500™ information was to be held.
We were faced with a problem. We had an issue that would either contain the information on the new machines and be three weeks late or release the issue on time without the new machine information. The announcement would then appear in our following issue of Amazing Computing a week or more after the official release date. Faced with holding an issue for three weeks, we went with our previouse issue less the Amiga information.
Imagine our surprise when a publication accidently shipped their issue two weeks in advance. A flurry of telegrams were issued by the publication to stop the distribution, but the genie was free of the bottle. The mistake earned the publication the title "most sought".
As this is the last piece supplied to the printer, let me say that we are still several days from the "official" announcement date and I have already seen the Amiga 2000™ information in three major sources. These sources were apparently supplied machines several months ago. One major publication was allowed hand on access for two weeks.
Now, befor anyone begins to feel that I am yelling foul, let me remind you that these publications make no mention of the Amiga 500™. The reason is simple, when those issues went to press, the Amiga 500™ information had not been released. Due to the unusual activity, Commodore decided to release the Amiga 500™ informatbn at the same time as the Amiga 2000™ release.
However, only Amazing Computing™ has the information in print (to the best of our knowledge); we were saved by our lead time.
The real loser in this is Commodore. By the time the newspapers have access to the release, the story will already be passed through the newstands in magazines. Newspapers tend to stick to "news" and if they have a choice between reworking the story of the Amiga 2000 or following another hot new machine, they will follow the latter. The careful orchestration of press information by Commodore could fall apart.
We at Amazing Computing™ are a little upset at the lack of time we were allowed with the equipment. In truth, we understand why Commodore would rather spend time and effort with the larger, higher circulated periodicals. It just makes good business sense. There is even a point for working with the non Amiga specific magazines; that is how one attracts new users.
Amazing Computing™ will continue to provide the Amiga user with the most current and factual information. We feel that the last few weeks have made Commodore aware that Amazing Computing™ should be acknowledged and offered the same advanced notice as some other publications.
As I look at the Amiga 500™ and Amiga 2000™, I am greatly impressed with Commodore's continued development of products in the Amiga line. However, Commodore has devebped other great hardware projects which were a good time in coming to the market place. As we see these announcements, we are told that the machines will be available sometime between March and June. I can not wait, I think these machines will do wonders for the entire line, but it is a bng time until June.
Managing Editor, Don Hicks
P. S. A special Thank you is extended to Cathy Mallinger and
Cardinal Software for the use of their Amiga schematic on our
Latticed C Compiler $ 225.00 Software designed for AMIGA.
New version 3.1 of the AMIGA DOS C Compiler replaces version
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assembler, a faster linker and version 3 MS-DOS.
With more than 30,000 users worldwide, Lattice C Compilers set the industry standard for MS-DOS software development.
Lattice C gives you all you need for development of programs on the AMIGA. Lattice C is a full implementation of Kernighan and Ritchie with the ANSI C extensions and many additional features.
Professional Latticed C Compiler $ 3 75.00 A new product called the Professional Lattice C Compiler is now available. It includes the C Compiler package (complete with TMU), plus LMK, LSE and the Metascope Debugger.
AMIGA C Cross Compiler $ 500.00 Allows AMIGA development on your MS-DOS system. Price includes the Professional Lattice C Compiler described above.
Lattice Screen Editor (LSE™) $ 100.00 Designed as a programmer’s editor, Lattice Screen Editor (LSE) is fast, flexible and easy to learn. LSE's multi-window environment provides all the editor functions you need including block moves, pattern searches and “cut and paste.” In addition, LSE offers special features for programmers such as an error tracking mode and three Assembly Language input modes. You can also create macros or customize keystrokes, menus, and prompts to your style and preferences.
Lattice dBC III™ Library $ 150.00 The dBC III library lets you create, access and update files that are compatible with Ashton-Tate’s dBASE system. DBC Ill's C functions let you extend existing dBASE applications or allow your users to process their data using dBC III or dBASE III.
Lattice Text Utilities (TMU™) $ 75.00 lattice Text Utilities consists of eight software tools to help you manage your text files. GREP searches files for the specified pattern. DIFF compares two files and lists their differences.
EXTRACT creates a list of file names to be extracted from the current directory. BUILD creates batch files from a previously generated file name list. WC displays the number of characters and optionally the checksum of a specified file. ED is a line editor which can utilize output from other TMU software in an automated batch mode. SPLAT searches files for a specified character string and replaces every occurrence with a specified string. And FILES lists, copies, erases or removes files or entire directory structures which meet the specified conditions.
Lattice Unicalc® Spreadsheet $ 79-95 Unicalc is a simple-to-operate program that turns your AMIGA computer into an electronic spreadsheet. Using Unicalc you can easily create sales reports, expense accounts, balance "sheets, or any other reports you had to do manually.
Unicalc offers the versatility you’ve come to expect from business software, plus the speed and processing power of the AMIGA.
• 8192 row by 256 column processing area • Comprehensive context-
sensitive help screens • Cells can contain numeric, algebraic
formulas and titles • Foreign language customization for all
prompts and messages • Complete library of algebraic and
• Dual window capabilities • Floating point and scientific
notation available • Complete load, save and print capabilities
• Unique customization capability for your every application •
Full compatibility with other leading spreadsheets • Full menu
and mouse support.
Lattice MacLibrary ™ $ 100.00 The Lattice MacLibrary™ is a collection of more than sixty C functions which allow you to quickly and efficiently take advantage of the powerful capabilities of the AMIGA.
Even if your knowledge of the AMIGA is limited, MacLibrary can ease your job of implementing screens, windows and gadgets by utilizing the functions, examples and sample programs included with the package.
Other MacLibrary routines are functionally compatible with the most widely used Apple® Macintosh™ Quickdraw Routines™, Standard File Package and Toolbox Utility Routines enabling vou to rapidlv convert vour Macintosh programs to run on the AMIGA. " ' Panel™ $ 195.00 Panel will help you write your screen programs and layer your screen designs with up to ten overlapping images. Panels screen layouts can be assigned to individual windows and may be dynAMIGAlly loaded from files or compiled into a program. Panel will output C source for including in your applications. A monitor and keyboard
utility is also included to allow you to customize your applications for other systems.
With Lattice products you get Lattice Service including telephone support, notice of new products and enhancements and a 30-day money- back guarantee. Corporate license agreements available.
Lattice, Incorporated Post Office Box 3072 Glen Ellvn, Illinois 60138
(312) 858-7950 TWX 910-291-2190 Lattice Amazing Mail: A One Meg
Precaution: Dear AC: Your magazine is greatl Keep up the
I especially enjoyed the recent memory addition article in Volume 2 Number 1. It worked fine on the first try for the first Amiga™ to which it was added. The second Amiga™, however, was a different story; frustration has reigned supreme.
This note may alert other would-be hackers to check their Amiga™ mother boards prior to attempting the internal memory addition.
Basically the trouble is that there apparently is at least two separate column address strobe decoding schemes used in different versions of the Amiga™. The schematic published on page 76 of the Amazing Computing™ article differs significantly from that schematic published by Cardinal Software. The basic difference between the two is that the DRA8 and the DRA8 delayed inputs are reversed to the 74F399 selector chip and the bit 0 and bit 1 outputs of the 74F399 to the 74F138 decoder chips are reversed. The significance of this is more than just apparent reversal as a 74F399 chip logic selection
is made between A18 and DftA8 on the Cardinal Schematic while the selection is between DRA8 and A17 on the schematic of Amazing Computing™.
If the Amiga™ happens to be one corresponding to the Cardinal Schematic, attempts to install the memory addition are characterized as follows:
1. With the upgrade installed, everything deceivingly boots up
fine as long as only the bottom rows of memory are added and
the "addmem" is not called.
2. If the top (piggyback) rows of memory are installed, one can
not even get to the kickstart screen. These are the same
memory chips that work fine in another Amiga™.
3 When the addmem is called (with the bottom rows on memory only installed), the operation is perfromable only for 80000 to 9ffff. "Addmem" responds by informing that 128K of memory was successfully added. Any operation of any kind after that crashes the system to GURU.
4. Investigation shows that with no memory installed and when
"addmem" is called, a pulse does occur on pin 10 of the
5. Underthe conditions of (4) above, a pulse does occur on pin 11
of both 74F138 chips, but not on pins 7,9 & 10 of these chips.
I would be most obliged if Chris Erving could comment on these apparent differences and publish a "fix" to the problem.
Sincerely, Max Yoder Falls Church, VA We are forwarding a copy of this to Chris, but we did not want to wait to place your letter in this issue.
From Japan Dear Amazing Computing™, Greetings from Okinawa, Japan. I am a member of the newly formed Amiga™ users group here.
Our group would like to have the capability to diskcopy to more than one external drive at a time. Marauder 2 is capable of handling the software task.
My question is: Where can we buy a power supply to power df2 and df3 (31 2 drives)? So far I haven’t read anything about this piece of hardware. Does Commodore-Amiga™ market one? Do you need one for each drive? Any help that you can provide will be greatly appreciated.
Keep up the good work!
Brian Cline APO San Francisco, CA Check out the Advertisement from BCD in this issue. Jim Black has developed a double drive cable and power supply for useonDF2andDF3. It works and is in use by PiM Publications for duplicating our Public Domain Software library.
Bird Sounds From Peru „ Dear AC: It seems as though you encourage reader participation, so I shall try not to disappoint you. My primary interest in computing is the composition of electronic music, mostly a melange of mid- Stockhausen (as dated as it may seem), definitely NOT keyboard synthesizer music (although the lure of the Amiga™ is messing with my resolution in this direction).
I am presently trying to convert as much material written on and for the C-64 as possible. Also I am writing a number of utilities to be used with (on) sound samples. As yet, I have not made enough progress in 'C' to write in it, so most of these are in AmigaBasic. It is very frustrating, as I am used to fairly direct entry assembler language (using a line assembler HesMon) on the C-64. So far I miss this immediacy with the Amiga™, but I am sure that with a bit of time I'll pick it up.
I have been sampling several tapes of bird songs of the south eastern jungle of Peru, and I now have some 200 samples in three formats -1) regular FutureSound
2) Iff format and 3) Mimetics format (though little difference
exists between this and '2' - the envelope is filled in.). I
will try to distill one disk of choice noises which could be
made available to those interested. I can assure you that any
imaginative musician could go far with some of the sounds
produced by jungle animals.
I have a request to make of anyone out there. None of my friends in the States are interested in computers so I lack a pen-pal, as it were, in this area. I am most concerned at the moment about the eventual update to the Kickstart and Workbench disks. I would be most appreciative if I could find a correspondent who at the least could drop me a card when (and if?) The updates come out, and perhaps help me to get them. I am also interested in any news of the EA Deluxe Music Construction Set.
Also, has anyone considered what the destination of the music that is produced on the Amiga™? I am sure some of it is for commercial distribution, but the music that isn't - would it be possible to create a Expansion Memory Without The Wait Introducing Alegra: The Amiga Memory Expansion Unit from Access Associates.
512 K now.
Now you can add 512 K bytes of external memory to your Amiga. In the smallest package available, a footprint only 3 4"-wide. And Alegra’s no-wait-state design lets your Amiga operate at its intended speed. No delays. With Alegra you get the benefit of fast memory at a surprisingly economical price. AND, BEST OF ALL, IT’S AVAILABLE NOW.
Upgradeable to 2 MB later.
If you’ll need 2 MB of memory in the future, Alegra is still the right choice now.
Our 2 megabyte upgrade (using 1 megabit DRAMs) will give you the memory you need in the same compact package.
Ask for Alegra at your quality Amiga dealer.
[ACCESS ASSOCIATES 491 Aldo Avenue Santa Clara, CA 95054-2303 408-727-8520 series of 'samplers' in different formats of various subscribers works? There’s really no reason in many cases to transfer music from the computer to tape (i.e. instead of records and cassettes - produce the actual data of the music).
Well, that's all I can manage for right now except to thank you folks again, your magazine is greatly desired.
H. M. Elder Ollanta Sound Casilla 231 Cuzco, Peru, S.A. We are
breaking a long standing rule and printing your adddress. I
hope you get a few good letters.
Where are the Ads?
Dear Amazing Computing™: Can you tell me what is happening? Last Christmas when I saw hardly any Amiga™ ads I thought Commodore was missing the boat. This Christmas I saw no ads for the Amiga™ at all: the Amiga™ is hardly mentioned any more in articles. The Apple dominates the market, now the Atari ST is getting a lot of software for its MIDI capabilities, which is exactly why I bought my Amiga™. They bragged about its sound potential. What potential? It's not happening I What is going on at Commodore with the Amiga™. If they aren't doing anything to sell or push it, it seems to me that it
will die, leaving us high and dry. I wish the magazines that support the Amiga™ would address this matter, and call Commodore to account in some form, if only out of consideration for all the Amiga™ fans who have had such faith in it. Or am I the only one becoming disillusioned?
Waiting, watching, worrying.
Would you mind publishing a list of the best beginning manuals for the Amiga™ or if there is a software package that would teach one to program in it, and in AmigaBasic?
Warner Jepson San Francisco, CA Your lament has been echoed by Amiga fans all over the country. Although Commodore has not flooded the airwaves with advertising support for the Amiga™ (maybe William Shatner is busy), they have announced the two new machines on our front cover. The Amiga 500™ and the Amiga 2000™ show a definite support policy by Commodore. However, announcing a product and distributing it are two entirely different matters (remember Sidecar™ for the US). Cross your fingers.
On the second matter, our next issue will be presented with the beginner in mind (of course there will also be a few more advanced topics). Our hope is that we can "review" a few items for our readers and encourage them to continue to develop a richer understanding of the Amiga™.
From Disk Despair to Disk Repair.
Dear AC; Well I did it. And with no back-up. It wouldn't have been so bad, but the disk contained over 600K. I had just finished editing a new disk ICON for my disk and everything seemed alright. When I removed my disk and put it back in the drive again to see how the new ICON looked, all I got was a software error, and the system went down and I died.
1 could not get anything to work as each time the system tried to read the ICON.info, it went down. My son Paul was upstairs and I asked him to give me some help. He said "I'll see if I can get into the disk through CLI." Well just the regular way the system crashed when he tried to enter the disk into the drive. Then he had a good idea, maybe he could bypass the ICON.info by forcing the computer to request the disk just as it was being inserted. He typed DF1: (without pressing RETURN ). Then he put the bad disk in DF1: and immediately pressed the RETURN key. Well it worked. All he had to
do now was delete "info'' and "disk.info"from the disk and copy the disk (in CLI) to a new disk which he had INITIALIZED. It seems so easy now but at the time all I could see was a lot of hard work putting in all the programs over again. By the way, this will only work on a 2 drive system because once the disk is inserted in DF1: in CLI it cannot be removed until the copy is completed.
We're hoping that this information could be of help to someone who might just crash the system with no back-up. Now, nothing will ever keep me from having all my disks backed up again.
Sincerely, Robert Applegate Sanborn, NY Thanks tor the help Try 3D Corrections: Dear AC I have received a question from someone who got a syntax error on my TRY3D program listed in the Vol.1 Number 7 publication. It seems the font used to print the program listing does not distinguish between the number one (1) and a lower case "L" (I). The two lines affected are together on page 22, right column. It is printed as: LINE (1x,1y)-(xw,yw),colr JustMove: 1x=xw:1y=yw which will cause a syntax error if you use the number 1 to begin a variable (1x and 1y). It should read: LINE (lx,ly)-(xw,yw),colr
JustMove: lx=xw:ly=yw where a lower case L begins the variables Ix and ly.
- Jim Meadows (CS:75046,2012; PLINK:OPS321) One Megabyte Upgrade
Article ACV2.1 Corrections: There are two corrections to be
made to the One Meg upgrade article that appeared in the V2.1
issue of Amazing Computing:
1. The legend for photo 6 should have read in part". Note that
pin 3 of both 74F138's have been cut, as well as pins 11 and
12 on the 74F399 ."
2. The schematic on page 78 has two misspelled parts. The DUAGCAS
• AC* The Amiga 2000 Unveiled at the Consumer Electronics Show in
Las Vegas in January, the Amiga 2000 is now the high end
computer of the Amiga line. It is a hybrid machine. It has
characteristics of both parents: the Amiga 1000 and the
Commodore IBM PC compatible. Because it has internal sbts, it
is easy to add more memory, disk drives, or cards. One planned
card is especially exciting to many computer owners: it will
offer true PC compatibility.
In its smallest configuration, the Amiga 2000 acts like an Amiga 1000 with one megabyte of memory. At the high end, it can have internal hard disks, external floppy disks, PC peripherals and cards, all working together, running run both Amiga and MS-DOS programs at the same time.
Amiga and MS-DOS programs can be running simultaneously, on their own processors, yet they can still share data as easily as copying and moving data between windows in a word processor. The PC compatibility comes from an add-on card, called a bridge card. With the bridge card, the 2000 functions like an Amiga with a Sidecar.
The expected retail price of the standard machine is $ 1495.
This price does not include the price of a monitor or the 'bridge card.'
The Amiga 2000 is slightly taller and less wide than most Pcs, and maintains the same width as the Amiga 1000.
Three disk drive ports are stacked on the right side of the machine, two 31 2 inch disk drive ports sit above a 51 4 continued.. inch PC-style drive. The standard machine should carry one of each, leaving a blank 31 2 slot. The empty disk drive ports have removable panels, and disk drive upgrades can be performed by the user.
The layout of the keyboards of the new Amiga machines are very similar. While the Amiga 500 has a built-in keyboard, the Amiga 2000 keyboard is separate. For a full description of the keyboard layout, see the article on the Amiga 500 in this issue. The keyboard cable is connected at the front of the machine, in the area below the disk drives. The mouse ports are to the right of the keyboard connector.
Amiga and PC slots Inside the metal case, there are both Amiga and PC compatible expansion slots. The expansion slots carry electrical signals from the processor to the special-purpose circuits on cards that fit into the expansion slots. The Amiga 2000 has five 100 pin Amiga Zorro expansion slots, one 86 pin slot for a coprocessor expansion card, and four PC slots.
The Amiga slots are towards the front of the machine, running lengthwise from the front of the machine to the middle. The PC slots run lengthwise from the middle to the back of case. At the back of the case, the cards end in vertical PC-style access ports, so that a PC expansion card can extend a connector to the outside world, mounted firmly against the case. There are extra PC-style access ports for Amiga devices, as well as access ports for SCSI-size connectors.
If a bridge card is installed, it takes both an Amiga slot and an PC slot, leaving four Amiga slots and three PC slots. Slot space might go quickly in a well-configured Amiga 2000.
Because two Amiga and PC expansion slots are directly in line with each other, placing a long expansion card in one slot can block access to the other. For example, Commodore showed a eight megabyte card memory card that runs the length of the machine. With the bridge card across using one of each type of slot, the long memory card also used the space of an Amiga and a PC slot, even though it had only connected to an Amiga slot.
The gender of the parallel and serial ports has been reversed as compared to the Amiga 1000, in order to make the connectors more compatible with more commonly available PC cables. The same change was made to the connectors on the Amiga 500. Electrically, the ports are the same, so Amiga 1000 peripherals that use these ports will only need a gender-changing adapter.
Bridge card The unusual layout of the Amiga and PC expansion slots provides the key to the PC compatibility option. Two of the expansion connector slots are directly in line with each other. The bridge card fits into both an Amiga slot and a PC slot, joining the two buses. Information can be exchanged between the PC and Amiga expansion buses across the bridge board.
The Bridge card contains an 8088 processor, along with other PC support circuitry, and a slot for an 8087 numeric coprocessor. The numeric coprocessor can perform complex arithmetic much faster than the 8088 or the 68000 processors. Because of its ability to share information, the bridge card will allow the Amiga's 68000 processorto access the numeric coprocessor.
The Bridge card has 256 K of RAM memory on board available to programs, plus sockets for an additional 256K more of user-supplied memory. This memory is only useful to the PC side of the machine; the Amiga cannot use it directly. Memory is shared between the 8088 and the 68000.
A bank of 128 K of dual-ported video RAM provides a shared communication area between the two processors.
The Phoenix ROM BIOS low-level operating system software is used on the bridge card, as it is in all Commodore PC machines. The BIOS of a PC computer is the measure of its compatibility, and the Phoenix Software version is well known for providing the best in PC compatibility.
The Bridge card also contains a floppy disk controller which reaches out the back of the card. It does not contain any video circuitry of its own. The Amiga side provides the video output, and controls many services for the symbiont PC card. The card also has several custom chips to complete the Amiga to PC interface. In essence, this is a PC compatible computer on a card. The expected price of this card Amazing Computing ™ © 1987 PC slots Why does an Amiga machine need PC compatibility, and PC style hardware expansion slots?
Instead of waiting for Amiga versions of esoteric hardware cards, it is easier to accept the PC hardware standard, allowing Amiga users to tap into the vast base of PC hardware, yet retain full use of the features of the Amiga operating system. "That's the whole idea of the 2000. The PC bus is there to be backwards-compatible, I think. It works with history. There is a lot of electronics out there that isn't in Amiga form yet, and some of it will never be," according to Dave Haynie, a Commodore West Chester engineer on the 2000 design team.
Many computer users have highly specific applications which require equally obscure hardware. Many scientific applications require special data acquisition, and the equipment to do these measurements is made for the largest computer market today, the PC compatible. Many computer users will be attracted to PC hardware and MS-DOS software compatability coupled with the well-known graphics abilities of the Amiga A popular PC peripheral for 2000 owners will be a hard disk card. Currently, these are available in the $ 500 price range for a ten or twenty megabyte disk. The Amiga 2000 software can
share this resource between PC and Amiga programs, so this will be the most economical method for getting an Amiga hard disk. The hard disk can be partitioned for use under both MS-DOS and AmigaDOS.
80286 bridge card?
In an IBM AT-type computer, the expansion slots have an extra connector, as compared to an ordinary PC type machine. These slots are often referred to as 'sixteen-bit slots,' as compared to the 'eight-bit slots' in a plain PC. This extra connector provides an additional memory access path.
An AT machine can transfer data more quickly than an ordinary PC, because this extra connector doubles the amount of data that can be moved at one time.
Interestingly, all but one of the PC slots in the Amiga 2000 have the extra connector characteristic of an AT machine.
An eight-bit PC card works without trouble in a sixteen-bit slot, if it fits into the slot. However, some eight-bit PC cards will not fit in a sixteen-bit slot, because its circuit board might be blocked by the extra AT style connector. For this reason, one of the slots in the Amiga 2000 is the eight-bit style for cards that must fit into an eight-bit slot. Many AT-type machines have this same feature.
The presence of the sixteen-bit bus signals the expected future announcement of an AT version of the bridge card. "It doesn't exist yet, but it is certainly possible," according to Haynie. This board might be under development at this time, but it will not be available when the 2000 is first released.
The AT uses an 80286 processor that executes instructions faster than an ordinary PC, so the AT bridge card will bring even more performance to 2000 owners in the future. "This machine is going to be around for a while," said Haynie.
Memory expansion In total, the 2000 can have up to nine megabytes of memory, if eight megabytes of memory are installed in the expansion slots. The Amiga 2000 on display had an eight megabyte card installed, for a total of nine megabytes.
Commodore may produce two memory cards. These memory cards might not be introduced immediately.
Functional, production-ready boards were demonstrated at the Consumer Electronics Show. One will hold up to two megabytes, at 512 K, one and two megabyte increments.
The second dard holds up to eight megabytes, at four, six and eight megabyte increments. This uses one megabyte RAM chips. At this time, these chips are rather expensive, but prices are dropping. At current prices, a fully populated board would cost more than $ 2000.
Memory contention There are two contending designs of the Amiga 2000 at this time. One was done by Commodore engineers in Germany, the other is a modification of the German design by the Commodore engineers in West Chester, Pennsylvania.
The German 2000 motherboard design has 512 Kof CHIP memory on the motherboard. The West Chester design has one megabyte of memory on the motherboard, split as 512 K of CHIP and 512 K of FAST memory.
In the West Chester design, the CHIP and FAST memory share address bus lines. Because of this, some effective slowdown of the 68000 processor will occur. In other words, its FAST memory can be as slow as CHIP memory.
The German design adds 512 K of FAST memory on a separate card. This memory upgrade card would not see any contention from the processor, so its FAST memory is truly fast. This is the same memory upgrade card that fits into the Sidecar. The connector on the German board has two types of connectors, so it accepts both cards. In either design, FAST memory on the expansion bus will all be FAST memory.
See the article on the Amiga 500 in this issue for a more detailed explanation of this memory contention problem.
Hybrid software The Amiga 2000 software is very similar to the software in the Sidecar. The Sidecar software has been in development and testing for more than a year. The initial research and development of its features was completed with the shipment of the Sidecar, and now a new series of improvements have been added.
At the Consumer Electronics Show, a version of the software was shown that uses the clipboard to send text between AmigaDOS and MS-DOS Windows. Data can be transferred from a MS-DOS window to an Amiga program as well. The MS- DOS windows use normal clipboard calls, so they interact with programs that use the intuition clipboard such as Notepad. Because the normal CLI window doesn't use the clipboard, you cannot clip text between the CLI and MS-DOS windows.
More functions have been added to the JANUS library of functions, available to the programmers of the Sidecar and Amiga 2000. The new functions include more extensive coprocessor calls.
In one demonstration, Commodore director of marketing and product development Gail Wellington used the mouse to select an area of text from the results of a 'dir' command from an MS-DOS window, and pasted the text to the NotePad, in an Amiga window. Then, to show the transfer worked both ways, she entered the word 'dir1 in the Amiga NotePad window, clipped out just that word, and pasted it to the command line prompt in an MS-DOS window, where it executed and produced a directory of an MS-DOS format disk.
Although this was not demonstrated at CES, the latest software allows multiple Amiga windows into the same PC window, such that one window might be looking at the upper left corner of the PC display, while another looks at the lower right. In this way, Amiga windows can have different views of a single MS-DOS application window. They can be resized at will so that only important areas of the MS-DOS screen at displayed.
The Amiga 2000 was shown running the Flight Simulator and the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet, both common tests of PC compatibility. At the same time, Amiga applications were active. Because the MS-DOS program is using the 8088 processor on the bridge card, it does not slow the performance of the Amiga programs.
Disk drives The Amiga 2000 has three disk openings, two 3112 inch form factor slots, and one 51 4 inch size slot. The Amiga side can handle two internal drives and two external drives. With the PC hard disk controller, the PC side can handle four drives.
A hard disk controller card has been designed and produced in prototype quantities. It can control up to two ST-506 hard disk drives and up to four SCSI devices. This card will be sold separately, and might be expensive, according to one source.
ST-506 and SCSI are high-speed, high-capacity data transfer standards. The ST-506 interface is found on commonly available PC compatible hard disks. SCSI stands for Small Computer Standard Interface. These drives are slightly more expensive than ST-506 drives. However, unusual devices such as CD-ROM drives often have SCSI interfaces.
Macintosh Plus™ hard disks are often SCSI devices. Mac Plus hard disks often have a 25 pin D-type connector instead of the standard SCSI 50 pin connector, but this only means a different cable is needed to use a Macintosh hard disk on the Amiga 200p.
It is not clear at this point whether Commodore will sell its own line of hard disks for the Amiga 2000. Most probably, it will not, because compatible diskdrives are commonly available, and there is no reason forCommodore to compete in the cutthroat disk market. Commodore might encourage dealers to configure machines themselves, or it might offer several standard configurations of the machine.
Coprocessors On the Amiga expansion slots, a few changes were made to the bus specification. Several lines were removed. In most cases, this does not affect any present-day designs. The changes only affect a special class of expansion cards called coprocessors. A coprocessor is a smart CPU-like chip that complements the 68000 CPU by performing a highly specialized task at high speeds.
The changes prevent any coprocessing cards from working in these slots. However, the signals necessary for a coprocessor are still present in a single 86 pin coprocessing slot, apart from the other Amiga expansion slots. This slot is also referred to as the local bus.
In this regard, another difference arises between the German and West Chester designs. The West Chester coprocessor slot has two DMA acknowledge lines, while the German design has only one. There are two possible modes for the West Chester design. The first mode looks like an ordinary Zorro bus DMA request, but it is performed at the highest DMA priority, like a dumb DMA device that blocks all other DMA transfers while it is running.
The second mode asserts the second line, shutting off the 68000, and giving control of the DMA acknowledge lines to the coprocessor, so the coprocessor board becomes the bus master. There have been many ideas for boards for this slot, such as video coprocessors, or a fast 68020 processor card.
There is no standard provision for a 68881 numeric coprocessor, contrary to some rumors of the new machines.
Upgrade cards might have provisions for a numeric coprocessor. This numeric calculation accelerator could be placed on a card in the coprocessor slot. The addition of a 68881 numeric processor will increase the speed of floating point number calculations in most Amiga programs, because AmigaDOS 1.2 will automatically use the 68881 chip if it is present.
Commodore is working on a 68020 coprocessor card for the Amiga 2000. It should increase the speed of Amiga programs from four to five times. The board might also include a megabyte of its own FAST memory. Also, Computer Systems Associates is reportedly working on a version of their 68020 upgrade board for the 2000. This replaces the 68000 with a 14 Mhz 68020 processor.
Internal video slot One of the most popular applications of the Amiga is video production. The Amiga 2000 is aimed squarely at this market. It has another specialized expansion slot with this in mind. This slot can only be used by video cards. The video slot is situated near the rear right of the case. It has its own access port, so video connectors could be lead out the back of the computer.
Some products destined for this video slot will never be available for the Amiga 1000. This slot carries several video signals that are not present on the back of the Amiga 1000.
There are several advantages to this slot. Because the card is mounted inside the metal case of the computer, it is less susceptible to outside electrical interference. Also, these products will not need a case. This will reduce the cost of video peripherals. Amiga 1000 peripherals need a relatively costly shielded case. An Amiga 2000 Genlock card could be priced even lower than the Amiga 1000 Genlock, which is currently selling for about $ 300.
Commodore plans to produce an RF modulator for this slot.
Because there is no color composite video output on the 2000, an RF modulator must be used to display graphics on an ordinary television set.
The internal video slot could be used for a Genlock expansion card. Another video expansion port product currently under consideration at Commodore is a deinterlacing device, which would double the video scan rate, giving non-interlace video, thus improving the signal quality for professional video use. It would produce a flicker-free video signal, but would need to use an expensive high- bandwidth monitor that could display such a fast video signal.
The Amiga 2000 has a newer version of the Agnes custom chip, now nicknamed 'Fat Agnes.' See the Amiga 500 article in this issue from more details of the Agnes chip.
Battery-backed clock The Amiga 2000 has a battery-backed clock on the motherboard. The same type of clock is present on the 512 K memory expansion card for the Amiga 500.
This function is performed by an independent integrated circuit with its own tiny battery for a power supply. When the machine is turned off, this reserve battery will maintain its memory of the date and time for many, many months. The data is transfered as if it were stored in a memory chip. The clock chip is mapped to a memory address in a formerly unused space of repeated memory images from other custom chips.
The time will be set by a program executed in the start- sequence of the Workbench disk. This program will read the date and time from the clock calendar chip, and set the system time. Alternately, the user could set the system time, and then reset the hardware clock to that time, using the same program.
Both the Amiga 500 and Amiga 2000 might have ways to disable the 512 K FAST memory expansion. However, the clock enable line for the battery-backed clock is tied to this memory, so it might not be feasible to disable both.
Hefty power The 2000 has a 200 watt power supply, mounted over the motherboard, behind the disk drive areas. The power supply box is the length of the computer case, towards the right rear. The power connector reaches into the middle of the motherboard. This power supply is very large, when compared to most computers. Many AT-type machines have only 190 watt power supplies, and most ordinary PC power supplies are less than 100 watts.
New monitors Commodore also showed two new video monitors to complement the Amiga 500 and 2000. One can switch between RGB and composite input, and is otherwise very similar to the 1080 monitor. It is expected to sell for $ 300. It might be aimed at people upgrading from a Commodore 64 or 128, because this monitor will still work with their old computer.
Continued... AVAILABLE NOW!
Statfioand2 If you've owned your Amiga® for a while now, you know you definitely need more than 512k of memory.
You probably need at least double that amount...but you might need as much as an additional two megabytes.
We want to urge you to use StarBoard2 as the solution to your memory expansion problem -and to some of your other Amiga-expansion needs as well!
It’s small, but if s BIG- Since most of you want to expand your Amiga's memory without having to also expand your computer table, we designed StarBoard2 and its two optional "daughterboards” to fit into a sleek, unobtrusive Amiga-styled case that snugly fastens to your computer with two precision- machined jackscrews.
The sculpted steel case of StarBoard2 measures only 1.6" wide by 4.3"high by
10. 2"long. You can access the inside of the case by removing
just two small screws on the bottom and pulling it apart. We
make StarBoard2 easy to get into so that you or your dealer
can expand it by installing up to one megabyte of RAM on the
standard StarBoard2 or up to two megabytes by adding in an
This card has decks!
The basic StarBoard2 starts out as a one megabyte memory space with Ok, 512k, or one megabyte installed. If you add in an optional Upper Deck (which plugs onto the Main Board inside the case) you bring StarBoard2 up to its full two megabyte potential. You can buy your StarBoard2 with the Upper Deck (populated or unpopulated) or buy the Upper Deck later as your need for memory grows.
And you can add other functions to StarBoard2 by plugging in its second optional deck -the Multifunction Module!
If we count Fast Memory as one function, the addition of the MultiFunction Module brings the total up to five!
THE CLOCK FUNCTION: Whenever you boot your Amiga you have to tell it what time it is! Add a MultiFunction Module to your StarBoard2 and you can hand that tedious task to the battery-backed, Ml Ic fOB ot iCS I nc AM,GA is a r89istered trademark of Commodore-Amiga 811 Alpha Drive, Suite 335, Richardson, Texas 75081 (214) 437-5330 Auto-Configuring Fast RAM Zero Wait Slates User Expandable from 512k to 2 Megabytes Bus Pass- Through MultiFunction Option: batteiy clock, FPU, parity, Sticky- Disk real-time clock calendar. A small piece of MicroBotics software in your WorkBench Startup-Sequence
reads the clock and automatically sets the time and date in your Amiga. And the battery is included (we designed it to use an inexpensive, standard AAA battery which will last at least two years before needing replacement).
THE FLOATING POINT FUNCTION: If any one aspect most characterizes the Amiga it's fast graphics! Most graphic routines make heavy use of the Amiga Floating Point Library. Replacing this library with the one we give you with your MultiFunction Module and installing a separately purchased Motorola 68881 FPU chip in the socket provided by the Module will speed up these math operations from 5 to 40 times! And if you write your own software, you can directly address this chip for increased speed in integer arithmetic operations in addition to floating point math.
THE PARITY CHECKING FUNCTION: If you install an additional ninth RAM chip for every eight in your StarBoard2, then you can enable parity checking. Parity checking will alert you (with a bus-error message) in the event of any data corruption in StarBoard2's memory space. So what good is it to know that your data's messed up if the hardware can't fix it for you? It will warn you against saving that data to disk and possibly destroying your database or your massive spreadsheet. The more memory you have in your system the more likely it is, statistically, that random errors will occur.
Parity checking gives you some protection from this threat to your data residing in Fast RAM. Note that the Amiga's "chip" RAM cannot be parity checked.
THE IMMORTAL MEMORY DISK FUNCTION (STICKY-DISK): When you've got a lot of RAM, you can make nice big RAM-Disks and speed up your Amiga's operations a lot! But there's one bad thing about RAM-Disks: they go away when you re-boot your machine. Sticky-Disk solves that problem for you. It turns all of the memory space inside a single StarBoard2 into a Memory Disk that will survive a warm-reboot! When your Amiga attempts to grab a StarBoard2 in Sticky-Disk mode, a hardware signal prevents the system from acquiring the StarBoard2 as FastRAM (and thereby erasing your files) -instead it is re
recognized as a Memory Disk and its contents are preserved intact. If you want to work rapidly with large files of data that are being constantly updated (such as when developing software) you can appreciate the Sticky-Disk!
Fast RAM -no waiting!
StarBoard2 is a totally engineered product. It is a ZERO WAIT-STATE design, auto-configuring under AmigaDOS 1.2 as Fast RAM. Since AmigaDOS 1.1 doesn't support autoconfiguration, we also give you the software to configure memory in 1.1. Any applications software which "looks" for Fast RAM will "find" StarBoard2. And you'll find that your applications run more efficiently due to StarBoard2 on the bus.
A passing bus? Indeed!
What good is an Expansion Bus if it hits a dead end, as with some memory cards? Not much, we think -that’s why we carefully and compatibly passed through the bus so you could attach other devices onto your Amiga (including another StarBoard2, of course!).
The sumof the parts... A really nice feature of the StarBoard2 system is that you can buy exactly what you need now without closing off your options for future exapansion. You can even buy a Ok StarBoard2 (with a one megabyte capacity) and populate it with your own RAM (commonly available 256k by 1 by 150ns memory chips). When you add StarBoard2 to your Amiga you have a powerful hardware combination, superior to any single-user micro on the market. See your Authorized Amiga Dealer today and ask for StarBoard2 SUGGESTED RETAIL PRICING: StarBoard2, Ok (1 meg space): $ 349 StarBoard2, Ok (2 meg
space): $ 395 StarBoard2, 512k (1 meg space): $ 495 StarBoard2,1 meg (1 meg space) $ 595 StarBoard2, 2 megs installed: $ 879 StarBoard2, 2 megs & MultiFunction: $ 959 Upper Deck, Ok (1 meg space): $ 99 MultiFunction Module: $ 99 also available: Standard 256k memory card: $ 129 MAS-Drive20, 20 meg harddisk: $ 1495 MouseTime, mouseport clock: $ 50 The second monitor has a high-persistence phosphor designed for use with high resolution video modes. In a regular monitor, the image of the screen disappears quickly, because the glowing powder on the inside surface of the picture tube is designed to hold
the image for only a fraction of a second. When you turn off a television set, you might still see a ghost of the last image on the screen. This demonstrates the persistence of the phosphor in the picture tube. It still glows, even though the video signal has been removed.
In a high persistence monitor, the phosphor glows for a slightly longer time than a regular monitor. In Amiga high resolution interlace displays, only half the video image is displayed at a time, first the odd video scan lines, then the even numbered lines. Because of this, high resolution screens often have an annoying flicker, as the video signal is flashing on and off at high speeds. If the phosphors in the monitor picture tube maintain the video image for a long enough time, the flicker goes away, because the screen appears to stay brighter longer. This high persistence monitor is slightly
more expensive, at $ 500.
Production At this time, it appears both versions of the 2000 motherboard will be produced. The West Chester design is reportedly $ 5 cheaper to build than the German version. The West Chester board has one megabyte of memory on the motherboard, while the German version has only 512 K. In the German Amiga 2000, an extra 512 K memory expansion card might be supplied, to be plugged into an Amiga slot.
The preliminary FCC testing for the 2000 has begun in West Chester. If all goes according to schedule, both the Amiga 500 and Amiga 2000 should be for sale before June.
No final decision has been made about which configurations of the Amiga 2000 will be sold. The actual model sold might differ slightly from the units pictured here. The number of diskdrives present, the hard disk options, standard memory and pricing are all pending judgements of Commodore marketing executives. The base configurations may also change after initial sales figures.
Specifications of the Amiga 2000 CPU Motorola 68000 running at 7.14 Megahertz speed Custom Chips Three custom chips, the same as the onesfn the Amiga 1000, control direct memory access, screen graphics, and sound. X The graphics chip can access up to 512 K of video memory, at six bit planes, for a total of 4096 coiors in the palette. Up to sight sprites can be show on each scan line. (The Amiga 2000 has no more and no less video capabilities than the Amiga 1000. However, it does have an additional video expansion slot, see below,) RAM Memory Either 512 K or one megabyte standard, depending on
the motherboard version. Internal expansion cards can bring this up to a total of nine megabytes.
ROM Memory 256 K ROM memory holds the AmigaDOS l,2Kickstart.
Mouse One two-button opto-mechanicat mouse, with two mouse ports available for joysticks, light pens, etc. Keyboard The Amiga 2000 keyboard is separate from the computer, like the Amiga 1000. It has 95 keys, including ten function keys, and a numeric keypad with several more keys than an Amiga 1000. It closely resembles IBM compatible keyboards. The cursor keys have been moved to a reverse-T configuration. The international keyboard has extra keys.
Serial and Parallel Interlaces One RS-232 serial port, with a standard IBM-type male gender connector, and one standard Centronics parallelport,femategender connector. (Note: the gender of these connectors is the opposite of the Amiga 1000.)
Video output RGB analog, RGB-t and monochrome composite output. For RF output, a separate modulator is necessary.
The United States NTSC version has 525vertical line resolution, at 60 Hertz. The international Pat Version has 625 line resolution, at 50 Hertz, in standard text modes, this means either 60 or 80 characters per line, with up to 25 fines.
The international version can display 32 lines.
A new internal Video expansion card port has been added, allowing internal Genlock cards, RF modulators and other future video products.
Audio Two separate pseudo-stereo outputs are present, with the same audio capabilities as the Amiga 1000.
Disk drives Ports fortwo31 2 inch form factor drives, and one 51 4 inch size drive. Depending on the hardware card configurations, it can support up to fourftoppies and four hard disks.
Expansion ports The Amiga 2000 does not have an expansion port in the sense that the Amiga 1000 and 5G0 have expansion ports.
The Amiga 2000 has at least nine internal bus expansion slots instead of an external bus. Four are IBM compatible bus slots. Three or all four of these will have IBM AT-type sixteen-bit connectors, depending on final production details. There are room for five Amiga Zorro slots, plus an 86 pincoprocessorslot Two of die Amiga and IBMslots overlap. In this position the bridge card gives IBM compatibility.
Ill The Amiga 500 is the new lowjow priced addition to the Amiga family. Packaged in a matte grey case similar to the Commodore 128, it has a single internal 31 2 inch diskdrive and a slightly different keyboard. The standard Amiga 500 has 512 K of memory for graphics and programs, and is user expandable to a full megabyte internally, and externally expandable to nine megabytes, on an expansion bus similar to the Amiga 1000. It runs all Amiga 1000 software.
The expected retail price is $ 595, not including monitor.
As in the Apple lie, the internal disk drive is on the right hand side of the machine. This forces the expansion bus to the left hand side, on the opposite side, as compared to an Amiga 1000.
Yet, the Amiga 500 bus is electrically identical to the Amiga
1000. Amiga 500 expansion peripherals should appear quickly since
hardware manufacturers need only change the orientation of
the product package, not the electrical design.
The keyboard has changed slightly, as compared to the Amiga 1000. The Amiga 500 and 2000 keyboards are very similar. The numeric keypad now includes parenthesis, divide, asterisk, plus and minus keys, much more like an IBM PC numeric keypad. The number keys are grey, while the other keys are a darker grey. The front face of the keys are labeled with IBM PC style names, such as 'Pg Up' and 'Home'.
Continued.. The cursor keys are placed separately near the right shift key, in an inverted-T shape, as opposed to the diamond shape arrangement on the Amiga 1000. Larger 'Del' and 'Help' keys are placed above the cursor keys. The backspace key is reduced in size, but remains in the same location, above the return key.
Above the numeric keypad, on the right side of the case, are the power-on and disk-on lights. A Commodore 'C' logo is placed above these, in blue. The word 'Amiga' is engraved into the top of the case, in the familar Amiga logo font.
Klckstart In ROM The Amiga 500 will not need a Kickstart disk. The Kickstart program for version 1.2 of AmigaDOS is permanently stored in a read-only memory, or ROM. When the 500 is turned on, the 'please insert Workbench' screen is displayed.
In the future, if new revisions of the Amiga operating system are created, it is possible the 500 will accept the new Kickstart disks. Commodore has discussed a method allowing new or old versions of AmigaDOS to be detected if a Kickstart disk is present in the internal disk drive on power- up. The alternate Kickstart program loads into RAM memory, followed by the Workbench. In this scheme, less memory will be available for programs, but it gives the ability to run past, present and future versions of AmigaDOS, along with the possibility of using entirely new operating systems.
Memory expansion There is a harbor on the underside of the 500 for an additional 512 K of FAST expansion memory. This upgrade card will most probably be sold separately for less than $ 175. This card also holds a battery-backed clock circuit, which will set the correct time and date on startup, without user intervention. (See the article on the Amiga 2000 for a more complete description of this new feature.)
The standard Amiga 500 has 512 K of memory. This memory is CHIP memory, the type found in the front panel memory expansion in the Amiga 1000. CHIP memory is used for graphics and sound data.
With most programs, the Amiga 500 will run at the same speed as the Amiga 1000. However, due to a design difference, the Amiga 500 might be slightly slower with programs in certain graphics resolutions.
Each unit of memory in a computer has an address, like the street address of a house. The processor uses this address to retrieve or store the information in that memory location.
The address is sent from the processor to the memory chip on a circuit called a bus. The data returns on a similar bus.
All memory access takes place on buses.
In the Amiga 1000, there are separate data transfer buses for CHIP (graphics) and FAST (expansion) memory. This design increases the speed at which graphics operations can occur. The Amiga custom graphic and sound chips can only access CHIP memory.
A technique called direct memory access, or DMA, can move data at high speeds. It does this by addressing, retrieving and storing data with special-purpose circuits that access memory much faster than the 68000 processor itself. In effect, the custom chip DMA steals small amounts of time from the processor without interrupting its operation.
Only one circuit at a time can use the bus. Many times a second, the graphics chip reads the screen image from memory, and converts it to a video signal. If the graphics chip needs to retrieve an image from memory, it uses the bus, and the processor cannot use that same bus. In the Amiga 1000, there are separate buses for CHIP and FAST memory, but in the new machines, the same bus is used.
Because certain actions of the custom chips can take more memory accesses, the processor appears to slow down, because it is surrendering more and more bus access time to the custom chips.
For example, when high resolution screens with more than four colors are displayed, memory contention increases significantly, because the custom chips are accessing memory at the same time as the processor. Increasing the number of colors available on a screen means more memory is used for the video image.
To the user, it appears as if the computer is slowing down.
The movement of the mouse lags, and the program might display results more slowly than before. Any memory accesses to CHIP memory will suffer this performance degradation, because the custom chips and the 68000 processor are both trying to access the same areas of memory.
In the Amiga 500, the same buses are used for both the CHIP memory and the FAST memory expansion card in the slot underneath the machine. This design change was made to reduce the cost of the board, yet allow easy internal memory expansion.
This means that the expansion FAST memory in the 500 sees the same amount of memory access contention as the CHIP memory. In effect, the FAST memory is no longer fast - it is 'slow FAST memory.'
On the whole, an Amiga 500 with an expansion card will be no slower than an Amiga 1000 with 512 K of memory. (An Amiga 1000 without any expansion port memory has only CH IP memory.) An Amiga 1000 with expansion memory will appear slightly faster than a512 K Amiga, because the expansion memory has its own FAST bus.
Or, an Amiga with an internal expansion memory upgrade (such as the do-it-yourself version featured in a past issue of Amazing Computing) sees the same amount of contention as a one megabyte Amiga 500. This upgrade adds an extra 512 K of memory by sharing some of the CHIP memory address lines, so it sees contention in much the same way as a one megabyte Amiga 500.
Reduced power The power consumption of the Amiga 500 has been reduced, leaving less power for devices connected to the computer.
It uses an external power supply in the fashion of the Commodore 64 and 128. The 500 power supply is a cube about six inches square. The power switch for the computer is on the power supply pack, not the computer itself.
As is true of the entire Amiga line, peripherals can have their own power supplies, so the Amiga 500 is not strained by the reduced power. For example, if you wanted to add a third floppy drive, the Amiga operating system can support it, but the increased power needs of the drive would exceed the power supply ratings of the computer. This power shortage can be alleviated by adding an extra calculator-style power supply to the drive and modifying the disk drive cable.
Amiga peripherals that use the parallel port depend on a power source on a pin on this connector. At one point, rumors surfaced that the 500 would not have power on the parallel port, making it incompatible with Amiga 1000 devices such as video or sound digitizers. This was never true, according to a Commodore engineer. The Amiga 500 parallel port has always had the same characteristics as the Amiga
1000. In most cases, devices such as Digi-View will be adapted to
the Amiga 500 with a simple gender-changing adapter that
has both male and female DB-25 connectors.
Amiga 500 internal 31 2 disk drive port Port changes The Amiga 500 has an 86 pin expansion bus, electrically identical to the Amiga 1000. However, it is situated on the left hand side of the 500, and the physical characteristics of the port prevent a direct mating with current Amiga peripherals. An adapter might be possible that adapts Amiga peripherals of one machine to the other. In all other respects, the expansion buses are the same. Commodore engineers used the Amiga 1000 to develop and test Amiga 500 peripherals.
The gender of the parallel and serial ports has been reversed, as compared to the Amiga 1000, in order to make them more compatible with more commonly available IBM cables. On the Amiga 1000, the parallel and serial ports are male and female, respectively, but are female and male on the Amiga 500 and 2000.
Again, due to the change to the case design, the Amiga 500 will not physically mate with an Amiga 1000 Genlock video synchronizer. Commodore representatives would not state whether an Amiga 500 version of the Genlock will be produced. Only the case would need to be redesigned, since the Amiga 500 is otherwise very similar to the Amiga 1000 design.
Fat Agnes The Amiga 500 has a new version of the Agnes custom chip, now nicknamed 'Fat Agnes.' This new 'Fat Agnes' chip is not the much-rumored increased resolution graphics chip.
The Amiga 1000 motherboard design has an unusually large number of individual chips. This led to a high production cost. The cost of producing a board goes up depending on the number of chips on the board. Beyond the cost of the individual chips, other'considerations can raise production costs. Even the cost of drilling holes for chip pins is considered.
To tower the cost of the design, many of the chips assisting the Agnes chip were eliminated by integrating their function into the Agnes chip itself. In effect, the surrounding chips were 'pulled into' the Agnes chip. The functions of these chips were added to the circuit inside the Agnes chip.
However, this increase in function meant an increase in the number of chip pins necessary for the Agnes part, to supply electrical signals to other areas of the computer. To accomodate the increased number of pins, the Agnes chip is now square instead of rectangular.
Rumors circulated that the new machine would use a new custom graphics chip that could access more than 512 K of CHIP memory. This is not true. Both the Amiga 500 or 2000 use the same graphics chip as the Amiga 1000. The new graphics chips under development at Amiga are not used in these machines. The new chips will access at least two megabytes of CH IP memory, instead of today's 512 K, and support resolutions greater than 640 by 400 pixels.
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Two new custom chips were added to the motherboard, named Gary
and Buster. Again, these chips were created to lower the
production cost of the 500, by reducing the number of chips on
the motherboard. The Gary chip is a gate array.
Gate arrays are semi-custom chips that integrate the function of many off-the-shelf chips. A single gate array chip can replace dozens of standard chips. The Buster chip maintains bus functions. Another custom component package provides composite video output.
Production The Amiga 500 setup behind closed doors at the Consumer Electronic Show in Las Vegas in January included a SCSI hard disk, connected to a low-cost SCSI interface that plugged into the expansion bus. This device could support up to four SCSI devices. This setup on display also included a prototype inkjet printer that might be marketed by Commodore.
Two new video monitors were also shown. See the article on the Amiga 2000 in this issue for more information.
Although the Amiga 500 on display was termed a prototype, the circuit board was free of last-minute corrections. There were no circuit traces cut, no wire jumpers from one spot to another, to fix bugs in the design. These sort of changes are commonplace on incomplete designs. The conspicuous absence of this type.of correction indictates the Amiga 500 is close to production.
The Amiga 500 entered Commodore's preliminary FCC testing labs in February. At nearly the same time, engineers began a pilot production run in West Chester, on the Commodore 128 production line. A test run of about 1000 machines will work out the bugs in its manufacture. After that, production will move to Hong Kong.
If all goes according to schedule, the Amiga 500 should be available in stores before the June. Distribution will be the same as the Amiga 1000, that is, it will be available through authorized Commodore dealers.
Custom chips Three custom ehfcs, the same as the ones in the Amiga1000, control direct memory access, screen graphics, and sound. The graphics chip can access up to 512 K of video memory, at six tut planes, for atotal of 4P96colors in the palette. Up to eight sprites can be show on each scan line, (The Amiga500 has nomoreand no less video capabilities than the Amiga 1000,) RAM M$ moiy 512 K standard, internally expandable to one megabyte, This memory la CHIP memory for graphics and program data. Externally expandable on the expansion bus up to atotai of nine megabytes, Specifications of the
Amiga 500 CPU Motorola 6$ ooo running at 7.14Megahertz speed ROM Memory 256 K ROM holds the l.2Kickstart. Mouse One two-button opto-mechanN mouse, with two mouse ports available for joysticks, light pens, etc, Keyboard The Amiga500 keyboard is part of the computer itself, not a separate keyboard like the Amiga 1000, Ithas 94 keys, including ten function keys, anda numeric keypad with several mom keys than an Amiga 1000, The cursor keys have been moved to a feverse-T configuration. The international keyboard has 96 keys.
Serial end Parallel interfaces One RS-232 seriat port, with a standard iBM-type male gender connector, and one standard Centronics parallel port,female gender connector. (Note: the gender of these connectors is the opposite of the Amiga 1000.)
Video Output ROB analog, RGB-1 and monochrome composite output. For RF output, a separate modulator is necessary.
The United States NTSC version has525vertical line resolution, at 60 Hertz. The international PAL Version has 625 line resolution, at SO Hertz, to standard text modes, this means either 60 or 60 characters per line, with upto 25 lines.
The international version can display 92 lines.
Audio Two separate pseudo-stereo outputs are present, with the same audio capabilities as the Amiga 1000.
0 sfc drives One built-in 31 2 Inch standard Amiga disk drive, with 880 K formatted capacity. The Amiga500 can power upto two external drives, one 31 2 Inch drive, and one 51 4 inch drive.
Expansion port One 86 pin edge connector expansion port Is present on the left side of the AmigA500, ¦AC* Moving?
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Allow 4 to 6 weeks for processing_ Haven’t You Set Your AMIGA'S Time And Date Once Too Often?
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elation and shock. The elation is the prospect of the new machine attracting new Amiga users and contributing to the success of Commodore.
The shock comes from users who feel their existing systems are cheapened by the introduction of similar but more economical computers. Fortunately, the shock wears off.
The good news for Commodore will remain, and should insure a prosperous year and the future health of the Amiga computer. Positioned with the existing line of Amiga 1000 products, the new computers complement each other well.
The low-cost Amiga 500 helps fight the battle on several fronts. It answers the concern of prospective Amiga buyers who thought the Amiga 1000 was too expensive. It competes with the similarly priced Atari ST series. The 500 should do well in Europe, where Commodore has lost much of its former hold.
The Amiga 2000 answers the call, too. It is a wise upgrade for existing Amiga 1000 owners who need economical expansion and MS-DOS compatibility. It is highly unusual for a computer to promise software and hardware compatibility with two computer standards at the same time.
Press coverage Reports of the 500 and 2000 have already surfaced in the several US and European computer magazines. Full stories of the Amiga 2000 should preceed stories about the Amiga
500. The Amiga 2000 should be featured in an upcoming issue of
The increased press coverage of the new Amiga computers should increase buyer awareness of the Amiga line and lead to good initial sales. Commodore needs this increase in favorable publicity.
Finite production At the winter Consumer Electronic Show, there was some concern that advance information about the Amiga 500 and 2000 would stifle sales of the Amiga 1000. Therefore, Commodore asked the press to wait until the end of February before publishing information about the new machines. The debut of the new machines was expected to take place on February 23.
According to some observers, demand for the Amiga 1000 should stay constant, even though some prospective Amiga buyers will wait for the lower cost Amiga 500, or the more expandable Amiga 2000.
Although this type of information is never publicaliy disclosed or confirmed, reliable estimates place the initial production run of the Amiga 1000 at about 140,000 units.
This production run stopped at the end of summer 1986. No more Amigas were built after this time.
According to sources close to Commodore, there are only several thousand Amigas left in warehouses, beyond the standing stock on dealer shelves. This might indicate a planned sell-out of the Amiga 1000 line, to reduce potential losses if the demand drojis because of the new machines.
If there are a small or non-existent supply of Amiga 1000s when the Amiga 500 ships, and more people buy the Amiga 500 instead of the 1000, the sellout will minimized the potential loss from slow-moving stock.
No more Amigas?
Does this mean there will be no more Amiga 1000 machines?
Chances are good that another small production run might occur in the future, if demand dictates. As several sources have pointed out, Commodore is still making and selling VIC- 20 machines. In fact, they are still making the Plus 4 computer, because it is the offical state school computer in Hungary, and the machine is still very popular there.
If the Amiga 1000 goes back into production, it will undoubtably have the version 1.2 Kickstart in ROM, like the 500 and 2000. The machine may improve in other ways. For example, a redesigned Amiga 1000 motherboard might have continued... 512 K of chip memory, instead of providing the front panel memory expansion port. The price should drop still further, due to the cost savings in this or other changes.
1000 vs. 500 There are many advantages of the Amiga 1000 over the Amiga 500. None of today's hardware will mate with the Amiga 500. This includes third party memory expansions, the Genlock video synchronizer, and the Sidecar. The possibility of an adapter for peripherals is a possibility, but no matter what, a decked-out Amiga 500 system will always be unwieldy, because the keyboard cannot move away from the peripherals.
Because of the hardware and form factor changes, peripherals might appear slowly for the new machines. After all, even simple changes to the Amiga 1000 expansion bus seriously affected the current players in the Amiga hardware market. Someday soon, Amiga 1000 hardware might be available at a discount. Meanwhile, most Amiga hardware manufacturers have been thinking about the Amiga 500 and 2000 since early November, when they were revealed at the Amiga developer conference.
500 vs. 1000 Of course, the lower price of the Amiga 500 will attract many people to the Amiga computer line. People on a budget will overtook the one-piece design, and instead took longingly at the current base of Amiga 1000 software, all compatible with the Amiga 500.
Hopefully, the low price will attract people to the Amiga computer in general. If so, more people will follow an upgrade path to the Amiga 1000 and 2000 after finding an Amiga 500 too limiting.
2000 vs. 1000 With the dismal performance of the Transformer, and the noshow nature of the Sidecar, the Amiga 2000 is an attractive lure for those seeking true IBM PC compatibility in one box.
The internal video and coprocessor slots promise to be the sites of exciting new products for the Amiga 2000. The high production cost of peripherals for the external expansion bus of the Amiga 1000 is gone in the Amiga 2000. Packaging and boxes, whether metal or plastic, are a major cost in an Amiga peripheral. Amiga hardware manufacturers can do well selling cards instead of fancy boxes.
Rumors that the Sidecar had passed FCC clearance were the meat and potatoes of the rumor mills this past summer.
Rumors of FCC testing of new computers and peripherals can be misleading. A slight rewording or mistelling of information from an otherwise reliable source could mean something radically different to a knowledgable listener further down the rumor chain.
Commodore performs its own in-house testing in preparation for the actual FCC examination. FCC testing is a one-shot process. If the device emits too much radio interference and fails the test, then it is back to the drawing board, and the product must be resubmitted. If the product passes the tests, then some non-trivial amount of paperwork needs to be shuffled before the product can be sold.
At the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, several Commodore products such as the Sidecar still sported conspicuous signs that warned this is a prototype device that has not yet passed FCC clearance, and therefore was not available to the public. At recent computer shows, the FCC has confiscated equipment that didn't have FCC clearance.
The incremental nature of this process could account for apparently contradictory rumors of successful and unsuccessful FCC testing of new Commodore products. Of course, the contradictory nature of rumors can be explained by the nature of transmitting specific information through several sources of unknown expertise.
If either new computer fails some part of FCC testing, inhouse or official testing, it means more delays before the computer will be in stock on dealer shelves.
Marketing plans There are many marketing decisions yet to be made. The configurations of both the Amiga 500 and the Amiga 2000 are not yet set in stone.
How will future Amiga machines be affected by the presence of the 500 and 2000? By the advent of yet another Amiga machine, these new machines will be the 'old' machines. A new Amiga computer will doubtless be an improved version, with a faster processor dnd expanded graphics memory abilities. Meanwhile, many more people will be able to enjoy the power of the Amiga 1000 design that we know today.
* AC* FCC delays When Commodore's track record is considered,
some are reluctant to wager on the actual arrival dates for the
new machines. Although the new machines might be in test
production at present, they must still meet Federal
Communications Commission regulations against electronic
emissions, the interference that makes snow of your television
.concentration is the uitimate key to success."
SHANGHAI 99 by Keith Conforti AC Art Director Numerous games have been created and played over the centuries. Only the best of these games have transcended the ages. Such games have a simple basis, yet, they require incredibly complex strategies for success. Chess, checkers, Go(Othello today), and playing cards (just think of all the variations!), are great examples of timeless favorites. Shanghai is one of those games and should be added to this list of classics.
The History Shanghai's origins lie in the ancient game called Mah-Jongg, created some 2500 years ago in China. Small bone or bamboo tiles were used to play the game. Sailors and fishermen often played to relieve the boredom of long ocean voyages. Mah-Jongg was revived in the twenties in America where it enjoyed cult popularity for a time. Today's version, known as Shanghai, was designed by Brodie Lockard and is distributed by Activision.
The Game Shanghai has a few essentials and options you should keep in mind if you are considering purchasing it. The game requires a minimum 512K system. However, if your Amiga™ has more than 512K and at least two disk drives, it is possible to have Shanghai loaded simultaneously with a second program. Only a mouse is required to play (the keyboard is needed for entering winners' names and saving games only). In the Challenge mode, however, a second mouse can be installed in port two to accommodate two players simultaneously. This option is a great benefit to those who dislike swapping the
Continued.. Shanghai does not rely on graphics for its success, but the graphics are outstanding on the Amiga™ version (I found the Macintosh version's graphics to be somewhat impossible).
Shanghai's strategy is what keeps its players riveted to the monitor.
The game consists of 144 tiles piled atop each other in a pyramid on the screen. This pyramid, called a Dragon Formation because it is supposed! To resemble a sleeping dragon, has great three dimensional effects. The tiles are stacked five high in the center and progressively decrease toward the edges consisting of only one level of tiles. In order to distinguish the level from which you are removing tiles, they have been shaded and highlighted. The upper level actually casts a shadow on the tiles below it. It almost seems that you could touch the different levels of tiles. The background that
the tiles sit upon is a rich, velvety green and gives the game a classy look, as if it is being played on afelt covered table (another reference to the playing card world).
These graphics display the Amiga's potential.
The tiles are divided into various groups: 108 suit tiles consisting of 36 Dot, 36 Bam, and 36 Crak suits, sixteen Wind tiles, twelve Dragon tiles, four Seasons, and four Flowers. The tiles are paired (72 pairs in all). Each suit of tiles is impeccably detailed in the Amiga™ version. They resemble playing cards in many ways. The suit tiles have a number in the right hand corner and a corresponding number of characters on the tile. The Dragons, Winds, Seasons, and Flowers, are the equivalent of the Kings, Queens, etc. of playing cards. In fact, considering the longevity of Mah- Jongg, it
probably inspired Westerners in the development of playing cards.
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Amiga Schematics still availableI Order Toll Fred 800-762-5645 Cardinal Software ,14840 Build America Dr. Woodbridge, VA 22191 Info: (703) 491-6494 In order to win, you must match each tile with its twin and remove them from the board in accordance with the rules of the game which state that a tile must be "free” (no tiles to its left or right on the same level), and must be removed to either the left or the right only. Sound easy? Try to do it!
The game does provide options to help you seek a pair if you are stuck or befuddled, and to tell you if any moves remain, but to play an honest game, you should refrain from using these options. I have only won the game once (I have played at least fifty times), and I did not win honestly I There are four different ways to play Shanghai: Solitaire, Tournament, Team Effort, and Challenge. Each mode has the same difficulty level, only the number of players and the time limitations are variable.
Solitaire is the one player version of Shanghai. There is no time limitation in this mode. The player need only remove as many tiles as possible, but must remove all to win. A Solitaire game may be saved to allow the player to resume at a later time.
In the Tournament mode, any number of players is eligible.
In Tournament play, each player removes tiles from an identical formation. Optional time limits of five, ten, and twenty minutes are available if preferred over an untimed Tournament. The player who is able to remove the most tiles from the board wins the Tournament. The top five scores are automatically saved on the disk.
Team Effort is identical to Solitaire. The exception is that any number of players can colaborate. Each team member has a chance to make a move as play rotates from one player to another. Cooperation among team members is crucial to success. The game ends when one team wins or when no more moves can be made.
Challenge is for two players competing to see who can make the most moves. Strategy is most important in this mode because each player has a time limit on making his move.
Points are earned for each successful move. The time limit alotted for each turn can be either 60 seconds, 30 seconds, 20 seconds, or 10 seconds. The game ends when each player misses two consecutive turns with a scoreboard depicting the winner.
The Verdict I have tried both the Amiga™ and Macintosh™ versions of Shanghai. Any comparison between the displays of the two programs is like comparing a Rembrandt to a photostatic copy. The Mac's monitor cannot adequately represent the finely detailed tiles and three dimensional appearance of Shanghai. On the other hand, the Amiga™ does the graphics justice. They are clear and colorful. That alone makes the Amiga™ version much better (not to mention the difference in endings when you win). The Mac version is identical, but it is somewhat difficult to stare at the screen for a bng time. It
gave me a headache after fifteen minutes.
I played the Solitaire version more than the other modes, mainly because no one else was around when I played Shanghai. I found the game to be intellectually stimulating and rather addictive. I usually played three or four games at a time, which would easily take me a couple of hours. But the time flew by because I was so absorbed in the game. Once you develop a strategy, it is tough to give up playing until you win (hopefully fair and square).
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The Challenge mode is a great test of your strategy and speed. It is almost impossible to win if you set the time on ten seconds. But it does improve your skills dramatically for when you play in alternate modes.
Playing the Tournament and Team modes provides great competition and fast paced excitement if you use the timer.
But remember that there are no options in the Tournament mode to assist you if you are having trouble. If you think you are good player, Team Effort is your chance to be a hot dog in front of your friends.
There is only one complaint I have about Shanghai, and it is a minor one at that. When there are no more available moves, there is no notification of this. The player has to seek the 'Help' option to find out if any moves remain. You can look at the screen for fifteen minutes trying to find a move when no more can be made. This situation can be very frustrating, but it is also more realistic. In Mah-Jongg, there is no 'Help' option to bail you out!
From my experiences playing Shanghai, it is my belief that concentration is the ultimate key to success. Without concentration, it is nearly impossible to implement and to maintain your strategy. So, if you want a seriuos challenge from a computer game, and you enjoy mental stimulation, and sometimes frustration, Shanghai is the game for you.
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4301-18 OAK CIRCLE, BOCA RATON, FL 33431 IN FL. CALL (305)391-5077 VISA, MASTERCARD For Nearest Dealer Call 1-800-327-8724 MICROSYSTEMS SOFTWARE, INC. Wordstar is a trademark of Micropro International. Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. stereo so°n° "Techniques used for controlling individual channels, and how to generate complex harmonies or any other type of multi-channel sound."
By Jon Bryan I wish that I had stereo sound effects for the Bouncing Bali done this time around, but it was not to be. What I have instead is an example of using all four of the Amiga's sound channels to generate harmony. All that it does is generate a few simple chords, but it serves to demonstrate the techniques used for controlling individual channels, and could be expanded to generate complex harmonies or any other type of multi-channel sound.
Some of the listing duplicates that presented in my last installment so that new readers of this column will not have to have the last issue in order to make the code work. In particular, BeginlO, NewList, the system calls and the data structures have been carried over. In addition I have defined a few more constants which are passed as commands in the calls to the kernel, written several words for accessing the lOAudio data structure, and factored the functions CreatePort and DeletePort.
I would first like to discuss the pros and cons of the approach that I have taken for accessing the lOAudio structure. As you can see from the listing, there are several words whose only purpose is to fetch and store values in that particular structure, functions which might be considered redundant. My rationale in adding the overhead is two-fold. First, I find it hard to remember the names of all the offsets to access, say, lOAudb's link node priority member. Second, since Forth lacks the data typing of C it is helpful to define a word for accessing that particular member which hides the fact
that it is a byte-sized value. The same logic applies for the words used to access the lOAudio reply port, the flags, and the command and unit members.
If reference is made to a particular member of a structure a number of times it quickly becomes advantageous in terms of code size to define a word to access that member. The other advantages are clarity and brevity (it's always nice to save some typing). The disadvantage is that the resulting code will be slightly slower. In the case of Multi-Forth it will usually cost 22 clock cycles more to access that member than if the offsets were coded in-line. Since I like the convenience I am happy to pay 22 cycles for it. If the overhead were critical, say inside a tight loop, I would probably opt to
generate the pointer outside the loop anyway and have it reside on the stack.
The next departure (enhancement?) I made from my previous audio demo was to factor the functions CreatePort and DeletePort, mostly to make them easier to understand, but also to break out some words which might possibly be reusable, and because I have an aversion to long definitions.
I've found from experience that it is much easierto debug programs if the definitions are short, and they read more naturally too if you choose your names right.
Another enhancement over the code presented last time can be found in the defining word Sound:, which is quite a bit more sophisticated than its prevbus incarnation, whbh I called AudioData:. This version parses the numbers for you, doing away with all the C,'s which were prevbusly necessary.
The problems I had with Sound: are worth describing, and relate to the use of normal Amiga text files versus traditional Forth blocks. Traditionally Forth source code has been stored on disk in 1024-byte "blocks." When editing a block what you see is sixteen 64-character lines; that is, everything in the block. Spaces are stored as spaces, and there are no embedded carriage returns, line feeds or other non-printing characters. Many people have been greatly annoyed at the thought of all that "wasted” white space, and have expressed the wish to use standard text files instead.
On the Amiga that’s just what you get, and the transition isn't an entirely smooth one in the case of Multi-Forth. The use of blocks is optional in Multi-Forth, and if the option were chosen the definitbn of Sound: would be: : Sound: ( name n ) CREATE dup , 0 DO bl word number c, LOOP DOES dup 0 Samples ! 4+ Sound ! ; The code for the text-f ile versbn can be seen in the listing. I feel that there is a problem here but I'm not sure of the best way around it. My first inclination is to wish that Creative Solutbns had defined WORD differently so that its behavbr was the same in both cases.
As it is WORD only works to the end of a single line in text files. My second wish would be for a word with the same behavior as WORD which would ignore continued.
End-of-line delimiters, and that is what I have tried to do with WORD|. SCAN almost fills the bill by itself, but NUMBER requires that a numeric string be terminated with a space character and that makes things a bit more complicated.
I have only gone halfway in defining the basic chords. They refer to absolute frequencies, and it would be better to take it further and use relative frequencies. I have been contemplating a syntax along the following lines : Major ( root ) Root (leftl) Note Maj3rd (rightl) Note Maj5th (left2) Note Octave (right2) Note ; but for a quick demo I decided against the added complexity.
The remaining words deal with opening the audio device, setting up the data structures for the system calls, and all the other chores involved in generating sound. Separate lOAudio structures are created for each of the audio channels to define the wave parameters. There is also a separate structure which is used just to open the audio device and set up the initial parameters, and another one which is used for turning off the sounds. It should be possible to do it all with a single structure, but it seemed to work out nicely using separate structures for the different functions.
The word which does all the work, Chord, first tries to create message ports for the control and finish structures for use in communicating with the audio device. If the attempt is successful a request is made to open the audio device. If that is successful the chord is built up one note at a time, alternating left and right channels. After holding the chord for a bit it is released and CleanUp tidies up on the way out.
An example of the syntax would be "Major Chord” or "Sine Major Chord.” Next time, as I said earlier, I hope to have a comparison of Multi Forth and Jforth. There are considerable differences between the two implementations beyond Multi-Forth's use of direct token threading and Jforth's subroutine threaded approach (for one thing Jforth has a real Motorola syntax 68000 disassembler!). Whatever the differences, it's certain that a tremendous amount of effort has gone into both implementations, and either should be suitable for serious development work.
A last footnote. As stated in the Mountain View Press documentation for Amiga MVP-Forth, there are a lot of extensions to their package which are not included. I have seen some of the phantom tools, and if they were part of the package it would be much more attractive. Unless MVP relents and decides to include those "Valuable" extensions you're better off spending your money elsewhere. It'S one thing to leave them out of the public domain version. It's quite anotherto omit them from a package they charge nearly two hundred dollars for.
* * ChordsDemo * * J. Bryan:02-09-87 anew ChordsDemo HEX create BeginlO ( IORequest ) -4 allot 225F w, 2F0E w, 2C69 w, 0014 w, 4EAE w, FFE2 w, 2C5F w, 361A w, 4EF6 w, 3018 w, create NewLlst ( list ) -4 allot 205F w, 2088 w, 5890 w, 42A8 w, 0004 w, 2148 w, 0008 w, 361A w, 4EF6 w, 3018 w, DECIMAL : AllocMem ( byteSize requirements memoryBloclc ) !dl !d0 exec@ 33 ; : FreeMem ( memoryBlockXbyteSize ) !d0 lal exec 35 ; : AllocSignal ( signalNum signalNum ) !d0 exec6 55 ; : FreeSignal ( signalNum ) !d0 exec 56 ; : AddPort ( port ) lal exec 59 ; : RemPort ( port ) lal exec 60
; : OpenDevice ( devName unit ioRequest flags error ) Idl lal !d0 !a0 exec@ 74 ; : CloseDevice ( ioRequest ) lal exec 75 ; : WaitIO ( ioRequest error ) lal exec@ 79 ; 4 wconstant NT_MSGPORT 0 wconstant PA_SIGNAL structure Message LinkNode struct: +mnNode ptr: +mnReplyPort short: +mnLength structure.end 1 0 scale wconstant MEMF__PUBLIC 1 16 scale constant MEMF_CLEAR structure IOStdReq note the nested structures structure IORequest Message struct: +ioMessage ptr: +ioDevice ptr: +ioUnit short: +ioCommand byte: +ioFlags byte: +ioError structure.end long: +ioActual long: +ioLength ptr:
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1 wconstant I0F_QUICK 3 wconstant CMD_WRITE 6 wconstant
CMD_ST0P 7 wconstant CMD_START 9 wconstant CMD_NONSTD 0"
audio.device" constant AUDIONAME CMD_NONSTD 2+ wconstant
ADCMDJPINISH CMD_NONSTD 3+ wconstant ADCMD_PERVOL 1 5 scale
wconstant ADCMD_ALLOCATE 1 4 scale wconstant ADI0F_PERV0L
structure IOAudio IORequest struct: +ioaRequest short:
+ioaAllocKey ptr: +ioaData long: +ioaLength short: +ioaPeriod
short: + ioaVolume short: +ioaCycles Message struct:
+ioaWriteMsg structure.end These definitions hide some of the
details of accessing the IOAudio structure.
: +AudioPort ( IOAudio +mnReplyPort ) +ioaRequest +ioMessage +mnReplyPort ; : AudioPort@ ( IOAudio addr ) +AudioPort @ ; : AudioPort! ( n I0Audio ) +AudioPort ! ; : +AudioPri ( IOAudio +lnPpri ) +ioaRequest +ioMessage +mnNode +lnPpri ; : AudioPri! ( n I0Audio ) +AudioPri c! ; : +AudioFlags ( I?0Audio +ioFlags ) +ioaRequest +ioFlags ; : AudioFlags! ( c IOAudio ) +AudioFlags c! ; : +AudioCommand ( IOAudio +ioCommand ) +ioaRequest +ioCommand ; : AudioCommand! ( w I0Audio ) +AudioCommand w! ; : +AudioUnit ( IOAudio -- +ioUnit ) +ioaRequest +ioUnit ; : AudioUnit! ( n I0Audio ~
+ioUnit ) +AudioUnit ! ; : ?LinkPort ( MsgPortXname or 0 ) IF AddPort ELSE +mpLinkHeader NewList THEN ; : mplnit ( 0"name" or O priority sigbit port port ) LOCALS| port sigbit priority name | name port +mpLinkNode +lnName !
Priority port +mpLinkNode +lnPpri c!
NTJ1SGPORT port +mpLinkNode +lnType c!
PA__SIGNAL port +mpFlags c!
Sigbit port +mpSigBit c!
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Send cliccJi or money order for $ 29.95 to: ?ldej t Software $ 0 2.0. 2 ox 7OOXOl San j|osc,Ca. 95 70 0 FindTask port +mpSigTask !
Port dup name ?LinkPort ; : PortMem? ( MsgPort or 0 ) MessagePort MEMF__CLEAR MEMF_PUBLIC or AllocMem ; : SignalBit? ( signal or -1 ) -1 AllocSignal ; : CreatePort ( 0"name" priority MsgPort or 0 ) SignalBit? Dup -1 «= IF drop 2drop 0 ( return null ) ELSE PortMem? ?dup IF mplnit ELSE FreeSignal 2drop 0 THEN THEN ; : mpUnLink ( port ) 255 over +mpLinkNode +lnType c!
- 1 over -fmpLinkHeader +lhHead !
+mpSigbit cQ FreeSignal ; : ?RemPort ( port ) dup +mpLinkNode +lnName 0 non-zero name IF RemPort ELSE drop THEN ; : DeletePort ( port ) dup ?RemPort dup mpUnLink MessagePort FreeMem ; struct lOAudio control control lOAudio erase struct lOAudio finish finish lOAudio erase struct lOAudio leftl struct lOAudio right1 struct lOAudio right2 struct lOAudio left2 DECIMAL 1 0 scale wconstant AUDO 1 1 scale wconstant AUDI 1 2 scale wconstant AUD2 1 3 scale wconstant AUD3 Last page. Enter command or CR to continue! SAVE Date: 09-Feb-87 23:52 EST From: Jon Bryan [70310,777] Subj: Ninth Installment
pt. 4 To: Don Hicks 76174,2404 CREATE AllChannels AUDO AUDI or AUD2 or AUD3 or c, CREATE Period 400 w, default timer ticks per sample VARIABLE Samples number of samples in table VARIABLE Sound pointer to sound data : Word| ( delimiter addr ) scan error" premature delimiter" pocket bl over count + c! ; : Sound: ( name ( n ) CREATE dup , 0 DO bl Word| number c, LOOP DOES dup 0 Samples ! 4+ Sound ! ; 16 Sound: Sine 00 48 90 116 126 116 90 48 00 -48 -90 -116 -126 -116 -90 -48 Sine by default 16 Sound: Square 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80
- 80 -80 -80 -80 -80 -80 -80 -80 16 Sound: Triangle 00 31 62 93
124 93 62 31 00 -31 -62 -93 -124 -93 -62 -31 16 Sound: Sawtooth
00 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 00 -126 -108 -90 -72 -54 -36 -18
3579546 ( Hz) constant AudioClock interval timer rate :
Freq Period ( freq period ) Samples 0 * AudioClock swap ; :
Hz ( freq ) Freq Period Period wl ?
: Note ( addr ) Period w0 swap w! ; : Note ( period IOAudio ) LOCALS| chan period I CMD_WRITE chan AudioCommand!
ADIOF_PERVOL IOF_QUICK or chan AudioFlags!
Sound 0 chan +ioaData !
0 chan +ioaCycles w!
Samples 0 chan +ioaLength !
Period w0 chan +ioaPeriod w!
64 chan +ioaVolume w! ; create (leftl) 0 w, create (left2) 0 w, create (rightl) 0 w, create (right2) 0 w, : Major ( ) 523 Hz (leftl) Note 659 Hz (rightl) Note 784 Hz (left2) Note 1046 Hz (right2) Note ; Major ( default ) : Minor ( ) 523 Hz (leftl) Note 622 Hz (rightl) Note 784 Hz (left2) Note 1046 Hz (right2) Note ; .
: Diminished ( ) 523 Hz (leftl) Note 622 Hz (rightl) Note 740 Hz (left2) Note 1046 Hz (right2) Note ; : Augmented ( ) 523 Hz (leftl) Note 659 Hz (rightl) Note 831 Hz (left2) Note 1046 Hz (right2) Note ; : MajMaj7th ( ~ ) 523 Hz (leftl) Note 659 Hz (rightl) Note 784 Hz (left2) Note 988 Hz (right2) Note ; : MajMin7th ( ) 523 Hz (leftl) Note 659 Hz (rightl) Note 784 Hz (left2) Note 932 Hz (right2) Note ; : AudioPort? ( IOAudio 0nname" priority MsgPort or 0 ) CreatePort dup IF dup rot AudioPort!
ELSE swap drop THEN ; : SoundPort ( channel 0,,name" priority ) 3 pick LOCALS| chan | AudioPort? 0= IF control chan IOAudio cmove THEN ; : SoundPorts ( ) leftl 0 0 SoundPort rightl 0 0 SoundPort right2 0 0 SoundPort left2 0 0 SoundPort ; : initControlPort ( ) 10 control AudioPri!
AllChannels control +ioaData !
1 control +ioaLength ! ; : SetFinishFlags ( ) finish +AudioPort dup @ preserve the port address control finish IOAudio cmove copy the structure swap ! restore the port IOF_QUICK finish AudioFlags!
ADCMD_FINISH finish AudioCommand! ; : SetControlFlags ( ) IOF_QUICK control AudioFlags!
ADCMD__PERVOL control AudioCommand! ; : Sound ( unit IOAudio ) dup dup +AudioPort dup 0 preserve the port address rot control swap IOAudio cmove copy control structure swap ! restore port address AudioUnit! ; set the unit field : Sounds ( ) AUD0 leftl Sound AUDI rightl Sound AUD2 right2 Sound AUD3 left2 Sound ; : FreeAudioPort ( IOAudio ) AudioPort© DeletePort ; : FreeAudioPorts ( ) control FreeAudioPort finish FreeAudioPort leftl FreeAudioPort rightl FreeAudioPort right2 FreeAudioPort left2 FreeAudioPort ; : Cleanup ( ) control CloseDevice FreeAudioPorts ; : aRelease ( unit
) finish AudioUnit!
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To order, send $ 69.95 (US) check or money order (plus $ 2.50 S H) to: QreenlfiumB Software ' 9.0. Vok.2949 ‘Binghamton, Q& 13902 : ReleaseChord ( ) AUD2 aRelease AUDI aRelease AUD3 aRelease AUD0 aRelease ; : BuildChord ( ) (leftl) leftl Note (left2) left2 Note (rightl) rightl Ndte (right2) right2 Note ; : PrepAudioStructs ( ) SetFinishFlags SetControlFlags Sounds SoundPorts ; : PlayChord ( ) PrepAudioStructs BuildChord leftl BeginlO 50 delay rightl BeginlO 50 delay left2 BeginlO 50 delay right2 BeginlO 150 delay ; : AudioDevice? ( flag ) initControlPort AUDIONAME 0 control 0
OpenDevice 0= ; : AudioPorts? ( flag ) control 0 0 AudioPort? 0= not finish 0 0 AudioPort? 0= not and ; : Chord ( ) AudioPorts?
IF PlayChord ReleaseChord ELSE Can't open Audio Device" CR THEN Cleanup ELSE Can't open Audio Port" CR THEN ; »AC* r 3TM wonder why no one else has thought of it before.
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Houston, TX. 77289-0408 ZINGI is o trademark of MERIDIAN SOFTWARE, INC. AMIGA is a registered trademark of Commodore-AMIGA, Inc. Part II In this concluding portion to the article on two computer games, the operation of GEMINI-5 which appeared in the last issue of Amazing is further described.
By Jim Meadows A Change Before getting into the description, a change may be in order for you to get GEMIN I-.5 to work properly between computers. I have found that relying on default settings for the communications parameters may result in some communication errors if both computers do not have the same defaults in effect. Eight data bits with no parity works best. Line 10005 of GEMINI-.5 can be changed as follows: 10005 OPEN "COM1:300,N,8,1" AS 1: (Open serial port) This will insure both computers use the same baud rate, parity, etc. Sample Program Now for the Program description. I
decided to write the sample program GEMINI-.5 so that you can experiment with the two-computer game concept. The game is fairly simple, but demonstrates some of the basic concepts I have discussed. Those unnecessary line numbers that you see are used so that a friend could run it on an IBM PC in order for you to play each other using different computers! (In fact I checked the sample program out with my AMIGA "talking" to an IBM PC).
The program begins in the terminal mode so you can issue commands to your modem to set up the communications link. For example, if you have a Hayes compatible modem you can type ATDT123-4567to dial the telephone number 123-4567. If you are going to be on the answering end you could type ATA when the phone rings. If you have a favorite communications program you could use it to first establish communications, then exit and start up the sample program.
Once the computers have connected to each other, you can type messages to one another (pressing return will beep your opponent to let him know its his turn to type). You should agree who will press the start key and only one of you press the $ key.
The game grid will be displayed with only your tank on it. You move by pressing the up down and left right arrow keys.
Pressing the space bar fires a shell at your opponent. You will immediately notice that you cannot see your opponent's tank unless you are aimed at him. There may be times he sees you but you don't see him and vice versa (try doing that in a one computer gamel). Each time you hit your opponent you score a point (if you change the number of hits required to win, be sure your opponent changes his program to match.). Other Concepts and Basic Having each player looking at his own display screen opens up a lot of new concepts in game playing. Hopefully the sample program will convey some
possibilities to you. I have further expanded on this idea in GEMINI-2. In it you appear to be inside your tank looking at your console that has a TV display screen, radar, map, speed and heading indicators.
The TV display shows your opponent's tank moving about as a 3D image (yep -1 used the same routines I described in my previous TRY3D article). The console also shows your damage level and how many of your opponent's tanks you have done in. I allow different levels of play so that a beginner can play a more experienced opponent with some degree of success. If you play in the advanced mode, you lose one of your instruments each time your tank is hit forcing you to rely more heavily upon the remaining instruments. I also included a practice mode that converts it to ayou-against-the-computergame
(the more conventional one-computer type game).
Some have asked me why I developed GEMINI-2 in Basic instead of C or FORTH or some other faster language. Some said Basic is too slow or too limited. Well I wanted to see what could be done in Basic. Due to the AMIGA'S special sound and graphics hardware you can do quite a bit in Basic.
I included digitized sounds (recorded from the movie TANK of course) for special stereo sound effects - when a shell is coming at you from the left it sounds like it is coming at you from the left and get's louder as it gets closer. Your on board computer speaking to you saying "Attack - Red Alert" doesn't help the ole nerves a whole lot though. Perhaps 111 use a faster language for GEMINI-3, whatever it is (assuming I receive a good response to GEMINI-2). For those of you learning how to program the AMIGA in Basic, don't give up. If you persevere you can do quite a lot in Basic.
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Conclusion Well, I hope this has been helpful in expanding your thinking on the possibilities of two-computer games. I'm sure there are many improvements that can be made over what 1 have described here in this article. If I have at least brought up some of the issues involved so that others can find better solutions, then this article will have been worthwhile. Years ago we moved into the two-car garage age. One word of caution, computer communications may quickly move us into the two-telephone lines age - one for humans and one for our computers.
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PROGRAMS FOR THE AMIGA CHESSMASTER 2000 and CHESSMATE by Edwin
V. Apel, Jr.
Of the two chess programs currently available, there is no question that Chessmaster 2000 (Software Toolworks) is superior to Chessmate (Dark Horse) in graphics and color, levels of difficulty, and a multitude of other features.
There is very little Chessmate offers that Chessmaster 2000 does not.
However, lest you immediately choose Chessmaster 2000, you may lose a lot of games and have no fun at all.
Chessmate is clearly the game of choice for the newer or less practiced chess player, as it can be beaten easily at the lower levels. I managed to beat Chessmate at the first three levels the first time (taking back only a few moves), but had excruciating frustration with Chessmaster 2000- beating it at its lowest level (with a number of machine- assistant features turned off) only losing a lot of times. Even in "winning", I had to take back scores of moves. In other words, neither you or anyone else who uses Chessmaster 2000 is going to have much fun or is going to play it very much if it
always beats you. Thus, the better the player, the better choice Chessmaster 2000 would be.
The documentation for both programs appears to explain all the features. At least I have not yet found anything either program will do that is not in the manual. Chessmaster 2000 has a booklet in addition to the manual that explains the rules of chess, and gives a lengthy history of chess (from ancient times to tournaments pitting computers against man and other computers). I found it facinating.
Both Chessmaster 2000 and Chessmate have the following common features;
• 2D or 3D display, changeable at any time
• Three play modes: human vs. machine human vs. human machine vs.
• Take back and play back last move
• 180 degree rotation of the board
• Display of the moves in the usual chess algebraic notation
• Choice of black or white (changeable at any time)
• A hint or suggested move (unadvisable at the lower levels)
"...and digital clocks for each player.
Board coordinates (e.g., square B5) are also displayed on both, although in Chessmate they are always on in 2D and always off in 3D, and in Chessmaster 2000 can be either on or off in either dimension.
Both games make excellent use of the mouse and of pulldown menus. One can use most of the features of both games without consulting the manuals at ail. For example, to move a piece, simply click the left mouse button. In Chessmaster 2000 a little hand "grips” the piece, and the player releases the mouse button over the square to which he wants to move. In Chessmate one clicks the arrow over the piece to move and clicks again over the square to which he wants to move. A superb feature of both is that the piece being moved never disappears. Also, neither program will allow you to move to
illegal squares, automatically putting your piece from whence it came if you "try to pull a fast one."
Only Chessmaster 2000, though, allows some of the moves and menu selections to be made from the keyboard as well-a great advantage. For example, taking back a move turned out to be a common menu selection for me. Chessmaster 2000 allows the move with the backspace key; Chessmate requires you to use one of the pull-down menus.
The voice and sound of both Chessmaster 2000 and Chessmate are excellent. The words are all spoken correctly (unlike some Amiga programs) and at the correct pace.
Chessmate allows the choice of a male, female or robot voice. Chessmaster 2000 allows no choice of voice (male is only one), but does allow choice of voice, bell, or music.
When a piece is moved by Chessmate, it states rather straightforwardly, "Rook takes Knight" or "Queen to C4."
Chessmaster 2000, on the other hand, says nothing when no piece is taken and says "Gotcha" or "Oops, you got me," when a piece is captured. This slang is monotonous and a real flaw in an otherwise admirable program; I found myself playing Chessmaster 2000 with the music or with no sound at all.
As with most computer chess programs, there are various degrees of difficulty. Chessmaster 2000 has 12 and Chessmate has 7. Chessmate's lower levels are much easier, though. In addition, Chessmaster 2000 has four variations of the 12 degrees of difficulty that actually produce a multiple of games. For example, it has an "Easy Mode", which, when turned off, prevents the machine from thinking ahead while it waits for you to move. (Apparently it can think ahead 12 moves!) It also has a "Newcomer Style’ which, when turned on, makes the machine play its easiest game. There are also three styles of
play (Normal, Coffeehouse, and Best), which are different variations of best moves and random moves. Another menu selection allows you to prevent the machine from consulting its library of opening moves and tactics. And, since adjustment of all of these still does not guarantee a win, another feature allows you to force the computer to make its best move at the instant you tell it, thereby preventing the computer from finding a better move.
Both programs have some historic games on the disk: Chessmaster 2000 has 100 games and Chessmate has 20.
There are a few common to both, such as the 1956 Fischer- Byrne game in New York. These games are "watched" by replaying the game move by move. Chessmaster 2000, though, is easier to use because one can use the keyboard to make each move whereas Chessmate requires opening a menu and making a selection for every move.
Another common feature to both programs is the ability to set up your own board, placing pieces wherever you choose and then playing the game from there or doing a number of other things. With Chessmaster 2000 one selects a piece from the pieces pictured at the left or right of the board, creating a brush with the piece, and then chooses where to put it on the board. With Chessmate one selects a piece from a word menu to create the brush. Neither program will allow two kings of the same color to be chosen; both will allow two queens, three rooks, etc. because they are theoretically possible;
but only Chessmaster 2000 will not allow pawns to be placed in their own first row.
Additional features that Chessmaster 2000 has that Chessmate does not include the following: ability to make the pieces appear wooden or metal; 90 degree rotation in either direction, whether 2D or 3D; display of the captured pieces; printing capabilites; an analysis of a game or series of moves; ability to save the settings (e.g., choice of color, board display, difficulty level) for the next game and to reset the factory settings. One particularly helpful feature to beginners is the "teaching" mode. When on, a click of a piece illuminates each square to which that piece may legally move. In
fact, the squares that would result in a capture are illuminated in a different color. My younger sons always keep this feature on throughout their games.
Chessmate requires the Extras disk that comes with your Amiga~a minor inconvenience. Chessmate also appears noticeably slower in deciding what move to make at a given degree of difficulty. For example, Level 4 on Chessmate and Level 1 on Chessmaster 2000 (with some variatbns of the Easy Mode, Style of Play, etc.) seem comparable to me and Chessmate takes much longer to move at Level 4 than Chessmaster 2000 at Level 1. There were games with Chessmaster, though, that I forced it to move to get the game moving as well as to force a poorer move. With Chessmate, though, one can only wait.
The graphics and colors of the Chessmaster 2000 are clearly superior. The 3D board of Chessmate is simply not as realistic. On the other hand, the 3D Chessmate board is easier to use than the Chessmaster 2000 3D board because the Chessmate pieces are smaller and because the board is viewed from a higher perspective, thereby lessening the great degree of viewing overlap on the Chessmaster 2000 3D board. Chessmaster 2000 uses a little hand to move the pieces around, whereas Chessmate uses the standard red arrow as on the Workbench. Most dramatic is the color.
First, the red and orange board of Chessmate takes some getting used to. The default board colors of Chessmaster 2000 are green and white--a pleasant combination. Second, Chessmaster 2000 allows you to change the color of both the pieces and the board-just like the the colors on a Workbench disk-while Chessmate allows you to change no colors.
Chessmate has a few features Chessmaster 2000 does not, such as the ability to offer a draw and no copy protection.
The $ 29.95 price will also usually be less than the $ 28.00 to $ 45.00 Chessmaster 2000 will cost. (Mate is apparently available only directly from Dark Horse; Chessmaster2000 is available from almost any seller and so die price varies.)
Conclusion To conclude, Chessmaster 2000 has nearly all the features one could want in a chess program, and Chessmate lacks many of them. If you are a decent chess player or intend to become one, Chessmaster 2000 is clearly the choice.
However, if you play as I do, are just a beginner, or have kids that will be using the program a lot, the lower levels of Chessmate will be easier and may be a lot more fun. If you cannot decide, buy both I did. In fact, if Sargon III ever is ported over or rewritten for the Amiga, I will probably buy that one also-even though I understand from a recent article in "Compute!" That Chessmaster 2000 beat Sargon III (as well as a program named "Blitz" running on a Cray supercomputer) for the 1986 U.S. Computer Chess Championship.
• AC* Subscripts and Superscripts In AmigaBasic Amiga Screen
Display of Subscripts and Superscripts in Mathematics, Physics,
and Chemistry Formulas By Ivan C Smith As a high-school teacher
of mathematics and science subjects, I am convinced that the
academic performance of all students can be improved if they
can work through the material at their own pace, instead of
being required to move through the material as a group.
This is where computers come in. Put the material into a well- organized teaching program on a computer, provide a computer for each student in the class, and there we have it.
Genuinely individualized instruction. Of course the classroom teacher will still be needed, but their role will change to resource, guidance, consultation... With cheap microcomputers, one could actually realize the dream: a classroom fitted out with a computer for every two students, even a computer for every student.
All we need is the software, and we are at last in the business of truly individualized instruction. That was eight years ago. I am still waiting for the software. Sure, there is some good educational software available, perhaps as much as five percent of the stuff that is advertised, but as far as I know there has never been even one case of a complete, one-year, regular curriculum course in any subject, available on computer for actual classroom use.
Having grown tired of waiting, I tried writing my own software.
The rude awakening soon followed. Good, useful educational software takes a lot of time to prepare.
Eventually I completed some, and started using it in the classroom. The students responded enthusiastically. This experience confirmed my belief that computers have an enormous potential for useful, teaching of traditional curriculum material. I've tried it, and it works.
But I had run up against a serious obstacle. The computers used couldn't handle subscripts and superscripts. They didn't even have a degree symbol for Twenty degrees Celsius" or "an angle of 234 degrees". My area of interest is senior high school mathematics and physics. The formula for the area of a square requires a superscript for the exponent, for example, just one of many.
If computers are to be used for genuine everyday teaching of material like this, they must be capable of presenting the material in the standard format and notation. This is absolutely essential. It won't work if we try to introduce new notations, such as up-arrows for exponents. Such devices are fine for writing programs, but they simply will not do for the screen presentation of educational material. We cannot expect, and we should not expect, the student to handle nonstandard notations. The standard notations have developed over a long period of time, and usually are a dear and concise
way to state the idea. The standard notations must be adhered to, if for no other reason than that they are standard.
I tried an approach in which I placed the superscript in the line above, and the subscript in the line below. This didn't work. The result simply didn't look right, and many students didn't see the connection between the "x" and the isolated "2" in the line above. They read "x", when "x squared" was intended.
We now skip forward three or four years. With my shiny new Amiga, I thought the subscript and superscript problem would betaken care of. After reading the instruction books, I find no mention of exponents, not even of a degree symbol.
This cant possibly be. The designers are scientific and technological types; they use specialized notation all the time. They couldn't have overlooked the degree symbol, at least. I must have missed it in the instruction books. Come to think of it, it isnt on the keyboard. Could it be?
Yesl There is no provision for exponents, subscripts, or anything at all above or below the baseline, in the Amiga, or in any other computer that I know of. In AmigaBASIC, the LOCATE instruction is of no help here, it works only in character blocks. What I need is a LOCATE that works in pixels. The PTAB instruction comes tantalizingly close, providing the ability to specify horizontal print positions in pixels. When I found PTAB, I figured there must be, somewhere in AmigaBASIC, a corresponding instruction for vertical positioning in pixels.
For a while, I thought that SCROLL might do the job for subscripts and superscripts. Just print the exponent on the baseline and SCROLL it into the desired position, it would be clumsy and slow, but it should work. Then a hitch appeared, continued., THE CKJ jp fMi! 4* Simulator Now play BLACKJACK on your AMIGA just as if you were in Nevada. Deals up to nine players using up to nine decks. This program actually analyzes and reports on your progress during the game so you can mathematically build your own system of betting and winning. Doubles and splits up to four pairs while playing all nine
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subscript and a superscript, one over the other, as in "x
sub 3 squared”.
SCROLL could be jimmied to handle this case, but really!
Then I read about the screen PUT instruction. It almost sounded as if this would handle the situation. To make a long story short, I tried it and it works. It handles superscripts, subscripts, both, fractions, fractions with subscripts and superscripts in numerator and denominator, the whole enchilada. It takes a bit of memory, but not a great lot.
I've written this program called SSScript Demonstrator to show what screen PUT can do for this sort of problem. The demonstrator displays thirteen formulas on the screen, one at a time, starting with a simple case, a chemical formula using just single-digit subscripts, and working through more complicated cases. All of these examples are taken from actual mathematics, physics, or chemistry subjects.
If you use material which needs subscripts or superscripts, before reading further you should run the demo program to see the way the formulas look on the screen. This program runs on a 256 k Amiga, using 80 characters on a screen line.
When you run this program, at the beginning you will see a line of characters flashed momentarily on the screen, followed by a second line of characters momentarily in the same position. You are seeing the operation of the SetUp routine, which is described below. Once the SetUp is completed, the program dives into the first demonstration formula. Each demonstration works in the same way: First, the screen is cleared and the formula is placed on the screen with a short explanatory text. Then, after a short pause, two white rectangles are displayed near the bottom of the screen, to allow you to
choose one of two options.
You can select whichever option you like, by moving the mouse pointer into the chosen box and clicking the left-hand mouse button. One option goes directly to the next formula; the other option displays on the screen the coding used to set up the formula, enabling you to see the coding at the same time that you see the resulting screen display. Either way, the program waits as long as you like, until you have seen all you want to see. The first time through, I recommend you skip the coding option.
The thirteen demonstration formulas cover enough variations to enable anyone to set up the formulas they need. The option "show coding" provides considerable detail on the handling of each formula, and for a more complete description of the way it works, read on.
How It Works When the demonstration program starts running, it enters the SetUp routine, which dimensions an array, Sscript%(19,n-1), where n = the number of characters available for special positioning. In this demo program, 84 such characters are provided. These are the characters found in f 1 $ and f2$ at the top of the Setup routine. This array, Sscript%(), holds the images of these characters in a form suitable for the PUT instruction. The DIM Sscript%(19,n-1) instruction provides space for n characters, because the count begins with zero. The 19 is the amount of space needed to store
To get the character images into the Sscript%() array, the screen GET instruction is used, in the ScreenGet routine.
The desired characters are first placed in string variables f 1 $ and f2$ , in the SetUp routine. The ScreenGet routine prints each of these character strings to the screen, one at a time.
While each string is on the screen, the GET instruction reads each individual character pattern into the Sscript%() array, and stores the location of this character in the Access%() array.
For example, the second character in f1$ is "0", zero, and the ASCII code for zero is 48. The pixel pattern for "0" is stored in the second row (n = 1) of Sscript%(), and the number 1 is placed in the 48th cell of Access%(). Then, whenever the TranslateFormula routine wants to place "0" on the screen, it uses ASC() to find the ASCII code 48, then it looks in the 48th cell of Access%() to find 1, then it looks in row 1 of Sscript%() to find the pixel pattern for "0", which is placed on the screen by the PUT instruction.
Again, looking at the SetUp routine we find that "G” in f2$ is the 39th character (counting from the beginning of f 1 $ ). The GET instruction of the ScreenGet routine stores the pixel pattern for "G" in the 39th row (n = 38) of Sscript%(), that is, in Sscript%(X,38). The ASCII code for "G" is 71, so "38" is placed in cell 71 of Access%(), that is, Access%(71) = 38.
Whenever the TranslateFormula routine encounters a "G" to be placed on the screen, it uses ASC(y$ ) where y$ = "G", to obtain 71, then it looks into Access%(71) to find 38, then it looks in Sscript%(X,38) to find the pixel pattern for "G", which is then placed on the screen by the PUT instruction.
This probably seems like going the long way around when it could be done more easily. Why do we not just put the pixel pattern for "G" in the 71 st row of Sscript%(), that is, in Sscript%(X,70), (remember, the 71st row is row number 70, because the first row is row number zero), and get rid of the Access%() array? We could do it this way, but it would cost more memory, because Sscript%() would have to have a row for every possible ASCII code, and many of these rows would not be used. The method used here requires that Sscript%() be only just large enough to handle the characters needed, with
no empty rows. It is true that Access%() will have many empty cells, but an empty cell in Aocess%() uses only two bytes of memory, while an empty row in Sscript%() would use 40 bytes. In this program, using array Access%() and thus minimizing the size of array Sscript%() saves about 3 k of memory.
The very first character to be stored, the first character in f 1 $ , is a space. All of the other characters are optional, but this first character should be a space, and it should be stored in row n = 0, not row n = 1, of the array Sscript%(). If this is done, then any attempt to display a formula with a non- available character will print a space in that character's position, and the rest of the formula will be properly positioned, so that the difficulty will immediately be apparent when the screened formula is viewed. This "default” to a space will occur because the Access%() array will
contain a zero in the cell corresponding to the unavailable character, and the zero sends the TranslateFormula routine to Sscript%(X,0) for the pixel pattern corresponding to a space.
If you need only very simple formulas such as, say, exponents ”2” and ”3” and nothing else, then you can delete all other characters from f 1 $ and f2$ in the SetUp routine.
That is, f 1 $ will contain just three characters: a space, a "2", and a "3". F2$ will be empty.
You can save some memory by adjusting f 1 $ and f2$ to contain only the characters you need printed in positions above or below the baseline, always keeping the initial space. The SetUp routine automatically will adjust the size of the Sscript%() array to match the number of characters required. However, if you have lots of memory available, there is an advantage in placing all alphabetic, numeric, and punctuation characters in Sscript%(). We'll get to this advantage later on.
Now, we've got a lot of characters stored as pixel patterns in array Sscript%(). How do we display these on the screen in superscript and subscript positions? We need a method to place a formula in a string variable, which means we need a AMIGA HARD DISK BACKUP HARDHAT Full lncremental Directory Single File backup to microdisks.
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Let us call this special character a "control sequence introducer". I have selected the backslash ” * as my control sequence introducer. When the TranslateFormula routine encounters a T, it knows the next character (following the backslash) is not to be placed on the screen, but is to be interpreted as an instruction.
An example. Suppose I enter this line of code: Tormula$ = "y +2"'followed by 'GOSUB TranslateFormula'. The TranslateFormula routine looks at each individual character in the string variable Formula$ , as follows. The first character in Formula$ is"y", so place "y" on the screen, on the baseline. The next character is T. This is a backslash, which means two things: this backslash is not to be placed on the screen, and the character following the backslash also is not to be placed on the screen, but is to be interpreted as a positioning or formatting instruction.
The character"+" follows the backslash, and this V means that the printing position is to be moved upward six pixels, to the superscript position. The next character is "2", so a "2” is placed on the screen in the superscript position. In this continued.
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for y squared to be displayed. (It's tough writing about
subscripted and superscripted formulas, using a word
processor that wont handle such beasties. If anyone knows
of a word processor for the Amiga that will handle them,
please let me know.)
Suppose we want to display the basic formula for a circle, in Cartesian coordinates: x squared + y squared = r squared.
The following coding is used: Formulas = "x +2 Z+y +2 Z = r +2 Z". When this string is sent to the TranslateFormula routine, it is read as follows: V place "x"on the screen, on the baseline "W* move printing position six pixels upward ¦*2* place "2*on1he screen, in exponent position return to baselne level
* +y" place these four characters on the screen, on the baseline
. V move printing position six pixels upward
* 2* place *2" on the screen, in exponent position "VZ? Return to
baselne level ‘ei* place these four characters on the screen,
on the baseline
* W* move printing position six pixels upward
* 2* place *2* on the screen, in exponent position 1ZT return to
baselne level Why did I select the backslash as my control
sequence introducer? For this purpose I need a character which
meets three requirements: it should be a character which can be
entered directly from an available key, when programming in
AmigaBASIC, it should be a character which never appears in any
mathematical, physical, or chemical formula, and it should be a
character which will print on most printers. The backslash
easily meets the first requirement. As for the second
requirement, one should never say never, but the backslash
comes as close to never as any Amiga keyboard character. As for
the third requirement, it prints at least on my printer.
To lower the printing position to subscript level, use V, which the TranslateFormula routine interprets as an instruction to move downward six pixels. This sequence can be cascaded. For example, "W will move the printing position downward twelve pixels, and will move downward eighteen pixels. In the same way, " + +" moves the printing position upward twelve pixels, etc. This is useful if one encounters a subscript which itself contains a superscript, or a superscript which contains a subscript.
(Yes, it happens.) The sequence " Z" will return to baseline position from any elevated or depressed position. None of these upward or downward motions affects the horizontal position.
There is usually no need to pay attention to horizontal location, because the subroutines automatically increment the horizontal location each time a character is placed on the screen. The implication of the "usually" will be explained later.
The control sequence introducer, with its following instruction character, can be used to call a subroutine for special purposes, beyond the printing of a keyboard character. For example, the sequence " A" calls the ArrowRight subroutine, which draws an arrow pointing toward the right, such as those often used in chemical formulas.
The sequence " B” calls the ArrowRL subroutine, which draws a double arrow pointing both left and right. These arrows are automatically placed in the current printing position. They need more horizontal space than an ordinary character requires, and the subroutines automatically handle this requirement.
Fractions The display of a fraction involves positioning requirements similar to, but not the same as, superscripts and subscripts.
The Fraction routine handles these requirements. To display a fraction, place the numerator in Numerator! And the denominator in Denominator!, and 'GOSUB Fraction’.
The Fraction routine will print both numerator and denominator on the screen in their proper locations, and it draws the appropriate vinculum (fraction line) between them.
The vinculum length is automatically adjusted to match whichever is the longer, numerator or denominator, and the shorter quantity is automatically centered horizontally on the longer. Numerator! And or Denominator! Can contain backslash coding for superscripts, subscripts, arrows, etc., if needed, because each is placed on the screen by the TranslateFormula routine.
An interesting situation arises when we encounter a fraction whose numerator (or denominator) is itself a fraction. For this situation, the array plocate%() is provided, which will store up to five current screen locations for future recall. For example, in demonstrator routine Fractionl 0, the requirement is to print a fraction whose denominator contains a fraction. To print the main fraction denominator, the coding in Denominator! Includes " J", which stores that screen position in row 1 of plocate%(). When it is time to print the denominator fraction, this position is recalled by using
Formula! = " j". When printing the main fraction denominator, the coding in Denominator! Includes padding spaces, to give the Fraction routine a clear idea of the amount of space which should be allotted forthe material yet to come.
If more complicated cases arise, plocate%() can store upto five screen positions for future recall as needed. These can be recalled in an order different from the order in which they are stored. The sequence "VJ” stores a position which can be recalled by ” j", " K" stores a position which can be recalled by " k", and so on through nil" and ni", " M" and " m", and " N" and " n”. In demonstration routine Formulal 1, four repositioning locations are stored by "VJ", " K", " L", and " M", which are recalled in the order " j", T, " m", and " k", as needed to display that particular formula.
The complete set of backslash codes can be sen in the LISTing, in theTranslateFormula routine. They are: V move upward 6 pixels (for superscripts) n movedownward 6 pixels (for subscripts) move vertically, beck to baseline position, from any elevated or depressed position V print a raised dot (for multiplication) " A" print an arrow pointing toward the right AB" print a double (left and right) arrow " C" print an arrow pointing toward the left %J" store current screen position move to screen position previously stored by V " K" and" k" simllartoVandnj" "1" and " T similar to "VI" and nj"
and" m” similartonj"andnj" W and nn’ similar to nj’ and nj"
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The coding used is Formula! = "W7 Z - 93 ZLi...", which works in this way: V move upward to superscript position "7* print a "7" in the superscript position nZ" move vertically to baseline position V move downward to subscript position
* 9* move 9 pixels toward the left (to reach a position directly
underneath the superscript T) "3" print a "3" in the subscript
position " Z” move vertically to baseline position "Li* print
"Li*onthebaseBne The " 9” coding has not yet been described.
Its purpose is to provide a means of moving toward the left,
which is needed when a subscript and a superscript occur
concurrently (in the same horizontal location). This can occur
in mathematics when we have a power of a subscripted quantity,
and can also occur in nuclear physics or chemistry when
handling isotope symbols. Examples of this occur in the
demonstration routines Formula6 and Formula7, among others. In
Formula6, there is a need to print the symbol "Li" for lithium,
with the prefix superscript "7" and the prefix subscript "3".
The ”7" and the ”3" should both be in the same horizontal
This has printed the isotope symbol for lithium of atomic weight 7 and atomic number 3.
In the Formula7 routine, we need to display a symbol similar to that described in the paragraph above, but this time there is a three-digit prefix superscript and a two-digit prefix subscript. This is "U" for uranium, with atomic weight "239" and atomic number ”92”. The coding can be seen in f2! Of Formulae f2! - "W239 Z - 9 992 ZU A..." continued... "W" move upward to superscript position "239" print "239" In the superscript positron " Z" move vertically to basetine positron v move downward to subscript position " 9 9" move 18 pixels toward the left (to reach a position directly underneath
the digit"3“inthe superscript) "92" print "92" in the subscript position " Z" move vertically to basetine positron "U* print "U" on the baseline " A" print an arrow pointing toward the right If I encounter a subscript concurrent with a superscript, how do I know which to print first? It doesn't matter. Pick one, set up the proper position, and print it. Then reposition to print the other one.
The two-character sequence of a backslash followed by any digit ”1" through "9", will move the current screen position one through nine pixels toward the left. The sequence " 9 7" can be used to move 16 pixels toward the left, etc. This can also be used to move a selected number of pixels toward the right, by spacing right beyond the desired position, then moving leftward the right (?) Number of pixels to reach the desired position.
For example, in demonstration routine Formula2, the farthest- right symbol represents two sodium chloride molecules. We have a choice of using "2NaCI" or ”2 NaCI", one with a space after the "2", the other with no space. Which choice yields the best screen legibility and "graspability"?
For me, the use of the space unquestionably improves the presentation, compared to no space at all. There may be those who would like to have an intermediate choice, to separate the "2" from the "NaCI" by, say, a half-space. This system can handle this. Using this coding: Formula$ = "Ca + 2 4NaCI", we will get a 5-pixel space following the "2”, by printing a space (moving nine pixels toward the right) followed by " 4”, which moves four pixels toward the left.
Similar coding will provide a movement toward the right of any desired number of pixels.
In the Formula6 example above, why did we move the print position nine pixels toward the left, to place the subscript directly under the superscript? Because each of these characters is eight pixels wide, shouldn't we have moved eight pixels, not nine, toward the left? (The same question arises with the "2 NaCI" example in the preceding paragraph.)
Yes and no, but not maybe. Yes, each of these characters is eight pixels wide. No, each character does not occupy eight pixels of space. I found that a nine-pixel horizontal allowance for each character yields a cleaner, clearer, more comprehensible, formula on the screen. At least I think it is clearer. This is the purpose of the CharacterWidth% variable.
In the Formula6 routine, the instruction 'CharacterWidth% = 9' precedes the 'GOSUB TranslateFormula’ instruction. In the TranslateFormula routine, the screen location is incremented horizontally, by adding CharacterWidth%, each time a character is displayed on the screen. If you want to see the effect of an eight-pixel (or seven, or ten) width allowance for each character, change to 'CharacterWidth% = 8' (or ...= 7, or ...= 10) and judge the result for yourself.
In the light of the above, why do we find 'CharacterWidth% = 8" (not 9) preceding 'GOSUB TranslateFormula’, in the Formula4 routine? In Formula4, we see an example of subscripted and superscripted notation embedded in a line of regular text. This line reads: "The density of D[2jO (heavy water) at 20[o]C is 1.108 x 10kg[.]m[-3]" (I have used [ ] to enclose a subscript or a superscript). This line consists mostly of regular text, and it boks better if each character is given a horizontal allowance of eight pixels.
Sometimes the horizontal character allowance should be eight pixels, sometimes it should be nine. The use of the CharaderWidth% variable enables the user to set whatever they think is suitable.
By the way, this line of text illustrates the reason I have placed all alphabetic and punctuation characters in the Sscript%() array. With these characters available, I can put the entire line, text and subscripts and all, on the screen with a single 'GOSUB TranslateFormula'. If I had used PRINT to put the text on the screen, and'GOSUB TranslateFormula' to handle the special symbols, this one screen line would have required three PRINTS interleaved with three GOSUBs.
So there it is. The screen PUT instruction makes it possible to place reasonable-boking mathematical formulas on the screen. We can now write proper instructional software which involves such material.
Post Script Even if Commodore provides an AmigaBASIC instruction to produce vertical PRINT positions measured in pixels, the TranslateFormula routine (or its equivalent) will still be needed, to figure out character placement. The PUT instruction will be replaced by a PRINT instruction, and the SetUp and ScrenGet routines will be removed, but the rest of this method will remain in much the same form as it appears here.
Listing One ' Subscript & Superscript Demonstrator Mark I ' By Ivan C. Smith ' runs on 256 k Amiga ' requires 80 characters in screen line CLEAR,28000& needs 28 k of memory GOSUB SetUp GOSUB DefineConst GOSUB Formula1 GOSUB Formula2 GOSUB Formula3 GOSUB Formula4 GOSUB Formulas GOSUB Formula6 GOSUB Formula7 GOSUB Formula8 GOSUB Formula9 GOSUB Formula10 GOSUB Formula11 GOSUB Formulal2 GOSUB Formula13 END SetUp: LOCATE 3,25 PRINT “Setup" ' first character in fl$ should be a space fl$ = " 0123456789+-*3I@ $ %&* () ? : ; ',. " f2$ = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP QRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghi j klranopqrst uvwxyz" n =
LEN (fl$ ) + LEN(f2$ ) DIM Access%(255) access array DIM Sscript%(19,n - 1) count% = -1 z$ = fl$ GOSUB ScreenGet z$ = f2$ GOSUB ScreenGet x = 10 y = 50 FOR j = 1 TO n :1 show result on screen x = x + 17 IF x 600 THEN x = 10 y “ y + 12 END IF PUT (x,y),SScript%(0,j - 1),PSET NEXT j FOR j = 1 TO 1000 : NEXT j pause RETURN DefineConst: q$ = CHR$ (34) DIM plocate%(5,1) :' pixel locations CharacterWidth% - 8 RETURN ScreenGet: IF z$ = "" THEN RETURN LOCATE 10,2 COLOR 1,0 PRINT z$ z “ LEN(z$ ) FOR j = 1 TO z count% = count% + 1 GET (8 * j,72) - (8 * j + 7,79),SScript%(0,count%) a = ASC(MID$ (z$ ,j ,1))
Access%(a) “ count% NEXT j LOCATE 10,2 PRINT SPACE$ (75) RETURN FreMem: LOCATE 22,21 PRINT "Free memory in system “"FRE(-1); LOCATE 23,21 PRINT "Free memory in Basic ="FRE(0); RETURN TranslateFormula: ' ypixel% = y coordinate of current baseline, in pixels ' ylnc% = current position measured above or below current baseline ' y coordinate of current position (in pixels) = ypixel% + ylnc% ' x coordinate of current position (in pixels) = xpixel% IF Formula$ = "" THEN RETURN tral: zlen% = LEN(Formula$ ) IF RIGHTS (Formula$ , 1) -» " " THEN IF zlen% 2 THEN Formulas = "" : RETURN Formulas =
LEFTS(Formulas,zlen% - 1) GOTO tral END IF ylnc% = 0 j » 0 WHILE j zlen% j = j + 1 y$ = MIDS(Formulas,j,l) IF y$ “ " " THEN j = j + 1 y$ = MIDS (Formulas,j,l) IF y$ = H ,ll THEN ylnc% = ylnc% - IF y$ = II _ •• THEN ylnc% = ylnc% + IF y$ = ii z • THEN ylnc% = 0 IF y$ = ii n THEN GOSUB DotMult IF y$ = "A" THEN GOSUB ArrowRight IF y$ “ IIQII THEN GOSUB ArrowRL IF y$ “ "C" THEN GOSUB ArrowLeft IF y$ = II Jll THEN plocate%(1,0) = xpixel% plocate%(1,1) = ypixel% + ylnc% END IF IF y$ = "j" THEN xpixel% *= plocate% (1,0) ypixel% = plocate%(1,1) ylnc% “ 0 END IF IF y$ = "K" THEIf plocate%(2,0) =
xpixel% plocate%(2,1) = ypixel% + ylnc% END IF IF y$ = "k" THEN xpixel% = plocate%(2,0) ypixel% = plocate%(2,1) ylnc% = 0 END IF IF y$ “ "L" THEN plocate%(3,0) = xpixel% plocate%(3,1) = ypixel% + ylnc% END IF IF y$ “ "1" THEN xpixel% = plocate%(3,0) ypixel% = plocate%(3,1) ylnc% = 0 END IF .
IF y$ ° "M" THEN plocate%(4,0) = xpixel% plocate%(4,1) = ypixel% + ylnc% END IF IF y$ - "m" THEN xpixel% = plocate%(4,0) ypixel% = plocate%(4,1) ylnc% = 0 END IF continued... IF y$ = "N" THEN plocate%(5,0) = xpixel% plocate%(5,1) « ypixel% + ylnc% END IF IF y$ = "n" THEN xpixel% = plocate%(5,0) ypixel% = plocate%(5,1) ylnc% - 0 END IF y = VAL (y$ ) IF y 0 THEN xpixel% = xpixel% - y IF xpixel% 1 THEN xpixel% = 1 END IF ELSE a - ASC (y$ ) ac = Access%(a) PUT (xpixel%,ypixel% + ylnc%),SScript%(0,ac) ,PSET IF ylnc% = 0 OR FlagFraction% =1 THEN xpixel% = xpixel% + CharacterWidth% ELSE xpixel% =
xpixel% + 9 END IF END IF WEND RETURN Fraction: IF Denominator = ,,M THEN RETURN IF Numerator$ ® ,,M THEN RETURN FlagFraction% = 1 xentry% «= xpixel% yentry% = ypixel% counter% = 0 z9 = LEN (Numerator) FOR j = 1 TO z9 y$ = MID$ (Numerator?,j, 1) IF y$ - " " THEN counter% = counter% + 2 NEXT j znum% = z9 - counter% :'znum%= of print chars in numerator IF znum% 1 THEN znum% = 1 counter% = 0 z9 » LEN (Denominator) FOR j = 1 TO z9 y$ = MID$ (Denominator$ ,j,1) IF y$ = " " THEN counter% « counter% + 2 count nonprinting chr NEXT j zden% » z9 - counter% :'zden%=* of print chars in denominator IF
zden% 1 THEN zden% = 1 zfra% = zden% IF znum% zden% THEN zfra% = znum% IF zden% znum% THEN z = (znum% - zden%) 2 Denominator$ =SPACE$ (z)+Denominator$ :'center of short denom END IF IF znum% zden% THEN z = (zden% - znum%) 2 Numerator$ =SPACE$ (z)+Numerator$ :'center of short numerator END IF Formula$ = Numerator :1 print numerator xpixel% - xentry% + 4 ypixel% = yentry% - 5 GOSUB TranslateFormula Formula $ = Denominator :' print denominator xpixel% = xentry% + 4 ypixel% » yentry% + 5 GOSUB TranslateFormula x = xentry% + 6 y = yentry% + 3 LINE (x - 8,y) - (x + 9 * zfra%,y),l xpixel% =
xentry% + 9 * (zfra% + 1) ypixel% - yentry% FlagFraction% = 0 RETURN ArrowRight: x « xpixel% +36 y = ypixel% + 3 - ylnc% LINE (x - 21,y) - (x,y),1 LINE (x - 8,y + 3) - (x,y),l LINE (x - 8,y - 3) - (x,y),l xpixel% « xpixel% + 50 RETURN ArrowRL: x = xpixel% +36 y = ypixel% + 3 - ylnc% LINE (x - 21,y - 1) - (x,y - 1),1 LINE (x - 13,y - 4) - (x - 21,y - 1),1 LINE (x - 21,y + 1) - (x,y + X),1 LINE (x - 8,y + 4) - (x,y + 1),1 xpixel% *» xpixel% + 50 RETURN ArrowLeft: x “ xpixel% +15 y = ypixel% + 3 - ylnc% LINE (x,y) - (x + 21,y),1 LINE (x + 8,y + 3) - (x,y),l LINE (x + 8,y - 3) - (x,y),l xpixel% =
xpixel% + 50 RETURN ButtonBox: COLOR 1,0 GOSUB FreMem FOR j « 1 TO 5000 : NEXT j IF FlagBox% = 2 THEN LINE (40,162) - (227,180),l,bf LINE (40,162) - (227,180),3,b LINE (39,162) - (228,180),3,b LINE (43,164) - (224,178),2,b LINE (44,164) - (223,178),2,b LOCATE 22,8 COLOR 2,1 PRINT "Show formula coding"; END IF LINE (420,162) - (587,180),l,bf LINE (420,162) - (587,180),3,b LINE (419,162) - (588,180),3,b LINE (423,164) - (584,178),2,b LINE (424,164) - (583,178),2,b LOCATE 22,55 COLOR 2,1 PRINT "Go to next formula"; LOCATE 19,1 FlagChoice% = 0 WHILE FlagChoice% - 0 IF MOUSE(0) 0 THEN X =
MOUSE(1) y = MOUSE(2) IF y 161 AND y 181 THEN IF x 38 AND x 229 AND FlagBox% » 2 THEN FlagChoice% = 1 IF x 418 AND x 589 THEN FlagChoice% = 2 END IF END IF WEND LINE (35,160) - (590,184),0,bf erase button boxes RETURN DotMult: x = xpixel% y = ypixel% - 2 - ylnc% ac » Access%(46) PUT (x,y),SScript%(0,ac),PSET print raised dot xpixel% ® xpixel% + CharacterWidth% RETURN Formulal: title$ = "Subscripts Only" COLOR 1,0 CLS z = 37 - LEN(title$ ) 2 LOCATE 1, z PRINT titles LOCATE 5,7 PRINT "Plaster of Paris is used by doctors to make"; PRINT "casts for broken bones."
LOCATE 6,7 PRINT "It is manufactured by heating gypsum:" CharacterWidth% =9 xchr% = 13 :' x position in characters, for LOCATE ychr% =9 :' y position in characters, for LOCATE xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 :' x position in pixels ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 :' y position in pixels Formulas = "2 CaSO -4 Z .2 H -2 ZO A(CaSO -4 Z) -2 Z .H - 2 ZO + 3 H -2 ZO" GOSUB TranslateFormula LOCATE ychr% +3,1 PRINT TAB(17) "gypsum" TAB(33) "plaster of Paris" FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN LOCATE 17,6 COLOR 3,1 PRINT Formulas FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN Formula2: titles =
"Two-Digit Subscripts" COLOR 1,0 CLS z » 37 - LEN(titleS) 2 LOCATE 1,z PRINT titleS LOCATE 4,3 PRINT "When soap (sodium stearate) is dissolved in "; PRINT "hard water (water containing" LOCATE 5,3 PRINT "dissolved calcium and magnesium salts), it "; PRINT "reacts with these salts to" LOCATE 6,3 PRINT "form insoluble compounds, which, in turn, "; PRINT "form the ring around the tub."
LOCATE 7,3 PRINT "An example of this kind of reaction follows:" CharacterWidth% = 9 xchr% “ 10 :1 x position in characters, for LOCATE ychr% = 11 :' y position in characters, for LOCATE xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 :' x position in pixels ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 :' y position in pixels fl$ = "2 C -17 ZH -35 ZCOONa + CaCl -2 Z A(C -17 ZH - 35VZCOO)" Formula? = fl$ + "Ca + 2 NaCl" GOSUB TranslateFormula LOCATE ychr% +3,1 PRINT TAB(14) "soap" TAB(44) "insoluble" FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN LOCATE 17,6 COLOR 3,1 PRINT Formulas FlagBox% « 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN
Formula3: titleS = "Superscript & Subscript & Fractional Coefficient" COLOR 1,0 CLS A Video Instruction Course VHS & BETA $ 29.95 plus P+H AMIGA INSTRUCTION COURSE WORKBENCH AND INTRODUCTION TOCLI A90 minute tutorforthe AMIGA. Step by step instruction of workbench and basic tools toward understanding and using CLI commands To order, write or call: Clackamas Computers 16234 SE 82nd Drive Clackamas, OR. 97015
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LEN(titleS) 2 LOCATE 1, z PRINT titleS LOCATE 5,12 PRINT
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constant acceleration:" CharacterWidth% - 4 xchr% = 20 :' x
position in characters, for LOCATE ychr% = 11 :1 y position
in characters, for LOCATE x position in pixels y position
in pixels xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8
fl$ - "d = v -l Zt + Formulas = flS GOSUB TranslateFormula
Numerators = "1" Denominators « "2" GOSUB Fraction f2S «=
"at +2 Z" Formulas - f2S GOSUB TranslateFormula FlagBox% =
2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN LOCATE 17,20
COLOR 3,1 PRINT flS; COLOR 1,0 PRINT SPACES(7); COLOR 3,1
PRINT f2S FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN
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Formula4: title$ = "Scientific Notation and Units" COLOR 1,0 CLS z = 37 - LEN(title$ ) 2 LOCATE l,z PRINT title$ fl$ = "D -2 ZO" f2$ = "20 +o ZC" f3$ = "1.108 x 10 +3 Z kg .m +-3 Z," f4$ = "H -2 ZO" f5$ = "9.97 x 10 +2 Z kg .m +-3 Z." CharacterWidth% = 8 xchr% = 4 :' x position in characters, for LOCATE ychr% = 5 :' y position in characters, for LOCATE xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 x position in pixels ypixel% =8 * ychr% - 8 y position in pixels Formula$ = "The density of "+fl$ +" (heavy water) at "+f2$ +" is "+f3$ GOSUB TranslateFormula xchr% = 4 ychr% = 7 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr%
- 8 Formula$ = "which compares to the "+f2$ +" density of "+f4$ +" of "+f5$ GOSUB TranslateFormula LOCATE 9,4 PRINT "That is, "+q$ +"heavy water"+q$ +" is just "; PRINT "that, it is 11% heavier than ordinary" LOCATE 11,4 PRINT "water."
FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN COLOR 3,1 LOCATE 15,10 PRINT fl$ LOCATE 15,30 PRINT f2$ LOCATE 17,10 PRINT f3$ LOCATE 15,50 PRINT f4$ LOCATE 17,45 PRINT f5$ FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN Formulas: title$ = "Superscript Concurrent With Subscript" COLOR 1,0 CLS z = 37 - LEN(title$ ) 2 LOCATE 1,z PRINT title$ LOCATE 3,3 PRINT " Sulphuric acid is an acid which can transfer "; PRINT “two hydrogen ions to two" LOCATE 4,3 PRINT "water molecules. The first hydrogen ion "; PRINT "separates from the sulphuric" LOCATE 5,3 PRINT "acid molecule easily:" CharacterWidth% =
9 xchr% = 23 ychr% = 7 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 fl$ = “H -2 ZSO -4 Z + H -2 ZO AH -3 ZO ++ Z + HSO -4 Z + 9- Z" Formula$ = fl$ GOSUB TranslateFormula CharacterWidth% = 8 f2$ = "HSO +- Z - 94 Z " xchr% = 3 ychr% =10 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 Formula$ = " The second hydrogen ion can also leave the "+f2$ Formula$ = Formula$ + "ion, but it has more" GOSUB TranslateFormula PRINT "" LOCATE 11,3 PRINT "difficulty in leaving than did the first:" CharacterWidth% = 9 xchr% = 23 ychr% =14 LOCATE ychr%,1 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 f3$ =
"HSO +- Z - 94 Z + H -2 ZO AH -3 ZO ++ Z + SO -4 Z + 9 Z" Formula$ = f3$ GOSUB TranslateFormula FlagBox% =2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN COLOR 3,1 LOCATE 18,3 PRINT fl$ LOCATE 16,3 PRINT f2$ LOCATE 20,3 PRINT f3$ FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN Formula6: title$ = "Superscript Concurrent With Subscript" COLOR 1,0 CLS z = 37 - LEN(title$ ) 2 LOCATE 1, z PRINT title$ LOCATE 5,10 PRINT "The Cockroft-Walton experiment, first performed in 1932," LOCATE 6,10 PRINT "bombards a target of lithium with high-speed protons. " LOCATE 7,10 PRINT "fhis produces high-speed alpha
particles by the following LOCATE 8,10 PRINT "nuclear reaction. (This is called a "+q$ +"nuclear reaction"+q$ LOCATE 9,10 PRINT "because it takes place in the nucleus of the atom.)
CharacterWidth% = 9 xchr% =17 ychr% =13 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 fl$ = " +7 Z - 93 ZLi + +l Z - 91 ZH A +4 Z - 92 ZHe" Formula$ = fl$ + " + +4 Z - 92 ZHe + energy" GOSUB TranslateFormula FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN LOCATE 17,1 COLOR 3,1 PRINT Formulas FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN Formula7: titles = "Superscript Concurrent With Subscript, Multiple Digits" COLOR 1,0 CLS z = 37 - LEN(titleS) 2 LOCATE l,z PRINT titles LOCATE 3,4 PRINT "A "+q$ +"breeder reactor"+q$ +» makes Plutonium from Uranium-238 by this process."
CharacterWidth% = 9 xchr% = 4 ychr% = 6 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 fl$ = " +238 Z - 9 992 ZU + +l Z - 90 Zn A +239 Z - 9 992 ZU" Formulas = "First " + fl$ GOSUB TranslateFormula FOR j = 1 TO 3500 : NEXT j :• pause xchr% = 5 ychr% =10 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 f2$ = " +239 Z - 9 992 ZU A +239 Z - 9 993 ZNp + +0 Z - 9 9-l Ze" Formulas = "then " + f2$ GOSUB TranslateFormula FOR j ° 1 TO 3500 : NEXT j :' pause xchr% a 2 ychr% =14 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 f3$ = " +239 Z - 9 993 ZNp A +239 Z - 9 994 ZPu + +0 Z - 9 9-l Ze" Formulas
= "finally " + f3$ GOSUB TranslateFormula FOR j = 1 TO 3500 : NEXT j :' pause LOCATE 6,52 PRINT "Notes:" xchr% =49 ychr% = 8 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 Formulas = " +l Z - 90 Zn" GOSUB TranslateFormula LOCATE 8,54 PRINT "represents a neutron" xchr% =48 ychr% =12 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 Formulas = " l Z + 90 Ze" GOSUB TranslateFormula LOCATE 12,54 PRINT "represents an electron" FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN ATTENTION!
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Commodore-Amiga, Inc_ COLOR 3,1 LOCATE 17,9 PRINT fl$ LOCATE
18,9 PRINT f2$ LOCATE 19,9 PRINT f3$ FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB
ButtonBox END IF RETURN Formula8: title$ = "Fraction With
Superscripts & Subscripts" COLOR 1,0 CLS z = 38 - LEN(title$ )
2 LOCATE 1, z PRINT title$ LOCATE 4,8 PRINT "Newton's Law of
Gravity:" LOCATE 4,47 PRINT "Coulomb's Law:" CharacterWidth% =
9 xchr% = 8 ychr% = 7 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 *
ychr% - 8 fl$ = "F -gravity Z = G " Formulas = fl$ GOSUB
TranslateFormula f2$ = " +m -l +m -2" f3$ = " -d +2"
continued.. Numerator$ = f2$ Denominator$ = £3$ GOSUB Fraction
xchr% =40 ychr% = 7 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 *
ychr% - 8 f4$ = "F -electrostatic Z Formula? = f4?
GOSUB TranslateFormula f5$ = " +Q -l +Q -2" f6$ = " -d +2" Numerator? = f5$ Denominator$ = f6$ GOSUB Fraction LOCATE 11,5 PRINT "G is called Newton's Universal Gravitational Constant."
LOCATE 15,5 PRINT "k is called Coulomb' Constant."
Kchr% =5 ychr% = 13 Kpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ppixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 Formula? = "G = 6.673 x 10 +-11 Z N .m +2 Z .kg +-2 Z" 30SUB TranslateFormula ifrhrfc = 42 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 fl$ = " +u -n" f2$ = "u -n+l“ Numerator? = fl$ Denominator? = f2?
GOSUB Fraction Formula? - " = " GOSUB TranslateFormula f3? = " +n +2 - + a -l +n + a -0" f4? = " -n +2 - + b -l +n + b -0" Numerator? - f3?
Denominator? - f4?
GOSUB Fraction FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN COLOR 3,1 LOCATE 17,20 PRINT fl$ LOCATE 17,30 PRINT f3?
LOCATE 19,20 PRINT f2?
LOCATE 19,30 PRINT f4$ FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN ychr% =15 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 Formula? = "k = 8.987 x 10 +9 Z N .m +2 Z .C +-2 Z" GOSUB TranslateFormula FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN COLOR 3,1 LOCATE 18,2 PRINT fl$ LOCATE 17,21 PRINT f2$ LOCATE 19,21 PRINT f3$ LOCATE 18,35 PRINT f4$ LOCATE 17,60 PRINT f5$ LOCATE 19,60 PRINT f6?
FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN Formula9: title? = "Fraction With Superscripted & Subscripted Numerator & Denominator" COLOR 1,0 CLS z = 38 - LEN(title?) 2 LOCATE 1,z PRINT title?
LOCATE 5,11 PRINT "In descriptions of Gauss's test for the convergence" LOCATE 6,11 PRINT "of infinite series, an often-used example is stated in" LOCATE 7,11 PRINT "the form of a test of this ratio:" CharacterWidth% ® 9 xchr% = 20 ychr% =11 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 FormulalO: title? = "Fraction With Fractional Denominator" COLOR 1,0 CLS z = 38 - LEN(title?) 2 LOCATE 1,z PRINT title?
LOCATE 5,11 CharacterWidth% = 8 xchr% = 4 ychr% = 5 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 fl$ = «»v = v -l Z + v -2 Z" Formula? » "The Newtonian velocity addition law: " + fl?
GOSUB TranslateFormula xchr% = 4 ychr% =11 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 Formula? = "The Einstein velocity addition law: v = " GOSUB TranslateFormula £2$ = " +v -l + + v -2" f3? = " - -l + J Numerator? = f2?
Denominator? = f3?
GOSUB Fraction Formula? = " j" GOSUB TranslateFormula :' position denominator fraction f4? = " +v -l +v -2" f5? = " -c +2" Numerator? = f4?
Denpminator? = f5?
GOSUB Fraction FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN COLOR 3,1 LOCATE 8,5 PRINT fl?
LOCATE 17,40 PRINT f2?
LOCATE 19,24 PRINT f3?
LOCATE 19,43 PRINT f4?
LOCATE 19,60 PRINT f5$ FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN Formulall: titleS = "Time Units: Conversion of Compound to Decimal Form" COLOR 1,0 CLS z = 38 - LEN(titleS) 2 LOCATE 1, z PRINT titleS LOCATE 3,2 PRINT "As everyone knows, the Earth does not turn on its axis once every 24 h." LOCATE 4,2 PRINT "It actually takes 23 h 56 min 04.09054 s to turn once on its axis."
CharacterWidth% = 9 xchr% « 3 ychr% = 9 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 fl$ - "T -rot Z = 23 +h Z56 +m Z04. + 9s Z09054" fl$ - fl$ + " - J K" Formulas = fl$ GOSUB TranslateFormula Formulas = " j" GOSUB TranslateFormula :' position fraction at J location f2$ = " +23 + L " f3$ = "24" Numerators = f2$ Denominators = f3$ GOSUB Fraction Formulas = " " GOSUB TranslateFormula :' position fraction at L location f4$ = " +56 + M " f5$ = "60" Numerators = f4$ Denominators = f5$ GOSUB Fraction Formulas = " m" GOSUB TranslateFormula :' position fraction at M location f6$ = "4.09054"
Numerators = f6$ Denominators = f5$ GOSUB Fraction Formulas = " k" GOSUB TranslateFormula :1 position at K location f7$ = "days" Formulas = f7$ GOSUB TranslateFormula LOCATE 11,10 PRINT "= 0.997 269 5664 days" FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN COLOR 3,1 LOCATE 17,3 PRINT fl$ LOCATE 15,30 PRINT f2$ LOCATE 19,45 PRINT f3$ LOCATE 13,40 PRINT f4$ LOCATE 19,57 PRINT f5S LOCATE 11,50 PRINT f6$ LOCATE 19,70 PRINT f7$ FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN WELCOME TO CANADA!
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Formulal2: titleS = "von Weizsacker's Formula" COLOR 1,0
CLS z = 38 - LEN(titleS) 2 LOCATE l,z PRINT titleS LOCATE
3,7 PRINT "In a 1938 paper on "+q$ +"Element Transformation
Inside Stars"+q$ +"," LOCATE 4,4 PRINT "published in
Physikalische Zeitschrift, "; PRINT "Carl Friedrich von
Weizsacker" LOCATE 5,4 PRINT "uses this formula, which
deals with PRINT "temperature distribution:"
CharacterWidth% = 9 xchr% =23 ychr% = 9 xpixel% = 8 * xchr%
- 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 fl$ = "kT = " Formulas = fl$
GOSUB TranslateFormula f2S = " +E -A + - E -A-l" f3$ =
" - - -ln J " Numerators = f2$ Denominators = f3$ GOSUB
Fraction Formulas = " j" GOSUB TranslateFormula :' position
fraction at J location f4$ = " +n -A-2 + n -A - K" f5$ =
" -n +2 - 9 -A-l Z" continued... Numerator$ = f4$
Denominator$ = f5$ GOSUB Fraction Formula$ = " k . " GOSUB
TranslateFormula position fraction at K location f6$ -
" +G +2 - - 9A-l" f7$ = M -G rA-2 + G -A" Numerators = f6$
Denominators = f7$ GOSUB Fraction FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB
ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% - 1 THEN COLOR 3,1 LOCATE 18,13
PRINT fl$ .
LOCATE 16,39 PRINT f2$ LOCATE 19,20 PRINT f3$ LOCATE 18,34 PRINT f4$ LOCATE 20,34 PRINT f5$ LOCATE 18,60 PRINT f6$ LOCATE 20,60 PRINT f7$ FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN Formulal3: titles = "Superscripted Subscript" COLOR 1,0 CLS z - 38 - LEN(titleS) 2 LOCATE 1,Z PRINT titleS LOCATE 3,11 PRINT q$ +"Exchange reactions"+q$ +" are chemical "; PRINT "reactions in which the" LOCATE 4,8 PRINT "reagents and the products differ only in "; PRINT "isotopic composition."
LOCATE 5,8 PRINT "An example is this exchange reaction:" CharacterWidth% = 9 xchr% = 13 ychr% = 7 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 fl$ = "C +16 ZO -2 Z + 2 H -2 Z +18 ZO B C +18 ZO -2 Z + 2 H -2 Z +16 ZO" Formulas = fl$ GOSUB TranslateFormula LOCATE 9,8 PRINT "which has an equilibrium constant K given by" xchr% ** 2 ychr% =14 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 Formulas = "K = " GOSUB TranslateFormula f2$ = " + + +P - -(C +18 -0 -2 +) + + x P +2 9 - - -(H - 2 + +16 -0)" f3$ = " -P - -(C +16 -0 -2 +) + + x P +2 9 - - - (H 2 + +18 -0)" Numerators = f2$
Denominators = f3$ GOSUB Fraction LOCATE 11,40 PRINT "where" xchr% = 43 ychr% =12 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 f4$ = "P - -(C +18 -0 -2 +) Z = the pressure" Formulas = f4$ GOSUB TranslateFormula xchr% = 57 ychr% = 13 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 f5$ = "exerted by C +18 ZO -2 Z" Formulas = f5$ GOSUB TranslateFormula LOCATE 14,57 PRINT "at equilibrium," LOCATE 15,40 PRINT "and" xchr% = 43 ychr% =16 xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 f4$ = "P - -(H -2 + +18 -0) Z = the pressure" Formulas = f4$ GOSUB TranslateFormula xchr% = 58 ychr% = 17
xpixel% = 8 * xchr% - 7 ypixel% = 8 * ychr% - 8 f5$ = "exerted by H -2 + +18 -0" Formulas = f5$ GOSUB TranslateFormula LOCATE 18,55 PRINT "at equilibrium," LOCATE 19,40 PRINT "etc."
FlagBox% = 2 GOSUB ButtonBox IF FlagChoice% = 1 THEN COLOR 3,1 LOCATE 9,1 PRINT fl$ LOCATE 19,1 PRINT f2S LOCATE 20,1 PRINT f3$ FlagBox% = 1 GOSUB ButtonBox END IF RETURN
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RAM-BOard, T-MOVE, T-UTIL are trademarks of Techni Soft IBM-PC is a trademark of International Business Machines, Inc. AMIGA is a registered trademark of COMMODORE-AMIGA, Inc. An Assembly Language Column for the Commodore Amiga™ by Chris Martin You want to learn assembly language on the Amiga. So, you go to your nearest bookstore and look for a book, only to find there are no books on assembly language for the Amiga A book on assembly language for the IBM rests peacefully on the bookshelf in front of you. Curiously, you open it and begin to read. Then you realize, before you buy any book on
assembly language, you first need a degree in computer programming to understand it!
It does not reguire a college proffessor to understand that programming in assembly language is rather challenging.
But, assembly language is just like any other language; if you passed high school English, you will do just fine. Once learned, assembly language can be quite interesting and even fun. Making a program in assembly language is a very rewarding experience. Follow along in this column and you will learn what you need to know to do exactly that!
Assembly Language Assembly language is a very low-level computer language.
• • BASIC high E V E
• • Pascal
• • ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
• • machine language Low Low level languages have fewer and less
powerful commands than high level languages, sue as BASIC. Here
is an example of a simple BASIC program to count to 1000:
10ForT=1 to 1000 20 Next T The listing is fairly
self-explanatory. The program tells the computer to count from
one to one thousand and put each number it tabulates into the
variable "T". A variable is similar to a mail box; numbers can
be placed in and taken out.
Below is an example of the same program written in assembly language: program: EQU 2000 ;start program at mem.
;loc. 2000 CLR.L DO ;clear register DO loop: ADDI 1,D0 ;add 1 to DO CMPI 1000,DO compare value in DO to ; 1000 BNE loop Branch if Not Equal back to loop done: RTS ReTurn from Subroutine Notice that there are many more instructions. All of the higher level languages were written in assembly, so a single BASIC statement represents several statements in assembly language. Every time a basic program is executed, the computer must translate the program's commands into a form it can understand: machine language.
Machine language is composed soley of numbers which the computer interprets as actual commands. Every microprocessor (the 68000 in the Amiga) contains its individual set of instructions each of which corresponds to different numbers. Actually, there is no difference between assembly language and machine language except for form.
Before an assembly language program can be executed, it must be compiled, turning the word-like commands into numbers.
Another difference between high and low level languages is speed. Depending on the computer's microprocessor (IBM uses the 8088, while an Apple II contains a 6502), assembly language programs will run hundereds, even thousands of Bit Numbers: Bit Value: 7 128 6 64 5 32 4 16 3 8 2 4 1 0 2 1 bits 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Number: 0 Bit Numbers: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Bit Value: 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 bits 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 Number: 128+ 64+ 32+ 16+ 8+ 4+ 2+ 1=255 Bit Numbers: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Bit Value: 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 bits 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 Number: 64+ 32+ 8+ 2+ 1=107 Figure One times faster than BASIC.
Moreover, assembly language programs are more memory efficient and compact than their higher level counterparts.
A byte can be a number from 0 to 255. Each group of bytes contains 8 binary digits called bits. Four digits is called a nibble. Each digit can represent a 0 or a 1, and a group of various digits can represent a number such as 107. Figure One is what various numbers look like to the computer.
Bytes correspond to single addresses. Other terms you must know are word and long word. A word is a number from 0 to 65,535 which consists of two bytes side-by-side. Here is how a word is represented: Programming In Assembly Programming in assembly is very much like programming in any other language. As in BASIC, assembly programs are arranged in seguential order. Unlike BASIC, assembly programs must be compiled into machine language before they are executed. In this column, you will learn to program and compile programs on the Amiga Assembler, available from Commodore-Amiga™. I would also
suggest getting aquainted with AmigaDos (the AmigaDos Manual from Bantam Books is an excellent source of reference).
Address 32768 Address 32769 10001111 11011101 High Byte Low Byte 143 221 Number: (143 * 256) + 221 = 32829 We must begin by understanding more about the Amiga's memory organization. Assume you have a 256K Amiga.
There are about 256,000 different addresses, called memory locations, capable of holding numbers. Think of each A long word is composed of two words or four bytes. It can memory location as a house, an address as a house's represent a number from 0 to 4,294,967,295. Figure Two address, and a neighborhood of 256,000 houses as a 256K demonstrates how a long word is represented.
Amiga. Each memory location consists of one byte of data.
Address 71712 Address 71713 Address 71714 Address 71715 10001111 11011101 00001000 00011001 High Byte of Low Byte of High Byte of Low Byte of High Word: High Word: Low Word: Low Word: 143 221 8 25 Number: Low Word + (High Word* 65535)= 25 + (8*256) + ((221 +(143 * 256)) *65535) = 2,413,590.588 Figure Two Notice that there are several different ways to represent a number using the 68000 microprocessor in the Amiga.
Assemblers An editor is used to actually enter your program. This simply allows you to enter your program, much like you would type a letter. You then pass this source code to an assembler to change the mnemonics into machine language numbers called object code or machine code. Unlike a BASIC program which can be immediately executed after typing, only object code can be executed.
Suppose you create a BASIC program. To examine the program, you type the command LIST. Object code can be examined using a disassembler, which changes the numbers back into a form similar to your source code.
Registers And Addresses In Basic, the programmer uses letters called variables to store numbers. In assembly, there are two different ways to store a number. First, the programmer can use actual memory locations set aside in the computer's memory to store numbers of data. Also, the programmer can use memory locations on the 68000 chip instead of separate memory. These on-chip memory locations are called registers.
The 68000 has two different types of registers: data and address registers. Each are 32 bits (a long word) in length and can hold data in bytes, words, or long words. There are mnemonic instructions that deal only with data registers, only with address registers, or with both.
The data registers are called DO, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7.
These are formally used to store data in the form of numbers of length up to 32 bits.
The address registers are called A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6.
These are used specifically to store address numbers in the computer's memory. Although these registers are 32 bits long, only 24 bits can be used to store addresses. Thus, a computer with a 68000 microprocessor can only address 16,777,216 bytes (16 megabytes). The 68000 is not a true 32 bit microprocessor, but part 32 bit (data) and part 24 bit (address). A 68020 is a full 32 bit microprocessor capable of addressing up to 4,294,967,300 bytes (around 4300 megabytes of memory!).
There are other registers on the 68000 which we will discuss the next time.
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The POW*R»CARD is a powerful new expansion board which allows you to mature in your computer use with greater flexibility in multi-processing and multi-tasking.
POW*R»CARD starts you off with a 2 Meg capability and allows you to grow with upgrades to a huge 8 Meg RAM expansion, ail on the same board so you don't waste valuable slot space. That means you can run more software without fear of Guru Meditation Numbers, out-ofmemory crashes or any other small system boo-boos! What's more, you won't have to rob your piggy bank because POW»R»CARD offers this tremendous growth at a cost lower per megabyte than you'll find anywhere.
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The Winter Consumer Electronics Show New PageSetter with PostScript, Aegis Diga!, and much MORE!
By John Foust At the Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, held January 8 to 11, nearly a dozen Amiga developers crowded into a corner of the massive Commodore booth.
Other areas of the booth displayed products for the Commodore 64 and 128, and the new Commodore IBM compatible machines.
New PC, 128 models Two IBM PC compatible models were introduced. Both are very popular in Europe, but are new to the United States market. Both have 8088 processors running at 4.77 Mhz, and can run MS-DOS 3.2 with an IBM PC-XT compatible BIOS operating system.
They have room for five expansion cards, and the power supply can operate two floppy drives and a 40 megabyte harddisk. Both have room for afull-height hard disk. They have serial and parallel ports. They both use the ATI Graphics Solutions graphics board, which gives standard IBM monochrome, Hercules and Plantronics monochrome graphics, plus standard IBM color graphics on a single card.
The PC-10-1 has 512 K of memory, a single 360 K floppy diskdrive. It is expected to retail for $ 999. The PC-10-2 has 640 K of memory and two 360 K floppy disk drives. Its retail price is $ 1199.
A new model of the Commodore 128 was shown, called the 128D. It is a Commodore 128 in a redesigned Amiga-like case, with separate keyboard, and a single power supply. It has a built-in 1571 disk drive. It can be expanded to 640 K of memory internally, but comes with 128 K standard. It is expected to sell for $ 550, available in April or May 1987.
Amiga developers The Commodore booth stood two stories over the convention hall floor. The upper floors were split into demonstration rooms and offices, and an open patio looking over the floor.
Here, Commodore executives met with dealers and distributors. The new Amiga 500 and 2000 machines were shown in a private demonstration room. One room was dedicated to the Commodore engineers, where they had a modem link to the computers in West Chester, and tables for repairing computers damaged in transit to the show.
Below, on the floor, the booth was divided according to computer type. The four corners of the booth were split into display areas that were turned over to Commodore third- party developers. Each had a desktop-sized space to demonstrate their products.
The Amiga area took a full quadrant of the booth. The inner corner of the Amiga section was department-store style display windows, filled with Amiga software and hardware, including Genlocks, Sidecars and memory upgrades.
The outside corner held the third party developers. The walkway between the display windows and the demonstrations was constantly crowded.
The Af met cs display was larger than most software developers, so they were soon moved to an area on the outside of the booth, in the flow of traffic in the aisles of the convention hall. The Soundscape software can control MIDI musical instruments and video devices. A large television showed music videos overlaid with Amiga graphics.
Meanwhile, the Soundscape software controlled several piano keyboards and played back digitized sounds using the Amiga sound hardware.
Arakin Research gave hands-on demonstrations of the Easyl, a drawing tablet that supplements the mouse. The device recently cleared FCC regulations, and is now widely available in the United States. It has been very popular among commerical artists who use the Amiga.
Continued... SEVEN TOED PETE DOMINOES the screen. This new version should be available now as an upgrade for Digi-View owners.
On your 512k Amiga SEVEN TOED PETE is a numerical strategy game designed especially to take advantage of the Amiga’s graphic and speech capabilities.
Learn with the DOMINO TUTOR then play against the expert. Challenging for adults yet easy for children to learn, and it provides excellent arithmetic practice.
Send check or money order for $ 24.95 to POLYGLOT SOFTWARE 10431 Ardyce Court, Boise, Idaho 83704 Micro-Systems Software showed a new version of the Analyze! Spreadsheet that can use Lotus 1 -2-3 compatible files.
New Horizons demonstrated ProWrite, their what-you-see- is-what-you-get word processor. It also has support for color printers.
Byte-by-Byte introduced a new low-cost hardware product, called the Tic, a tiny battery-backed clock that plugs into the second mouse port. During boot-up, the Tic program reads the current time. After this, the Tic can be removed safely, freeing the use of the joystick port. The date and time is preserved even when the Tic is disconnected from the Amiga. The Tic retails for $ 59.95. The Byte-by-Byte PAL box was on display. The announced PAL Jr. Will be delayed until Match, according to Scott Peterson, an executive at Byte-by-Byte.
New Tek, the ever-present developers of Digi-View, showed the new version of the Digi-View controller software.
Apart from controlling their video digitizer, it has the ability to bad an IFF picture, and then adjust its cobr balance, sharpness or saturatbn, with the sliders that usually control how the Digi-View image will appear.
The new software also allows a faster scan of the video signal, and the option of only scanning a half or a quarter of Liquid Light demonstrated their screen printing system. With a special cable and a video printing system from Polaroid, Amiga screens are transferred to Polaroid prints in minutes.
Liquid Light has the most beautiful picture disks of all Amiga devebpers. They have pictures of fruit that seem almost edible.
PageSetter upgrades Gold Disk showed several versions of their PageSetter desktop publishing system. Some of these features might be added to the next upgrade available to current owners.
Others might surface in an expert versbn of the program.
Kailash Ambwani, a programmer at Gob Disk, showed an expert versbn that uses a high resolution screen, for more definition of the page being composed. "It will probably need expanded RAM," he sab.
The new upgrade will include cobr printing capabilities.
There will be a feature to move a group of objects at once, instead of moving them separately. Autohyphenatbn will be added to the text processor's abilities. There will also be an automatic method of wrapping text around graphic images.
By placing a graphic image over one of these "impermeable boxes," the text will wrap around the graphfo.
One planned version wouto support the PostScript laser printer language, whbh should be available now. Official Adobe fonts might be added, but cost would be higher, since their inclusbn on the disk would mean the payment of a licensing fee, according to Ambwani. These woub display laser printer fonts on the screen as they woub appear on the printed page.
A corresponding option would albw the printing of graphics at the highest resolution possible on the printer being used, even though the image might be displayed in a different resolutbn on the screen. Laser printers will often support printing resolutions of 300 dots per inch. The program might retreive the high-resolution image from disk, instead of using an image in the computer memory.
Ambwani also discussed versions of the program that will support 24 pin dot matrix printers. "You can buy an Amiga and a 24 pin printer for under $ 2000 and get a fairly decent system, with resolutions of 200 dots per inch. We are very interested and excited about it."
Aegis Development Aegis had their own booth, apart from the Commodore booth.
Aside from Amiga products, they also market software for the Macintosh and the Atari ST. It is not well-known in the Amiga community that Aegis has products for these machines. Their Mac products include Mac Chalbnger, a space shuttle simulatbn, and a soon-to-be released writer's tool. They also have an Atari ST version of Aegis Animator, as well as one for the Macintosh.
Script file processing to speed you through connections with costly bulletin boards.
SKE Software has kept a promise that was made last January. Our customers told us what SKEterm™ needed to make it the most outstanding communications emulator package available for the Amiga™ and we listened. We listened so well in fact, we completely rewrote SKEterm™ so that now it's faster and more feature enriched than ever before.
Just look at some of the features SKEterm provides: User definable macro keys to store Long key sequences for immediate execution.
Extensive onLine help - no books to lose!
Text displays on your screen at speeds up to 9600 baud.
Split screen mode for conference sessions so what you're typing doesn’t get mixed in with text you're receiving.
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Baud rates up to 19200; 7 or 8 bit character length; even, odd, mark, or no parity; 1 or 2 stopbits.
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Supports any asynchronous modem up to 19200 baud with auto redial for auto-dial modems. Set up a call list to dial multiple PhoneBook entries as many times as you like or until a complete connection is made.
Unsurpassed terminal emulation including TTY, ADM3A, ANSI, VT100, with applications mode, function key & character graphic support, and D200 with support for 60 function keys.
Intuition support using pop-down menus as well as quick "hot" keys so you don't have to take your hands off the keyboard.
Multitasking so you can run other programs, type or print files while online. You can even start a NewCU while in the middle of a session while continue to behave as if you were using a stand-alone terminal.
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(813) 787-3111 A short video played continuously in the booth.
The video featured interviews with the Aegis artists and
programmers, and clips from animations done with an
upcoming three dimensional animation system for the Amiga.
The centerpeice of the booth was a Formula race car that
races in Riverside, California, sponsored by Aegis.
Aegis showed a preliminary version of Digai, an Amiga telcommunications program. 'Diga' is Spanish for "speak to me." It has a powerful script language for automating telecommunications sessions. It can transfer files with many protocols, including Ymodem, Xmodem, Kermit, CompuServe B, and Aegis's own protocol called DoubleTalk.
With most other file tranfer protocols, no other activity can take place when the data is being transfered. DoubleTalk changes this. While the file is being transfered, both people can enter messages at their consoles, and the messages are relayed to the other person, without affecting the file transfer.
The new protocol was developed to solve a problem that arose with their programmers. They often work away from the Aegis offices, and then send their latest code and programs to the home office via a modem connection.
However, the programmers only have one phone line, so they could not save time by talking to the Aegis office at the same time as sending their latest files.
The new protocol allows both users to send text messages at the same time as files are transmitted. While the latest program was being sent, they could type messages on one computer, and they would appear on the other. The text is presented in a fashion similar to the Unix 'phone' program.
The new Aegis protocol should also transmit files faster across long distances, especially on national networks or on phone calls carried by satellite. In most file transfer protocols, when the sender sends a data packet, it waits for the receiver to acknowledge that the packet arrived without error. Over long distances, or with delays in national packet networks, this wait can artificially slow the file transfer. The new Aegis protocol does not wait after sending each packet, but can receive the 'OK' for packets that were transmitted in the past.
Diga! Reflects Aegis's policy of using Intuition to the fullest.
Both Intuition menus and Amiga-key shortcuts are used liberally, and the user interface is consistent. Terminal settings and scripts are stored independently for each computer you might call.
Interestingly, all new Aegis programs will use the overscan abilities of the Amiga. The Amiga can display graphics into the area traditionally called the border of the screen. This means Aegis programs can use the standard Amiga fonts, but with 24 lines of text on the screen at once, including the continued... menu bar. Using the overscan area also allows a full 132 columns of text using a small but readable font. Other methods of making 132 text involve less readable fonts.
Aegis programmers have a deep enough understanding of Intuition to bypass the limitation that has keep other programmers from using the overscan area in normal programs. By changing the Intuition data structures themselves, and calling the ReThinkDisplay() function, they can have normal Intuition windows into the overscan area.
Aegis also showed an early version of a video titling system.
It does vector-based fonts, which means the size of the fonts can change in smooth increments, and can be tilted or distorted under computer control. Fonts can be shaded, colored, and given drop-shadows at any angle.
Aegis is promising products that use CD-I. CD-I stands for Compact Disk Interactive. This new standard defines a data and program format for compact laser disk systems. Video graphics, sound and programs will be stored on high- capacity laser disks, and driven under computer control, giving interactive high quality video and sound on home computers. Fortunately, the CD-I standard defines its processor as a 68000, so the Amiga will be a fine vehicle for CD-I.
IVS RAMex box Interactive Video Systems showed their expansion box in the Aegis booth. The six Zorro slot box sits on top of the Amiga, and is only a few inches tall. According to Erick Moody, director of research and development at IVS, it is now in beta testing, and should be out in April, priced at $ 529.
IVS plans several other cards for the Zorro bus. One is an Amiga hard disk card, with a 20 megabyte SCSI hard disk.
The card has a spare SCSI port, and should be sold for $ 899.
Because the card has two channels of DMA, and only one channel is used for the hard disk, IVS plans to demonstrate software than can move memory quickly in the Amiga They have an animation demonstration that displays ten images a second for ten seconds. The colorful 320 x 200 pixel images were drawn by Kara, Los Angeles graphics artist, who also makes the Amiga pictures for Liquid Light.
Another card is a memory expansion, called the RAMex. It has two megabytes of memory for $ 549. IVS is also working on a multifunction card that has an Appletalk network connector, so Amigas can join other devices on Macintosh networks.
Companies mentioned Aegis Development 2210 Wilshire Boulevard Suite 277 Santa Monica, California 90403
(213) 306-0735 Anakln Research, Inc. 100 Westmore Drive Unit 11C.
Rexdale, Ontario Canada, M9V5C3
(416) 744-4246 Byte by Byte, Inc, Arboretum Plaza il 9442 Capital
of Texas Highway Suite 150 Austin, TX 78759 Gold DM Inc
2179Dunwin Drive 6 Missisauga, Ontario Canada, L5L1X2
(416) 828-0913 Interactive Video Systems 15201 Santa Gertrudes
Avenue Suite Y102 La Mirada, California 90638
(714) 739-5020 Liquid Ught 2301 West205th Street Torrance, CA
(213) 618-0274 Micro Systems Software 43G1-I80ak Circle
(305) 391-6077 .
P. O. Box 60238 Sta. A Palo Alto, CA 94306
(408) 741-0117 New Horizons Software, Inc P,0, Box 43167 .
(512) 329-6215 New felt Incorporated 701 Jackson Suite B3 Topeka,
* AC* Genlocks are finally shipping!
WOWi Hot new effects packages from New Tek!
Ray-tracing construction in the public domain!
BytheBandito With the new Amiga machines announced and flaunted before the world, the secret fear of every Amiga enthusiast is painfully clear. They ask "But will they really ship on time?" The New York launch took place in February, and they will be shown in Hanover, Germany in March. Best bets say the Amiga 500 will be out first, followed by the Amiga
2000. As for the PC-10 IBM clones, who really cares? They should
be available now.
On the good news side, Genlocks are finally shipping, at about $ 290. But Sidecar delays continue to pile up.
Doomsayers say it may never hit the streets in the United States. Others say it will, pending design changes that will lower the production cost.
Even the long-dead Amiga Live! Video digitizer might see the light of day, because the A-Squared people renegotiated the almost-expired contract for creating the device for Commodore. Rumors say the Commodore legal department accidentally left a truck-sized loophole in the contract, but that the A-Squared people were nice enough not to drive through it. The loophole would have granted them the right to sell the box themselves, because Commodore had not sold enough units in the year after the contract was signed.
So it might be in production now... Many people, inside and outside of Commodore, are holding their breath, waiting to see what will happen to the Los Gatos offices. With the effective retirement of former Los Gatos head Jay Miner, and the stow attrition of the Los Gatos staff, the odds are getting slim for their long-term survival. The lease on the original Amiga building is up at theend of March, and no one is really sure what will happen. Commodore West Chester officials asked the California team to move to Pennsylvania. Guess what they said?
Former MetaComco programmer Tim King is working with Los Gatos employees to improve hard disk speeds, through improvements in software. At last word, the new tweaks have improved hard disk access by four times over. All this fuss about hard disk DMA has been for nothing, if the software is too slow.
The public domain gets better and better! The 'ray trace' pictures have wowed Amiga users everywhere, and now you can make them at home, if you didn't have a VAX at home already. Ray-tracing construction sets are appearing in the public domain and shareware markets!
Some of the best-kept secrets of the Amiga world are the hot new effects packages from New Tek, the Digi-View people.
They will be released after New Tek finds a protection solution that will keep their investment out of the hands of pirates. Expect the new software to be showcased at the upcoming Amiga Expo shows. Things are getting mighty sneaky - more and more people are swore to secrecy about future New Tek projects.
The PAL Jr. Announced from Byte-by-Byte sure looks good, but will it ever be released? Late-breaking news claims it will, but it has been flipped on its side, to sit on the Amiga. It will include a 20 meg hard disk, and perhaps extra memory, and the SCSI controller. But it is still priced at more than $ 1000.
For computer addicts like the Bandito, the scheduling of the spring COMDEX and summer Consumer Electronics Show spells aggravation. They nearly overlap. Spring COMDEX in Atlanta starts on May 24, and ends May 27. CES starts May 28 in Chicago. This means computer companies wont be able to make both shows, unless they double their show staffs, and get two booths. Make your reservations from Atlanta to Chicago early I Commodore will be present at the Chicago Consumer Electronics Show, but not COMDEX.
Fresh rumors say the future Amigas have will have 68020 compatibility, if the hot chip isnt standard. The DMA abilities will be improved, and work has started on rudimentary memory management chips.
• AC* Amazing Computing If you are reading Amazing Computing™ for
the first time, you have not seen Amazing Computing™.
Look what you have missed!
Volume 1 Number 1 Premiere February 1986 Super Spheres By Kelly Kauffman An Abasic Graphics program Date Virus By John Foust There is a disease that may attack your Amiga EZ-Term by Kelly Kauffman An Abasic Terminal program Miga Mania by Perry Kivolowitz Programming fixes and mouse care Inside CLI by George Musser a guided insight into the AmigaDos™ CU Summary by George Musser Jr. A removable list of CLI commands AmigaForum byBelaLubkin A quick trip through CompuServe's Amiga SIG Commodore Amiga Development Program by Don Hicks What to ask and where to go to be a developer Amiga Products A
listing of present and expected products.
Volume 1 Number 2 March 1986 Electronic Arts Comes Through A look at the new software from EA Inside CLI: part two by George Musser George continues his investigation of CLI and ED A Summary of ED Commands Uvel by Rich Miner A review of the Beta version of the Livel frame grabber Online and the CIS Fabite 2424 ADH Modem by John Foust Amiga Products Superterm V1.0 By Kelly Kauffman A terminal program written in Amiga Basic A Workbench "More" Program by Rick Wirch Amiga BBS numbers Volume 1 Number 3 April 1986 Analyze! A review by Ernest Viverios Reviews of Racter, Barataccas and Mindshadow
Forth! The first of our on going tutorial Deluxe Draw!! By Rich Wirch An Amiga Basic program for the artist in us all.
Amiga Basic, A beginners tutorial The start of our tutorial of the most active Amiga language.
Inside CLI: part 3 by George Musser George gives us PIPE Volume 1 Number 4 May 1986 SkyFox and Articfox Reviewed Build your own 51 4 Drive Connector By Ernest Viveiros Amiga Basic Tips by Rich Wirch Scrimper Part One by Perry Kivolowitz A C program to print your Amiga screen Microsoft CD ROM Conference by Jim O'Keane Amiga BBS Numbers Volume 1 Number 5 1986 The HSI to RGB Conversion Tool by Steve Pietrowicz a basic program for color manipulation AmigaNotes by Rick Rae The first of the Amiga music columns Sidecar A First Look by John Foust A first "under the hood" look at the IBM compatible
hardware John Foust Talks with R. J. Mical at COMDEX™ How does Sidecar affect the Transformer an interview with Douglas Wyman of Simile The Commodore Layoffs by John Foust John looks at the "cuts" at Commodore Scrimper Part Two by Perry Kivolowitz Marauder reviewed by Rick Wirch Building Tools by Daniel Kary Volume 1 Number 61986 Temple of Apshai Trio logy reviewd by Stephen Pietrowicz The Hailey Project: A Mission in our Solar System reviewed by Stephen Pietrowicz Row: reviewed by Erv Bobo Textcraft Plus a First Look by Joe Lowery How to start your own Amiga User Group by William Simpson
Amiga User Groups Mailing List by Kelly Kauffman a basic mail list program Pointer Image Editor by Stephen Pietrowicz Scrimper: part three by Perry Kivolowitz Fun With the Amiga Disk Controller by Thom Sterling Optimize Your AmlgaBasic Programs for Speed by Stephen Pietrowicz_ Volume 1 Number 71986 Aegis Draw: CAD comes to the Amiga by Kelly Adams Try 3D by Jim Meadows an introduction to 3D graphics Aegis Images Animator: a review by Erv Bobo Deluxe Video Construction Set reviewed by Joe Lowery Window requesters in Amiga Basic by Steve Michel ROT by Colin French a 3D graphics editor "I C What
I Think" Ron Peterson with a few C graphic programs Your Menu Sir! By Bryan D. Catiey programming menues in Amiga Basic IFF Brush to AmigaBasic 'BOB' editor by Michael Swinger Convert IFF Brush Files for use with Amiga Basic Linking C Programs with Assembler Routines on the Amiga by Gerald Hull Volume 1 Number 81986 The University Amiga By Geoff Gamble Amiga's inroads at Washington State University MicroEd a look at a one man army for the Amiga MicroEd, The Lewis and Clark Expedition reviewed by Robert Frizelle Scribble Version 2.0 a review Computers in the Classroom by Robert Frizelle Two for
Study by Robert Frizelle a review of Discovery and The Talking Coloring Book True Basic reviewed by Brad Grier Using your printer with the Amiga Marble Madness reviewed by Stephen Pietrowicz Using Fonts from AmigaBasic by Tim Jones Screen SaVer by Perry Kivolowitz A monitor protection program in C Lattice MAKE Utility reviewed by Scott P. Evernden A Tale of Three EM ACS by Steve Poling .bmap File Reader in Amiga Basic by Tim Jones A look into the .bmap files Volume 1 Number 91986 Instant Music Reviewed by Steve Pietrowicz Mindwalker Reviewed by Richard Knepper The Alegra Memory Board Reviewed
by Rich Wirch TxEd Reviewed by Jan and Cliff Kent Amazing Directory A guide to the sources and resources Amiga Developers A listing of Suppliers and Developers Public Domain Catalog A condensed listing of Amicus and Fred Fish PDS Disks Dos 2 Dos review by Richard Knepper Transfer files from PC MS-DOS and AmigaBasic MaxIPIan review by Richard Knepper The Amiga version of Lotus 1 2-3 Glzmoz by reviewed by Peter Wayner A collection of Amiga extrasl The Loan Information Program by Brian Catiey basic prog, to for your financial options Starting Your Own Amiga Related Business by William Simpson
The possible ways to establish a business.
Keep Track of Your Business Usage for Taxes by James Kummer A program to justify your Amiga to the IRS The Absoft Amiga Fortran Compiler reviewed by Richard A. Reale Use your valuable Fortran programs.
Using Fonts from AmigaBasic, Part Two by Tim Jones The Amiga Basic program outlined last issue 68000 Macros on the Amiga by Gerald Hull Advance your program's ability.
TDI Modla-2 Amiga Compiler by Steve Faiwiszewski Looking at an alternative to C and Forth.
Volume 2 Number 11987 What Dlgl-View ls..Or, What Genlock Should Bel by John Foust The capabilities and liabilities of Amiga Video AmlgaBASIC Default Colors by Bryan Catiey AmigaBASIC Titles by Bryan Catiey A Public Domain Modula-2 System reviewed by Warren Block One Drive Compile by Douglas Lovell using Lattice C with a single drive system Amegabyte Without Megabucks by Chris Erving An Internal Megabyte upgrade for the technicaly inclined Digi-View reviewed by Ed Jakober Defender of the Crown reviewed by Keith Conforti Leader Board reviewed by Chuck Raudonis Roundhlll Computer Systems' PANEL
reviewed by Ray Lance Digi-Palnt....by New Tek previewed by John Foust Deluxe Paint II ....from Electronic arts previewed by John Foust Volume 2 Number 21987 The Modem by Joseph L. Rothman efforts of a BBS SYSOP MacroModem reviewed by Stephen R. Pietrowicz GEMINI or "It takes two to Tango" by Jim Meadows Playing a game between two machines BBS-PCl reviewed by Stephen R. Pietrowicz The Trouble with Xmodem by Joseph L. Rothman The ACO Project...Graphlc Teleconferencing on the Amiga by Stephen R. Pietrowicz Right Simulator II...A Cross Country Tutorial by John Raffortty A Disk Librarian in
AmlgaBASIC by John Kennan Creating and Using Amiga Workbench Icons by Celeste Hansel AmlgaDOS Version 1.2 by Clifford Kent AmigaNotes...The Amazing MIDI Interface build your own by Richard Rae AmlgaDOS Operating System Calls and Disk Rle Management by Dave Haynie Working with Workbench by Louis A. Mamakos "Programming with the Workbench using C." To Be Continued .. Amazing Computing™ Your Resource to the Commodore Amiga™ Plus, don't forget our regular columns: The Amicus Network a newsletter of the Amiga Comomputer Users AmlgaNotes an Amiga music column ROOMERS an insider's took at the
Amiga Developers Community Forth!
The Amazing C Tutorial Amazing Computing™ has been offering the Amiga community the best in technical knowledge and reviews for the Commodore-Amiga™ since our first issue in Febuary 1986.
We were the first magazine to document CLI We were the first to show Sidecar™ from COMDEX™ in full detail.
We were the first to document a 5 1 4 drive connector We were the first with a 1 Meg Amiga upgrade hardware project!
We were the first magazine to offer serious programming examples and help.
We were the first magazine to offer Public Domain Software at reasonable prices.
We were the first magazine with the user in mind!
However, Amazing Computing™ will not rest on past achievements. The Commodore-Amiga™ has more surprises for you and we are ready to cover them. We even have a few tricks that will "Amaze" you.
To Subscribe to Amazing Computing™, please fill out the form below and mail to: PiM Publications Inc.
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Back issues are still available at $ 4.00 each (Foreign orders, please add $ 1.00 U.S. per issue for P. & H).
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orders V0L1 1 V0L1 2 V0L1 3 V0L1 4 V0L1 5 V0L1 6 V0L1 7 AC3S7
V0L1I8 VOL 119 V0L2 1 VOL2 2 "Zingl gives you a third option in
operating environments- one which combines the ease of use of
Workbench with the power equivalent to and beyond that of a
Cli. * Amazing Reviews.
From Meridian Software by EdBercovitz People LinK "Ed Canuck" AmigaLine 1-613-526-4141 If you bought your Amiga to put some zing into your life, then how about returning the favour and putting some zing into your Amiga? This can be easily accomplished with a new product called, naturally enough, Zing! Trom Meridian Software of Houston, Texas.
Zing Is.... I used the term "product* in describing Zing I because it is not really a program as most Amiga users would define the term.
Normally AmigaDos gives you the option of either working from the Workbench or from a CLI.
The Workbench gives you a "friendly" interface while CLI allows you to maximize the power of the system. Zing! Gives you a third option in operating environments~one which combines the ease of use of Workbench with the power equivalent to and beyond that of a CLI, and further adds a strong measure of flexibility that allows you to reconfigure Zing! To meet your individual needs.
Hot Keys One of the nicest aspects of Zing! Is that there is only one command to learn to gain access to any of the program's functions. The command to remember is Left Amiga + F10 (the two keys to be pressed simultaneously). This command will open the drop down Hot Key menu which will show all the Hot Keys assignments which are as follows: n Fife System Window n New CLI Startup Window . P3 Save current screen to an IFF file F4 Save current screen to toe printer FS increase the activation time for screen blanker H Diskoopy window F7 Task Monitor Window F8 Disk Format Window F9 Setthe23ng!
Defaults . F«f Hot Key Menu Zinging Up Zing! May be run by using the disk supplied by Meridian by inserting the disk after booting up with Kickstart.
Alternatively you can move the appropriate Zing files (they are not copy protected) to your own boot up disk, or to a program disk, or to your hard disk, or if you have enough memory to even a RAM disk. Then by making the appropriate adjustments to your startup-sequence file or by opening a NEWCLI and typing "zstart", Zing will then proceed to install itself. Installation is accompanied by some intense disk activity at the end of which a small, square CLI appears in the bottom left hand corner of the screen with the message "Zing Installed". The only other evidence of Zingl's presence is
revealed by a quick check of available memory which shows that it has decreased by about 20k. You can now start to use any of Zing I’s features or you can start another program or application secure in the knowledge that Zing I is only a couple of keystrokes away.
Once the Hot Key Menu window is open any of the tasks assigned to F1 through F9 may be invoked by pushing the appropriate f unction key. Alternatively these tasks may also be accessed without using the Hot Key Menu by pressing Left Amiga and the appropriate function simultaneously. If you open the Hot Key Menu and decide not to utilize any of the specified options, you may also exit gracefully through the close window gadget in the upper left hand corner of the menu.
The specific operation of the function keys are as follows: F2- If you have forgotten to "run” your program or application this will allow to open a new CLI window and thereby run another task.
F3 and F4- This will allow you to do a screen dump to a file in an IFF file format or directly to your printer. If saving to a file you are prompted for a filename and if you're printing you are given the options of having small, medium or large images.
Continued... A-TaVLK™ F9- With this function key, you activate a new window in which you may specify the defaults that are used in the File System Window.
Communication and Terminal Program
• KERMIT - XMODEM - XMODEM CRC - ASCII
• DIAL-A-TALK - Script language. 20 function keys.
• FULL VT100 VT52 H19 ANSI TTY emulations.
• Concurrent printing and capture. Voice option. CB mode.
A-TALK PLUS Tektronix 4010 4014 Graphics Emulation
• ALPHA GRAPH GIN standard modes, plus enhanced graphics POINT
PLOT and INCREMENTAL PLOT.
• All vector line formats. Screen size up to 700 by 440.
• Four character sizes. Printer support. Store screens in IFF or
Aegis Draw format. All A-TALK features supported.
A-TALK lists for $ 49.95. A-TALK PLUS lists for $ 99.95. $ 2.00 shipping; CA residents add 6.5% sales tax.
Felsina Software 3175 South Hoover Street, 275 Los Angeles, CA 90007
(213) 747-8498 F5- Each press of this key will increment the
screen dimmer wait interval by 2 minutes. The screen dimmer
will blank your screen after a specified number of minutes
if there has been no keyboard or mouse input during that
time in order to preserve your monitor's phospors. Pressing
any key or a mouse button will restore the screen to the
display that was present before the dimmer took effect
Unfortunately there seems no way of decreasing the interval
so this feature should be used with care.
F6- This activates the standard AmigaDos Diskcopy function but utilizes a custom window to specify the source and destination diskdrives.
F7- This is one of Zingl's most fascinating features. It shows you the task priority, current status, and stack pointer for each CLI, program, and device that the CPU is currently controlling and monitoring. It is almost like watching a "brain” at work and is a very graphic demonstration of the multitasking capabilities of the Amiga.
It is also a useful tool for maximizing the efficiency of tasks which are running concurrently.
F8- Like the Diskcopy function key, this uses the Amigados Format command, but with a custom window that allows you to specify the drive number and disk name in appropriate string gadgets.
Each of these function keys activate programs which Zing expects to find in the c directory of the System disk with which you booted your Amiga. If you try and activate any of the Hot Key functions, and the System disk is not currently in one of your disk drives, then a requester will appear and prompt you to insert the appropriate disk. This procedure is similar to what occurs if you try and use normal Amigados CLI commands which are contained in the c directory when the system disk is not currently in a drive. You may however move this Zing! Files to RAM or to a hard disk and make the
appropriate assignments in a batch file in order not to have to swap in your system disk when trying to use any of the Hot Keys.
The File System Window In the previous section I quite deliberately avoided any detailed mention of the F1 Hot Key and the File System Window. If you consider the other Hot Key functions as appetizers then the File System Window is Zingi's main course. This is where the power and versatility of Zing! Really emerges.
The File System Window FSW) contains three distinct zones. The first zone is the menu bar which also contains three gadgets and which are activated by clicking in the gadget with the right mouse button. The first gadget called "Time" will show you the current system time followed by the current system date. The second gadget normally shows the name of the current directory, or if you are in the root directory, it shows the disk name.
When this gadget is clicked it cycles through a display which gives you the number of files on the disk or in the current directoiy, number of bytes free on the disk and the amount of available memory. The final gadget shows the number of "pages” (i.e. screens) of files available for viewing and when clicked it will advance to the next "page" of files.
The main zone of the FSW is a grid which normally shows all the files and subdirectories in the current directory.
However by activating a "File Tree" toggle from a menu you can expand the display to show all the fifes and subdirectories which are subordinate to your current directory.
Using this feature at the root directory will give you a visual display of the complete hierarchical structure of your disk.
Working with the file display is extremely easy. By double clicking on a file name, a window is opened which allows you to rename, type (in hex or ascii), edit, delete the file as well as changing the protection status of the file. This window also also shows you the size of the file and the time and date of its creation, and lets you add or modify the file comment field. Alternatively if you double click on a directoiy name the display will change to show all the files and subdirectories contained within that directory.
WE ARE THE FUTURE Power, Sound and Graphics To find out about our product line for your Amiga Computer call us at the Hotline. We will be glad to send you our lateset product brochure.
You already have the most dynamic computer made, with the IMPULSE product line Reach The Future !
Bringing the Future since 1984 c ) CALL 1-800-328-0184 The real power of Zing! Comes into play with the multiple file selection option. By single clicking on multiple files in a directory (or if you are in a Tile Tree" mode you may click on files from different directories) you can select a group of files to perform operations upon. Alternatively there is a piping feature which will allow you to select files that match a simple or complex pattern. This piping can be repeated numerous times with different patterns in order to expand the group of selected files. Pattern matching can also be used
to deselect some of the previously selected files.
After using this piping feature individual files may be selected deselected with the mouse in order to finalize the group of files. As each file is selected it is highlighted with a different colour in order to provide a visual indication of the files contained in the group. Once you have completed your selection, you can then choose from a menu to delete, copy, merge, or move (i.e. copy to a new destination and then delete the original files from their previous location) all the files in the group. You can even chose to print the selected files via a print spooler.
Other features of the FSW allow you to format, copy install and relabel disks, execute batch files or run programs, obtain information about installed devices, monitor tasks or perform system reassignments.
The final zone in the FSW is a line at the bottom of the window showing the current function key designations. Once you invoke the FSW the assignment of the function keys change from Hot Keys to performing FSW. You may easily customize the function keys to reflect your most frequently operations i.e F1 can be used to execute a batch file, F2 can be used to delete selected files, F3 to copy files etc. Consequently to perform any operation you may select it off a pull down menu, use the mouse to point and click at one of the onscreen function keys or press one of the function keys on the
keyboard. This flexibility is very indicative of the care that was taken in designing Zingl's user interface.
Using Zing Zing is unparalleled if you use it as a standalone file utility.
When using my Amiga I tend to have one disk as my current work disk. Consequently over time the disk fills up with text files, the odd spreadsheet or database and downloaded arc files and their contents.
When the time comes for the inevitable cleanup Zing is inva!uable....l can quickly check out the contents of a text file, run an executable program, format a disk, make directories, move files and perform other mundane tasks very quickly.
When I first tried Zing it's ease of use and power prompted me to do a thorough review of all my public domain files that had been building up over the last six months. By eliminating duplicates, discarding out of date versions and filling up unused free space, I was able to obtain a box and a continued.. ftLDHAFDNTS I IhmJmhhhIM VOLUME 1 C0NTRIN5 33 Doint HEADLINE FONTS SPEC IRLTY FONTS Pictures & ia £ |j jijtwi 2s Backgrounds ttwt m s Borders a v-rr uu * ¦ and KTESC IL ?Bjant Shadow DESIGNED ESPECIALLY TO BE USED HITH GOLD DISK'S PAGESETTER™ AND ELECTONIC ARTS' DELUXE PAINT?* yi LOTS
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OEALER INQUIRIES HELCOMEt half of disks for recycling. Using
AmigDOS to do the same thing would have been much more time
consuming and difficult.
With an application program Zing can also be a complementary utility. In some Amiga programs if you want to load an existing file into your application, you are not given a directory of your data disk but rather are expected to type in the file name into a requester.
In such a situation how many of you have been struck with the "what did I call that file?" Syndrome. No problem if you have a complete file tree that can you pop to the front or can call up with the touch of a hot key. Or you go to save the spreadsheet and oops! ....you find there’s not enough room on your destination disk. You can try and scramble around and find another disk with (hopefully) enough free space or if you were smart enough to have "run" your program you can click out to your cli and type "format drive df 1: name xxxxx".
With Zing you hit your hotkey type the new disk name and a couple of mouse clicks and you are off to the races.
Zing I operates extremely well in a multitasking environment.
It’s windows are resizable and movable which allows you to have a Zing! Window on the same screen as your main application. Multiple copies of Zing! Can be run concurrently so that you can, for example, have two File System Windows each showing the contents of a different disk. If Zing! Is running concurrently with other applications and you endeavour to perform a function for which you have insufficient memory, Zing! Will abort your request without guruing your Amiga. Finally if your main application requires more memory, it is very easy to cleanly "de-install" Zing!.
Bugs and limitations While giving Zingl a thorough workout I only found one bug in the "move files” function. Normally if you select multiple files to move, Zing! Will copy them all to your selected destination and then go back to the source and delete all the original files.
However if you run out of space on your destination disk Amigados will put up a warning requester telling you the disk is full and giving you the options of either retrying or cancelling. Retrying without deleting files from the destination disk will keep giving you the same warning requester. If you choose cancel Zing! Will skip the file it was copying and try and copy the next file in the queue. This will of course cause the warning requester to reappear again and if you keep clicking cancel in order to exhaust the remainder of the list of files to be copied, Zing will, after the last file
in the list, go back to your source and delete ALL the files including those which were not successfully copied!
Hopefully this will be soon rectified in one of the next revisions, but in the meantime be warned if you are moving important files.
Undoubtedly the most powerful and useful function in Zing! Is the File System Window but unfortunately it can consume approximately 80K of memory. This is not a problem if you are using it as a standalone utility, but if you multitasking it with a large application program that is using significant amounts of data, the memory situation can get a bit tight in an 512k Amiga However with additional memory I would expect Zingl would really shine and you would probably want to have it installed and handy for use at any time. For hard disk users there is a limitation in that Zing! Can only display
100 directories and 500 files. This is not an impediment for a floppy-based system but for someone using a hard disk this would be a severe restriction. The Zingl disk itself (which also includes a full Workbench) contains 172 files. This is unfortunate since a hard disk user would derive considerable benefit from using Zingl Other than the above bug and limitations there are a number of enhancements that I could suggest. However Meridian Software is committed to improving Zing! And they have issued two free updates since the program was released several months ago and they have indicated that
future revisions will be very nominally priced for current owners.
In summary Zing! Combines the features of many public domain utilities plus other enhancements into a well functioning integrated environment. With it’s speed and flexibility as well as ease of use, Zing! Offers something for both beginning and advanced Amiga users. Commodore would be well advised to took at Zing! In designing a replacement or another alternative to the CLI environment.
In fact I so enjoyed working with Zing! That I found myself zinging a zong as I sat at my keyboard! The bottom line is therefore try it, you'll like it! Ar by Warren Block Starting Over AmigaTrix Those little shortcuts that make using the Amiga™ easier.
I have had my Amiga for several months now, so I no longer qualify as a new user. It was not my first transition to a completely new computer, but it definitely required a lot more adjustment than the others. Still, I had used other mini- and microcomputers before "the big switch," and had some experience in finding those little shortcuts that make using the thing easier. One day the thought came to me that I could perhaps make life easier for other new Amiga owners by describing some of the tricks that I had discovered.
Presenting these hints in some type of order is difficult, because many of them are not specific to any one area of operation. It is possible to divide them into two general areas, though: Disks Files, and General Use.
Disk File Trlx Use underlines instead of spaces in filenames. This eliminates the need to use delimiters like quotes and makes many file operations much easier. In general, avoid characters other than letters, numbers, and underlines.
‘For those who are a bit more advanced, the need to modify existing files can be aggravating. The AmigaDOS editor, ED (we'll leave Edit out of this), doesn't like files that have binary contents. Because of this, it is useless for modifying files of that type. There is another way, though. AmigaBASIC has three interesting attributes (for our purposes, anyway): strings can be 32K in length, program files can be opened and read like text files, and the MID$ operator allows assignment, letting you to splice new pieces into strings. By combining all these ingredients and hacking a little, it
becomes possible to do some really neat stuff. For example, I own a Panasonic printer that emulates one of those made by Epson-mostly. I hadn't yet obtained the Panasonic driver from the AMICUS library, so I decided to make do with the Epson driver provided with the Workbench. But when I told the printer to switch to its near letter quality mode, it simply ignored me. So I loaded the Epson driver into a string in AmigaBASIC, located the offending control sequences, and spliced the correct ones in.
The exact operation that I performed is too involved to go into here, but here's a more general example: CLS OPEN "Example" FOR INPUT AS 1' Open the file f$ =INPUT$ (LOF(l),l)¦ Read it into £$ CLOSE 1 PRINT "File is"LEN(f$ )"characters long."
PRINT "Replacing first occurrence of ESC c with ESC z." search$ =CHR$ (27)+"c" replace$ =CHR$ (27)+"z" place=instr(f$ ,search$ )' Find string in f$ MID$ (f$ ,place,LEN(replace$ ))=replace$ ' Replace it INPUT "Output file name";n$ OPEN n$ FOR OUTPUT AS 1* Save modified file PRINT l,f$ ; CLOSE 1 PRINT "Completed."
END This program reads a file called "Example" into a string, replaces one control sequence with a different one, and writes the result back to a different file. Using this technique makes all kinds of file modifications possible.
The 3.5-inch microfloppies are a quantum leap ahead of 5.25- inch disks, but they aren't completely problem-free. Those wrap-around disk labels tend to fall off of my disks, so I use the ones that are made for the 5.25-inch floppies. Supplies of these can generally be found in the "home electronics" sections of department stores.
Even though the microfloppies hold a lot, the average Amiga owner finds himself floating in a sea of 3.5-inch disks after a couple of months. How about a genuine teakwood, roll-top box that will hold fifty disks (plus labels) and sells for less than thirty dollars? (I have seen these advertised by a mail order place for less than twenty bucks.) Mine has a label that says "Kalmar Designs" on the bottom. For storing lots of disks in dust-free safety, you can't get much classier (or cheaper) than this.
General Operation Trlx Are you running your Amiga on a budget, using a composite video monitor, or even (shudder) a TV set for output? If so, I can sympathize with you--l couldn't afford an RGB monitor for a long time. But I did find a trick that may help your smarting eyes. Enter the CLI and type: Copy * to * Now press the following keys (don't type the spaces, and the characters wont show on the screen): KSC [ 1 m That's the ESCape key, the left square bracket, a one, and a lower-case m. Now, tell Copy that you are done by typing CTRL- (press and hold CTRL, then press the backslash key).
The Amiga's console device will now display boldface characters in the CLI window. I found that this makes the The ToolCaddy The ToolCaddy is a compilation of utilities for the user programmer, with an insight into the development of these utilities for the beginner.
The contents of the ToolCaddy include: OBJECT FILES: Calc - Programmer's Calculator.
MemFree - Displays Available Memory.
MemMap - RAM Memory Map.
DiskView - Diskette Track Sector Display.
DeBin - Removes Binary From Text Files.
DeXmodem - Removes Xmodem Pad Characters.
Cmp - Compares Any Two Files.
DeBug - Utility To Enhance A Debugger.
Patch - Change Any Byte To Any Value.
DoTab - Replaces Spaces With TABs.
DeTab - Replaces TABs With Spaces.
AdjTab - Changes TAB Amounts.
Six SOURCE FILES are included. Each line of each file is fully commented. Useful examples of all function calls.
Each of the files in the ToolCaddy has it's own source and or object DOCUMENTATION FILE giving complete instructions for use of the executable file, or a routine by routine explanation of the source file.
Six INCLUDE FILES for console input and output of HEX, DECIMAL, and BINARY ASCII strings.
Six text files present explanations, insights, and recommendations for ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE programming on the Amiga.
PATCHES FILES (offsets and suggested byte value changes) for six popular programs.
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Add $ 3.25 (6.5%) Sales Tax SEND CHECK OR MONEY 0RDER-N0 CREDIT
CARDS PLEASE TO: The ToolCaddy Works
P. O. Box 1188 Canyon Country, CA. 91351-2600 characters easier
to distinguish, especially when it was running through my
kluged RF modulator to my little TV set.
You can do a lot of other things with the console device, too- see the ROM Kernel Reference Manual: Libraries and Devices, pages 281 -286 for more ideas.
Every now and then, it can be handy to use your computer like a typewriter. For short letters, notes, and other minor things, it is easy and expedient to use the Copy command.
However, if your printer is a dot-matrix model (like most), you will probably want it set to near letter quality for these "memo"-type documents. Using a method very similar to that described above: Copy * to prt: Then type the following sequence: KSC [ 2 “ x Again, don't type the spaces. At this point, anything you type will be printed on the printer in its NLQ mode. Lines are only printed when you press RETURN, though, so you can edit your thoughts a bit before you commit them to paper.
After seeing this, you may be thinking that Copy is a valuable program to keep around. It is, and it can even replace another program: Type. If you like to copy your AmigaDOS commands to the RAM: device so they don't need to be loaded from disk, leave out Type and use Copy in its place. Here's a little example: Copy toxfc.filo to * is functionally the same as Typ« taxt.fil* and Copy toxt.fila to pet: will give you a hardcopy to read at your leisure. .
Here we come to one of my favorites: mouse abuse! When copying text files to the screen, how can you slow down their output so you can read it? Most folks will tell you to type CTRL-S or somesuch. But it's easier to simply lunge for the right mouse button. This will stop most screen output dead in its tracks for as long as you hold the button down, regardless of whether or not there is actually a menu displayed. , Finally, Radio Shack sells a joystick extension cord that will let you take your mouse a long way from home. Since the mouse is of relatively little use without the keyboard, one
of the 25 foot phone handset extension cords will let you take your keyboard with you. K works!
So There Hopefully one or more of these suggestions will help you to make better use of your Amiga. They may also give you some ideas of your own. Ff so, please share them with the rest of us!
• AC* by Richard Rae as [76703,4253] laafNotes Hum Busters... "No
stereo? Y not?..." Speaking of schematics... If youVe ever
bothered to read the little numbers under my name, you know
that I have an account on CompuServe.
Most of my time is spent in the AmigaForum, where I get a chance to chat with other Amiga enthusiasts. Occasionally I am able to answer someone's question or help them out with a problem, and it's a great feeling. This month I want to pass along a couple of problems and solutions which cropped up during my networking sessions.
"... maybe It doesn’t know the words?"
This one has come up several times, but it was Miles Kurland [73267,2124] who stuck with me until we got the problem solved.
Sunday evenings, beginning at 10:00 PM Eastern, have been set aside for informal conferences on the AmigaForum.
Miles dropped by for one of these sessions, and asked if I had any suggestions for eliminating hum when connecting his Amiga to an amplifier. We quickly exhausted the obvious solutions, and it was only through Mile's determination and my curiosity that we were finally able to cure his problem.
Let's take a look at some typical causes of this illness.
The electricity that comes out of your wall socket is alternating current which has a frequency of 60 Hertz (cycles per second). This power line signal is radiated by any wire through which it travels, which means it exists just about everywhere. This radiated signal can be unintentionally intercepted with an "antenna”, and if amplified, results in hum. You can test this yourself by plugging an audio cable into the tape or aux inputs of your amplifier, then touching only the center pin of the cable with your finger. There is no danger of shock in doing this, but keep the volume on your
receiver or amplifier low to prevent damage to your speakers. What you are hearing is 60 Hz hum. If you were to hike deep into the woods with a battery powered amplifier and try this, you would hear nothing... but for all practical purposes we are constantly surrounded by this noise field.
Fortunately, there are ways to avoid picking up this hum.
The method used by most audio gear is shielding. As mentioned, anything which can act as an antenna can be a problem source. By surrounding this potential antenna with a grounded metal shield, we can prevent the 60 Hz hum from ever reaching it. Take a quick look at an audio cable (the type used with a home stereo) and you will see a metal ring or a group of fingers which surround the center pin. This outer ring is grounded when connected to your audio equipment, and is connected to a shield inside the cable. Losing this shield, or using an unshielded cable, is one potential cause of hum
Another cause is mismatching of impedances or signal levels. If you were to run a high level signal into a very sensitive input, you would have to reduce the signal level of the source to avoid distortion. Unfortunately, there is no way to reduce the level of any hum which might have seeped into the system, and if the mismatch is great enough, that hum will be heard.
The third source of hum problems is the ground loop. This occurs when there is a complete, closed loop in the ground connections of a system. As an example, consider a synthesizer plugged into an instrument amplifier. The shield in the audio cable makes a ground connection between the two units, but if both devices have grounded (three prong) AC plugs, there is a closed loop in the ground circuit. If there is a difference in potential between the two devices ~ and there often will be - 60 Hz current will flow around this bop and through the shield, causing hum.
So, we've identified some of the common causes of hum... how do you determine which is the cause of YOUR hum problems? Through a set of simple experiments. First, try another set of cables between computer and amplifier. This eliminates problems with the shield in the cable. Make sure, when you do this, that you are using shielded audio cables.
Speaker cables are not shielded and will NOT do the job.
Mismatching problems can be eliminated by simply making sure you are connected to the correct input. The Amiga's audio outputs are line level, which means you can connect to tape, auxiliary, tuner, or CD inputs. Do NOT connect to a phono or microphone input; these are low level inputs and could cause problems.
Ground loops are a little bit trickier to track down. A simple test is to partially unplug the audio cable from your receiver or amplifier. Since the center pin of the connector is longer than the outer ring, you can open the ground line while leaving the signal connected. Since the shield is grounded on the other end of the cable, it is still effective. If the hum goes away or drops greatly in volume, the problem is most likely a ground loop. No change, or an increase in hum, tends to point elsewhere.
In working through these tests, Miles and I determined that he had a ground loop, which came as a total surprise to me.
Most home audio gear does NOT use grounded plugs, and ground loops are therefore uncommon. Even when grounded plugs are used, the third pin is usually a protective ground, not signal ground. But, all the evidence pointed to a ground loop.
Once we had identified the problem, the second phase •
- locating the culprit ~ began. Miles disconnected his gear one
piece at a time until the hum disappeared. I suggested his
computer gear first, since the monitor and most printers have
grounded plugs. He unplugged everything except his Amiga, but
the hum remained. This eliminated his computer as the problem
source; we turned then to his stereo.
The problem persisted until Miles broke the connection between his PCM converter (which allows him to record high quality audio using his VCR) and his amplifier. Success! But why? There were no grounded plugs in evidence. I asked him to reconnect his PCM converter and disconnect it from the VCR. Again the hum disappeared, pointing to the VCR as the suspect. As a final test, I asked Miles to reconnect his VCR, then unplug the VCR from the power line. The hum remained, which fingered the culprit; I asked him if he was on cable, and he said yes. Bingol The CATV cable shield (yes, it has a shield
too) is at earth ground potential, which usually differs enough from signal ground to cause hum problems. A final check with everything connected except his CATV cable confirmed the diagnosis. (This problem can also crop up if your receiver is connected to cable.)
The free solution to this problem is to disconnect the CATV cable whenever using the Amiga with the amplifier. A more convenient solution, and the one which Miles used, was to purchase a matching transformer, also known as a Baiun, and connect the cable to his VCR through that. A matching transformer is a small widget with a coax input and a 300 ohm twinlead output (the traditional flat antenna wire).
Although not its primary purpose, a good matching transformer will isolate the two halves of the circuit, breaking the ground loop.
"No stereo? Y not?"
This one is a handy tip that comes from correspondence with Ron Hill [72777,2110]. He sent me electronic mail asking if there was a simple way to get stereo and mono signals from his Amiga simultaneously.
This one has also come up a few times in the past. Lots of people want to connect to a stereo amplifier as Miles did, but don't want to have to turn the amplifier on all the time. The obvious solution is to use the mono amplifier in the 1080 monitor for normal operation, and only turn on the stereo amplifier when tinkering with music.
Unfortunately, there's a problem. When you connect the stereo outputs of the Amiga together with a Y cable to drive the monitor, you tie the two outputs together and lose the stereo signals.
I told Ron that he would have to play games with his connections to get it to work. I offered several suggestions, ranging from building a switch box to making up a resistive divider cable. I'd even started toying around with a design for a buffer amplifier which would be powered by the Amiga.
Luckily. Ron saw a possibility I hadn't. He asked if it wasn't possible to utilize the TV MOD outputs in some way. I pulled out the schematics to take a look, and found that he was right on the mark.
The outputs from the D A filters are AC coupled to pair of 1000 ohm resistors which feed the audio jacks on the back of the Amiga This enables us to connect them together with a Y cable to drive the 1080 monitor, as many of us are doing.
What I did not realize is that there is a similar pair of resistors driving the TV MOD jack. Because of the arrangement of these components, we can short either pair of outputs together without disturbing the other pair. The simple solution, then, is to connect your stereo amplifier to the audio output jacks of the Amiga while using the TV MOD output to drive the 1080 monitor. Ron has tried this and reports that it works quite well.
The TV MOD output is an 8 pin DIN connector. Ron indicates that he had some difficulty finding the correct plug, but managed to find a 5 pin DIN plug that made all the required connections and could be coerced into fitting. (Be advised that there are numerous pin arrangements for DIN connectors; if you find an 8 pin plug, make sure it's the correct configuration before parting with your money).
To make the monitor cable, you will need the DIN plug, an RCA plug (the little pin-and-ring audio plug used in most stereo equipment), and a short piece of shielded cable.
Connect the RCA plug to one end of the cable (shield to the ring of the plug, of course). For the other end, tie the center conductor to pins 3 (left channel) and 8 (right channel), and the shield to pin 2 or 5, or both. Plug this into the TV MOD jack on the Amiga and the AUDIO jack on the 1080, and you're ready to go.
Speaking of schematics... If you're a hardware hacker, or just want to know whafs inside your Amiga, you shouldn't be without a set of schematics. There are currently two sources of which I am aware.
For the "official" schematics you must turn to Commodore.
I Supports real numbers and transcendental functions ie. Sin. Cos.
Tan. Arctan, exp. In. Log. Power, sqrt ¦ 3d graphics and multi-tasking demos ¦ CODE statement for assembly code ¦ Error lister will locate and identify all errors in source code ¦ Single character I O supported ¦ No royalties or copy protection ¦ Phone and network customer support provided ¦ 350-page manual These are available from: Commodore Business Machines 1200 Wilson Drive West Chester, PA 19380 ATTN: Kim Montgomery.
Ask for information on A1000 and expansion schematics.
This package, I am told, is loaded with information and will cost you less than $ 20.00. Another source is: 2 not found In Pascal i Dynamic strings that may be any size i Multi-tasking is supported i Procedure variables ¦ Module version control a Programmer definable scope of objects a Open array parameters (VAR r. ARRAY OF REALS.)
A Elegant type transfer functions Cardinal International, Inc. 14840 Build America Drive Woodbridge, VA 22191 This is the schematic set I have. It lacks information on the expansion port, but is very complete in its treatment of the Amiga itself; it even includes schematics for the mouse.
What fascinates me about this package is the work that went into it. Before the official Commodore schematics were available, Cardinal disassembled an Amiga, traced each and every line and recorded connections in an X:Y format. This data was then sorted and collated with a data base package to eliminate orphan pad errors. The output file was transferred to a CAD package, with which the final schematics were produced. Quite an effort, to say the least.
This package is a bit more expensive than the one from Commodore at roughly $ 25, but don't begrudge them a few extra dollars for all the work they put in.
Which set you'll want will depend on what you want to do with them. If you need expansion port information or PAL equations, you'll want the Commodore package. If you're more interested in the internals of your Amiga, the Cardinal package might be a better bet. The Cardinal set is better for tacking up on the wall while you work, as most sheets are roughly ”C" size. In other words, they are BIG; this makes them easier to read from a distance. Finally, people in the know tell me there are errors in both offerings, so even owning both could be justified.
Product History The TDI Modula-2 compiler has been running on the Pinnacle supermicro (Aug.
’84), Atari ST (Aug. ’85) and will soon appear on the Macintosh and UNIX in the 4th Qtr. ’86.
Regular Version $ 89.95 Developer’s Version $ 149.95 Commercial Version $ 299.95 The regular version contains all the features listed above. The developer’s version contains additional Amiga modules, macros and demonstration programs - a symbol file decoder - link and load file disassemblers - a source file cross referencer
- the kermit file transfer utility - a Modula-2 CLI - modules for
IFF and ILBM. The commercial version contains all of the Amiga
module source files.
That's going to do it for now. See you next monthl Nybbles, Rick Wmrn i FULL interface to ROM Kernel.
Intuition. Workbench and AmigaDos ¦ Smart linker for greatly reduced code size ¦ True native code implementation (Not UCSD p-Code or M-code) ¦ Sophisticated multi-pass compiler allows forward references and code optimization ¦ ReallnOut. LonglnOut, InOut, Strings, Storage. Terminal ¦ Streams. MathLibO and all standard modules ¦ Works with single floppy 512K RAM Pascal and Modula-2 source code are nearly identical. Modula-2 should be thought of as an enhanced superset of Pascal. Professor Niklaus Wirth (the creator of Pascal) designed Modula-2 to replace Pascal.
Added features of Modula- i CASE has an ELSE and may contain ¦ subranges Programs may be broken up into 1 Modules for separate compilation ' ¦ Machine level interface Bit-wise operators Direct port and Memory access Absolute addressing Interrupt structure Ramdlsk Benchmarks (secs) Link Sieve of Eratosthenes.
Float Calc Null program Compile MODULE Sieve; CONST Size = 8190; TYPE FlagRange = |0..Size]; FlagSet = SET OF FlagRange; VAR Flags; FlagSet; i: FlagRange; Prime, k, Count, Iter. CARDINAL; BEGIN (*$ S-,$ R-,$ A+ *) FOR lter.= 1 TO 10 DO Count:= 0; Flags;= FlagSet(); (‘ empty set *) FOR i:= OTO Size DO IF (i IN Flags) THEN Prime;= (i * 2) + 3; k;= i + Prime; WHILE k = Size DO INCL (Flags, k); k;= k + Prime; END; Count;= Count +1; END; END; END; END Sieve.
Optomized Size Execute 1257 bytes 3944 bytes 1736 bytes 1100 bytes MODULE Float; FROM MathLibO IMPORT sin. In. Exp, sqrt. Arctan; 1 VAR x,y; REAL; i: CARDINAL; BEGIN (’$ T-,$ A-,$ S-‘)
x. = 1.0; FOR i;= 1 TO 1000 DO y;= sin (x); y;= In (x); y;= exp
(x); y;- sqrt (x); y;= arctan (x); x;= x + 0.01; END; END
MODULE calc; VAR a,b,c; REAL; n, i; CARDINAL; BEGIN (*$ T-,$ A-,$ S-*) n;= 5000; a;= 2.71828; b;= 3.14159; c;= 1.0; FOR i;- I TO n DO c;= c’a; c;= c*b; c;= c a; c;= c b; END; END calc.
Other Modula-2 Products Kermit - Contains full source plus $ 15 connect time to CompuServe. $ 29.95 Examples - Many of the C programs from ROM Kernel and Intuition translated into Modula-2. $ 24.95 GRID - Sophisticated multi-key file access method with over 30 procedures to access variable length records. $ 49.95
Amazing Computing ™ ©1987 New Products! New Pricing!
The Best Just Got Better, Again.
ASDG Incorporated is pleased to announce that we're accepting orders for our newest board product, the 8M.
The 8M is a Zorro compatible Amiga expansion card which can contain 2,4,6, or 8 megabytes of the same fast reliable memory you've come to expect from our 2M, now recognized as the best quality Amiga ram expansion product produced yet.
The 8M is the only Amiga ram expansion product supporting 6 megabytes on a single board. The Amiga contains autoconfiguring support for boards of 4 Mbytes and 8 Mbytes but not of 6 Mbytes. Our 8M, populated with 6 Mbytes automatically presents two autoconfigure data sets to your Amiga. The first as a 4 Mbyte board, the second as a 2 Mbyte board.
Thus, if you already have a 2Mbyte expansion board, you can bring your Amiga up to its full potential using only one more board slot. (By the way, the 8M would make a great addition to any TurboAmiga system!)
All ASDG memory boards have: Zero Wait States, Full Zorro Compatibility, Full Autoconfiguring, The ASDG Recoverable Ram Disk and One Year Warranty.
Recoverable Ram Disk News!
The exclusive ASDG Recoverable Ram Disk has recently been updated to allow crash protected ram disks to encompass all 8Mbytes your Amiga can handle. The RRD comes with every ASDG memory board and provides the fastest crash survivable disk anywhere!With the ASDG Recoverable Ram Disk,Guru's won't get you down any more!
8M 2 $ 899 8M 4 $ 1349 8M 6 $ 1799 8M 8 $ 2199 Mini-Rack-C $ 195 Mini-Rack-D $ 325 2M is now only $ 599!
ASDG Incorporated 280 River Rd Suite 54A Piscataway N.J. 08854
(201) 540 - 9670 Deliveries of the 8M begins approximately April
30th, 1987. ASDG pays standard UPS delivery in continental
U.S. N.J. residents add 6% sales tax. Special pricing for
SYSOPS and User Group officers.
Amiga trademark of Commodore-Amiga Inc. TurboAmiga trademark of CSA Inc. ASDG Recoverable Ram Disk, 8M 2, 8M 4, 8M 6, 8M 8, Mini-Rack-C, Mini-Rack-D trademarks of ASDG Incorporated.
The AMICUS Network™ CES, user group issues and Amiga Expo ByJohnFoust It was so very tempting. Commodore unveiled the Amiga 500 and 2000 to select viewers at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, January 8 to 11. I had pictures, interviews and technical information ready to go a few days before the last issue of Amazing Computing was sent to the printer. I would have loved to tell you about them a month earlier than this issue.
When a company does not want to formally announce a new product, but wants dealers to know about it, they usually display it in a private room, at an otherwise public showing.
In the two-story Commodore booth, the private room was upstairs, so "getting upstairs" was the term for seeing the new machines. This time, new machines meant the Amiga 500, a tow-cost Amiga, and the Amiga 2000, a hybrid Amiga, similar to the union of the Amiga and a Sidecar.
As far as I could tell, everyone else signed a non-disclosure agreement, stating no information about the new machines would hit the streets before February 18. I never signed such an agreement, but I felt bound by one, of course - or I might never "get upstairs" again.
The new machines are certainly exciting. This is sure to be a good year for Commodore and the Amiga.
Board humor Over the past six months, rumors surfaced of a new low- cost Amiga machine. Of course, this machine is now known as the Amiga 500. It was once code-named the 'B-52'.
Where did this name come from? According to one source, the name arose from the comments of a Commodore West Chester executive after viewing the specifications of the Amiga 500: "If this machine doesn't succeed, they may as well bring in the bombers and level this place."
The 'B-52' name led to another code name for a revision of the Amiga 500 motherboard. It was called 'Rock Lobster', after the popular song from the new wave band called the B- 52s.
On a corner of the West Chester version of the 2000 motherboard named "The Boss", it reads "The few, the proud, the remaining,”, followed by the initials of the design team members - a poke at the Commodore layoffs that occurred last year.
Amiga Expo, maybe I am pleased to announce three new Amiga shows, called Amiga Expo. The first show will be held October 10 to 12 in New York, at the Sheraton Centre. The second is to be held in San Francisco in February 1988, and the third in Chicago in May 1988, at the Hyatt Regency, but these dates are less firm than the first in October. You can call (800) 32 AMIGA (really (800) 322-6442) for more information.
This new show is organized by a professional conference agency in New York, with the guidance of several key figures from the New York AMUSE Amiga user group. They are lining up Amiga-oriented speaker, technical and panel discussion sessions.
Please note that the organizers of this show have not completed negotiations with Commodore for permission to use the Amiga name to advertise their show. If Commodore does not agree to this use, the show will be renamed.
Upcoming shows Becky Cotton at Commodore West Chester is now trade show and advertising coordinator. Cotton formerly coordinated the Amiga developer newletter, Amiga Mail. That task has been handed over to a new editor. The latest issue sports real typesetting instead of dot-matrix output After managing the winter CES booth, Cotton is looking ahead to the summer Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago, where Commodore is expected to show the new Amiga 500 and 2000 machines. Chances are slim for Commodore attending spring COMDEX in Atlanta. This year, the CES is earlier than normal, and COMDEX is
later than normal, such that the two shows nearly overlap. It may be difficult for many computer companies to be represented at both. The flights from Atlanta to Chicago will be booked many months in advance, I suspect.
AMICUS Network news As it turns out, last month's announcement of the rebirth of the AMICUS Network was a little premature. While work continues on newletter exchanges and user group lists, the 'AMICUS Network' name won't be on a national user group, and it will return to its former pleasant pasture as the title of this column.
Century Systems has the best prices and service in the USA on the incredible AMIGA Computer.
Many Amiga's and Amiga expansion products available.
Prices too low to print. And service too good to ignore.
Century Systems 8033 University Ave.
Des Moines, IA 50311 SALES 1-800-223-8088 24 HR. SERVICE 1-515-223-8088 I have withdrawn the AMICUS Network name from any new national Amiga groups for several reasons. I should warn that ’AMICUS’ and ’AMICUS Network’ are registered trademarks, and they cant be used without permission.
I have a gut feeling that many people see this group as a channel for changing Commodore. I think some people want a way to deliver ultimatums backed by boycott threats.
When I attend my local Amiga user group meetings, I see people willing to take time to leam more about their computer, anxious for news of new machines, peripherals and software. Of course, they sometimes discuss the wisdom of Commodore marketing plans. I do not see people spending much time, if at all, discussing the possibility of changing Commodore marketing plans.
What, then, is the proper function of a national user group? I talked with several experienced and wise members of the Commodore community. Their insights confirmed my gut instinct There is not much use for a national user group.
Only a few reasonable activities came to mind. One, assemble a list of user groups, and distribute it as far as possible. Two, encourage newsletter exchanges. Too many negatives came to mind: leaders raising money and spending it on what they wish, non-representation, busy- work politics and threats instead of positive action.
When I ask "What can a national user group do?" Many people point to the DECUS national user group for Digital Equipment Corporation mainframe computer users. Others mention the large IBM PC user groups. These groups do have a significant effect on the parent computer company, in terms of future computers and company policy. I think this is because they control a large amount of capital, and represent a large future earning potential for the parent company.
The installed user base of these computers is very large when compared to the Amiga. We must remember that there are more than six million Commodore 64s out there, and only 140,000 Amigas.
People argue that a consortium of Amiga developers could help influence Commodore policy. I worry about that suggestion because there aren't many voices around, and some of them are bigger than others. A single large voice might carry too much weight.
As a counterexample, consider the IEEE, an electronics industry professional and standards organization. Some people joke that IEEE stands for "IBM against Essentially Everybody Else," and that the only standard IBM approves of is one that it both defines and controls.
And is the wisdom of developers always perfect? For example, most hardware manufacturers oppose any change of the expansion bus interface. After all, their long-term financial security depends on short-term success of Amiga expansion hardware, so they are likely to reject any changes.
At the Amiga developer conference, hardware manufacturers were upset by the previews of the new computers. After seeing them, the immediate informal opinion of hardware developers was nearly unanimously against the expansion bus changes. Several developers described their displeasure as an unpleasant feeling in a certain area of their anatomy.
Commodore may make decisions that are unpopular among developers and users alike. One fact remains first in my mind. No matter what, Commodore management will always have more information about the market and the company's abilities than Commodore buyers. Because of this, I think they can and should retain the right to make their own decisions. Of course, they are free to listen to users, but user input is only part of the equation.
Some people regard my view as naive. I know Commodore is not all-wise and all-knowing, but it is their job to sell computers, not mine. I know that companies have their share of incompetents. I believe wholeheartedly in the Peter Principle, and am no fan of bureaucracy.
I think individual actions will carry much more weight. If you are a Commodore dealer, your opinion matters. Talk to your rep when they come to town. If you feel they aren't being reasonable or responsive, it is your duty to relay those feelings to their higher-up.
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and dealers have a better chance of affecting Commodore
decisions than mass- produced or mass-induced mailings. Be
sure to send your letters to the right person - not just angry
telegrams to the president or CEO.
For an example of what individual Amiga owners can do, I hold up the creators of the Amiga Expo. The driving force behind the creation of this show were several officers of the New York Amiga user group AMUSE.
They knew the Amiga deserved more publicity in the New York area, and started thinking about organizing a show there. As they defined what was necessary to organize and promote such a show, they knew they were over their heads, and they got professional help to execute the show.
At one point, they considered asking Commodore for funding and assistance, and wisely changed their minds.
But once they were able to give Commodore proof that they were well organized and willing to put on a good show, Commodore started negotiations on joining the show, perhaps even taking out booth space, and lending a hand.
Of course, all Amiga owners want to see Commodore succeed. We recognize the strengths of this machine, and know that it far exceeds the power of other machines on the market today. Many people would agree with Will Rogers, who once said "Even if you are on the right track, you'll get run over if you just stand still," Commodore may be moving slower than many people Would like, but they may know about a bend in the tracks that most people cant see.
• AC* Fred Fish disks Close to press time, more new Fish disks
arrived, disks 47 to
53. A summary of their contents can be found in the catalog at
the end of this issue.
I was amazed to learn that many Fish disks are returned to PIM Publications. Many complaints claim You forgot to put anything on this disk,' mainly because there were no visible icons or drawers when the user clicked on the disk on the Workbench.
The Fish disks are aimed at more advanced Users. They tend to frustrate novice Amiga users. If the Fish disks are mysterious to you, you are not alone I In most cases, they must be viewed, and their programs run, from the command line interface, or CLI. Because these programs are often of an advanced nature, it was assumed that the receipient would be able to view the disk in this arcane fashion.
Lately, many user group public domain disks have fled this trend. Hurrah! The AMICUS disks, and many other collections, are completely icon driven. You do not need to stoop to the CLI to probe their mysteries. Actually, the latest set of Fish disks do have a few icons, but most do not.
Another common problem regards AmigaBasic. Even though it was supplied to every Amiga user with the second 1.1 update, and the 1.2 update, it is not public domain, and cannot legally be placed on a public domain disk.
If you have a public domain disk with AmigaBasic programs on it, you must either copy AmigaBasic to the public domain disk (deleting some files if there isn't enough room for the AmigaBasic program) or move the programs to a disk that has a copy of the AmigaBasic program.
Next Issue The next issue of Amazing Computing will be a return to basics. It will feature several novice-level tutorials on navigating the Amiga operating environment. This will include a CLI tutorial and reference, and a novice's guide to exploring public domain disks.
The technical articles are not in shoit supply, however, in the months to come, we will be featuring a two megabyte RAM expansion project, an explanation of hardware expansion terminology, more tutorials on assembly language and Intuition gadgets, and reviews of the new Lattice and Manx C compilers.
By HarrietMaybeck Tolly INTUITION GADGETS "... the workhorses of Intuition" Over the last year I have taken a long journey through Gadget-land, learning many things not found in the Intuition manual. I wish I had this article to read back then. Since I've done my share of complaining about the lack of information available, I've been coerced into collecting these thoughts into a series of articles. Hopefully they will speed your journey along.
The Intuition manual describes gadgets as the workhorses of Intuition. Gadgets provide an interface through which the user inputs data and communicates with your application.
Common gadgets include string gadgets for entering afile name, window front back gadgets, and sliders (proportional gadgets) that let you scroll through file names.
Most programs contain actual Intuition gadgets for gathering and displaying information. Some programs, however, mimic the imagery of gadgets, and perform the functionality themselves. Developers usually do this when they believe they need the gadget to behave in a manner in which the Intuition gadgets are not designed to behave. This accounts for a gadget acting differently than you would expect. For example, RightAmiga-Q may not reset a value of a string gadget in one of these imitation gadgets.
There are three types of gadgets available:
1. String gadgets, which accept strings of ASCII text.
Integer gadgets, a type of string gadget that accepts only integers.
2. Boolean gadgets, hit-and-toggle gadgets with only two states.
3. Proportional gadgets, or sliders.
The Intuition manual is a must if you intend to do a lot of Gadget programming. It details the structures you need to define. I will not duplicate the information found there except where necessary. Instead, I'll cover areas which can be confusing, have changed in V1.2, or that still contain bugs.
Intuition as a whole is a very impressive piece of work.
Gadgets in particular provide a way for developers to interface with the user in a consistant manner. The areas I will cover are a small part of Intuition; in no way am I implying gadgets have too many problems to be useful. (Calm down,
- =RJ=-.) Rather, I feel it helps to know about idiosyncrasies
before you stumble over them. If you are not familiar with
gadgets and their associated structures, it would help to
review the chapter on gadgets.
Continued... This article will address String gadgets. Other types of gadgets will be covered in future installments.
String gadgets are familiar to anyone who has answered a file name requester. When you type in your file name, you are entering data into a string gadget. String gadgets can have imagery as complicated as the triple-bordered English gadget in SpeechToy, or they can have no imagery at all - although, if not placed in an obvious location, they can be difficult to find!
A gadget with the GadgetType of STRGADGET, must have its Speciallnfo member point to a String Info structure. The Stringlnfo structure is defined in 'intuition.h' as: struct Stringlnfo UBYTE *Buffer; UBYTE *UndoBuffer; WORD BufferPos; WORD MaxChars; WORD DispPos; WORD UndoPos; WORD NumChars; WORD DispCount; WORD Cleft, Ctop; struct Layer *LayerPtr; LONG Longlnt; struct KeyMap *AltKeyMap; }; The following members of this structure need some clarification.
'Buffer1 is a pointer to the string that your gadget will display initially. It is very important that this string be NULL terminated, that is, the last byte should be zero. If you do not do this, the string gadget will continue to display whatever fojlows your data in memory, out over the edge of the gadget's container. If you declare your string and initialize it in the following manner: char mystring = "my test string"}; C automatically terminates the string with a NULL. If you must assign the value dynAMIGAlly, you need to assign the last byte to NULL yourself. If you want your Buffer
to be blanks (as is often the case), you must set the first character to 0 VT100 Emulation for the Commodore Amiga™ MiddleMan™ Communicate with information services, mainframes, and other personal computers
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(205) 881-1110 'Buffer is also the location into which the user
writes new data. Therefore, you must have enough space
allocated in your C declaration to accomodate 'MaxChars'.
This is explained below.
For example, if 'Buffer points to 'mystring', a string of length 14, but 'MaxChars' is 100, whatever folfows 'mystring' in memory will be written over with the last 86 characters the user enters into the string gadget. Conversly, 'MaxChars' should not be less than the length of the string pointed to by 'Buffer. If 'Buffer points to 'mystring' and 'MaxChars' is 5, the whole string is displayed, regardless of whether it fits in the container.
'UndoBuffer points to a location that will hold the same value as 'Buffer, so that the user can undo changes. The value pointed to by 'UndoBuffer, is updated to equal the value pointed to by 'Buffer, when the user selects the string gadget. The space to which 'UndoBuffer points should be as large as the space to which 'Buffer points. The Intuition manual states that only one string gadget can be active at one time, therefore all string gadgets can point to one 'UndoBuffer.
This is safe. However, you may find yourself in the case where the user has selected a string gadget, entered a value into it, then selected another gadget. Remember the first gadget's 'UndoBuffer' will be not be updated until the user selects it again. So, at this point the value in the 'UndoBuffer of the first gadget is still available to you (it wouldn't be if it was sharing an 'UndoBuffer with the second gadget). Therefore you could do a manual undo on the first gadget if you desired. This is one argument for each gadget having its own 'UndoBuffer.
If you do not wish your program to have any Undo capabilities, simply set 'UndoBuffer to NULL This is a way to save memory, though is not very user friendly.
The next three members are in the catagory "Initialized by you, maintained by Intuition". What this means is that once you have given control of the gadgets to Intuition, you MUST NOT change their values. If you need to change them, you must perform a RemoveGadget (RemoveGList) before the changes, and an AddGadget (AddGList) after the changes.
This momentarily returns control of the gadget to your program, and ensures a safe change.
'MaxChars' is the maximum number of characters the user can enter, including the terminating NULL. See above for guidelines on its value. If you point 'Buffer* to a space with a physically different size from the previous 'Buffer*, you must update 'MaxChars' accordingly.
'BufferPos' is the initial position of the cursor in the buffer.
The Intuition manual states that this value is maintained for you by Intuition. This is true as long as you don't change the value of Buffer to point to something else. Whenever you change 'Buffer1, beware that you may have an old 'BufferPos' sitting around. In most cases you want to reset it to 0. This is always safe.
'DispPos' is the buffer position of the first displayed character. It is also maintained by Intuition as long as you don't change 'Buffer*. When in doubt reset it to 0.
'NumChars' is the number of characters currently in the buffer. Intuition calculates this for you when the window or requester is opened and your gadget is displayed. Intuition maintains it as bng as 'Buffer* is not changed. If you do change 'Buffer', as bng as you also perform a RemoveGadget(RemoveGList) and an AddGadget (AddGList)around the change, Intuition will recalculate 'NumChars'for you.
'DispCount' is the number of whole characters in the container. This way even if you didn't carefully make your container an even multiple of the width of your characters, the gadget won't try to display partial characters or spill out of the container. This value is calculated for you. You should never have to change it. Intuition even recalculates it if you do something ugly like changing the container width after the gadget has been rendered (I DO NOT recommend this).
Now let's look at some guidelines for initializing your general Gadget structure for a String Gadget. Recall that all types of gadgets are declared using the Gadget structure found in 'intuition.h*. The following are observations about members values of the Gadget structure which can be confusing.
"Friendly" Software The Road MINIMUM HARDWARE: AMIGA 1000 WITH 518K RAM VISA MC ACCEPTED DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME GADGHIGHBITS flag of Flags. This is a mask that Intuition compares to your Flags to determine which highlight mode your program has set. This is NOT a flag that you would OR into GadgetFlags. Rather, if your program was in a position where it needed to check what flag was set, you could do: actual_highlight_flag_set = GADGHIGHBITS & Gadget.Flags; SCRGADGET flag of GadgetType. Surprise! Screen gadgets don't exist (yet), this flag is (currently) ignored.
MutualExclude. Surprise again! This never was implemented in V1.2. It may be in the future. V1.2 officially recommends a way to simulate mutual exclusion. It really only applies to Boolean gadgets, so we'il get to that in future installments.
SELECTED flag of Flags. When this is set for a toggle- type Boolean gadget, the gadget will be on (highlighted) when it is displayed. This flag is meaningless to string and proportional gadgets. If you want the user to be able to start entering data into your string gadget without having to click on it, you must call the V1.2 function ’ActivateGadget()’.
'ActivateGadget()' is explained further in the V1.2 Functionality section below.
Some members of Gadget seem to need values which follow strict guidelines. This is not documented, but my own struggles with string gadgets have shown the following to be true.
Suppose you want your gadget to start out disabled (ghosted) and your program will enable it at some appropriate point.
And you OR GADGDISABLED with 'Stringlnfo.Flags'. You open the window, your gadget is displayed (ghosted), and all is well. Now your program decides it is time to enable the gadget. You remove your gadget, AND -GADGDISABLED with 'Stringlnfo.Flags', add the gadget back into the list, refresh your gadget, and all is not well. You notice that to the far right of the container there are, what I have affectionately come to call "Fuzzies". Fuzzies are bits of ghosting that didn't get erased.
From my experience the presence of Fuzzies can be attributed to the width of your container. 'Gadget. Width' should be an even multiple of the width of your font. In the case of Topaz-80, this is eight pixels. Therefore, we should have declared a width of 160 (20 characters X 8 pixels) instead of 162. (I hate to have to write this, but an even multiple plus one also works. A remainder of any more than one, however, causes the appearance of Fuzzies).
Let's suppose you set the following values: LeftEdge = 6 TopEdge = 40 Width = 162 Height = 7 (The Mowing is an editorial comment from the author of Intuition. Rjsez: "Sorry.”) Another fun feature of string gadgets is the "last character twice" syndrome. Try this: Get into IconEd. Choose load from the menu, click on the string gadget, enter enough characters to fill the buffer, and the screen will flash. Now enter Shift-left arrow. This left-justifies the string, so that you are looking at the beginning of it. Notice the character showing in the far right of the buffer.
Now enter Shift-right arrow. This takes you to the right end of the string. The end Of the string should be immediately to the left of the cursor, and the cursor should be over a blank.
But surprise! There's that character you noted, still sitting there under the cursor. I have not found a way to overcome this bug. I mention it here so that you do not dispair when it happens to your gadgets. It's not you, It's Intuition.
(The following is another editorial comment from the author of Intuition. Rjsez: "Sony.") 9100% USE OF THE AMIGA INTUITION INTERFACE.| ©ENTER RECORDS EASILY. EDIT INSIDE FIELDS!
©WITH A 'CLICK' OF THE MOUSE YOU CAN: ©RETRIEVE RECORDS: FIRST. LAST. NEXT, @ DELETE RECORDS. PREVIOUS. KEY.
@ SEARCH RECORDS.
SORT RECORDS QUICKLY AND EASILY.
OUTPUT TO SCREEN. PRINTER OR DISK.
100& purchase price refund if not COMPLETELY satlsfledl V1.2 changes Under V1.2, string gadget mechanisms received the most enhancements (courtesy of Jim Mackraz, who inherited Intuition development from Its creator, RJ Mlcal).
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1. ActivateGadget(Gadget,Window, Request) This function is one of
the best additions to V1.2. Calling this function makes the
string gadget active, as if the user clicked on it. With this,
the user does not have to click inside the gadget before
The lack of this function in V1.1 encouraged many developers to reject standard gadgets in favor of their own gadgets that mimic their imagery and do the I O themselves.
This explains why some string gadgets need to be clicked on before entering data, while others don't.
This has unfortunately caused some confusion for users.
Just when they think it's safe to not click on a string gadget, they run a V1.1 program that ignores them until they do. I find it particularly frustrating that programs published by the same company behave differently in this regard. For example, Online! Requires you to click on the string gadget before entering a directory name, while Scribble! Gladly accepts a file name without requiring you to activate the gadget.
Programmers should also be aware that 'ActivateGadget()' will fail if any other window activity is taking place when it is called. The following conditions must be true for ActivateGadget to be successful: a The window must be active.
B. No other gadgets may be in use (ie. The user can't be sizing
C. If the string gadget is in a Requester, the Requester must be
D. The right mouse button may not be down (ie. The user cant be
using the menu). If any of these conditions fails,
ActivateGadget will return FALSE. If you depend upon the
gadget being activated, be sure to check the return value of
this function call.
2. Pressing the menu key (right Amiga - right ALT) will now
deactivate an active string gadget, and proceed with menu
processing. This makes the menu key consistant with the way
the select (right) button on the mouse behaves.
3. When a user clicks on a string gadget, the cursor is now
located at the click position.
About the author Harriet Maybeck Tolly owns a software company in Wilmington, Massachusetts called TollySoft. She and her husband Bob are currently specializing in Amiga software.
She can be reached (when she's not gardening) at the following address: BIX: rtolfy People Link: TollySoft
4. RELWIDTH for string gadgets now works. Setting this flag in
the Gadget.Flags member tells Intuition that the Width' you
have specified is an "increment to the width of the display
element containing it". This means that the number you specify
for Width' will be added to the Width' of the Window or
Requester containing the Gadget. This new value will be the
actual Gadget width rendered. Negative values for Width' make
sense only if you have specified GRELWIDTH. A positive value
makes the gadget larger than the Window or Requester.
Listing One is a sample C program which opens a Window with five String Gadgets on it. Choosing the SCROLL UP menu item will scroll the strings in the gadgets forward.
Choosing the SCROLL DOWN menu item will scroll them backward.
Things to notice:
1. The first gadget has a Width specified as a GRELWIDTH.
2. The last string gadget starts out ghosted. Choosing the ghost
menu item will unghost and ghost it.
3. The Width's of all gadgets are an even increment of 8.
If you would like to see a real live Fuzzy, add two to the width of the last gadget, then unghost it by choosing the menu item GHOST.
One more thought on gadget imagery. Many (apparent) gadgets you encounter in commercial software present string gadgets with the container (background) highlighted.
After searching endlessly for the flag to set to achieve this effect, I have been assured by West Chester support that this is not an option provided for gadget rendering on a standard 2-bitplane Workbench Screen. The authors I have questioned have admitted that these are not Intuition gadgets, but rather, are the imitation gadget described above.
************************************************************* Example "C" program showing use of string gadgets. * This was compiled using Lattice "C", AmigaDos VI.2 * The code depends on VI.2 functions to operate correctly. * * * *
* It is intended to be run from CLI.
Copyright (C) 1987 H. Maybeck Tolly, TollySoft This program is in the public domain and may be distributed free of charge.
************************************************************* include "exec types.h" linclude "exec exec.h" tinclude "intuition intuition.h" include "graphics gfxbase.h" UWORD StrVectors « 0, 0, 97, 0, 97, 9, 0, 9, 0,Obstruct Border StrBorder =
- 1, -1, * initial offsets, gadget relative * 3, 2, JAM1, *
pens (fore, back) and drawmode * 5, * number of vectors *
StrVectors, * ptr to the actual array of vectors * NULL * no
next border * char UndoBuffer; char item_string
= "0 String item 0 M], "1 String item 0 M], "2 String
item 0 "3 String item 0 "}, "4 String item 0 "}, "5 String
item 0 "6 String item 0 "], "7 String item 0 "}, ["8 String
item 0 ["9 String item 0 “)}; struct Stringlnfo Stringlnfo=
item_string, * pointer to I O buffer * UndoBuffer,
* pointer to undo buffer * * buffer position * 0, 41, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, NULL, 0, NULL * max number of chars, including NULL
* * first char in display, undo positions * * of chars
(currently) in the buffer * * position vars calculated by
Intuition * * no pointer to RastPort * * not a Longlnt
string gadget * * no pointer to alternate keymap * ) t
itemjstring, UndoBuffer,0,41,0,0,0,0,0,0,NULL,0,NULL] }!
Struct Gadget StrGadget = NULL, * pointer to Next Gadget * 6,20, -509, 7, * (Left Top Width Height) Hit Box * GADGHCOMP | GRELWIDTH, * Flags * GADGIMMEDIATE | RELVERIFY, * Activation flags * STRGADGET, * Type * (APTR)&StrBorder, * pointer to Border Image * * no pointer to SelectRender * NULL, NULL, 0, (APTR)fiStringlnfo 0, * * pointer to GadgetText * * no MutualExclude * * pointer to Speciallnfo no ID * * no pointer to special data * NULL continued.., THE Listing One NCM0RV LOCATION COMPUTI 396 Washington Street Wellesley, MA 02181
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This year... get organized with Money Mentor” SEDONA SOFTWARE 11844 Rancho Benardo Rd., Ste. 20 San Diego, CA 92128 To order, caU (619) 451-0151 MoHnCtW UstrGadget , 6,40,96,7,GADGHCOMP ,GADGIMMEDIATE | RELVERIFY, STRGADGET, (APTR) SstrBorder,NULL,NULL,0,(APTR)fiStringlnfo,0,NULL}, (&StrGadget,6,60,96,7,GADGHCOMP ,GADGIMMEDIATE | RELVERIFY, STRGADGET, (APTR)&StrBorder,NULL,NULL,0,(APTR)fiStringlnfo,0,NULL), &StrGadget,6,80,96,7,GADGHCOMP ,GADGIMMEDIATE | RELVERIFY, STRGADGET,(APTR)&StrBorder,NULL,NULL,0,(APTR)fiStringlnfo,0,NULL}, (SStrGadget,6,100,96,7,GADGHCOMP |
GADGDISABLED , GADGIMMEDIATE | RELVERIFY, STRGADGET,(APTR)&StrBorder,NULL, NULL,0,(APTR)&StringInfo,0,NULL} struct IntuitionBase *IntuitionBase = 0; struct GfxBase *GfxBase =0; struct Window *ControlWindow = NULL; struct IntuiMessage *MyIntuiMessage; struct NewWindow NewControlWindow = 20, 20, * start LeftEdge, TopEdge * 605, 172, * start Width, Height * 2 3, * DetailPen, BlockPen * GADGETUP | CLOSEWINDOW | MENUPICK, * IDCMP FLAGS * WINDOWDRAG | WINDOWDEPTH | WINDOWCLOSE | ACTIVATE, * Flags * SstrGadget, * Pointer to FirstGadget * NULL, * no pointer to first CheckMark *
"String Gadgets", * Title (can be NULL) * NULL, * no Pointer to Screen * NULL, * no Pointer to BitMap * 20, 20, * Min max Sizable to (w h) * 321, 123, * These aint used, can't size * WBENCHSCREEN * Type of screen window appears in * }; ?**** ****** tc ***************************************************** * Menu declarations * ????????********************************************************* struct IntuiText ghost_text =
2. 1,JAM2, * Frontpen, Backpen, Draw Mode * . 5,1,NULL, * Left
and Top offsets, Font * "GHOST",NULL } ; * Text to
display,next IntuiText * struct Menultem ghost_item = (
NULL,0,5,140,10, * Next item, left,top,width,height *
HIGHCOMP | ITEMENABLED | ITEMTEXT | COMMSEQ, NULL, (APTR)
&ghost_text, * MutualExclude, ItemFill (text) * NULL, 'G',
NULL } ; * SelectFill, Command, Subitem * struct IntuiText
2. 1,JAM2, * Frontpen, Backpen, Draw Mode *
5. 1,NULL, * Left and Top offsets, Font * "SCROLL UP",NULL } ;
* Text to display,next IntuiText * struct Menultem
scrollup_item = &ghost__item,0,15,140,10, * Next item,
left,top,width,height * HIGHCOMP | ITEMENABLED | ITEMTEXT |
COMMSEQ, NULL, (APTR) &scrollup_text, * MutualExclude,
ItemFill (text) * NULL, 'U', NULL } ; * SelectFill, Command,
Subitem * struct IntuiText scrolldn_text =
2. 1,JAM2, , * Frontpen, Backpen, Draw Mode *
5. 1,NULL, * Left and Top offsets, Font * "SCROLL DOWN",NULL }
; * Text to display,next IntuiText * struct Menultem
scrolldn__item = &scrollup_item,0,25,140,10, * Next item,
left,top,width,height * HIGHCOMP | ITEMENABLED | ITEMTEXT |
COMMSEQ, NULL, (APTR) &scrolldn_text, * MutualExclude,
ItemFill (text) * NULL, 'D', NULL } ; * SelectFill, Command,
Subitem * struct Menu gadgetjnenu = NULL, 0, 0, 60, 10, *
Next menu, left,top,width,height * MENUENABLED, "Gadget", *
Flags, text * fiscrolldn item } ; * Pointer to first menu
item * a******************************** * Main program
* ** *
* ?* main () struct Menultem *ItemAddress(); ULONG Signals,
MIClass, MICode, itemnum; APTR MIAddress; int i,k°0, gadjpos,
real__pos; if (!(IntuitionBase = (struct IntuitionBase *)
printf("Can1t open the intuition library n"); MyCleanupO;
exit(FALSE); } if (!(GfxBase = (struct GfxBase *)
printf("Can't open the graphics library n"); MyCleanupO; exit
(FALSE); } if (!(ControlWindow » (struct Window
*)OpenWindow(&NewControlWindow))) printf("Couldn't open the
control window. n"); MyCleanupO; exit(FALSE); }
SetMenuStrip(ControlWindow, &gadget_menu); for (i=0; i 10; i++)
for (;;) * wait for a signal and process it * Signals =
Wait(1 « ControlWindow- UserPort- mp__SigBit); if (Signals &
(1« ControlWindow- UserPort- mp_SigBit)) * Process the
Intuition message * while (MyIntuiMessage=(struct IntuiMessage
*) GetMsg(ControlWindow- UserPort)) * Get all the needed
info and reply to message * MIClass = MyIntuiMessage- Class;
MICode = MyIntuiMessage- Code; MIAddress =
MyIntuiMessage- IAddress; ReplyMsg(MylntuiMessage) *
Determine what the message was for * switch (MIClass) case
MENUPICK: while (MICode != MENUNULL) itemnum = ITEMNUM
(MICode) ; switch(itemnum) * User chose ghost * case 2: *
Remove the gadget from Intuition's control * * before we
change any values. * gad_pos =
RemoveGList(ControlWindow,&StrGadget,1); * Do a bitwise
exclusive OR to toggle the flag.
* I do not use the functions OnGadget and OffGadget * (which would produce the same effect), because * they call RefreshGadgets. This routine refreshes * ALL gadgets from that gadget on, and can cause * a noticable flicker depending upon where the * gadget is located in the list. * StrGadget.Flags A« GADGDISABLED; * Return the gadget to Intuition's control. *' real_pos = AddGList(ControlWindow, &StrGadget, gad_pos, 1, NULL); * Refresh the display of the gadget. * RefreshGList(&StrGadget, ControlWindow, NULL,1); break; * User chose scroll up * case 1: if (k==9) k = 0; else
k++; * Remove the gadgets from Intuition's control * * before we change any values. * gad_pos = RemoveGList(ControlWindow, fiStrGadget, 5); for (1=0; i 5; i++) Stringlnfo.Buffer = item_string[ (i+k)%10]; Stringlnfo.BufferPos = 0; Stringlnfo[i].NumChars = 0; } * Return the gadgets to Intuition's control. * real_pos = AddGList(ControlWindow, &StrGadget, gadjpos, 5, NULL); * Refresh the display of the gadgets. * RefreshGList(&StrGadget, ControlWindow, NULL,5); break; * User chose scroll down * case 0: if (k==0) k = 9; else k ; * Remove the gadgets from Intuition's
control * * before we change any values. * gad_pos = RemoveGList(ControlWindow, &StrGadget , 5); for (1=0; i 5; 1++) Stringlnfo.Buffer = item_string[(i+k)%10]; Stringlnfo[i].BufferPos = 0; Stringlnfo[i].NumChars = 0; } * Return the gadgets to Intuition's control. * real_pos = AddGList(ControlWindow, &StrGadget, gadjpos, 5, NULL); * Refresh the display of the gadgets. * RefreshGList(SStrGadget, ControlWindow, NULL,5); break; } * switch * MICode = (ItemAddress(&gadget_menu,MICode))- NextSelect; } * while * break; case CLOSEWINDOW: * bye! * * reply to any outstanding
messages * while (MylntuiMessage = (struct IntuiMessage *) GetMsg( ControlWindow- UserPort)) ReplyMsg(MylntuiMessage); MyCleanupO; exit(TRUE); break; default: printf ("Unhandled Message Received. n"); break; ) * switch * } * while * } * if * } * for * } * main * MyCleanup() if (ControlWindow) CloseWindow(ControlWindow); if (GfxBase) CloseLibrary(GfxBase); if (IntuitionBase) CloseLibrary(IntuitionBase); ' *AO Amiga Developers This space could have been yours at a rate you would not believe. Amazing Computing™ is the Amiga users' magazine, dedicated to helping the Amiga user get the
most out of their machine. Amazing Computing™ is now sold at over 1100 locations world wide, and is read by Amiga users who want to do more with their Amigas. These Amiga users are searching for an application program or hardware item you have developed.
If you are an Amiga Developer who is trying to get the most advertising for a new product without running a budget like the US Government, then give us a call. If money is no object, we are certain other magazines will also be glad to help.
Advertising Sales PiM Publications Inc.
P. O. Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722
(617) 6784200 Amazing Computing™* Your Resource to the
Commodore-Amiga™ The AMICUS & Fred Fish Public Domain
Software Library This software is collected from user
groups and electronic bulletin boards around the nation.
Each Amicus disk is nearly full, and is fully accessible
from the Workbench. If source code is provided for any
program, then the executable version is also present. This
means that you don't need the C compiler to run these
programs. An exception is granted for those programs only
of use to people who own a C compiler.
The Fred Fish disk are collected by Mr. Fred Fish, a good and active friend of the Amiga.
Note: Each description line below may include something like 'S-O-E-D1, which stands for 'source, object file, executable and documentation'. Any combination of these letters indicates what forms of the program are present Basic programs are presented entirely in source code format AMICUS Pish 1 Abasic programs: Graphics 3DSo!ids 3d solids modeling program w sanple data files Blocks draws blocks Cubes draws cubes Durer draws pictures in the style of Durer Fscape draws fractal landscapes Hidden 3D drawing program, w hidden line removal Jpad sirrple paint program Optica] draw several optical
illusions PaintBox sirrple paint program Shuttle draws the Shuttle In 3d wireframe SpaceArt graphics demo Speaker speech utility Sphere draws spheres Spiral draws color spirals ThreeDee 3d function plots Topography artificial topography Wheels draws circle graphics Xenos draws fractal planet landscapes Abasic programs: Tools AddressBook sirrple database program for addresses CardFile sirrple card file database program Demo multiwindow demo KeyCodes shows keycodes for a key you press Menu run many Abasic programs from a menu MoreColors way to get more colors on the screen at once, using
aliasing shapes sirrple color shape designer Speaklt speech and narrator demo Abasic programs: Games BrickOut classic computer brick wall game Othello also known as 'go' Saucer sirrple shoot-em-up game Spelling sirrple talking spelling game ToyBox selectable graphics demo Abasic programs: Sounds Entertainer plays that tune HAL9000 pretends if s a real conrputer Police sirrple police siren sound SugarPlum plays "The Dance of the Sugarplum Fairies" C programs: Aterm sirrple terminal program, S-E cc aid to compiling with Lattice C decvnt opposite of CONVERT for cross developers Dotty source code
to the 'dotty window demo echox unix-style filename expansion, partial
S. O-D fasterfp explains use of fast-floating point math FixDale
fixes future dates on all files on a disk, S-E freedraw sinple
Workbench drawing program,S-E GfxMem graphic memory usage
indicator, S-E Grep searches for a given string in a file,
with documentation ham shows off the hoid-and-modify method of
color generation IBM2Amiga fast parallel cable transfers
between an IBM and an Amiga Mandel Mandelbrot set program, S-E
moire patterned graphic demo, S-E objfix makes Lattice C
object file symbols visible to Wack, S-E quick quick sort
strings routine raw example sanple window I O setlace turns on
interlace mode, S-E sparks qlx-type graphic demo, S-E Other
executable programs: SpeechToy speech demonstration WhichFont
displays all available fonts Texts: 68020 describes 68020
speedup board from CSA Aliases explains uses of the ASSIGN
command Bugs known bug list in Lattice C 3.02 CLICard
reference card for AmigaDOS CLI CLICommands guide to using the
CLI Commands shorter guide to AmigaDOS CLI commands EdCommands
guide to the ED editor Filenames AmigaDOS filename wildcard
conventions HalfBright explains rare graphics chips that can
do more colors ModemPins description of the serial port pinout
RAMdisks tips on setting up your RAM: disk ROMWack tips on
using ROMWack Sounds explanation of the Instrument demo sound
file format Speed refutation of the Amiga's CPU and custom
chip speed WackCmds tips on using Wack AMICUS Dirt 2 C
programs: alib AmigaDOS object fibrary manager .S-E ar text
file archive program, S-E fixobj auto-chops executable files
shell simple CLI shell, S-E sq, usq file compression programs,
S-E YachtC a familiar game, S-E Make a simple 'make'
programming utility, S-E Emacs an early version of the Amiga
text editor, S-E-D Assembler programs: bsearch.asm binary
search code q8ort.asm Unix compatible qsortQ function, source
and Ctest program setjmp.asm setjmpO code for Lattice 3.02
Svprintf Unix system V compatible printfQ trees.o Unix
compatible treeO function, O-D (This disk formerly had IFF
specification files and examples. Since this spec is
constantly updated, the IFF spec files have been moved to
their own disk in the AMICUS collection. They are not here.)
John Draper Amiga Tutorials: Animate describes animation algorithms Gadgets tutorial on gadgets Menus learn about Intuition menus AMICUS Disk 3 C programs: Xref a C cross-reference gen., S-E 6bKoolor extra-half-bright chip gfx demo, S-E Chop truncate (chop) files down to size, S-E Cleanup removes strange characters from text CR2LF converts carriage returns to line feeds in Amiga files, S-E adds compile errors to a C file, S window ex. From the RKM, S generic Kermit implementation, flakey, no terminal mode, S-E sound demo plays scales, S-E SkewB Rubik cube demo in hi-res colors, S-E Error Hello
Kermit AmigaBasicProgsfdir) Automata cellular automata simulation CrazyEights card game Graph function graphing programs WitchingHour a game AbasiC programs: Casino games of poker, blackjack, dioe, and craps Gomoku also known as 'othello' Sabotage sort of an adventure game Executable programs: Disassem a 68000 disassembler, E-D DpSlkJe shews a given set of IFF pictures, E-D Arrange a text formatting program, E-D Assembler programs: Argoterm a terminal program with speech and Xmodem, S-E AMCUS Disk 4 Hies from the original Amiga Technical BBS Note that some of these files are old, and refer to
older versions of the operating system. These files came from the Sun system that served as Amiga technical support HQ for most of 1985. These files do not carry a warranty, and are for educational purposes only. Of course, that's not to say they donl work.
Conplete and nearly up-to-date C source to 'image.ed', an early version of the Icon Editor. This is a little flaky, but compiles and runs.
An Intuition demo, in full C source, including files: demomenu.c, demomenu2.c, demoreq.c, getascii.c, kfemo.c, idemo.guid8, idemo.make, IdemoalLh, nodos.c, and txwrite.c addmemc add external memory to the system botXestc example of BOB use console lO.c console 10 example creaport.c create and delete ports creastdi.c create standard I O requests creatask.c creating task examples diskio.c example of track read and write dotty.c source to the ‘dotty window* demo dua)play.c dual playfield example fiood.c flood fill example freemap.c old version of Yreemap' geltools.c tools for Vsprites and BOBs
gfxmem.c graphic memory usage indicator helio.c window example from RKM inputdev.c adding an input handler to the input stream joystikc reading the joystick keybd.c direct keyboard reading layertes.c layers examples mousportc test mouse port ownlbc, cwnlb sm example of making your own Iforary with Lattioe paratest.c tests parallel port commands seritesLc tests serial port commands serisanrp.c example of serial port use prinlntr.c sample printer interface code prtbase.h printer device definitions regintes.c region test program setlaoe.c source to interlace on off program setparallel.c set the
attributes of the parallel port SetSeriaLc set the attributes (parity, data bits) of the serial port slngplay.c single playfield example speechtoy.c source to narrator and phonetics demo timedely.c simple timer demo timer.c exec support timer functions timrstuf.c more exec support timer functions WhichFonlc loads and displays all available system fonts process.! And prtbasai assmebler include files: Amiga Bade Programs: Printer Drivers: autorqstr.txt warnings of deadlocks with (Note: Many of these programs are present on AM ICUS Printer drivers for the Canon PJ-1080A, the C Itoh autorequesters
Disk 1. Several of these were converted to Amiga Basic, Prowriter, an inrproved Epson driver that eliminates consotei0.txt copy of the RKM console I O chapter and are included here.)
Streaking, the Epson LQ-800, the Gemini Star-10, the diskfonltxt warning of disk font loading bug AddressBook a sirrpie address book database NEC 8025A, the Okidata ML-92, the Panasonic KX-P10xx fullfunc.txt list of defines, macros, functions Ball draws abail family, and the Smith-Corona D300, with a document inputdev.txt preliminary copy of the input device Cload program to convert Conpuserve hex files describing the installation process.
Chapter to binary, S-D AMCUS Disk 10 Instrument sound demos License information on Workbench distribution license Clue the game, Intuition driven This is an icon-driven demo, circulated to many dealers.
Printer pre-release copy of the chapter on printer drivers, ColorArt art drawing program It includes the sounds of an acoustic guitar, an alarm, a from RKM 1.1 v11fd.txt 'diff of .fd file changes from DeluxeDraw the drawing program in the 3rd issue of banjo, a bass guitar, a boink, a calliope, a car horn, version 1.0 to 1.1 v28v1 .diff 'diff of include file changes Amazing Computing, S-D claves, water drip, electric guitar, a flute, a harp arpegio, a from version 28 to 1.0 Eliza conversational conputer psychologist kickdrum, a marimba, a organ minor chord, people AMICUS Disk S Rlee from the
Amiga Link Othello the game, as known as 'go' talking, pigs, a pipe organ, a Rhodes piano, a saxophone, Amiga Information Network RatMaze 3D ratmaze game a sitar, a snare drum, a steel drum, bells, a vbrophone, a Note that some of these files are old, and refer to older ROR boggling graphics demo violin, a wailing guitar, a horse whinny, and a whistle.
Versions of the operating system. These files are from Shuttle draws 3D pictures of the space shuttle AMICUS Disk 11 Amiga Link. For a time, Commodore supported Amiga Spelling simple spelling program C programs Link, aka AIN, for online developer technical support. It YoYo wierd zero-gravity yo-yo demo, tracks yo- dirutil Intuition-based, CLI replacement file was only up and running for several weeks. These files yo tothe mouse manager, S-E do not carry a warranty, and are for educational purposes Executable programs: cpri shorn and adjusts priority of CLI only. Of course, that's not to say
they dont work.
A demo of Intuition menus called 'menudemo', In C 3Dcube Modula-2 demo of a rotating cube processes, S-E Altlcon sets a second icon image, displayed ps shows info about CLI processes, S-E source when the icon is clicked vidtex displays Conrpuserve RLE pidures, S-E whereis.c find a file searching all subdirectories AmigaSpel!
A slow but simple spelling checker, E-D AmigaBasic programs bobtest.c ROB programming exarrpie arc the ARC file conpression program, pointered pdnter and sprite editor program sweep.c sound synthesis example must-have for telecom, E-D optimize optimization ex ample from AC artide Assembler files: Bertrand graphics demo calendar large, animated calendar, diary and date mydev.asm sanple device driver disksalvage a program to rescue trashed disks, E-D book program mylto.asm sanple library exanple KwikCopy a quick but nasty disk copy program: amortize loan amortizations mylto.1 , . .
Ignores errors, E-D brushtoBOB converts small IFF brushes to mydev.i LfoDir lists hunks in an object file E-D AmigaBasic BOB OBJECTS asmsupp.i .
SavelLBM saves any screen as an IFF picture grids draw and play waveforms macros.l assembler Include files E-D ??
Hlbert draws Hilbert curves Texts: ScreenDunrp shareware screen dump program, E only madlto mad lb story generator amigatricks tips on CLI commands StarTerm version 2.0, term program, Xmodem mailtaik talking mailing list program extdtek external disk specification E-D meadows3D 3D graphics program, from Amazing gameport game port spec Texts: ConputingP* artide parallel parallel port spec LatticeMain tips on fixing _maln.c in Lattice mousetrack mouse tracking exanple in hires mode serial serial port spec GdiskDrive make your own 51 4 drive slot slot machine game v1.1 update list of new features
in version 1.1 GuruMed explains the Guru numbers tictactoe the game v1.1 h.txt 'diff of include file changes from version Lal3.03bugs bug list of Lattice C version 3.03 switch pachinko-like game
1. 0 to 1.1 MforgeRev user's view of the MicroForge hard drive
weird makes strange sounds Files for building your own printer
drivers, including PrintSpooler EXECUTE-based print spooling
program Executable programs dospedaLc, epsondata.c, init.asm,
printers, printer.link, .BMAP files: cp unix-like copy
command, E printertag.asm, render.c, and wait.asm. This disk
does These are the necessary links between Amiga Basic and ds
screen dear, S-E contain a number of files descrbing the IFF
The system Ibraries. To take advantage of the Amiga's diff unix-like stream editor uses 'diff output These are not the latest and greatest files, but remain capabilities in Basic, you need these files. BMAPs are to fix files here for historical purposes. They include text files and C included for 'disr, 'console', 'diskfont*, 'exec1, 'Icon', pm chart recorder performances indicator source examples. The latest IFF spec is elsewhere in this 'intuition'.
'layers', 'mathffp', mathieeedoubas', Assembler programs Ibrary.
'mathieeesingbas', 'mathtrans', 'potgo', timer' and ds screen dear and CLI arguments AMICUS Disk 6 IFF Pictures translator1.
Exanple This disk includes the DPSIkfe program, which can view AMICUS Disk.fi Modula-2 a given series of IFF pictures, and the 'shcwpld program, Amiga Basic Programs: trails moving-worm graphics demo which can view each file at the dick of ah icon, and the FlightSim simple flight simulator program caseconvert converts Modula-2 keywords to 'saveibm' program, to turn any screen into an IFF picture.
HuePalette explains Hue, Saturation, and Intensity uppercase The pictures indude a screen from ArticFox, a Degas Requester ex. Of doing requesters from Amiga Forth Breshehan drde algorithm example dancer, the guys at Electronic Arts, a gorilla, horses, King Basic Analyze 12 templates for the spreadsheet Tut, a lighthouse, a screen from Marbje Madness, the ScrollDemo demonstrates scrolling capabilities Analyzel Bugs Bunny Martian, a still from an old movie, the Dire Synthesizer sound program There are four programs here that read Commodore 64 Straits moving company, a screen from Pinball
WoridMap draws a map of the world picture files. They can translate Koala Pad, Doodle, Print Contruction Set, a TV newcaster, the PaintCan, a world Executable programs: Shop and News Room graphics to IFF format Of course, map, a Porsche, a shuttle mission patch, a tyrannosaurus Boingl latest Boingl demo,with selectable getting the files from your C-64 to your Amiga is the hard rex, a planet view, a VISA card, and a ten-speed.
Speed, E part.
AMICUS (M I. DigiVlew HAM demo picture disk Brush2C converts an IFF brush to C data AMICUS Disk 12 This disk has pictures from the DigiView hold-and-modify instructions, initialization code, E Executable programs video digitizer. It includes the ladies with pencils and Brush2k»n converts IFF brush to an icon, E blink 'alink' compatible linker, but faster, E-D bllypops, the young girl, the bulldozer, the horse and Dazzle graphics demo, tracks to mouse, E dean spins the disk for use with disk deaners, buggy, the Byte cover, the dictionary page, the robot and DedGEL assembler program for stopping
68010 E-D Robert. This indudes a program to view each picture errors, S-E-D epsonset sends Epson settings to PAR: from menu, separately, and all together as separate, slidable screens.
Kkxk menu-bar clock and date display, E E-D AMICUS Disk 8 life the game of life, E showbig view hkes pictures in iow-res C programs: TimeSet intuition-based way to set the time and superbitmap, E-D Browse view text files on a disk, using menus date, speaktime tell the time, E-D S-E-D EMEmacs another Emacs, more oriented to word undelete undeletes a file, E-D Crunch removes comments and white space processing, S-E-D cnvapldhm converts Apple ][ low, medium and high from C files, S-E MyCU a CLI shell, works without the res pidures to IFF, E-D Icon Exec EXECUTE a series of commands from Workbench,
S-E-D menued menu editor produces C code for menus, Workbench S-E Texts: E-D PDScreen Durrp FnctnKeys explains how to read function keys from quick quick disk-to-disk nbble copier, E-D dumps Rastport of highest screen to Amiga Basic quickEA copies EledronicArts disks, removes printer HackerSIn explains how to win the game 'hacker* protedkxi, E-D SetAitemate sets a second image for an icon, when Ist68010 guide to installing a 68010 in your Amiga txed 1.3 demo of text editor from Microsmiths, E-D dicked once S-E PrinterTip tips on sending escape sequences to C programs SetWindow makes windows
for a CLI program to run your printer spin3 rotating blocks graphics demo, S-E-D under Workbench S-E StartupTip tips on setting up your startup- popdi start a new CLI at the press of a button, SmallClock a small digital clock that sits In a window sequence file like Sidekick, S-E-D menubar XfrmrReview list of programs that work with the vsprite Vsprite exanple code from Commodore, Scrimper the screen printer in the fourth Amazing Transformer S-E-D Computing, S-E AmigaBBS Amiga Basic bulletin board program, S-D Assembler programs starl 0 makes star fields like Star Trek Intro,S-E-D Pictures
Mount Mandebrot 3D view of Mandebrot set Star Destroyer hi-res Star Wars starship Robot robot arm grabbing a cylinder Texts vendors list of Amiga vendors, names, addresses cardco fixes to early Cardco memory boards cinclude cross-reference to C include files, who includes what mindwalker dues to playing the game well slideshow make your own slideshows from the Kaleidoscope disk Amiga Basic programs Routines from Carolyn Scheppner of CBM Tech Support, to read and display IFF pictures from Amiga Basic. With documentation. Also induded is a program to do screen prints in Amiga Basic, and the
newest BMAP files, with a corrected ConvertFD program. With example pictures, and the SavelLBM screen capture program.
Routines to load and play FutureSound and IFF sound files from Amiga Basic, by John Foust for Applied Visions. With documentation and C and assembler source for writing your own libraries, and interfacing C to assembler in libraries. With example sound.
Executable programs gravity Sci Amer Jan 86 gravitation graphic simulation, S-E-D Texts MIDI make your own MIDI instrument Interface, with documentation and a hi-res schematic picture.
AMICUS PteK 14 Several programs from Amazing Conrputing issues: Tools Dan Karys C structure index program, S-E-D Amiga Basic programs BMAP Reader by Tim Jones IFFBrush2BOB by Mike Swinger AutoRequester example DOSHeiper Windowed help system for CLI commands, S-E-D PETrans translates PET ASCII files to ASCII files, S-E-D C Squared Graphics program from Scientific American, Sept 86, S-E-D crtf adds or removes carriage returns from files, S-E-D dpdecode decrypts Deluxe Paint, removes copy protection, E-D queryWB asks Yes or No from the user, returns exit code, S-E vc VisiCalc type spreadsheet, no
mouse control, E-D view views text flies with window and slider gadget, E-D Oing, Sproing, yaBoing, Zolng are sprite-based Boingl style demos, S-E-D CLICiock, sCiock, wClock are window border clocks, S-E-D Texts An article on bng-persistanoe phospor monitors, tips on making brushes of odd shapes in Deluxe Paint, and recommendations on icon interfaces from Commodore-Amiga.
AMICUS 1S The C programs include: "pr* a file printing utility, which can print files in the background, and with line numbers and control character displays a chart of the blocks allocated on a Inf disk.
'Ask1 questions an 'execute' file, returns an error code to control the execution in that batch file 'Staf an enhanced version of AmigaDOS 'status' command.
'Dissolve' random-dot dissolve demo displays IFF picture slowly, dot by dot, In a random fashion.
'PopCLIZ invoke new CLI window at the press of a key.
The executable programs include: 'Fomf file formatting program through the printer driver to select print styles 'DiskCaf catalogs disks, maintains, sorts,merges lists of disk files 'PSound1 SunRize Industries' sanpled sound editor & recorder 'iconmaker* makes icons for most programs 'Fractals' draws great fractal seascapes and mountains capes.
'3D Breakout 3D glasses, create breakout in a new dimension 'AmigaMonitor1 displays lists of open files, memory use, tasks, devices and ports in use.
Cosmorolds’ version of the 'asteroids' for the Amiga 'Sizzlers' high resolution graphics demo written In Modula2. * Texts: ‘ansi.txt explains escape sequences the CON: device responds to.
'FKey1 includes template for making paper to sit in the tray at the top of the Amiga keyboard.
'Spawn' programmer's document from Commodore Amiga describe ways to use the Amiga's multitasking capabilities in your own programs.
AmigaBasic programs: 'Grids' draw sound waveforms, and hear them played.
'Light1 a version of the Tron light-cycle video game.
'M igaSor a game of solitaire.
'Stats' program to calculate batting averages 'Money' "try to grab all the bags of money that you can."
AMICUS 15 also includes two beautiful IFF pictures, of the enemy walkers from the ioe planet in Star Wars, and a picture of a cheetah.
AMICUS IB 'juggler* demo by Eric Graham, a robot juggler bouncing three mirrored balls, with sound effects. Twenty-four frames of HAM animation are flipped quickly to produce this image. You control the speed of the juggling.
The author's documentation hints that this program might someday be available as a product IFF pictures parodies of the covers of Amiga World and Amazing Computing magazines.
C programs: 'Inputhandler1 example of making an input handler.
'FileZapS1 binary file editing program ‘ShowPrlnf displays IFF picture, and prints It 'Gen' program indexes and retrieves C structures and variables declared in the Amiga include file system.
Executable Programs: 'FixHunkZ repairs an executable program file for expanded memory 'msZBmus' converts Music Studio files to IFF standard 'SMUS* format I have heard this program might have a few bugs, especially in regards to very long songs, but it works in most cases.
'Missile* Amiga version of the'Missile Command' videogame, This disk also contains several files of scenarios for Amiga Flight Simulator II. By putting one of these seven files on a blank disk, and inserting It In the drive after performing a spedai command in this game, a nurrfber of interesting locations are preset into the Flight Simulator program. For example, one scenario places your plane on Alcatraz, while another puts you in Central Park.
3 9 Fred Fish Disk 1: , amigademo Graphical benchmark for comparing amlgas.
Amigaterm simple communications program with Xmodem balls simulation of the "kinetic thingy" with balls on strings colorful Shows off use of hold-and-modlfy mode, dhrystone Dhrystone benchmark program, dotty Source to the "dotty window demo on the Workbench disk, freedraw A small "paint" type program with lines, boxes, etc. gad John Draper's Gadget tutorial program gfxmem Graphical memory usage display program haffbrtte demonstrates"Extra-Half-Brlte" mode, if you have it hello simple window demo latffp accessing the Motorola Fast Floating Point I ibraryfromC palette Sample program for
designing color palettes.
Trackdisk Demonstrates use of the trackdisk driver, requesters John Draper's requester tutorial and exanpte program, speech Sample speech demo program. Stripped down "speechtoy".
Speechtoy Another speech demo program.
Alb Object module Ibrarian.
Cc Unix-like frontend for Lattice C compiler, dbug Macro based C debugging package.
Machine independent make Subset of Unix make command.
Make2 Another make subset command, rrtcroemacs Small version of emacs editor, with macros, no extensions portar Portable file archiver, xrf DECUS C cross reference utility.
FradJFlrti Pfah3; gothic Gothic font banner printer, roff A "raff type text formatter, ff A very fast text formatter cforth A highly portable forth implementation. Lots of goodies.
Xllsp Xllsp 1.4, not working correctly.
Fred Fish Disk 4: banner Prints horizontal banner bgrep A Boyer-Moore grep-like utility bison CNU Unix replacement 'yacc not working, bm Another Boyer-Moore grep-like utility grep DECUS grep kermit simple portable Kermit with no connect mode.
MyCLI Replacement CLI for the Amiga. Version 1.0 mandel A Mandebrot set program, by Robert French and RJ MicaJ Fittd.Firti Dtoh Si cons Console device demo program with supporting macro routines, freemap Creates a visual diagram of free memory input.dev sample input handler, traps key or mouse events joystick Shows how to set up the gameport device as a joystick.
Keyboard demonstrates direct communications with the keyboard, layers Shows use of the layers ibrary mandebrot IFF Mandebrot program mouse hooks up mouse to right joystick port one.window console window demo parallel Demonstrates access to the parallel port, printer opening and using the printer, does a screen dump, not working prinLsupport Printer support routines, not working, proctest sample process creation code, not working region demos split drawing regions sanplefont sample font with info on creating your own serial Demos the serial port singlePlayfield Creates 320 x 200 playfield
speechtoy latest version of cute speech demo speech.demo simplified version of speechtoy, with 10 requests text.demo displays available fonts timer demos tlmer.device use trackdisk demos trakodlsk driver Fred Fish Dtek 6: oorrpress like Unix compress, a file squeezer dadc analog dock impersonator microemacs upgraded versbn of microemacs from disk 2 mult removes multiple oocuring lines in files scales demos using sound and audio functions setparallel Allows changing parallel port parameters setserial Allows changing serial port parameters, sortc quicksort based sort program, in C stripe Strips
comments and extra whitespace from C source Fred Fish Disk 7: This disk contains the executables of the game Hack, version 1.0.1. Frcrt Flrti Phh 8; ’ This disk contains the C source to Hack on disk 7.
FrriFiriiDlakft moire Draws moire patterns in black and white MVP-FORTH Mountain View Press Forth, versbn
1. 00.03A. A shareware version of FORTH from Fantasia Systems.
Proff a more powerful text formatting program Frcd.B&iLDifi)Ll& C-kerrrtt Port of the Kermit file transfer program and setlace Program to toggle interlace mode on and off.
A complete copy of the latest developer IFF disk server.
Skewb a ruble's cube type demo Fred Fifth PM.17; Ps Display and set process priorities sparks moving snake Graphics demo The NewTek Dig 1-View video digitizer HAM demo disk Archx Yet another program for bundling up text files Fred Fish Disk 10: Fred Fnh Disk 18: and mailing or posting them as a single file conquest An interstellar adventure simulation game AmigaDisplay dumb terminal program with bell, unit.
Dehex convert a hex file to binary selectable fonts Fred Fifth Dtek ZZ filezap Patch program for any type of file.
Ash Prerelease C Shell-like shell program, AB demos Amiga Basic demos from Carolyn fixobj Strip garbage off Xmodem transferred files.
History, loops, etc. Scheppner.
Iff Routines to read and write iff format files.
Browser wanders a file tree, displays files, all with the NewConvertFD creates bmaps from fd files.
Id sinrple directory program mouse BitPlanes finds addresses of and writes to Is Minimal UNIX Is, with Unix-style wildcarding, MC68010 docs on upgrading your Amiga to use a bttplanes of the screen's bitmap.
InC 68010 AbouIBMaps A tutorial on creation and use of bmaps.
Sq.usq file squeeze and unsqueeze Multidim rotate an N dimensional cube with a joystick LoadlLBM loads and displays IFF ILBM pics.
Trek73 Star Trek game Pig Latin SAY command that talks in Pig Latin LoadACBM loads and displays ACBM pics.
Yachtc Dice game.
Scrimper Screen image printer ScreenPrint creates a demo screen and dunrps it to a Fred Fish Disk 11: Xlispl .6 source, docs, and executable for a Lisp graphic printer.
Dpslide slide show program for displaying IFF interpreter.
Disassem Simple 68000 disassembler. Reads images with miscellaneous pictures Fred FtehDisUfc standard Amiga object files and Fred Fifth Di k .12; Blackjack text-oriented blackjack game disassembles the code sections. Data amiga3d Shows a rotating 3 dimensional solid JayMinerSlides Slides by Jay Miner, Amiga graphics chip sections are dunrped in hex. The actual "Amiga sign".
Designer, showing flowchart of the Amiga disassember routines are set up to be ArgoTerm a terminal emulator program, written In internals, in 640 x 400.
Callable from a user program so instructions assembler Keymap_Test test program to test the keymapping routines in memory can be disassembled dynAMIGAlly.
Arrow3d Shows a rotating 3 dimensional wire frame LockMon Find unclosed file locks, for programs that By Bill Rogers.
Don't dean up.
DvorakKeymap Exarrple of a keymap structure for the Dvorak kJ4 directory listing program Fred Fish Disk 20: keyboard layout. Untested but included IconExec AmigaToAtari converts Amiga object code to Atari format because assembly examples are few and far SetWindow two programs for launching programs from DiskSalv program to recover files from a trashed between. By Robert Bums of C-A.
Workbench that presently only work under AmigaDOS disk.
Hypocyctolds Spirograph, from Feb. 84 Byte.
Hash example of the AmigaDOS disk hashing LinesDemo Example of proportional gadgets to scroll a SetAlternate Makes an icon show a second image when function SuperBitMap.
Clicked once Hd Hex durrp utility ala Computer Language MemExpansion Schematics and directions for building your StarTerm terminal emulator, with ASCII Xmodem, magazine, April 86 own homebrew 1 Mb memory expansion, by dialer, more.
MandelBrots Mandelbrot contest winners Michael Fellinger.
Fred Rsh Disk 13: MuitiTasking Tutorial and examples for Exec level SafeMailoc Program to debug 'mallocO' calls A Bundle of Basic programs, including: multitasking ScienceDemos Convert Julian to solar and sidereal time, Jpad toybox ezspeak mandlebrot Pack strips whitespace from C source stellar positions and radial velocity epoch xmodem 3dsolid8 addbook algebra PortHandler sample Port-Handier program that performs.
Calculations and Galilean satellite plotter.
Ror amgseql amiga-copy band Shows BCPL environment clues.
By David Eagle.
Bounce box brickout canvas Random Random number generator in assembly, for Fred Rsh Disk 26 cardfl circle colordrdes Copy C or assembler.
AbasIc games by David Addison: Backgammon, Crbbage, cubes1 cutpaste date dog star SetMouse2 sets mouse port to right or left port.
Milestone, and Othello dragon draw dynamictriangle .
SpeechTerm terminal emulator with speech capabilities, Cpp DECUS 'cpp' C preprocessor, and a modified Eliza ezterm filibuster fractal Xmodem ’cc1 that knows about the 'cpp', for Manx C. fscape gomoku dart haiku TxEd Demo editor from Microsmiths Charlie Heath Shar Unix-compatible shell archiver, for packing ha!9000 halley hauntedM hidden Fred FtetLlMil files for travel.
Join loz mandel menu This is a copy of Thomas Wilcox's Mandelbrot Set Explorer SuperBitMap Example of using a ScroilLayer, syncing minipaint mouse Orthello patch disk. Verygoodl SuperBitMaps for printing, and creating pena pinwheel gbox random-drdes Fred Fiati IM_22 dummy RastPorts.
Readme rgb rgbtest Rord This disk contains two new "strains" of mlcroemacs.
Fred Flah Phk 29 sabotage salestalk shades shapes Lemacs version 3.6 by Daniel Lawrence. For Unix AegisDraw Demo shuttle sketchpad spaoeart V7, BSD 4.2, Amiga, MS-DOS, VMS. Uses Demo program without save and no docs.
Speakspeach speecheasy spell Amiga function keys, status line, execute, Animator Demo Player for Aegis Animator files sphere spiral striper superpad startup files, more.
Cc Unix-like front-end for Manx C. suprshr talk terminal termtest Pemacs By Andy Poggio. New features indude Enough Tests for ex (stance of system resources, files, tom topography triangle ALT keys as Meta keys, mouse support, devices.
Wheels xenos xmostriper higher priority, backup files, word wrap, Rubik Animated Rubiks cube program (note: some programs are AbasIc, most are Amigabasic, and function keys.
StringLb Public domain Unix string library functions.
Some programs are presented In both languages) Fred Fifth IM_22 vnoo VT-100 terminal emulator with Kermit and Fred Fifth Disk 14i Disk of source for MicroEmacs, several versions for most Xmodem protocols amiga3d update of 12, includes C source to a full popular operating systems on micros and mainframes. For Fred fifth IM4Q hidden surface removal and 3D graphics people who want to port MicroEmacs to their favorite machine.
Several shareware programs. The authors request a beep Source for a function that generates a beep FrcdJkJLDjs donation if you find their program useful, so they can write sound Conques Interstaller adventure simulation game more software.
Dex extracts text from within C source files Csh update to shell on Disk 14, with built in BBS an Amiga Basic BBS by Ewan Grantham dimensions demonstrates N dimensional graphics commands,named variables, substitution.
FlneArt Amiga art filezap update of disk 10, a file patch utility Modula-2 A pre-release version of the single pass FontEditor edit fonts, by Tim Robinson gfxmem update of disk 1, graphic memory usage Modula-2 compiler originally developed for MenuEditor Create menus, save them as C source, by indicator Macintosh at ETHZ. This code was David Pehrson gi converts IFF brush files to Image struct, in C transmitted to the AM IGA and Is executed on StarTerm3.0 Very nice telecommunications by Jim text.
The AMIGA using a special loader. Binary Nangano pdterm sinrple ANSI VT100 terminal emulator, only.
(Fred Fish Disk 30 Is free when ordered with at least three in 80 x 25 screen Fred Fleh (M.25 other disks from the collection.)
Shell 8inple Unix 'C8h' style shell Graphic Hack A graphic version of the game on disks 7 Fred Rsh Disk 31 termcap mostly Unix compatible 'termcap' and 8 Life Life game, uses blitterto do 19.8 generations implementation.
Fred Fleh Diftk.25 a second.
Fred Rsh DlskJSi This is the graphics-oriented Hack game by John Toebes.
Mandetorot Version 3.0 of Robert French's program.
Blobs graphics demo, like Unix 'worms1 Only the executable is present.
MxExanple Mutual exclusion gadget example.
Clock sirrple digital dock program for the title bar Fred Fleh PiekJft RamSpeed Measure relative RAM speed, chip and fast.
Dazzle An eight-fold symmetry dazzler program.
UnHunk Prooesses the Amiga "hunkT loadfiles.
Set Replacement for the Manx "set" command for Really prettyl Collect code, data, and bss hunks together, environment variables, with improvements.
Fish double buffered sequence cyde animation allows individual spedficatio of code, data.
Tree Draws a recursive tree, green leafy type, not ofafish and bss origins, and generates binary file files.
Monopoly A really nice monopoly game written in with formal reminiscent of Unix "aout" format TxEd Crippled demo version of Microsmith's text AbasiC.
The output file can be easily prooessed by a editor, TxEd.
OkldataDump Okidata ML92 driver and WorkBench screen separate program to produoe Motorola "S- Vdraw Full-featured drawing program by Stephen dump program.
Records" suitable for downloading to PROM Vermeulen.
Polydraw A drawing program written in AbasiC.
Programmer. By Eric Black.
Xicon Invokes CLI scripts from Icon Polyfractals A fractal program written in AbasiC.
Ticon Displays text files from an icon.
Fred Fish Disk .32 Address Extended address book written in AmigaBasic.
Calendar Calendar diary program written in AmigaBasic.
DosPlusI First volume of CLI oriented tools tor developers.
OosPlus2 Second volume of CLI oriented tools for developers.
Executables only: MacView Views MacPaint pictures in Amiga low or high res, no sample pictures, by Scott Evernden.
Puzzle Simulation of puzzle with moving square tiles.
ShowHAM View HAM pictures from CLI.
Solitaire AbasiC games of Canfield and Klondike, from David Addison.
Spin3 Graphics demo of spinning cubes, doublebuffered example.
Sword Sword of Fallen Angel text adventure game written in Amiga Basic.
Trails Leaves a trail behind mouse, in Modula-2 Fred Fish Disk 33 3dstars 3d version of the "stars" program below.
Big map Lcw-level graphics exanrpte scrolls bitmap with ScrolIVPort.
Dbuf.gels Double-buffered animation example for BOBs and Vsprites.
DiskMapper Displays sector allocation of floppy disks.
MemView View memory in real time, move with joystick.
Oing Bouncing balls demo Sprolng Oing, with sound effects.
ScreenDump Dumps highest screen or window to the printer.
Sdb Sinpb database program from a DECUS tape.
Stars Star field demo, like Star Trek.
TermPlus Terminal program with capture, library, function keys, Xmodem, CIS-B protocols.
VttOO Version 2.0 of Dave Wecker's VT-100 emulator, with scripts and function keys.
Fred Firii Disk.34 Alint Support files for Ginrpers 'lint' syntax checker Blink PD blink* compatible linker, faster, bolter.
Browser Updated to FF18 'browser', In Manx, with scroll bars, bug fixes.
Btree b-tree data structure exanpbs Btree2 Another version of 'btree' Calendar Appointment calendar with alarm.
Less File viewer, searching, position by percent, line number.
NewFonts Set of 28 new Amiga fonts from Bill Fischer Pr Background print utility, style options, wildcards.
Requester Deluxe Paint-type file requester, with sample.
Fred Fish Fred.Etol)JM35 AsendPacket C exanple of making asynchronous I O calls to a DOS handler, written by C-A ConsoleWindow C exanple of getting the Intuition pointer a CON: or RAW: window, for 1.2, by C-A.
DirUtD Walk the directory tree, do CLI operations from menus Dirlltil2 Another variant of Dirutil.
FileRequester Lattice C file requester module, with demo driver, from Charlie Heath.
MacView Views MacPaint pictures in Amiga low or high res, with sample pictures, by Scott Evernden.
Plop Sinple IFF reader program PopCLI Sidekick-style program invokes a new CLI, with automatic screen blanking.
QuickCopy Devenport disk copiers duplicate copyprotected disks.
ScrollPf Dual playfield example, from C-A, shows 400 x 300 x 2 bit plane playfield on a320 x 200 x 2 plane deep playfield.
SendPacket General purpose subroutine to send AmigaDos packets.
SpriteMaker Sprite editor, can save work as C data structure. Shareware by Ray Larson.
Tracker Converts any disk into files, for electronic transmission. Preserves entire file structure.
Shareware by Brad Wilson.
TriCbps 3-D space invasion game, formerly commercial, now public domain. From Geodesic Publications.
Tsize Print total size of all files in subdirectories.
Un Ifdef C preprocessor to remove given ifdef'd sections of a file, leaving the rest alone. By Dave Yost Vttest VT-100 emulation test program. Requires a Unix system.
Fred Fish Disk 36 Acp Unix-like 'cp' copy program Clock Updated version of dock on disk 15.
Csh Manx 'csh'-like CLI, history, variables, etc. DietAid Diet planning aid organizes recipes, calories Echo Improved 'echo1 command with color, cursor FixHunk Fixs programs to let them run in external memory.
Fm Maps the sectors a file uses on the disk.
KickBench Docs, program to make a single disk that works like a Kickstart and Workbench.
Lex Computes Fog, Flesch, and Kincaid readability of text files.
TunneiVision David Addison Abasic 3D maze perspective game.
Vc Visicalc-like spreadsheet Calculator program.
Vt100 Versbn 2.2 of Dave Wecker's telecom program YaBoing Oingl style game program shows sprite collision detects Fred Fish Disk 37 This disk is a port of Timothy Budd's Little Smalltalk system, done by Bill Kinnersby at Washington State University.
Fred Fish Disk 38 Csquared Sep 86 Sci American, Cirde Squared algorithm FlxObj Strips garbage off Xmodem transfered object fibs Handler AmigaDOS handler (device) example from C-A Hp-10c Mimics a HP-10C calculator, written in Modula-2 IFFEncode Saves the screen as an IFF fib IffDunrp Dumps info about an IFF fib Jsh BDSC-like CLI shell NewStat STATUS-like program, shews priority, processes Reversi Game of Reversi, versbn 6.1 Uudecode Translate binary fibs to text, Unix-like programs Vdraw Drawing program, version 1.14 VoiceFibr DX MIDI synthesizer vobe filer program Window Exampb of creating a
DOS window on a custom screen Fred Fish Disk 39 AnsiEcho 'echo1, touch1, 'list1, 'cte' written in assembbr.
Display Displays HAM Images from a ray-tracing program, with exampb pidures.
Driver Exampb device driver source, acts like RAM: disk Xlisp Xlisp 1.7, executabb only EredBah-DishjM Ahost Terminal emulator with Xmodem, Kermit and CIS B protocols, functbn keys, scripts, RLE graphics and conference mode.
AmigaMonitor DynAMIGAlly displays the machine state, such as open files, active tasks, resources, device states, interrupts, libraries, ports, etc. Arc Popular fib coupressbn system, the standard for transiting fibs AreaCode Program that decodes area codes into state and locality.
Blink 'alink! Replacement linker, version 6.5 Cosmo An 'asterbds' done.
Dg210 Data General D-210 Terminal emulator DirUtil Windowed DOS interface program, versbn
1. 4 DOSHeiper Windowed AmigaDOS CLI help program PagePrint
Prints text files with headers, page breaks, line numbers
PopCLI Starts a new CLI with a single keystroke, from any
program, With a screen-saver feature.
Version 2, with source.
SpriieEd Sprite Editor edits two sprites at a time X-Spe!l Spelling checker albws edits to fibs FF 41 AmigaVenture Create your own text adventure programs in AmigaBasic.
Csh Versbn 2.03 of Dillon's Csh-like shell.
Executabb only Dbug Macro based C debugging package, update to FF 2 DualPiayFbld example from CBM, update to Intuition manual GetFib Heath's fib requester, with source LatXref Cross reference of Lattice 3.10 header files Lines Line drawing demo program SetFont Changes font used in a CLI window VttOO Versbn 2.3 of the VT-100 terminal program.
FF 42 This disk contains an Amiga versbn of MicroGNUEmacs.
FF 43 BasbBoing AmigaBasb program demos page flipping of a 3D cube Bbm Demo copy of B.E.S.T. Business Management System.
BbsList A list of Amiga Bulbtin Board Systems Cc C compiler frontends for Manx and LattbeC Copper A hardware copper list disassembler InstlFF Converts Instruments demo sounds to IFF sampled sounds PopCoburs Adjust RGB colors of any screen SpriteCbck Simpb dock is displayed on a sprite above all screens ST Emulator Non-serious Atari ST emulator Wbrun Lets Workbench programs be run from the CLI Wild Two Unix shell styb wildcard matching routines FF 44 Icons Miscellaneous icons NewlFF New IFF materia) from CBM for sarrpbd voice and musb files RayTracePics The famous ray-tracing pictures, from FF
39, now converted to IFF HAM format for "much* faster vbwing.
ViewlLBM Displays normal and HAM ILBM fibs FF4S Clue Clue board game Make Another 'make1, with more features Pictures Miscellaneous pictures Update Updates an older disk with newer fibs from another disk Wherels Searches a disk for fibs of given name FF 46 Asm Shareware 68010 macro asserribbr, ROM Kemal Manual compatible CheckModem 'execute'fib program detects presence of modem Egad Gadget editor from the Programmers Network Jive Transforms a fib from English to Jive.
My.lb A binary only copy of MatTs alternate runtime library. Author: Matt Dilbn ProffMacros Subset Berkeley 'ms' and 'mnf macros for 'proff VaiSpeak Transforms a fib from English to Valby Speak.
FF47 3D-Arm Simulation of a robotb arm, very good graphics, teaching tool, indudlng C source.
Juggbr Eric Graham's stunning HAM animation of a robot juggler VT-100 Version 2.4 of Dave Wecker's terminal emulator, with Xmodem and Kermit fib transfer protocols FF 48 Bru Alpha versbn of a hard disk fib archiver Comm Version 1.30 of a terminal emulator with phone directories Csh Version 2.04 of Matt Dillbn's Unix 'csh'-like CLI replacement, including Lattice and Manx C source Dlskperf Disk benchmark program for Unix and Amiga Du Conputes disk storage of a file or directory MemWatch Program to watch for programs that trash fow memory. It attempts to repair the damage, and puts up a requester
to Inform you of the damage. From the Software Distillery.
Profibr A realtime execution profiler for Manx C programs. Includes C source.
FF49 Cycbids Update of electronic spirograph from disk 27 DirUtil Enhanoed versbn of DlrUtil from disk 35 MultiDef Scans a set of object modules and Ibrarbs searching for multiply defined synbols MyUpdate Disk update utility with options for stripping comments from C header fibs, and interactive verification of the updating process Plot Conputes and displays 3 dimensbnal functbns in hires Polygon__Moire type pattern generator with cobr Qmouse pressed.
Touch Trees program FF 50 Asm startup Breakout DiskZap FirstSilicon and Missile sound, PerfectSound Sizzlers UnixArc machines, Wombat FF 51 Bison 4 Compress Cos AmigaBasic DifSsed Sq, Usq FF 52 Assign Fractal Poly, HAMPoly polygons MxGads Tek4010 Vdraw FF S3 Animations ARCre ARP Compiler Spreadsheet TarSplit Uuencode cycling Queries whether a mouse button is This can give a return code that can customize a startup-sequenoe based on whether a mouse button was pressed.
Exaffpje of setting the datestamp on a file, using a new technique from Commodore- Amiga More extensive version of the trees on Disk 31 Version 1.1 of a shareware 68000 macro assembler, conpatible with the Metacomco assembler. This includes an exanrple module and more Motorola mneumonics.
A brick breakout game, uses 3-D glasses Version 1.1 of a program to edit disks and binary files A smart CLI replacement with full editing recall of previous commands A Missile Command-type game, with in assembler Sound editor for a low-cost sound digitizer Graphics demos Version of 'arc* for Unix System V inC Version 3.01 of Dave Water's terminal emulator GNU for Unix 'yacc', working update to disk version Update to the file conpression program on Disk6 "Wheel of Fortune"-type game in Unix-like *dlf and 'ssed' for finding the differences between two files, and then recreating the other, given
one file, and the list of differences.
Portable versions of the CP M squeeze and unsqueeze Replacement for AmigaDOS 'assign1 command inC Makes random fractal terrains Workbench-type demos for making in lores and HAM Exarrple of mutual exclusion gadgets with GadgetText Tektronix 4010 terminal emulator Versions 1.16 and 1.19 of a Deluxe Paint-like drawing program Demo animations with player program for Aegis Animator Creates rename scripts for files with long names, so they can be easily 'arcted and un'arc’ed.
Preliminary AmigaDOS replacements for 'break!, 'cd', 'chmod', 'echo', 'filenote' and 'makedir* Not fully ported to the Amiga, this is a 68000 C compiler, ttwil produce sinple assembly language output but needs a lot of work.
Update with source of the 'vc1 spreadsheet on disk 36 Port of program to split Unix tar1 archives Utiitiles to encode and decode binary flies for ASCII transmission, expanding them by 35 percent In Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the materials in this library are freely disputable. This means they were either publicly posted and placed in the Public Domain by their Author, or they have restrictions published in their files to which we have adhered. If you become aware of any violation of the author's wishes, please contact us by mail.
To Be Continued...
• AC* PiM Publications Inc.
P. O. Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 All Checks must be in US funds
drawn on a US Bank Please allow 4 to 6 weeks for delivery
Amazing Computing™: Your resource to the Commodore Amiga These
Public Domain software pieces are presented by a world of
authors who discovered something fun or interesting on the
Amiga and then placed their discoveries in the Public Domain
for all to enjoy. You are encouraged to copy and share these
disks and programs with your friends, customers and fellow
user group members!
Amazing Computing™ has vowed, from our beginning, to amass the largest selection of Public Domain Software in the Amiga Community, and with the help of John Foust and Fred Fish, we see a great selection of software for both beginners and advanced users.
The disk are very affordable!
Amazing Computing™ subscribers $ 6.00 per disk.
Non subscribers ..$ 7.00 per disk This is extremely reasonable for disks with almost 800K of information and programs. If you agree, please send check or money order to: User-defined macro command sets and companion help screens with “point & click” or keyboard operation e One macro can return hundreds of key codes, e Automate a session with normal command keystrokes stored in macros, e User-written macro commands can invoke virtually anything MacroModem can do.
Operate a remote system almost entirely with the mouse by writing macro command sets that mimic the menus and commands of a remote system.
Special features include: ¦ 20 common commands on function keys ¦ 36 macros per macro file - load in seconds ¦ 36 numbers per phone file - load in seconds ¦ 10 line Compose Message window ¦ Read capture file - forward or backward ¦ Includes MacroEditor and FileFilter utilities ¦ Auto-chop binary downloads ¦ Multi-windows, multi-tasking on Workbench screen ¦ SHELL command for calling AmigaDOS ¦ NewCLI anytime - even during file transfers $ 69.95 Kent Engineering & Design
P. O. Box 178, Mottville, N.Y. 13119
(315) 685-8237 Index of Advertisers Access Associates 7
Actionware 42 Adept Software 32 ASDG 76 Akron Systems 21
Alohafonts 70 Ami Project 80 Applied Visions B2 Aurion
Video Products 47 BCD 20 Benaiah Computer Products 82 Byte
by Byte CIV Cltd.
A1 Cardinal Software 26,27 Century Systems 78 D'igi Pix 43 Felsina Software 68 Greenthumb Software 33 Impulse 69 Jagware A2 Lattice 5 MacroWare 96 Memory Location, The 85 Meridian Software 34 Metadigm, Inc. 2 Michigan Software 22 Micro Systems Software 28 Microbotics 15 Microsearch 48,49 MicroSmiths, Inc. 36 Mimetics 79 NewTek B1 Pacific Cypress 31 Phase Four Software Distributers 53 PiM Publications, Inc. 64,65,66 Polygot Software 60 Progressive Peripherals
CI. CIII R & S Data Systems 58 Sedona Software 86 SKETerm 61
Software Factory, The 40 Sunsmile Software 83 TsMe 51 TDI
Software Inc. 75 Technisoft 55 Tool Caddy, The 72 Westcom
Industries 41 M9 9 9 The bridge to your computing future.
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VIEW ?ICI brings the wild into your Amiga"!
Rilh Digi-View and a video camera, your Amiga can see! Faces, logos, artwork ... anything you can imagine!
P rJs a VEBSBHEb w: Simply point your camera and click the mouse. In seconds, whatever the camera sees is painlessly transformed into a computer image that can be printed, stored on disk, or transferred to other programs. Imagine how quickly and easily you can generate stunning video art and animation when you start with high quality digitized photographs or artwork.
Sophisticated software included with Digi-View makes it easy to produce dazzling, broadcast-quality color images. Intuitive, on-screen controls are as easy to use as the knobs on your I.V. set.
Digi-View can capture images in several modes, including 320x200 pixels with up to 4096 colors on screen ‘hold- and-modify" mode), and the incredibly detailed 640x400 high resolution mode.
$ 199.95 includes video digitizer module, color separation filter, software and manual.
Only Panasonic WV-1410 video camera w lens CS-1L Copy siand ve lights ....
• IFF disk format works with Digi-Paint™, Deluxe Paint1'1,
DeiuxeVideo™, DeluxePrint, Aegis Images™, Aegis Animator, and
• Saves time! No more hours of freehand drawing and redrawing.
• Send photos over the telephone with your modem and terminal
• Capture images for scientific image processing or pattern
• Spice up business graphics slide show program included.
• Incorporate photos in posters and greeting cards,
• Use Digi-View pictures in your BASIC programs.
• Catalog images with IFF database programs.
• Make red blue 3D photos.
• A powerful tool for commercial graphic artists!
NewTek INCORPORATED 701 Jackson • Suite B3 • Topeka, KS • 66603 Amiga is 1 trademark of Coamodore-Araiga, Inc, Digi-View and Digi-Painl are trademarks of Nmclkk. Inc. DduxcPaint, DeluxeVideo, and DeluxePrint are trademarks of Electronic Arts. Inc, Aegis Images and Aegis Animator are trademarks of Aegis Development, Inc. ¦ Digi-View software version 2.0 (or newer! Required to use color camera. For maximum resolution use monochrome camera with 2.1 interlace. High-res color modes require 1 Meg expansion RAM.
© 1986 NewTek. Inc. “Open the pod bay doors, HAL...” Programmers cast their vote!
Right now, leading software developers are hand at work on the next generation of Amiga® products. To add the spectacular sound effects we've all come to expect from Amiga software, they are overwhelmingly choosing one sound recording package... FutureSound. As one developer put it, "FutureSound should be standard equipment for the Amiga."
FutureSound the clear winner... Why has FutureSound become the clear choice for digital sound sampling on the Amiga? The reason is obvious: a hardware design that has left nothing out. FutureSound includes two input sources, each with its own amplifier, one for a microphone and one for direct recording; input volume control; high speed 8-bit parallel interface, complete with an additional printer port; extra filters that take care of everything from background hiss to interference from the monitor; and of course, a microphone so that you can begin recording immediately.
What about software?
FutureSound transforms your Amiga into a powerful, multi-track recording studio. Of course, this innovative software package provides you with all the basic recording features you expect, But with FutureSound, this is just the beginning. A forty-page manual will guide you through such features as variable sampling rates, visual editing, mixing, special effects generation, and more. A major software publisher is soon to release a simulation with an engine roar that will rattle your teeth.
This incredible reverberation effect was designed with FutureSound's software.
Question: What can a 300 pound space creature do with these sounds?
Answer: Anything he w’ants.
Since FutureSound is IFF compatible (actually three separate formats are supported) your sounds can be used by most Amiga sound applications. With FutureSound and Deluxe Video Construction Set from Electronic Arts, your video creations can use the voice of Mr. Spock, your mother-in-law, or a disturbed super computer.
Programming support is also provided.
Whether you're a "C" programming wiz or a Sunday afternoon BASIC hacker, all the routines you need are on the non-copy protected diskette.
Your Amiga dealer should have FutureSound in stock. If not, just give us a call and for $ 175 (VISA, MasterCard or COD) we'll send one right out to you. Ahead warp factor one!
The Indispensable Utility Program For The Amiga ¦ Simple mouse driven operation by-passes the keyboard.
$ 3995 Batch file operations for copy, delete, move, and print.
- "Showpic” button for easy viewing of picture file.
¦ Batch printing of files with full control of print format.
¦ Display files in ASCII HEX with pause continue options, s Format disks with control of format options.
Suggested U.S. Retail Price Totally Unprotected ¦ Compatible with 3V ' and 5V4" drives!
¦ Full support of up to 3 external disk drives, 2 hard drives, and RAM disk.
Requires 512K Ram and Ktckstart plus Workbench 1.2 By-pass the difficult Command Line Interface using the AMIGA mouse. Climate is a time saving program you will never want to be without.
As you will see, Cllmate display useful disk and file information which is helpful when batch copying and transferring files.
Easily create and rename directories and files at the touch of a button. With Cllmate, a click of a mouse button is almost all you ever need to do. _ With SHOWPIC, you can view your IFF HAM pictures you've created with most popular paint programs and digitizers. Even color cycling is supported.
Disk formatting becomes the simple task of clicking the mouse and entering a disk name. Full control of formatting options is provided.
CLImate's print option gives you full formatting control when you print files. Useful headers such as time, date, file name and page line are options available.
• 2 Megabytes of fast RAM
• bully Populated
• No Watt States
• Auto Configure with 1.2 Version Operating System
• Small IV2" x4" x P s" Footprint
• Fully Amiga Compatible
• Plugs into expansion bus on the side of the Amiga...Ready to go
in just minutes!
• Allows better use of memory oriented software, and RAAi disk
for fast copying and handling.
• Meets all PCC class A &B requirements
• One of the fastest RAMs available!
• Clean. Professional Unit Ret, ail PROCR€XriV€ 464 KALAMATH
STREET DENVER, COLORADO 60204 303-825-4144 TELEX: 666837 by
Progressive Peripherals & Software, Inc. . •Memory Expansion
for the AMIGA' MegaBoard 2 Features: MKLtA BOA RT) 2 r -n • r
i a i r T A ™ UNLEASH THE AWESOME POWER OF THE AMIGA!.
WITH PAL SYSTEMS
• Supports Three Half Height Devices
* Hard Disks
* Tape Backup
* CD ROM
• Five DMA Expansion Slots
• Battery Backed Clock Calendar
• Whisper Fan
• 200 Watt Power Supply
• DMA Hard Disk Controller (ST506 412)
* Optional additional SCSI
• 100% Zorro Compatible ¦ 1 to 9.5 Megabytes of Fast RAM WITH PAL
• One Megabyte of Fast RAM ¦ DMA Hard Disk Controller ¦ 20
Megabyte Hard Disk
• DMA SCSI Pass-through for further expansion Suggested retail
price only $ 1495.
WITH INFOMINDER The Information Manager. Hierarchial Database that allows you to organize and display text and graphical files, e.g. Real Estate Listings, Personnel Files, Digitized X-Rays, Geographical Maps, etc. Fully supports multi-tasking. Fast access by menu or outline. INFOMINDER will revolutionize the way you store and access both textual and graphical information.
Get INFOMINDER today at the special introductory price of only $ 89.95. WITH TIC The TIC provides your Amiga with a tiny battery backed clock calendar that conveniently plugs into the second joystick port. The TIC’s 3-year battery will maintain time even if temporarily removed Irom the Amiga. Change the Amiga's internal time simply by moving the displayed clock's hands with the mouse. Set your Amiga's lime once and for all. It's about time for TIC. Suggested retail price only S59.95. Arboretum Plaza II 9442 Capital of Texas Highway Suite 150 Austin, TX 78759
(512) 343-4357 BYTE bu 1 remount* AMIGA is a trademark ol
Commodore Arniga. Inc.